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Ghrelin and motivation

Alexander Edwards, Alfonso Abizaid
Ghrelin is a hormone predominantly produced in and secreted from the stomach. Ghrelin is involved in many physiological processes including feeding, the stress response, and in modulating learning, memory and motivational processes. Ghrelin does this by binding to its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), a receptor found in relatively high concentrations in hypothalamic and mesolimbic brain regions. While the feeding and metabolic effects of ghrelin can be explained by the effects of this hormone on regions of the brain that have a more permeable blood brain barrier (BBB), ghrelin produced within the periphery demonstrates a limited ability to reach extrahypothalamic regions where GHSRs are expressed...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lorena López-Ferreras, Jennifer E Richard, Rozita H Anderberg, Fredrik H Nilsson, Kajsa Olandersson, Scott E Kanoski, Karolina P Skibicka
Ghrelin is a stomach-produced hormone that stimulates ingestive behavior and increases motivated behavior to obtain palatable foods. Ghrelin receptors (growth hormone secretagogue receptors; Ghsr) are expressed in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and LHA-targeted ghrelin application increases ingestive behavior in male rodents. However, the effects of LHA ghrelin signaling in females are unexplored. Here we investigated whether LHA ghrelin signaling is necessary and sufficient for control of ingestive and motivated behavior for food in male and female rats...
February 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
S Sirohi, A Van Cleef, J F Davis
BACKGROUND: Selection of a healthy diet is the cornerstone for treating obesity and metabolic disease. Unfortunately, the majority of diets fail leading to weight regain and in some cases, pathological feeding behavior. We hypothesize that alternating bouts of caloric overconsumption and caloric restriction, behavioral manifestations of dieting induce neuroendocrine, behavioral and genetic changes that promote future bouts of palatable food intake. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we subjected male Long-Evans rats to a high-fat diet (HFD) feeding paradigm that induced a pattern of caloric overconsumption and caloric restriction...
January 31, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Alicia Stievenard, Mathieu Méquinion, Zane B Andrews, Alain Destée, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Odile Viltart, Christel C Vanbesien-Mailliot
The gastro-intestinal peptide ghrelin has been assigned many functions. These include appetite regulation, energy metabolism, glucose homeostasis, intestinal motility, anxiety, memory or neuroprotection. In the last decade, this pleiotropic peptide has been proposed as a therapeutic agent in gastroparesis for diabetes and in cachexia for cancer. Ghrelin and its receptor, which is expressed throughout the brain, play an important role in motivation and reward. Ghrelin finely modulates the mesencephalic dopaminergic signaling and is thus currently studied in pathological conditions including dopamine-related disorders...
February 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Paulette B Goforth, Martin G Myers
The neuropeptide hypocretin is also commonly referred to as orexin, since its orexigenic action was recognized early. Orexin/hypocretin (OX) neurons project widely throughout the brain and the physiologic and behavioral functions of OX are much more complex than initially conceived based upon the stimulation of feeding. OX most notably controls functions relevant to attention, alertness, and motivation. OX also plays multiple crucial roles in the control of food intake, metabolism, and overall energy balance in mammals...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
R Belfort-DeAguiar, D Seo, S Naik, J Hwang, C Lacadie, C Schmidt, R T Constable, R Sinha, R Sherwin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The obesity epidemic appears to be driven in large part by our modern environment inundated by food cues, which may influence our desire to eat. Although insulin decreases food intake in both animals and humans, the effect of insulin on motivation for food in the presence of food cues is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intravenous insulin infusion on the brain response to visual food cues, hunger and food craving in non-obese human subjects...
November 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Susanne Sommer, Wolfgang Hauber
Pavlovian stimuli predictive of food are able to amplify instrumental responding for food. This phenomenon termed Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) critically depends on intact VTA function and mesoaccumbens dopamine transmission. Considerable evidence suggests that food-predictive stimuli can enhance the release of ghrelin, an orexigen hormone that promotes food-directed responding. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) appears to be a key region through which stimulation of ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1A) invigorates food-directed responding, in part by activating the mesoaccumbens dopamine system...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Tania Basu, Pinglei Bao, Alexander Lerner, Lindsey Anderson, Kathleen Page, Frank Stanczyk, Daniel Mishell, Penina Segall-Gutierrez
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to examine activation of food motivation centers in the brain before and 8 weeks after depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administration. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective experimental pilot study examined the effects of DMPA on food motivation centers utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in eight nonobese, ovulatory subjects. fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was measured using a 3-Tesla Scanner while participants viewed images of high-calorie foods, low-calorie foods and nonfood objects...
October 2016: Contraception
S J King, T Rodrigues, A Watts, E Murray, A Wilson, A Abizaid
Binge eating is defined by the consumption of an excessive amount of food in a short time, reflecting a form of hedonic eating that is not necessarily motivated by caloric need. Foods consumed during a binge are also often high in fat and/or sugar. Ghrelin, signaling centrally via the growth-hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), stimulates growth hormone release and appetite. GHSR signaling also enhances the rewarding value of palatable foods and increases the motivation for such foods. As ghrelin interacts directly with dopaminergic reward circuitry, shown to be involved in binge eating, the current studies explored the role of GHSR signaling in a limited access model of binge eating in mice...
April 5, 2016: Neuroscience
Alessio Maria Monteleone, Palmiero Monteleone, Riccardo Dalle Grave, Massimiliano Nigro, Marwan El Ghoch, Simona Calugi, Monica Cimino, Mario Maj
Recently, anorexia nervosa (AN) has been conceptualized as a reward-related disorder, and alterations in brain reward processes have been documented in both acute and recovered AN patients. However, the role of endogenous biochemical mediators, such as ghrelin, in the modulation of reward processes has been poorly investigated in this eating disorder. Hedonic eating, that is the consumption of food exclusively for pleasure and not to maintain energy homeostasis, is a useful paradigm to investigate the physiology of food-related reward...
January 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Antonello E Rigamonti, Fabiana Piscitelli, Teresa Aveta, Fiorenza Agosti, Alessandra De Col, Silvia Bini, Silvano G Cella, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Alessandro Sartorio
BACKGROUND: Hedonic hunger refers to consumption of food just for pleasure and not to maintain energy homeostasis. Recently, consumption of food for pleasure was reported to be associated with increased circulating levels of both the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) in normal-weight subjects. To date, the effects of hedonic hunger, and in particular of chocolate craving, on these mediators in obese subjects are still unknown. METHODS: To explore the role of some gastrointestinal orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides and endocannabinoids (and some related congeners) in chocolate consumption, we measured changes in circulating levels of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), anandamide (AEA), 2-AG, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) in 10 satiated severely obese subjects after consumption of chocolate and, on a separate day, of a non-palatable isocaloric food with the same bromatologic composition...
2015: Food & Nutrition Research
Peyman Rezaie, Mohsen Mazidi, Mohsen Nematy
A kind of growth hormone secretagogue (GHS), ghrelin, was first isolated from the rat stomach and plays a major role in the activation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) resulting the release of growth hormone (GH). The preproghrelin gene is placed on chromosome 3, at locus 3p25 -2 in humans and constitutes five exons and three introns. Ghrelin is most plentifully expressed in particular cells in the oxyntic glands of the gastric epithelium, initially named X/A-like cells. Almost 60-70% of circulating ghrelin is secreted by the stomach...
July 2015: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Petra Suchankova, Jörgen A Engel, Elisabet Jerlhag
AIMS: Ghrelin initially emerged as a gut-brain hormone controlling food intake, meal initiation and appetite mainly via hypothalamic circuits in both rodents and humans. The findings that ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1A) are expressed in reward-related areas, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), suggest that ghrelin is a novel reward regulator. Indeed, ghrelin signalling mediates the rewarding and motivational properties of addictive drugs. In addition, daily co-administration of a GHS-R1A antagonist and various addictive drugs prevents the drug-induced locomotor sensitization in rats...
March 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Kim-Marie Engster, Jamina Wismar, Arthur L Kroczek, Pauline Teuffel, Sandra Nolte, Matthias Rose, Andreas Stengel, Peter Kobelt
It has been shown that dopamine antagonists suppress the ghrelin-induced increased motivation to work for food. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the dopamine antagonist flupentixol on ghrelin-induced food intake. Ad libitum fed male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were injected intraperitoneally (ip) with vehicle plus vehicle, vehicle plus ghrelin (13 μg/kg), 0.25mg/kg or 0.5mg/kg flupentixol plus ghrelin, or 0.25mg/kg or 0.5 mg/kg flupentixol plus vehicle. In a second experiment, intracerebroventricularly (icv) cannulated rats received an ip injection of vehicle (0...
October 2015: Neuropeptides
G van der Plasse, R van Zessen, M C M Luijendijk, H Erkan, G D Stuber, G M J Ramakers, R A H Adan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The rewarding value of palatable foods contributes to overconsumption, even in satiated subjects. Midbrain dopaminergic activity in response to reward-predicting environmental stimuli drives reward-seeking and motivated behavior for food rewards. This mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is sensitive to changes in energy balance, yet it has thus far not been established whether reward signaling of DA neurons in vivo is under control of hormones that signal appetite and energy balance such as ghrelin and leptin...
December 2015: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Celine Cansell, Serge Luquet
In both developed and emerging countries, sedentary life style and over exposition to high energy dense foods has led to a thermodynamic imbalance and consequently obesity. Obesity often involves a behavioural component in which, similar to drugs abuse, compulsive consumption of palatable food rich in lipids and sugar drives energy intake far beyond metabolic demands. The hypothalamus is one of the primary integration sites of circulating energy-related signals like leptin or ghrelin and is therefore considered as one of the main central regulators of energy balance...
January 2016: Biochimie
Petra Suchankova, Staffan Nilsson, Bettina von der Pahlen, Pekka Santtila, Kenneth Sandnabba, Ada Johansson, Patrick Jern, Jörgen A Engel, Elisabet Jerlhag
The multifaceted gut-brain peptide ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR-1a) are implicated in mechanisms regulating not only the energy balance but also the reward circuitry. In our pre-clinical models, we have shown that ghrelin increases whereas GHSR-1a antagonists decrease alcohol consumption and the motivation to consume alcohol in rodents. Moreover, ghrelin signaling is required for the rewarding properties of addictive drugs including alcohol and nicotine in rodents. Given the hereditary component underlying addictive behaviors and disorders, we sought to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the pre-proghrelin gene (GHRL) and GHSR-1a gene (GHSR) are associated with alcohol use, measured by the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and smoking...
March 2016: Addiction Biology
C A Steele, J L Powell, G J Kemp, J C G Halford, J P Wilding, J A Harrold, S V D Kumar, D J Cuthbertson, A A Cross, M Javadpour, I A MacFarlane, A A Stancak, C Daousi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is common following hypothalamic damage due to tumours. Homeostatic and non-homeostatic brain centres control appetite and energy balance but their interaction in the presence of hypothalamic damage remains unknown. We hypothesized that abnormal appetite in obese patients with hypothalamic damage results from aberrant brain processing of food stimuli. We sought to establish differences in activation of brain food motivation and reward neurocircuitry in patients with hypothalamic obesity (HO) compared with patients with hypothalamic damage whose weight had remained stable...
September 2015: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
A S Bazyan, A V Rogal
In this review is analyzed four kinds of needs, which include both humans and animals. These are: 1--the need to eat 2--need to drink 3--sexual need and, 4--the need to enhance or prolong the positive emotional state, and conversely, the need to dispose or avoid pain and unpleasant effects or negative emotional state. The centers of the first three needs are localized in the hypothalamus. The fourth need induced by integrative processes and determined the key role of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system of brain...
January 2015: Uspekhi Fiziologicheskikh Nauk
Jackson J Cone, Jamie D Roitman, Mitchell F Roitman
Environmental stimuli that signal food availability hold powerful sway over motivated behavior and promote feeding, in part, by activating the mesolimbic system. These food-predictive cues evoke brief (phasic) changes in nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine concentration and in the activity of individual NAc neurons. Phasic fluctuations in mesolimbic signaling have been directly linked to goal-directed behaviors, including behaviors elicited by food-predictive cues. Food-seeking behavior is also strongly influenced by physiological state (i...
June 2015: Journal of Neurochemistry
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