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Taraknath Mandal, Ronald G Larson
Using fully atomistic and coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report, for the first time, the self-assembly of initially randomly dispersed dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) surfactants into a striped cylindrical micelle (SCM) with lamellae of surfactant heads and tails alternating along the cylindrical axis, with both heads and tails in contact with the water. By changing the interaction strength of the head group with water relative to itself, we find that such micelles are most likely for head groups with marginal solubility in the water solvent...
March 22, 2018: Soft Matter
Hyuck Jun Jung, Myoung Jin Ho, Sungwan Ahn, Young Taek Han, Myung Joo Kang
The oral bioavailability of entecavir (EV), an anti-viral agent commonly prescribed to treat hepatitis B infections, is drastically reduced under a post-prandial state. This is primarily due to its low permeability in the gastrointestinal tract. To reduce the food effect on the intestinal absorption of the nucleotide analogue, four lipidic prodrugs were synthesized via the esterification of the primary alcohol of EV with fatty acids (hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid, and dodecanoic acid). EV-3-dodecanoate (or EV-C12) exhibited high solubility in a fed state simulated intestinal fluid (78...
March 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Antonio Tricoli, Giovanni Neri
This review reports the latest achievements in point-of-care (POC) sensor technologies for the monitoring of ammonia, creatinine and urea in patients suffering of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Abnormal levels of these nitrogen biomarkers are found in the physiological fluids, such as blood, urine and sweat, of CKD patients. Delocalized at-home monitoring of CKD biomarkers via integration of miniaturized, portable, and low cost chemical- and bio-sensors in POC devices, is an emerging approach to improve patients' health monitoring and life quality...
March 22, 2018: Sensors
Xinkuan Liu, Wenyi Shao, Mingyi Luo, Jiayin Bian, Deng-Guang Yu
Nanomaterials providing sustained release profiles are highly desired for efficacious drug delivery. Advanced nanotechnologies are useful tools for creating elaborate nanostructure-based nanomaterials to achieve the designed functional performances. In this research, a modified coaxial electrospinning was explored to fabricate a novel core-sheath nanostructure (nanofibers F2), in which a sheath drug-free gliadin layer was successfully coated on the core ketoprofen (KET)-gliadin nanocomposite. A monolithic nanocomposite (nanofibers F1) that was generated through traditional blending electrospinning of core fluid was utilized as a control...
March 22, 2018: Nanomaterials
Gianvincenzo Sparacia, Francesco Agnello, Angelo Gambino, Martina Sciortino, Massimo Midiri
Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of the 'central vein' sign in white matter lesions on susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance images in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). Materials and methods T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance images of 19 MS patients and 19 patients affected by CSVD were analysed for the presence and localisation of focal hyperintense white matter lesions. Lesions were subdivided into periventricular or non-periventricular (juxtacortical, subcortical, deep white matter and cerebellar) distributed...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Rosario Pignatello, Tiziana M G Pecora, Giuseppa G Cutuli, Alfio Catalfo, Guido De Guidi, Barbara Ruozi, Giovanni Tosi, Simona Cianciolo, Teresa Musumeci
Trans-resveratrol (RSV) was microencapsulated in Eudragit® RS100 and RL100 resin blends. Lyophilized microspheres were characterized in the solid state for their micromeritic properties and drug loading. FT-IR, PXRD and DSC analyses suggested that RSV formed an intimate microcrystalline dispersion within the polymer network, also confirmed by SEM analysis. This produced a reduced degradation of RSV after storage at 40°C, compared to the neat drug, and a protection of the drug from UV light-induced trans-cis isomerization (60% intact drug was found after 60 sec irradiation at 350 nm, compared to 37% for the pure drug)...
March 22, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Peter Mancuso, Jeffrey L Curtis, Christine M Freeman, Marc Peters-Golden, Jason B Weinberg, Martin G Myers
Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone produced by white adipose tissue that regulates appetite and many physiologic functions including the immune response to infection. Genetic leptin deficiency in humans and mice impairs host defenses against respiratory tract infections. Since leptin deficiency is associated with obesity and other metabolic abnormalities, we generated mice that lack the leptin receptor (LepRb) in cells of the myeloid linage (LysM-LepRb-KO) to evaluate its impact in lean metabolically normal mice in a murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Ana Laura Flores-García, Carmen Alicia Sánchez-Ramírez, Óscar Alberto Newton-Sánchez, Fabián Rojas-Larios
INTRODUCTION: Patients on dialysis have important changes in body composition. OBJECTIVES: To determine the correlation between skinfold thickness (SKF) and bioimpedance analysis (BIA) for estimating fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). METHODS: Cross-sectional study. We included 50 patients under dialysis treatment. To measure SKF, we used the Lange® skinfold caliper (Beta Technology, California, USA) and we carried out the impedance analysis with the Bodystat Quadscan 4000® (Quadscan, Isle of Man, UK)...
January 10, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
F Cobo, A Sampedro, J Rodríguez-Granger, L Aliaga-Martínez, J M Navarro-Marí
The clinical and microbiological characteristics of pleuro-pulmonary infection (PPI) caused by Streptococcus intermedius is described, including 6 cases in the literature and 9 cases handled at the present centre. Out of the 15 patients, 12 were male; mean age at diagnosis was 62.06 ± 15 years. Twelve had risk factors for S. intermedius infection such as alcoholism in 5 (35.7%) patients, periodontal disease in 3 (24.6%) cases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 3 (24.6%), and diabetes mellitus in 2 (14...
March 22, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
C S Dias, J M Tavares, N A M Araújo, M M Telo da Gama
Low-density networks of molecules or colloids are formed at low temperatures when the interparticle interactions are valence limited. Prototypical examples are networks of patchy particles, where the limited valence results from highly directional pairwise interactions. We combine extensive Langevin simulations and Wertheim's theory of association to study these networks. We find a scale-free (relaxation) dynamics within the liquid-gas coexistence region, which differs from that usually observed for isotropic particles...
March 22, 2018: Soft Matter
Danielle Pazzotti Borges, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Edimar A Bocchi, Vagner Oliveira Carvalho Rigaud
BACKGROUND: Circulating cell-free miRNAs hold great promise as a new class of biomarkers due to their high stability in body fluids and association with disease stages. However, even using sensitive and specific methods, technical challenges are associated with miRNA analysis in body fluids. A major source of variation in plasma and serum is the potential cell-derived miRNA contamination from hemolysis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the delayed whole blood processing time on the concentrations of miR-1 and -423-5p...
March 21, 2018: MicroRNA
Eric Thouvenot, Geoffrey Hinsinger, Christophe Demattei, Ugur Uygunoglu, Giovanni Castelnovo, Sophie Pittion-Vouyovitch, Darin Okuda, Orhun Kantarci, Daniel Pelletier, Sylvain Lehmann, Philippe Marin, Aksel Siva, Christine Lebrun
BACKGROUND: Younger age, male sex and presence of spinal cord lesion(s) increase the risk of conversion from radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) to relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) levels predict conversion from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to RRMS. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of CSF CHI3L1 in RIS patients for conversion to RRMS. METHODS: We compared CSF CHI3L1 concentrations in RIS, CIS, RRMS and symptomatic controls (SCs)...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Zeyad H Al-Sowygh, Meshari Kh Aldamkh, Abdulelah M Binmahfooz, Khulud Abdulrahman Al-Aali, Zohaib Akram, Osama A Qutub, Fawad Javed, Tariq Abduljabbar
OBJECTIVES: It is hypothesized that levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-9 are significantly higher in the peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) of waterpipe-smokers (WS) compared with never-smokers with peri-implantitis. The aim of the present convenience sample case-control study was to compare the levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 in the PISF of WS and never-smokers with peri-implantitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Individuals smoking waterpipe (Group 1) and never-smokers (Group 2) were included...
March 22, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Camille de Seynes, Bertille de Barbeyrac, Hervé Dutronc, Clément Ribes, Paul Crémer, Véronique Dubois, Thierry Fabre, Michel Dupon, Frédéric-Antoine Dauchy
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe complication of orthopaedic surgery. Preoperative diagnosis, although sometimes difficult, is key to choose the relevant treatment. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic performance of a multiplex serological test for the pre-operative diagnosis of PJI. Blood samples were collected between 1 July 2016 and 31 July 2017 among patients referred for suspected PJI that occurred at least six weeks prior...
March 22, 2018: Infectious Diseases
Noor Ul-Ain Baloch, Marvi Bikak, Abdul Rehman, Omar Rahman
INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is a unique disorder characterized by episodes of massive systemic leak of intravascular fluid leading to volume depletion and shock. A typical attack of SCLS consists of prodromal, leak and post-leak phases. Complications, such as compartment syndrome and pulmonary edema, usually develop during the leak and post-leak phases respectively. Judicious intravenous hydration and early use of vasopressors is the cornerstone of management in such cases...
March 22, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Takeshi Urade, Hidehiro Sawa, Koichi Murata, Yasuhiko Mii, Yoshiteru Iwatani, Ryoko Futai, Shohei Abe, Tsuyoshi Sanuki, Yukiko Morinaga, Daisuke Kuroda
Omental abscess due to a spilled gallstone is extremely rare after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Herein, we report a 68-year-old man who presented with left upper abdominal pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gangrenous cholecystitis. Seven months prior to admission, gallbladder perforation with spillage of pigment gallstones and bile occurred during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The spilled gallstones were retrieved through vigorous peritoneal lavage. Abdominal computed tomography showed a 3 × 2...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Guan-Min Quan, Yong-Li Zheng, Tao Yuan, Jian-Ming Lei
To evaluate the prognostic value of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity of postoperative cavity on progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with high-grade gliomas (HGG). This study retrospectively enrolled 45 consecutive HGG patients. These patients had chemoradiotherapy after gross-total resection of tumors. Quantitative analysis of the FLAIR signal intensity in postoperative cavity and background was made. We evaluated the threshold value, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and survival state with this technique...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Anita Tewari, Jasbir Bedi, Baljit Singh, Jatinder Paul Singh Gill
The deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, is used worldwide and has been linked with several type of acute toxicity. However, effect of low level of deltamethrin alone or in combination with the microbial antigen on pulmonary system is not understood. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used as antigen which is a key inflammatory component of gram-negative bacteria, which induces a distinctive pattern of cytokine release that regulates inflammation. The aim was to determine whether chronic exposure to a low level of deltamethrin alone or in combination with LPS impair the lung response in adult male Swiss albino mice...
March 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alessandro Mauro, Nicola Massarotti, Mohamed Salahudeen, Mario R Romano, Vito Romano, Perumal Nithiarasu
The present work describes the application of the generalised porous medium model to study heat and fluid flow in healthy and glaucomatous eyes of different subject specimens, considering the presence of ocular cavities and porous tissues. The 2D computational model, implemented into the open-source software OpenFOAM, has been verified against benchmark data for mixed convection in domains partially filled with a porous medium. The verified model has been employed to simulate the thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena occurring in the anterior section of four patient-specific human eyes, considering the presence of anterior chamber (AC), trabecular meshwork (TM), Schlemm's canal (SC), and collector channels (CC)...
March 22, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Julia Masomi-Bornwassser, Fabio Freguia, Hendrik Müller-Werkmeister, Oliver Kempski, Alf Giese, Naureen Keric
OBJECTIVE: Although fibrinolytic therapy is an upcoming treatment for intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), standard guidelines are lacking, and some clinical issues persist. Here, we used our recently devised clot model of ICH to systematically analyse effects of irrigation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on fibrinolysis. METHODS: In vitro clots of human blood (25 ml) were generated and a catheter irrigation system was applied to deliver fluid/treatment. Clots were weighed before and after treatment and compared to rtPA treatment alone...
March 21, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
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