Read by QxMD icon Read


Gry Fluge Vindedal, Anna E Thoren, Vidar Jensen, Arne Klungland, Yong Zhang, Michael J Holtzman, Ole Petter Ottersen, Erlend A Nagelhus
There is a constitutive production of water in brain. The efflux routes of this excess water remain to be identified. We used basal brain water content as a proxy for the capacity of water exit routes. Basal brain water content was increased in mice with a complete loss of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels (global Aqp4(-/-) mice), but not in mice with a selective removal of perivascular AQP4 or in a novel mouse line with a selective deletion of ependymal AQP4 (Foxj1-Cre-Aqp4(flox/flox) mice). Unique for the global Aqp4(-/-) mice is the loss of the AQP4 pool subjacent to the pial membrane...
October 14, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Takashi Nakakura, Takeshi Suzuki, Kotaro Horiguchi, Ken Fujiwara, Takehiro Tsukada, Anshin Asano-Hoshino, Hideyuki Tanaka, Kenjiro Arisawa, Yoshimi Nishijima, Yoko Nekooki-Machida, Yoshiko Kiuchi, Haruo Hagiwara
S100β-positive cells exist in the marginal cell layer (MCL) of the adenohypophysis and follicle structure in the parenchyma of anterior lobe (ALFS) in pituitary. They have multiple functions as phagocytes or cells that regulate hormone secretion. Majority of S100β-positive cells in the adenohypophysis express sex determining region Y-box 2 protein (SOX2), a stem cell marker; therefore, S100β/SOX2 double positive cells are also considered as one type of stem/progenitor cells. MCL and ALFS are consisting of morphologically two types of cells, i...
September 22, 2016: Medical Molecular Morphology
Christina Kyrousi, Maria-Eleni Lalioti, Eleni Skavatsou, Zoi Lygerou, Stavros Taraviras
Ependymal cells are multiciliated cells located in the wall of the lateral ventricles of the adult mammalian brain and are key components of the subependymal zone niche, where adult neural stem cells reside. Through the movement of their motile cilia, ependymal cells control the cerebrospinal fluid flow within the ventricular system from which they receive secreted molecules and morphogens controlling self-renewal and differentiation decisions of adult neural stem cells. Multiciliated ependymal cells become fully differentiated at postnatal stages however they are specified during mid to late embryogenesis from a population of radial glial cells...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
Rong Li, Jinsu Huang, Meili Ma, Yuqing Lou, Yanwei Zhang, Lixia Wu, David W Chang, Picheng Zhao, Qianggang Dong, Xifeng Wu, Baohui Han
Stem-like cells in solid tumors are purported to contribute to cancer development and poor treatment outcome. The abilities to self-renew, differentiate, and resist anticancer therapies are hallmarks of these rare cells, and steering them into lineage commitment may be one strategy to curb cancer development or progression. Vitamin D is a prohormone that can alter cell growth and differentiation and may induce the differentiation cancer stem-like cells. In this study, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4)-positive/Nanog homeobox (Nanog)- positive lung adenocarcinoma stem-like cells (LACSCs) were enriched from spheroid cultured SPC-A1 cells and differentiated by a two-stage induction (TSI) method, which involved knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1α) expression (first stage) followed by sequential induction with 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3, VD3) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) treatment (second stage)...
August 31, 2016: Oncotarget
Freyja K McClenahan, Himanshu Sharma, Xiwei Shan, Christopher Eyermann, Holly Colognato
While the extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to regulate neural stem cell quiescence in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ), the function of ECM in the developing SVZ remains unknown. Here, we report that the ECM receptor dystroglycan regulates a unique developmental restructuring of ECM in the early postnatal SVZ. Dystroglycan is furthermore required for ependymal cell differentiation and assembly of niche pinwheel structures, at least in part by suppressing Notch activation in radial glial cells, which leads to the increased expression of MCI, Myb, and FoxJ1, transcriptional regulators necessary for acquisition of the multiciliated phenotype...
September 12, 2016: Developmental Cell
Shannon Coy, Ziming Du, Shu-Hsien Sheu, Terri Woo, Fausto J Rodriguez, Mark W Kieran, Sandro Santagata
Cilia are highly conserved organelles, which serve critical roles in development and physiology. Motile cilia are expressed in a limited range of tissues, where they principally regulate local extracellular fluid dynamics. In contrast, primary cilia are expressed by many vertebrate cell types during interphase, and are intimately involved in the cell cycle and signal transduction. Notably, primary cilia are essential for vertebrate hedgehog pathway activity. Improved detection of motile cilia may assist in the diagnosis of some pathologic entities such as Rathke's cleft cysts, whereas characterizing primary cilia in neoplastic tissues may implicate cilia-dependent signaling pathways as critical for tumorigenesis...
August 26, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Itsaso Garcia-Arcos, Patrick Geraghty, Nathalie Baumlin, Michael Campos, Abdoulaye Jules Dabo, Bakr Jundi, Neville Cummins, Edward Eden, Astrid Grosche, Matthias Salathe, Robert Foronjy
BACKGROUND: The use of electronic (e)-cigarettes is increasing rapidly, but their lung health effects are not established. Clinical studies examining the potential long-term impact of e-cigarette use on lung health will take decades. To address this gap in knowledge, this study investigated the effects of exposure to aerosolised nicotine-free and nicotine-containing e-cigarette fluid on mouse lungs and normal human airway epithelial cells. METHODS: Mice were exposed to aerosolised phosphate-buffered saline, nicotine-free or nicotine-containing e-cigarette solution, 1-hour daily for 4 months...
August 24, 2016: Thorax
Matthias Tisler, Franziska Wetzel, Sabrina Mantino, Stanislav Kremnyov, Thomas Thumberger, Axel Schweickert, Martin Blum, Philipp Vick
BACKGROUND: Left-right (LR) organ asymmetries are a common feature of metazoan animals. In many cases, laterality is established by a conserved asymmetric Nodal signaling cascade during embryogenesis. In most vertebrates, asymmetric nodal induction results from a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow at the left-right organizer (LRO), a ciliated epithelium present during gastrula/neurula stages. Conservation of LRO and flow beyond the vertebrates has not been reported yet. RESULTS: Here we study sea urchin embryos, which use nodal to establish larval LR asymmetry as well...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Haichuan Hu, Zhengliang Sun, Yuan Li, Yiliang Zhang, Hang Li, Yang Zhang, Yunjian Pan, Lei Shen, Rui Wang, Yihua Sun, Haiquan Chen
PURPOSE: Lung adenocarcinomas are a heterogeneous set of diseases with distinct genetic and histologic characteristics. Besides the discovery of oncogenic mutations as well as the introduction of 2011 IASLC/ATS/ERS and 2015 WHO histologic classification, increasing evidence has linked this inter-tumor heterogeneity to the lung lineage-specific pathways and lineage genes. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the gene expression of identified lung lineage genes to study their role in distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma diversities...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Min Liu, Zhenlong Guan, Qin Shen, Pierce Lalor, Una Fitzgerald, Timothy O'Brien, Peter Dockery, Sanbing Shen
UNLABELLED: Ciliopathies are an emerging class of devastating disorders with pleiotropic symptoms affecting both the central and peripheral systems and commonly associated with hydrocephalus. Even though ciliary components and three master transcriptional regulators have been identified, little is known about the signaling molecules involved. We previously identified a novel gene, Unc51-like-kinase 4 (ULK4), as a risk factor of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we took multidisciplinary approaches and uncovered essential roles of Ulk4 in ciliogenesis...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Alice Nemajerova, Daniela Kramer, Saul S Siller, Christian Herr, Orr Shomroni, Tonatiuh Pena, Cristina Gallinas Suazo, Katharina Glaser, Merit Wildung, Henrik Steffen, Anusha Sriraman, Fabian Oberle, Magdalena Wienken, Magali Hennion, Ramon Vidal, Bettina Royen, Mihai Alevra, Detlev Schild, Robert Bals, Jürgen Dönitz, Dietmar Riedel, Stefan Bonn, Ken-Ichi Takemaru, Ute M Moll, Muriel Lizé
Motile multiciliated cells (MCCs) have critical roles in respiratory health and disease and are essential for cleaning inhaled pollutants and pathogens from airways. Despite their significance for human disease, the transcriptional control that governs multiciliogenesis remains poorly understood. Here we identify TP73, a p53 homolog, as governing the program for airway multiciliogenesis. Mice with TP73 deficiency suffer from chronic respiratory tract infections due to profound defects in ciliogenesis and complete loss of mucociliary clearance...
June 1, 2016: Genes & Development
Sayaka Ito, Yoshihiko Kobayashi, Yuki Yamamoto, Koji Kimura, Kiyoshi Okuda
Two types of oviductal epithelial cells, secretory and ciliated, play crucial roles in the first days after fertilization in mammals. Secretory cells produce various molecules promoting embryo development, while ciliated cells facilitate transport of oocytes and zygotes by ciliary beating. The proportions of the two cell types change during the estrous cycle. The proportion of ciliated cells on the oviductal luminal surface is abundant at the follicular phase, whereas the proportion of secretory cells gradually increases with the formation of the corpus luteum...
June 2, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Peter K Jackson, Laura D Attardi
The mysteriously diverse phenotypes in mice lacking the p53 homolog p73 are recently unified by new analysis showing p73 is required for formation of multiciliated epithelia. p73 directly activates FoxJ1, the central transcriptional driver for multiciliation, and induces a host of genes critical for ciliogenesis.
April 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Clayton B Marshall, Deborah J Mays, J Scott Beeler, Jennifer M Rosenbluth, Kelli L Boyd, Gabriela L Santos Guasch, Timothy M Shaver, Lucy J Tang, Qi Liu, Yu Shyr, Bryan J Venters, Mark A Magnuson, Jennifer A Pietenpol
We report that p73 is expressed in multiciliated cells (MCCs), is required for MCC differentiation, and directly regulates transcriptional modulators of multiciliogenesis. Loss of ciliary biogenesis provides a unifying mechanism for many phenotypes observed in p73 knockout mice including hydrocephalus; hippocampal dysgenesis; sterility; and chronic inflammation/infection of lung, middle ear, and sinus. Through p73 and p63 ChIP-seq using murine tracheal cells, we identified over 100 putative p73 target genes that regulate MCC differentiation and homeostasis...
March 15, 2016: Cell Reports
Marina Arbi, Dafni-Eleftheria Pefani, Christina Kyrousi, Maria-Eleni Lalioti, Argyro Kalogeropoulou, Anastasios D Papanastasiou, Stavros Taraviras, Zoi Lygerou
Multiciliated cells are terminally differentiated, post-mitotic cells that form hundreds of motile cilia on their apical surface. Defects in multiciliated cells lead to disease, including mucociliary clearance disorders that result from ciliated cell disfunction in airways. The pathway controlling multiciliogenesis, however, remains poorly characterized. We showed that GemC1, previously implicated in cell cycle control, is a central regulator of ciliogenesis. GemC1 is specifically expressed in ciliated epithelia...
March 2016: EMBO Reports
Peter Walentek
Cilia play a plethora of roles in normal development and homeostasis as well as in disease. Their involvement in cell signalling processes and ability to inhibit cell cycle progression make them especially interesting subjects of investigation in the context of tumour formation and malignancy. Several key transcription factors regulate the transcriptional programme in cilia formation and some of these, eg RFX factors and FOXJ1, are implicated in cancer formation. Furthermore, RFX factors and FOXJ1 are increasingly being explored for their potential as markers to diagnose, classify and predict the outcome of cancers in patients, including recent work published in this journal on aggressive ependymoma and choroid plexus tumours...
May 2016: Journal of Pathology
Feng Zhou, Vijay Narasimhan, Mohammad Shboul, Yan Ling Chong, Bruno Reversade, Sudipto Roy
Multiciliated cells (MCCs) differentiate hundreds of motile cilia that generate mechanical force required to drive fluid movement over epithelia [1, 2]. For example, metachronal beating of MCC cilia in the mammalian airways clears mucus that traps inhaled pathogens and pollutants. Consequently, abnormalities in MCC differentiation or ciliary motility have been linked to an expanding spectrum of human airway diseases [3–6]. The current view posits that MCC precursors are singled out by the inhibition of Notch signaling...
December 21, 2015: Current Biology: CB
Malak S Abedalthagafi, Michael P Wu, Parker H Merrill, Ziming Du, Terri Woo, Shu-Hsien Sheu, Shelley Hurwitz, Keith L Ligon, Sandro Santagata
Well-differentiated human cancers share transcriptional programmes with the normal tissue counterparts from which they arise. These programmes broadly influence cell behaviour and function and are integral modulators of malignancy. Here, we show that the master regulator of motile ciliogenesis, FOXJ1, is highly expressed in cells along the ventricular surface of the human brain. Strong expression is present in cells of the ependyma and the choroid plexus as well as in a subset of cells residing in the subventricular zone...
March 2016: Journal of Pathology
Naoto Nishimura, Hiroki Ueharu, Hiroto Nishihara, Shiori Shibuya, Saishu Yoshida, Masashi Higuchi, Naoko Kanno, Kotaro Horiguchi, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
Pituitary-specific transcription factor PROP1, a factor important for pituitary organogenesis, appears on rat embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) in SOX2-expressing stem/progenitor cells and always coexists with SOX2 throughout life. PROP1-positive cells at one point occupy all cells in Rathke's pouch, followed by a rapid decrease in their number. Their regulatory factors, except for RBP-J, have not yet been clarified. This study aimed to use the 3 kb upstream region and 1st intron of mouse prop1 to pinpoint a group of factors selected on the basis of expression in the early pituitary gland for expression of Prop1...
2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Pingyu Zhu, Yongrui Piao, Xiuzhe Dong, Zhehu Jin
The forkhead box (FOX) family of transcription factors are considered to have a role in tumorigenesis. FOXJ1 is a member of the FOX family; however, its function in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has remained to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study evaluated the expression of FOXJ1 in human clear cell RCC and the effect of FOXJ1 on the proliferative ability of RCC cells. The RCC specimens analyzed in the present study were obtained from 286 patients with RCC who underwent nephrectomy. FOXJ1 mRNA expression levels were determined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and FOXJ1 protein expression levels were determined using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis...
September 2015: Oncology Letters
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"