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Ingegerd Johansson, Anders Esberg, Linda Eriksson, Simon Haworth, Pernilla Lif Holgerson
Bovine milk intake has been associated with various disease outcomes, with modulation of the gastro-intestinal microbiome being suggested as one potential mechanism. The aim of the present study was to explore the oral microbiota in relation to variation in self-reported milk intake. Saliva and tooth biofilm microbiota was characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR and cultivation in 154 Swedish adolescents, and information on diet and other lifestyle markers were obtained from a questionnaire, and dental caries from clinical examination...
2018: PloS One
Mathieu Struyve, Geert Robaeys
Ectopic varices are dilated portosystemic venous collaterals located outside of the gastro-esophageal region. Whereas they are common endoscopic findings in patients with portal hypertension, ectopic variceal bleeding is rather rare and accounts for only 1 to 5 % of all variceal bleedings. The rectum and the duodenum are the most common sites for ectopic varices, but they can be present along the whole intestinal tract and neighborhood. At present, there is no consensus well established on diagnostic workup for ectopic variceal bleeding and their therapeutic strategies...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
A Al Khoury, C-Y Chao, S Camilleri-Broet, T Bessissow
We report an unusual case of hamartomatous polyposis with malignant complications in a patient with ulcerative colitis on golimumab and previous thiopurine therapy. This patient was evaluated for iron deficiency anemia and underwent hemicolectomy for extensive right-side predominant inflammatory pseudopolyps. Anemia persisted post-colectomy and subsequent gastroscopy showed a fungating polypoid lesion along with numerous carpet-like strawberry appearing polyps in the stomach extending from the gastro-esophageal junction to the distal part of the antrum, necessitating a gastrectomy...
October 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Rui Huang, Feng Wu, Jian Zhao, Huai-Bin Li, Jian Ding, Ke-Ren Xiong
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) combined with Gastrodin on learning-memory ability and expression of silent information regulator 2 homologous protein 1(SIRT 1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC-1 ɑ) of hippocampal CA 1 region in Alzheimer's disease(AD) rats, so as to explore its mechanism under-lying improvement of AD. METHODS: Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control (normal), sham operation (sham), model, EA, Gastrodin and EA+ Gastrodin groups ( n =10 in each)...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Ping Sun, Torsten Wronski, Jean D Bariyanga, Ann Apio
The distribution of gastro-intestinal (GI) parasites across landscapes is closely related to the spatial distribution of hosts. In GI parasites with environmental life stages, the vitality of parasites is also affected by ecological and landscape-related components of the environment. This is particularly relevant for domestic livestock species that are often kept across habitats with varying degrees of degradation, exposing them to a wide range of environmentally robust parasite species. In our study, we examined the effect of environmental and anthropogenic factors on the prevalence and intensity of GI parasites across a free-ranging stock of Ankole cattle in the Mutara rangelands of northeastern Rwanda...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Andrew J Clulow, Malinda Salim, Adrian Hawley, Elliot P Gilbert, Ben Boyd
Efforts to develop orally-administered drugs tend to place an exceptional focus on aqueous solubility as this is an essential criterion for their absorption in the gastro-intestinal tract. In this work we examine the solid state behaviour and solubility of OZ439, a promising single-dose cure for malaria being developed as the highly water-soluble mesylate salt. The aqueous phase behaviour of the OZ439 mesylate salt was determined using a combination of small angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS, respectively)...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Amanda Marie Blackmore, Natasha Bear, Eve Blair, Katherine Langdon, Lisa Moshovis, Kellie Steer, Andrew C Wilson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the early predictors of respiratory hospital admissions in young people with cerebral palsy (CP). DESIGN: A 3-year prospective cohort study using linked data. PATIENTS: Children and young people with CP, aged 1 to 26 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported and carer-reported respiratory symptoms were linked to respiratory hospital admissions (as defined by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision codes) during the following 3 years...
March 19, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Nivedita Rai, R Muthukumaran, R Amutha
The HtrA protease of Helicobacter pylori, which efficiently colonizes at the gastric epithelial of host cells, disrupts the mucosal integrity of E-cadherin and spreads inflammatory diseases including gastric cancer by cleaving the cell-cell adhesion of the host. The lack of knowledge on the molecular diversity, structural and functional behavior of HpHtrA necessitated the present study to explore its inhibition mechanism. At first, the similarity of HpHtrA with other gastro-intestinal pathogenic HtrA bacteria and its remote relationship with the Human HtrA homologs were ensured by the phylogenetic analysis and hence was identified as a novel therapeutic target for further design of inhibitors...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jan A H Gooszen, Annelijn E Slaman, Susan van Dieren, Suzanne S Gisbertz, Mark I van Berge Henegouwen
BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic hernias following esophagectomy are mostly asymptomatic. However, they can also present with severe complications and be associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, predictive factors and preferred treatment of symptomatic diaphragmatic hernias and to evaluate the role of prophylactic cruroplasty in patients following esophagectomy for carcinomas of the esophagus or gastro-esophageal junction. METHODS: A prospective database was used to retrospectively analyze consecutive patients who underwent esophagectomy between January 2005 and December 2015...
March 16, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Oby Dulla, Sharifa Sultana, Md Shohag Hosen
OBJECTIVE: Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole, used to treat gastro esophageal reflux disease. It is one of the widely manufactured and marketed drugs by many pharmaceutical companies in Bangladesh. The aim of the study is to compare the different physical parameters including hardness, friability, diameter, thickness, disintegration time, dissolution test and assay for quality evaluation and characterization of tablets of five different brands of Bangladeshi pharmaceutical company...
March 20, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Luigi Cavanna, Pietro Seghini, Camilla Di Nunzio, Elena Orlandi, Emanuele Michieletti, Elisa Maria Stroppa, Patrizia Mordenti, Chiara Citterio, Stefano Vecchia, Adriano Zangrandi
Central nervous system (CNS) metastases from cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are rare, and occur in 0.16-0.69% of patients with gastric or gastro-esophageal (GE) junction cancer. Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER-2) is associated with poor prognosis in the absence of HER-2-targeted therapy, and with an increased incidence of CNS metastases in patients with breast cancer. The role of HER-2 overexpression in CNS metastases is not well known in gastric adenocarcinoma. The purpose of the present retrospective study was to assess the incidence of CNS metastases and to evaluate the associations between the CNS and HER-2 status in a series of consecutive patients with gastric or GE junction cancer...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Sofia Simona Jakab, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao
Gastro-esophageal varices (GEV) and variceal hemorrhage (VH) are clinical milestones in the natural history of cirrhosis, as they are closely related to the severity of portal hypertension and define specific stages in disease progression. Variceal hemorrhage is a life-threatening complication of cirrhosis and is one of the clinical complications that defines cirrhosis decompensation. The goal of screening and surveillance of varices is to identify patients with GEV at a high risk of bleeding, so that prevention strategies can be implemented...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
David N Bolam, Bert van den Berg
The lower human gastro-intestinal tract is inhabited by an extremely high density of micro-organisms, collectively termed the colonic microbiota. Just two bacterial phyla dominate this habitat, the Gram-positive Firmicutes and the Gram-negative Bacteroidetes. The colon is further characterised by a relative lack of small, easily accessible nutrients such as simple sugars, lipids and amino acids. Instead, a plethora of diet-derived and host polysaccharides constitute the main source of nutrients. Due to their size and complexity, the uptake of such glycans for metabolic utilisation is an energy-dependent process, which in Bacteroides spp...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Jiaqiang Luo, Cheryl Taylor, Thomas Nebl, Ken Ng, Louise E Bennett
Animal and aquatic meats represent important sources of dietary protein and micro-nutrients. Although red and processed meats carry some risks for human health, sensory and nutritional advantages drive meat consumption. Therefore, it is important to understand how meat processing and cooking influence healthiness. The research aim was to investigate relationships of meat composition (proximates, amino acids and minerals) and cooking conditions (raw, 90 s microwave, 200 °C oven for 10 or 30 min) on protein digestibility, for a selection of four animal (beef, chicken, pork, kangaroo) and four aquatic meats (salmon, trout, prawn, oyster)...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Manuel Fresno, Núria Gironès
Chagas disease is a multisystemic disorder caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , which affects ~8 million people in Latin America, killing 7,000 people annually. Chagas disease is one of the main causes of death in the endemic area and the leading cause of infectious myocarditis in the world. T. cruzi infection induces two phases, acute and chronic, where the infection is initially asymptomatic and the majority of patients will remain clinically indeterminate for life. However, over a period of 10-30 years, ~30% of infected individuals will develop irreversible, potentially fatal cardiac syndromes (chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy [CCC]), and/or dilatation of the gastro-intestinal tract (megacolon or megaesophagus)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Simon S Rabinowitz, Neha Ahuja, Jennifer Gottfried
An 11-year-old Caucasian boy, with a microdeletion in the 1q21.1-q21.2 region, had multiple medical conditions including gastroparesis documented initially at the age of 5. The patient had a history of poor feeding since infancy and had been treated for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), constipation and multiple food allergies. As a consequence of the GERD and his concurrent immunoglobulin (IgG) subclass deficiency, the patient had multiple otolaryngologic (ENT) infections and required two sinus surgeries...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Yan-Ling Yin, Hui-Jun Zhang, Ya-Jie Yuan, Huan Tang, Dan Chen, Sha Jing, Hao-Xian Wu, Sha-Sha Wang, Guang-Hui Zhao
Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis) is an important zoonotic parasite that parasitizes the gastro-intestines of humans and animals, with diarrhea as the most common clinical symptom. The goat has been indicated as one of the most important reservoirs of G. duodenalis for humans. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis in goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1311 faecal specimens were examined, and the overall prevalence was 7...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Thomas Rossor, Ingran Lingam, Abdel Douiri, Ravindra Bhat, Anne Greenough
AIM: To determine whether a pH probe or multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII) more frequently detected gastro-oesophageal reflux and test the hypothesis that acid reflux was associated with lower baseline impedance. METHODS: A prospective study of infants in whom reflux was suspected and evaluated using combined pH and multichannel impedance. Studies were considered abnormal if the acid index was >10% or there were > 79MII reflux events in 24 hours. The acid index was the percentage of total study time with a pH<four and the acid clearance time (ACT) the time from the pH falling below four to rising above four...
March 13, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Alessandra Zilli, Ilaria Fanetti, Dario Conte, Sara Massironi
Gallium-68 DOTA-peptide positron emission tomography/computed tomography (68 Ga-PET/CT) has emerged as a promising tool for the diagnosis and staging of gastro-entero-pancreatic neoplasms, thanks to its high sensitivity and specificity. Heterotopic pancreas, which is relatively rare, has never been reported as a possible cause of false positives of68 Ga-PET/CT. We report on the first case of a heterotopic pancreas showing pathological uptake at68 Ga-PET/CT, thus mimicking an intestinal neuroendocrine tumor...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Imaging
T H Taft, J R Triggs, D A Carlson, L Guadagnoli, K N Tomasino, L Keefer, J E Pandolfino
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety can drive symptom experience in chronic oesophageal conditions, including gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, achalasia and functional oesophageal disorders. To date, no validated self-report measure exists to evaluate oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety. AIMS: This study aims to develop a brief and reliable questionnaire assessing these constructs, the oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety scale (EHAS). METHODS: Questions for the EHAS were drawn from 4 existing validated measures that assessed hypervigilance and anxiety adapted for the oesophagus...
March 12, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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