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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351678/endoscopic-transcranial-duraplasty-for-rhinoliquorrhea-a-cadaveric-study
#1
Andrea Bartoli, Jean H Fasel, Karl Schaller, Max Jägersberg
BACKGROUND: Repair of the anterior skull base for cerebrospinal fluid leak requires either endoscopic endonasal approach or open transcranial approach. OBJECTIVE: To present a less invasive surgical procedure for sealing of the entire anterior fossa floor for traumatic rhinoliquorrhea. METHODS: Cadaver study in 3 head specimens. Endoscopic placement of a furled bovine pericardial patch bilaterally along the sphenoid ridge and planum in guidewire technique...
February 1, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351662/the-versatile-tanycyte-a-hypothalamic-integrator-of-reproduction-and-energy-metabolism
#2
Vincent Prevot, Bénédicte Dehouck, Ariane Sharif, Philippe Ciofi, Paolo Giacobini, Jerome Clasadonte
The fertility and survival of an individual rely on the ability of the periphery to promptly, effectively and reproducibly communicate with brain neural networks that control reproduction, food intake and energy homeostasis. Tanycytes, a specialized glial cell type lining the wall of the third ventricle in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, appear to act as the linchpin of these processes by dynamically controlling the secretion of neuropeptides into the portal vasculature by hypothalamic neurons and regulating blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid exchanges, both processes that depend on the ability of these cells to adapt their morphology to the physiological state of the individual...
January 17, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351562/clinical-and-ultrasonographic-features-associated-to-response-to-intraarticular-corticosteroid-injection-a-one-year-follow-up-prospective-cohort-study-in-knee-osteoarthritis-patient-with-joint-effusion
#3
Joan Calvet, Cristóbal Orellana, Carlos Galisteo, María García-Manrique, Noemí Navarro, Assumpta Caixàs, Marta Larrosa, Jordi Gratacós
OBJECTIVES: Intraarticular injection is used for pain relief in knee osteoarthritis (OA), but there is not a well defined profile of patient who could get more benefit from it. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of pain relief at one year after corticosteroids intraarticular injection and to identify clinical factors associated to response in patients with knee osteoarthritis with joint effusion. METHODS: One-year prospective cohort study of patients with knee OA with joint effusion confirmed by ultrasound...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351470/increased-pro-renin-receptor-expression-in-subfornical-organ-neurons-in-hypertensive-humans
#4
Silvana G Cooper, Darshan P Trivedi, Rieko Yamamoto, Caleb J Worker, Cheng-Yuan Feng, Jacob T Sorensen, Wei Yang, Zhenggang Xiong, Yumei Feng
The central nervous system plays an important role in essential hypertension in humans and in animal models of hypertension through modulation of sympathetic activity, and sodium and body fluid homeostasis. Data from animal models of hypertension suggest that the renin-angiotensin system in the subfornical organ (SFO) of the brain is critical for hypertension development. We recently reported that the brain (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is a novel component of the brain renin-angiotensin system and could be a key initiator of the pathogenesis of hypertension...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351445/impact-of-hiv-infection-on-alpha-1-antitrypsin-in-the-lung
#5
Sarah E Stephenson, Carole L Wilson, Kristina Crothers, Engi F Attia, Cherry Wongtrakool, Irina Petrache, Lynn M Schnapp
BACKGROUND: Emphysema is one of the most common lung diseases in HIV+ individuals. The pathogenesis of HIV-associated emphysema remains unclear; however, radiographic distribution and earlier age of presentation of emphysema in the lungs of HIV+ patients are similar to deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT), a key elastase inhibitor in the lung. Reduced levels of circulating A1AT have been detected in HIV+ patients, suggesting a potential mechanism for emphysema development. In the present study, we asked if A1AT levels and activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) differ in patients with and without HIV and emphysema...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351436/therapeutic-attenuation-of-the-epithelial-sodium-channel-with-a-splunc1-derived-peptide-in-airway-diseases
#6
James F Collawn, Rafal Bartoszewski, Ahmad Lazrak, Sadis Matalon
The airway surface liquid (ASL) coats the lining of the airways and allows for efficient cilial movement and therefore effective mucociliary transport. Cell surface channels regulate the hydration status of the ASL and the two critical channels in the process are the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). In cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) there is loss of CFTR function or compromised CFTR function in chronic bronchitis, respectively...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351414/the-murine-choroid-plexus-epithelium-expresses-the-2cl-h-exchanger-clc-7-and-na-h-exchanger-nhe6-in-the-luminal-membrane-domain
#7
Helle H Damkier, Henriette L Christensen, Inga B Christensen, Qi Wu, Robert A Fenton, Jeppe Praetorius
The choroid plexus epithelium within the brain ventricles secretes the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The luminal Na+,K+-ATPase acts in concert with a host of other transport proteins to mediate efficient fluid secretion across the epithelium. The CSF contains little protein buffer, but the pH value seems nonetheless maintained within narrow limits, even when faced with acid/base challenges. The involvement of choroid plexus acid/base transporters in CSF pH regulation is highlighted by the expression of several acid/base transporters in the epithelium...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351128/fluid-removal-with-ultrasound-guided-protocol-improves-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-dehydration-in-post-resuscitated-critically-ill-patients-a-quasi-experimental-before-and-after-study
#8
Luhao Wang, Chunfang Qiu, Xiangdong Guan, Minying Chen, Juan Chen, Xiang Si, Zhicheng Du, Yanqiu Liu, Bin Ouyang
Fluid overload is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. However, researches rarely study the precise start or end point of fluid removal and no protocol was developed to control the fluid removal process. We hypothesized that individualized fluid removal with ultrasound-guided protocol could improve the efficacy and safety of fluid removal in post-resuscitated critically ill patients. A quasi-experimental, before and after trial was conducted to identify the benefits of ultrasound-guided fluid removal...
January 18, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350957/relativistic-fluid-dynamics-far-from-local-equilibrium
#9
Paul Romatschke
Fluid dynamics is traditionally thought to apply only to systems near local equilibrium. In this case, the effective theory of fluid dynamics can be constructed as a gradient series. Recent applications of resurgence suggest that this gradient series diverges, but can be Borel resummed, giving rise to a hydrodynamic attractor solution which is well defined even for large gradients. Arbitrary initial data quickly approaches this attractor via nonhydrodynamic mode decay. This suggests the existence of a new theory of far-from-equilibrium fluid dynamics...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350883/peri-implant-conditions-and-levels-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-among-patients-with-different-glycemic-control
#10
Zeyad H Al-Sowygh, Siti Mariam Ab Ghani, Konstantinos Sergis, Fahim Vohra, Zohaib Akram
BACKGROUND: A close relationship between poor glycemic control and peri-implant break down has been demonstrated. It is hypothesized that levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) are higher with increased glycemic levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. PURPOSE: In the present study, we examined the clinical and radiographic peri-implant parameters and levels of AGEs among different glycemic levels in diabetic patients and assessed whether the levels of AGEs correlate with clinical peri-implant parameters...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350713/hyponatremia-and-siadh-a-case-study-for-nursing-consideration
#11
Teri Tasler, Susan D Bruce
The leading cause of hyponatremia in patients with cancer is syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH); this oncologic emergency requires immediate intervention. Left untreated, it can result in increased mortality and morbidity. A sodium level less than 135 meq/L is an electrolyte irregularity and defined as hyponatremia. It is extremely critical that oncology nurses are knowledgeable and able to evaluate and determine when patients are in fluid and electrolyte crisis. Nurses should be aware of the specific cancers and treatments that put patients at risk for developing hyponatremia...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350692/control-and-optimisation-of-fluid-flow-in-glaucoma-drainage-device-surgery
#12
Kin Sheng Lim
Avoidance of hypotony in the early post-operative phase following glaucoma drainage device surgery is paramount, if serious complications are to be avoided. Current strategies of preventing early hypotony are either a valve mechanism, as those found in Ahmed Glaucoma Valve or flow restrictor as used in Baerveldt or Molteno implants. The Ahmed glaucoma valve has a pre-tensioned valve which opens and closes at the pre-determined level of intra-ocular pressure. Although the opening and closing pressure can be slightly inconsistent, coinciding with the change of material used in the plate construction, the reliability appears to have improved in recent years...
January 19, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350690/fluidics-and-rheology-in-phaco-surgery-what-matters-and-what-is-the-hype
#13
L Benjamin
Rheology can be defined as the study of materials flow behaviour under applied deformation forces (stresses). Inside the eye during cataract surgery, transient or reversible deformation (elasticity) and permanent or irreversible deformation (flow) can both apply. Although the fluidics of modern phaco machines is an important part of this talk, there are a number of issues relating to flow and fluids in the eye during cataract surgery, which are unrelated to the machine, which can hinder or help the operating surgeon in removing a cataract...
January 19, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350688/laws-of-physics-help-explain-capillary-non-perfusion-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#14
E Stefánsson, Y K Chan, T Bek, S H Hardarson, D Wong, D I Wilson
The purpose is to use laws of physics to elucidate the mechanisms behind capillary non-perfusion in diabetic retinopathy. In diabetic retinopathy, loss of pericytes weakens capillary walls and the vessel dilates. A dilated capillary has reduced resistance to flow, therefore increased flow in that vessel and decreased in adjoining capillaries. A preferential shunt vessel is thus formed from the dilated capillary and the adjacent capillaries become non-perfused. We apply the laws of Laplace and Hagen-Poiseuille to better understand the phenomena that lead to capillary non-perfusion...
January 19, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350687/intraocular-currents-bernoulli-s-principle-and-non-drainage-scleral-buckling-for-rhegmatogenous-retinal-detachment
#15
D Wong, Y K Chan, T Bek, I Wilson, E Stefánsson
For many years, it is not fully understood how non-drainage scleral buckling surgery brings about spontaneous reattachment of the detached retina when retinal breaks remain open at the end of surgery. Various explanations have been put forward, but none more interesting than the effect of fluid currents associated with eye movements. One such explanation involved the physics of the Bernoulli's principle. Daniel Bernoulli was an eighteenth century Swiss mathematician and he described an equation based on the conservation of energy...
January 19, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350679/proangiogenic-functions-of-an-rgd-slay-containing-osteopontin-icosamer-peptide-in-huvecs-and-in-the-postischemic-brain
#16
Hahnbie Lee, Yin-Chuan Jin, Seung-Woo Kim, Il-Doo Kim, Hye-Kyung Lee, Ja-Kyeong Lee
Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated glycoprotein secreted into body fluids by various cell types. OPN contains arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) and serine-leucine-alanine-tyrosine (SLAY) motifs that bind to several integrins and mediate a wide range of cellular processes. In the present study, the proangiogenic effects of a 20-amino-acid OPN peptide (OPNpt20) containing RGD and SLAY motifs were examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in a rat focal cerebral ischemia model. OPNpt20 exerted robust proangiogenic effects in HUVECs by promoting proliferation, migration and tube formation...
January 19, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350673/glyphosate-ingestion-causing-multiple-organ-failure-a-near-fatal-case-report
#17
Edoardo Picetti, Michela Generali, Francesca Mensi, Giampaolo Neri, Roberta Damia, Giuseppe Lippi, Gianfranco Cervellin
A 55 years old man self-presented to our Emergency Department (ED) reporting an attempted suicide by cutting the left forearm veins and ingesting approximately 200 mL of an herbicide (Myrtos®, containing 36% of glyphosate as isopropylamine salt). Laboratory tests showed metabolic acidosis. Hydration with normal saline and alkalinization with sodium bicarbonate was started according to suggestion of the poison control center, since an antidote was unavailable. Cardiorespiratory condition gradually worsened, so that non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) was applied and infusion of fluids was established...
January 16, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350567/pretreatment-of-ferulic-acid-attenuates-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-rat-model-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#18
Sheng Zhang, Pengyu Wang, Pengxin Zhao, Dong Wang, Yanwei Zhang, Junhui Wang, Lixia Chen, Wenping Guo, Hui Gao, Yalou Jiao
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a fatal clinical condition that can be caused by pulmonary and non-pulmonary diseases. Oxidative stress and inflammation play key roles in the development of ARDS. In this study, we investigated whether ferulic acid (FA), an anti-oxidant, was beneficial for prophylaxis of ARDS. We established an ARDS rat model using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Lung injury was assessed by lung wet/dry ratio and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to evaluate the histological changes of the lungs...
January 2018: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350399/biological-functions-of-elabela-a-novel-endogenous-ligand-of-apj-receptor
#19
REVIEW
Jin Xu, Linxi Chen, Zhisheng Jiang, Lanfang Li
The G protein-coupled receptor APJ and its cognate ligand, apelin, are widely expressed throughout human body. They are implicated in different key physiological processes such as angiogenesis, cardiovascular functions, fluid homeostasis and energy metabolism regulation. Recently, a new endogenous peptidic ligand of APJ, named Elabela, has been identified and shown to play a crucial role in embryonic development. In addition, increasing evidences show that Elabela is also intimate associated with a large number of physiological processes in adulthood...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350330/role-of-dual-energy-ct-in-the-diagnosis-and-follow-up-of-gout-systematic-analysis-of-the-literature
#20
André Ramon, Amélie Bohm-Sigrand, Pierre Pottecher, Pascal Richette, Jean-Francis Maillefert, Herve Devilliers, Paul Ornetti
The aim of this systematic review was to determine the potential role of dual-energy CT in the diagnosis and follow-up of gout with regard to the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) filter. A systematic analysis of the literature was conducted using the MEDLINE and Cochrane databases and published abstracts of international congresses, according to the criteria of the OMERACT filter: feasibility, reproducibility, validity versus laboratory (serum urate, MSU synovial fluid aspirate) and other imaging modalities for gout, and its sensitivity to change in patients on urate lowering therapy (ULT)...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
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