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Andreas Nickisch, Franziska Werner, Christiane Kiese-Himmel
OBJECTIVE: In a controlled group comparison it was shown for 2nd, 3th and 4th graders that children with auditory processing disorders (APD) could be distinguished from those without (Non-APD) by three to four diagnostic tools. The hit rate was 93.6 % resp. 97.5 % 1, 2. The current study investigated whether such a separation is also possible in first graders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Performance of 77 first graders in two clinically and diagnostically confirmed groups (n = 40 with APD, mean age: 6...
February 15, 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Pushpinder Uppal, Rohini Shantharam, Tara Lynn Kaufmann
Elective time during residency training provides residents with exposure to different subspecialties. This opportunity gives residents the chance tonurture growth in particular areas of interest and broaden their knowledge base in certain topics in dermatology by having the chance to work withexperts in the field. The purpose of this study was to assess the views of residency program directors and dermatology residents on the value of elective time through a cross sectional survey. An eight-questionIRB exempt survey was sent out to 113 residency program directors via email through the American Professors of Dermatology (APD) program director listserv...
December 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Jessica Morand, Claire Arnaud, Jean-Louis Pepin, Diane Godin-Ribuot
We investigated the effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH), such as that encountered in severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients, on the development and severity of myocardial ischemia-related ventricular arrhythmias. Rats were exposed to 14 days of IH (30 s at 5%O 2 and 30 s at 21%O 2 , 8 h·day -1 ) or normoxia (N, similar air-air cycles) and submitted to a 30-min coronary ligature. Arterial blood pressure (BP) and ECG were recorded for power spectral analysis, ECG interval measurement and arrhythmia quantification...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sheila Flanagan, Tudor-Cătălin Zorilă, Yannis Stylianou, Brian C J Moore
Auditory processing disorder (APD) may be diagnosed when a child has listening difficulties but has normal audiometric thresholds. For adults with normal hearing and with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment, an algorithm called spectral shaping with dynamic range compression (SSDRC) has been shown to increase the intelligibility of speech when background noise is added after the processing. Here, we assessed the effect of such processing using 8 children with APD and 10 age-matched control children. The loudness of the processed and unprocessed sentences was matched using a loudness model...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
HuaLin Cai, Xiang Zhou, George G Dougherty, Ravinder D Reddy, Gretchen L Haas, Debra M Montrose, Matcheri Keshavan, Jeffrey K Yao
Neurosteroids are both endogenous and exogenous steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interactions with ligand-gated ion channels and other cell surface receptors. They are originated from cholesterol and have important implications for schizophrenia (SZ) pathophysiology and treatment strategies. Specifically, pregnenolone (PREG), progesterone (PROG) and allopregnanolone (ALLO) exhibit similar psychotropic properties. Using enzyme immunoassay, we compared the neurosteroids in PREG downstream pathways in plasma between healthy controls (HC, n = 43) and first-episode antipsychotic-naïve patients with SZ (FEAN-SZ, n = 53) before antipsychotic drug (APD) treatment...
February 7, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Aaron B Holley, Wesley D Boose, Michael Perkins, Karen L Sheikh, Nancy P Solomon, Angela M Dietsch, Jafar Vossoughi, Arthur T Johnson, Jacob F Collen
Introduction: Following reports of respiratory symptoms among service members returning from deployment to South West Asia (SWA), an expert panel recommended pre-deployment spirometry be used to assess disease burden. Unfortunately, testing with spirometry is high cost and time-consuming. The airflow perturbation device (APD) is a handheld monitor that rapidly measures respiratory resistance (APD-Rr) and has promising but limited clinical data. Its speed and portability make it ideally suited for large volume pre-deployment screening...
February 7, 2018: Military Medicine
Wisam Al-Bassam, Mark Kubicki, Michael Bailey, Laurence Walker, Paul Young, David V Pilcher, Rinaldo Bellomo
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the characteristics, incidence, and mortality of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) admitted to the ICU. AIMS: To study the epidemiology, characteristics and outcome of patients with MG in Australian and New Zealand (ANZ) ICUs over a decade. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational, cross sectional study of data from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Adult Patient Database (APD)...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
James Winter, Martin J Bishop, Catherine D E Wilder, Christopher O'Shea, Davor Pavlovic, Michael J Shattock
Rationale: Arrhythmogenic cardiac alternans are thought to be an important determinant for the initiation of ventricular fibrillation. There is limited information on the effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation (SNS) on alternans in the intact heart and the conclusions of existing studies, focused on investigating electrical alternans, are conflicted. Meanwhile, several lines of evidence implicate instabilities in Ca handling, not electrical restitution, as the primary mechanism underpinning alternans. Despite this, there have been no studies on Ca alternans and SNS in the intact heart...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Perri Roberta, Turchetta Chiara Stella, Caruso Giulia, Fadda Lucia, Caltagiorne Carlo, Carlesimo Giovanni Augusto
Apathy symptoms include different dimensions: cognitive (C), emotional-affective (E-Aff) and auto-activation; they have been related to dysfunctions of the dorsolateral, orbito-basal prefrontal cortex and the subcortical frontal connections to the basal ganglia, respectively. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), an association has been found between apathy severity and both executive deficits and atrophy of the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex; however, it is not clear whether these associations concern only the cognitive aspects of apathy...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Zhihan Zhao, Huan Lan, Jan-Dierk Schünemann, Katherine Sattler, Fanis Buljubasic, Bence Patocskai, Xin Li, Gökhan Yücel, Siegfried Lang, Daniel Nowak, Lukas Cyganek, Karen Bieback, Jochen Utikal, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Ursula Ravens, Thomas Wieland, Martin Borggrefe, Xiao-Bo Zhou, Ibrahim Akin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies revealed that Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), a transient disorder of ventricular dysfunction affecting predominantly postmenopausal women, is associated with acquired long QT syndrome and arrhythmias, but the exact pathophysiologic mechanism is unknown. Our aim is to investigate the electrophysiological mechanism for QT-prolongation in TTC-patients by using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). METHODS: hiPSC-CMs, which were generated from human skin fibroblasts of three healthy donors, were treated by estradiol (10μM for one week) and a toxic concentration of isoprenaline (Iso, 1mM for 2h)...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Georgi Abraham, Amit Gupta, Kashi Nath Prasad, Anusha Rohit, Anil Kumar Bhalla, Vishwanath Billa, Rajasekhar Chakravati, Tonmoy Das, Thadakanathan Dhinakaran, Arup Ratan Dutta, Padmanabhan Giri, Tarun Jeloka, Sampath Kumar, Ajay Marwaha, Radha Vijay Raghavan, Rajan Ravichandran, Roshan Rohit, Chandra Nath Sarkar, Naorem Sharat Kumar Singh
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis is a major risk factor for drop out of patients on continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) and automated PD (APD). Factors affecting PD-related peritonitis and centre-specific microbiological data are lacking in India. A multicentric prospective observational study was designed to overcome the gaps in the existing data regarding causative organism and outcome. METHODOLOGY: The present study was a prospective, uncontrolled, open-label; observational study conducted in 21 centres representing all the four geographical regions (North, South, East and West) of India between April 2010 and December 2011...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Yingjie Ma, Yonggang Zhang, Yi Gu, Yanhui Shi, Xingyou Chen, Wanyan Ji, Ben Du, Xiumei Shao, Jiaxiong Fang
We report an electron-initiated 1064 nm InGaAsP avalanche photodetectors (APDs) with an InAlAs multiplier. By utilizing a tailored digital alloy superlattice grading structure, a charge layer and a p type InAlAs multiplier, an unity gain quantum efficiency of 48%, a low room temperature dark current of 470 pA at 90% breakdown voltage, and a low multiplication noise with an effective k ratio of ∼0.2 are achieved. The measured maximum gain factor is 5 at room temperature, which is currently limited by the non-optimized electric field profiles, and can be readily enhanced by modifying the doping and thickness parameters for the multiplier and the charge layer...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
Lucas L G Pinel, Simon J Dimler, Xinxin Zhou, Salman Abdullah, Shiyong Zhang, Chee Hing Tan, Jo Shien Ng
Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with thin avalanche regions have shown low excess noise characteristics and high gain-bandwidth products, so they are suited for long-haul optical communications. In this work, we investigated how carrier injection profile affects the avalanche gain and excess noise factors of Al0.85Ga0.15As0.56Sb0.44 (lattice-matched to InP substrates) p-i-n and n-i-p diodes with total depletion widths of 145-240 nm. Different carrier injection profiles were achieved by using light with wavelengths of 420, 543 and 633nm...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
Matthew J Hobbs, Matthew P Grainger, Chengxi Zhu, Chee Hing Tan, Jonathan R Willmott
Accurate quantitative temperature measurements are difficult to achieve using focal-plane array sensors. This is due to reflections inside the instrument and the difficulty of calibrating a matrix of pixels as identical radiation thermometers. Size-of-source effect (SSE), which is the dependence of an infrared temperature measurement on the area surrounding the target area, is a major contributor to this problem and cannot be reduced using glare stops. Measurements are affected by power received from outside the field-of-view (FOV), leading to increased measurement uncertainty...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
Preethi Padmanabhan, Bruce Hancock, Shouleh Nikzad, L Douglas Bell, Kees Kroep, Edoardo Charbon
Gallium nitride (GaN) and its alloys are becoming preferred materials for ultraviolet (UV) detectors due to their wide bandgap and tailorable out-of-band cutoff from 3.4 eV to 6.2 eV. GaN based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are particularly suitable for their high photon sensitivity and quantum efficiency in the UV region and for their inherent insensitivity to visible wavelengths. Challenges exist however for practical utilization. With growing interests in such photodetectors, hybrid readout solutions are becoming prevalent with CMOS technology being adopted for its maturity, scalability, and reliability...
February 3, 2018: Sensors
Adrian Raine
Although antisocial personality disorder (APD) is one of the most researched personality disorders, it is still surprisingly resistant to treatment. This lack of clinical progress may be partly due to the failure to view APD as a neurodevelopmental disorder and to consider early interventions. After first defining what constitutes a neurodevelopmental disorder, this review evaluates the extent to which APD meets neurodevelopmental criteria, covering structural and functional brain imaging, neurocognition, genetics and epigenetics, neurochemistry, and early health risk factors...
January 25, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
K Shivanand Nayak, Sreepada V Subhramanyam, Navva Pavankumar, Sinoj Antony, M A Sarfaraz Khan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Initiating renal replacement therapy in late referred patients with central venous catheter (CVC) hemodialysis (HD) causes serious complications. In urgent start peritoneal dialysis, initiating peritoneal dialysis (PD) within 14 days of catheter insertion still needs HD with CVC. We initiated Emergent start PD (ESPD) with Automated PD (APD) at our center within 48 h from the time of presentation. METHODS: A prospective, case-controlled, intention-to-treat study with 56 patients was conducted between March 2016 and August 2017...
January 30, 2018: Blood Purification
Thirachit Chotsampancharoen, Pornpun Sripornsawan, Sarapee Duangchu, Edward McNeil
Acquired platelet dysfunction with eosinophilia (APDE) is a syndrome which manifests as a transient state of platelet dysfunction in the presence of eosinophilia. The aim of this work was to study the clinical course and outcomes of children diagnosed with APDE. The hospital records of children with APDE were retrospectively reviewed and a total of 69 children were included. The mean (standard deviation) age at diagnosis was 6.9 (3.1) years. All of the patients presented with ecchymoses on the extremities, body, and face...
January 11, 2018: Acta Haematologica
Wayne J Wilson
OBJECTIVE: To consider the evolving concept of auditory processing disorder (APD). DESIGN: Narrative review and opinion piece. STUDY SAMPLE: Eight approaches to APD described in the literature and its definitions by ten societies or groups from around the world. RESULTS: The dominant conceptualisation of APD remains one of disorders (or at least deficits) in the bottom-up processing of sound in the primary auditory nervous system that are not due to higher order (top-down) language or cognitive deficits...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
Gil Ben-Yakov, Devika Kapuria, Jamie Marko, Min Ho Cho, Stefania Pittaluga, Erwin David Kleiner, Christopher Koh, Steven Holland, Gulbu Uzel, Theo Heller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 26, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
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