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Andrew L Wit
Afterdepolarizations cause triggered arrhythmias. One kind occurs after repolarization is complete, delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs). Another occurs as an interruption in repolarization, early afterdepolarizations (EADs). Afterdepolarizations initiate arrhythmias when they depolarize membrane potential to threshold potential for triggering action potentials. DADs usually occur mostly when Ca2+ in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is elevated. The SR leaks some of the Ca2+ into the myoplasm through Ca2+ release channels controlled by ryanodine receptors (RyR2) during diastole...
June 19, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Mu Chen, Dechun Yin, Shuai Guo, Dong-Zhu Xu, Zhuo Wang, Zhenhui Chen, Michael Rubart-von der Lohe, Shien-Fong Lin, Thomas H Everett, James N Weiss, Peng-Sheng Chen
KEY POINTS: It is unknown if sex difference exists in cardiac apamin sensitive small conductance Ca2+ activated K+ (SK) current (IKAS ). There is no sex difference in IKAS at basal condition. However, there is larger IKAS in female rabbit ventricles than in males during isoproterenol infusion. IKAS activation by isoproterenol leads to action potential triangulation in females, indicating its abundant activation at early phases of repolarization. IKAS activation in females induces negative Ca2+ -voltage coupling and promotes electromechanical discordant phase 2 repolarization alternans...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Carlijn D J M Borm, Florian Krismer, Gregor K Wenning, Klaus Seppi, Werner Poewe, Maria Teresa Pellecchia, Paolo Barone, Erik L Johnsen, Karen Østergaard, Tanya Gurevich, Ruth Djaldetti, Luisa Sambati, Pietro Cortelli, Igor Petrović, Vladimir S Kostić, Hana Brožová, Evžen Růžička, Maria Jose Marti, Eduardo Tolosa, Margherita Canesi, Bart Post, Jorik Nonnekes, Bastiaan R Bloem
OBJECTIVE: Differentiating Parkinson's disease (PD) from atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD) such as Multiple System Atrophy, parkinsonian type (MSA-p) or Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP-RS) can be challenging. Early signs of postural Instability and gait disability (PIGD) are considered clues that may signal presence of APD. However, it remains unknown which PIGD test - or combination of tests - can best distinguish PD from APD. We evaluated the discriminative value of several widely-used PIGD tests, and aimed to develop a short PIGD evaluation that can discriminate parkinsonian disorders...
June 8, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Da Un Jeong, Ki Moo Lim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although studies on the relation between arrhythmias and the action potential duration (APD) have been carried out, most of them are based only on electrophysiological factors of the heart and lack experiments that consider cardiac mechanical and electromechanical characteristics. Therefore, we conducted this study to clarify the relevance of the shortening of APD of a cell in relation to the mechanical contraction activity of the heart and the associated risk of arrhythmia...
June 15, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Antonio Méndez-Durán, Manuel Humberto Ignorosa-Luna, Gilberto Pérez-Aguilar, Francisco Jesús Rivera-Rodríguez, Luis Rafael López-Ocaña
Background: The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) is the institution with the greatest health coverage in Mexico. In adherence to existing and committed to provide specialized services to specific populations (vulnerable age groups, such as children and young people in primary, secondary and higher education, productive and without social security educational training), this gives the renal replacement therapy -peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis- at no cost to students. Methods: Cross-sectional and retrospective study conducted from 1 to 30 September 2016; Census Patients with Chronical Renal Failure, sociodemographic and type of therapy are identified; direct costs are estimated...
March 2018: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Jose A Santiago, Virginie Bottero, Judith A Potashkin
There is a high misdiagnosis rate between Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD), such as progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), the second most common parkinsonian syndrome. In our earlier studies, we identified and replicated RNA blood biomarkers in several independent cohorts, however, replication in a cohort that includes PSP patients has not yet been performed. To this end, we evaluated the diagnostic potential of nine previously identified RNA biomarkers using quantitative PCR assays in 138 blood samples at baseline from PD, PSP and healthy controls (HCs) nested in the PD Biomarkers Program...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ellen Raben Pedersen
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the Danish test battery for auditory processing disorder (APD). The battery consists of four behavioural tests, two speech and two non-speech stimuli tests. The evaluation includes determination of: (1) new cut-off values (pass-fail criteria), (2) the sensitivity and the specificity of the entire test battery and (3) the failure rate of different test combinations. DESIGN: For each test in the battery, cut-off values were determined using the weighted Youden index...
June 10, 2018: International Journal of Audiology
Lauren J Carlson, Gina C Bao, Sonya Besagar, Jacob B Leary, Hannah L Radabaugh, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
Several preclinical studies have reported that daily administration of the antipsychotic drug (APD) risperidone (RISP) impedes recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, it is not known whether intermittent dosing would produce similar deleterious effects. The relevance of providing APDs intermittently is that not all patients in rehabilitation require daily treatments to manage TBI-induced agitation. Hence, the goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that intermittent (vs. daily) administration of RISP would be less disturbing to motor and cognitive recovery after TBI...
June 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Mengqing Xia, Junjie Wang, Jianhua Sheng, Yingying Tang, Chunyan Li, Kelvin Lim, Bin He, Chunbo Li, Yifeng Xu, Jijun Wang
OBJECTIVE: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has often been applied to augment antipsychotics for schizophrenia patients. However, the underpinning mechanism is still unclear. Previous studies of major depressive disorder reported an increase in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) after ECT. The present study investigated the effects of ECT on medial prefrontal GABA in schizophrenia using a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. METHODS: Inpatients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) were assigned to 2 groups, ECT group (n = 14) receiving ECT plus antipsychotic drugs (APD) and drug group (n = 17) only receiving antipsychotic drugs...
June 5, 2018: Journal of ECT
Shiwei Wu, Yu Liu, Caiqing Ma, Jing Wang, Yao Zhang, Peng Song, Lixin Xia
4-Aminothiophenol (PATP) and 4-aminophenyl disulfide (APDS) in contact with silver will form H2N-C6H4-S-Ag (PATP-Ag), and under the conditions of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) a coupling reaction will generate 4,4-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB). DMAB is strongly Raman-active, showing strong peaks at 1140, 1390, and 1432 cm-1, and is widely used in surface-plasmon-assisted catalysis. Using APDS, PATP, PNTP, and NPDS as probe molecules, Raman spectroscopy and imaging techniques have been used to study the effect of intermolecular distance on surface-plasmon-assisted catalysis...
June 4, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Xiaoliang Quan
This paper introduced problems about Automated Peritoneal Dialysis machine(APD) that the lack of technical issues such as the structural design of the complex cavities. To study the flow characteristics of this special structure, the application of ANSYS CFX software is used with k-ε turbulence model as the theoretical basis of fluid mechanics. The numerical simulation of flow field simulation result in the internal model can be gotten after the complex structure model is imported into ANSYS CFX module. Then, it will present the distribution of complex cavities inside the flow field and the flow characteristics parameter, which will provide an important reference design for APD design...
July 30, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation
Liang Xiong, Yu Liu, Mingmin Zhou, Guangji Wang, Dajun Quan, Caijie Shen, Wei Shuai, Bin Kong, Congxin Huang, He Huang
Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardiac electrophysiologic effects of targeted ablation of cardiac sympathetic neurons (TACSN) in a canine model of chronic myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and results: Thirty-eight anaesthetized dogs were randomly assigned into the sham-operated, MI, and MI-TACSN groups, respectively. Myocardial infarction-targeted ablation of cardiac sympathetic neuron was induced by injecting cholera toxin B subunit-saporin compound in the left stellate ganglion (LSG)...
May 31, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Orchid Djahangirian, Irene Young, Crystal Dorgalli, Ashley Bissaillon, Ngoc-Anh Tran, Arman Walia, Ahmed Abdelhalim, Peter Wang, Blake Selby, John Billimek, Elias Wehbi, Irene McAleer, Antoine Khoury
INTRODUCTION: Antenatal hydronephrosis is a steady source of urology referrals since the era of routine fetal ultrasonography. Although most resolve, there are no guidelines for follow-up. OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to define safe parameters with which patients can be discharged early and avoid unnecessary follow-up. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients referred to a single children's referral hospital center for isolated antenetal hydronephrosis between 2010 and 2012...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Maryam Delphi, Farzaneh Zamiri Abdollahi
OBJECTIVES: Several test batteries have been suggested for auditory processing disorder (APD) diagnosis. One of the important tests is dichotic listening tests. Significant ear asymmetry (usually right ear advantage) can be indicative of (APD). Two main trainings have been suggested for dichotic listening disorders: Differential Interaural Intensity Difference (DIID) and Dichotic Offset Training (DOT). The aim of the present study was comparing the efficacy of these two trainings in resolving dichotic listening disorders...
July 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Winson S Ho, Herui Wang, Dominic Maggio, John S Kovach, Qi Zhang, Qi Song, Francesco M Marincola, John D Heiss, Mark R Gilbert, Rongze Lu, Zhengping Zhuang
Mounting evidence suggests that inhibition of protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A), a serine/threonine phosphatase, could enhance anticancer immunity. However, drugs targeting PP2A are not currently available. Here, we report that a PP2A inhibitor, LB-100, when combined with anti-PD-1 (aPD-1) blockade can synergistically elicit a durable immune-mediated antitumor response in a murine CT26 colon cancer model. This effect is T-cell dependent, leading to regression of a significant proportion of tumors. Analysis of tumor lymphocytes demonstrates enhanced effector T-cell and reduced suppressive regulatory T-cell infiltration...
May 29, 2018: Nature Communications
Krystyna Laszki-Szcząchor, Danuta Zwolińska, Małgorzata Sobieszczańska, Michał Tabin, Dorota Polak-Jonkisz
BACKGROUND: The progression of chronic kidney disease is accompanied by multi-organ disorders, among which cardiovascular diseases have the status of a serious clinical problem. The body surface potential mapping (BSPM) technique is a non-invasive method which enables the detection of pathological changes in the bioelectrical activity of the heart. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify possible disturbances in the intraventricular conduction system in peritoneally dialyzed children...
May 29, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Soren Wacker, Sergei Yu Noskov
Drug-induced abnormal heart rhythm known as Torsades de Pointes (TdP) is a potential lethal ventricular tachycardia found in many patients. Even newly released anti-arrhythmic drugs, like ivabradine with HCN channel as a primary target, block the hERG potassium current in overlapping concentration interval. Promiscuous drug block to hERG channel may potentially lead to perturbation of the action potential duration (APD) and TdP, especially when with combined with polypharmacy and/or electrolyte disturbances...
May 2018: Computational Toxicology
Eiji Matsusue, Yoshio Fujihara, Kenichiro Tanaka, Yuki Aozasa, Manabu Shimoda, Hiroyuki Nakayasu, Kazuhiko Nakamura, Toshihide Ogawa
Background Neuromelanin magnetic resonance imaging (NmMRI) and 123 I-FP-CIT dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) provide specific information that distinguishes Parkinson's disease (PD) from non-degenerative parkinsonian syndrome (NDPS). Purpose To determine whether a multiparametric scoring system (MSS) could improve accuracy compared to each parameter of DAT-SPECT and NmMRI in differentiating PD from NDPS. Material and Methods A total of 49 patients, including 14 with NDPS, 30 with PD, and five with atypical parkinsonian disorder (APD) underwent both NmMRI and DAT-SPECT and were evaluated...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Asha Yathiraj, Chitnahalli Shankaranarayan Vanaja
Purpose: The study aimed to determine a criterion to diagnose the presence of auditory processing disorder (APD) in children. Method: Using a standard comparison design, 280 children "not at risk" for APD and 100 children "at risk" for APD were evaluated on 4 different tests: Speech-in-Noise Test in Indian English (Yathiraj, Vanaja, & Muthuselvi, 2010), Dichotic Consonant-Vowel (Yathiraj, 1999), Duration Pattern Test (Musiek, Baran, & Pinheiro, 1990), and the Revised Auditory Memory and Sequencing Test in Indian English (Yathiraj, Vanaja, & Muthuselvi, 2010)...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Audiology
Ellen de Wit, Bert Steenbergen, Margot I Visser-Bochane, Cees P van der Schans, Pim van Dijk, Margreet R Luinge
Purpose: The purpose of this letter is to respond to Moncrieff's (2017) letter to the editor, "Response to de Wit et al., 2016, 'Characteristics of Auditory Processing Disorders: A Systematic Review,'" published in May 2017 by the Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Conclusion: We believe that our original conclusions are valid given the limited evidence that is currently available about the etiology of auditory processing disorders (APD)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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