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Ghrelin and motivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590554/lateral-septum-growth-hormone-secretagogue-receptor-affects-food-intake-and-motivation-for-sucrose-reinforcement
#1
Sarah J Terrill, Kaylee D Wall, Nelson D Medina, Calyn B Maske, Diana L Williams
The hormone ghrelin promotes eating and is widely considered to be a hunger signal. Ghrelin receptors, growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSRs), are found in a number of specific regions throughout the brain, including the lateral septum (LS), an area not traditionally associated with the control of feeding. Here we investigated whether GHSRs in the LS play a role in the control of food intake. We examined the feeding effects of ghrelin and the GHSR antagonists ([D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and JMV 2959), at doses subthreshold for effect when delivered to the lateral ventricle...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441654/effect-of-rivastigmine-on-plasma-butyrylcholine-esterase-activity-and-plasma-ghrelin-levels-in-patients-with-dementia-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Atsushi Kuroda, Manabu Setoguchi, Yasushi Uchino, Kazuya Nagata, Daisuke Hokonohara
AIM: Alzheimer's disease causes loss of appetite, resulting in bodyweight reduction. This, in turn, causes progression of cognitive dysfunction and physical complications that hasten death. Earlier care for loss of appetite is essential in Alzheimer's disease management. Rivastigmine is a therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease that has dual inhibition effects on acetylcholine esterase and butyrylcholine esterase. Butyrylcholine esterase is known to degrade the gastric hormone, ghrelin, which regulates appetite; therefore, we considered that rivastigmine might have an effect on appetite...
February 14, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381374/obese-humans-have-disordered-brain-responses-to-food-images-during-physiological-hyperglycemia
#3
Renata Belfort-DeAguiar, Dongju Seo, Cheryl Lacadie, Sarita Naik, Christian Schmidt, Wai Lam, Janice Hwang, Todd Constable, Rajita Sinha, Robert S Sherwin
Blood glucose levels influence brain regulation of food intake. This study assessed the effect of mild physiological hyperglycemia on brain response to food cues in obese (OB) versus normal weight (NW) individuals. Brain responses in ten OB and ten NW non-diabetic healthy adults (BMI: 34{plus minus}3 vs. 23{plus minus}2 kg/m2, p<0.0001) were measured with functional MRI (BOLD contrast) in combination with a 2-step-normoglycemic-hyperglycemic-clamp. Participants were shown food and non-food (NF) images during normoglycemia (~95 mg/dL) and hyperglycemia (~130 mg/dL)...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366626/hunger-ghrelin-and-the-gut
#4
Jon Davis
Hunger is defined as a craving or urgent need for food. Abundant evidence now indicates that homeostatic and cognitive mechanisms promote the sensation of hunger. Communication between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the central nervous system (CNS) regulate both homeostatic and cognitive mechanisms to control feeding behavior. In this context the GI derived feeding peptide ghrelin, targets the CNS to promote food anticipation, learning, hedonic feeding and motivation for food. Importantly meal expectation following nutrient deprivation or satiation is associated with elevation of plasma ghrelin, highlighting the propensity of each mechanism to stimulate GI ghrelin secretion...
January 20, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350126/a-review-of-the-neurobiology-of-obesity-and-the-available-pharmacotherapies
#5
Mehala Subramaniapillai, Roger S McIntyre
Obesity is becoming an increasing problem worldwide. In addition to causing many physical health consequences, there is increasing evidence demonstrating that obesity is toxic to the brain and, as such, can be considered a disease of the central nervous system. Peripheral level regulators of appetite, such as leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and cholecystokinin, feed into the appetite center of the brain, which is controlled by the hypothalamus, to maintain homeostasis and energy balance. However, food consumption is not solely mediated by energy balance, but is also regulated by the mesolimbic reward system, where motivation, reward, and reinforcement factors influence obesity...
December 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158344/effects-of-walking-in-water-on-gut-hormone-concentrations-and-appetite-comparison-with-walking-on-land
#6
Shin-Ya Ueda, Hidehiro Nakahara, Eriko Kawai, Tatsuya Usui, Shintaro Tsuji, Tadayoshi Miyamoto
The effects of water exercise on gut hormone concentrations and appetite currently remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of treadmill walking in water on gut hormone concentrations and appetite. Thirteen men (mean ± s.d. age: 21.6 ± 2.2 years, body mass index: 22.7 ± 2.8 kg/m2 , peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ): 49.8 ± 7.8 mL/kg per min) participated in the walking in water and on land challenge. During the study period, ratings of subjective feelings of hunger, fullness, satiety and motivation to eat were reported on a 100-mm visual analog scale...
January 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096069/exercise-training-and-weight-loss-not-always-a-happy-marriage-single-blind-exercise-trials-in-females-with-diverse-bmi
#7
Matthew Jackson, Fardin Fatahi, Kholoud Alabduljader, Charlotte Jelleyman, Jonathan P Moore, Hans-Peter Kubis
Individuals show high variability in body weight responses to exercise training. Expectations and motivation towards effects of exercise on body weight might influence eating behaviour and could conceal regulatory mechanisms. We conducted two single-blind exercise trials (4 weeks (study 1) and 8 weeks (study 2)) with concealed objectives and exclusion of individuals with weight loss intention. Circuit exercise training programs (3 times a week (45-90 min), intensity 50-90% VO2peak, for 4 and 8 weeks) were conducted...
November 2, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080670/central-ghrelin-receptor-stimulation-modulates-sex-motivation-in-male-rats-in-a-site-dependent-manner
#8
Lindsay Hyland, Stephanie Rosenbaum, Alexander Edwards, Daniel Palacios, M Dean Graham, James G Pfaus, Barbara Woodside, Alfonso Abizaid
Ghrelin, a hormone produced primarily by the stomach, has been associated with motivational processes that include reward-seeking behaviors. In male laboratory mice, elevation of ghrelin levels enhances some aspects of sexual motivation and behavior, whereas in other experiments with male mice, rats, and other species, ghrelin treatment or food deprivation decreases sexual motivation and/or behavior. The present tested the hypothesis that stimulation of ghrelin receptors in different brain regions have opposite effects on male sexual motivation and behavior...
January 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768906/integration-of-homeostatic-signaling-and-food-reward-processing-in-the-human-brain
#9
Joe J Simon, Anne Wetzel, Maria Hamze Sinno, Mandy Skunde, Martin Bendszus, Hubert Preissl, Paul Enck, Wolfgang Herzog, Hans-Christoph Friederich
BACKGROUND: Food intake is guided by homeostatic needs and by the reward value of food, yet the exact relation between the two remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different metabolic states and hormonal satiety signaling on responses in neural reward networks. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task distinguishing between the anticipation and the receipt of either food- or monetary-related reward...
August 3, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659728/hedonic-eating-in-prader-willi-syndrome-is-associated-with-blunted-pyy-secretion
#10
A E Rigamonti, S Bini, F Piscitelli, A Lauritano, V Di Marzo, C Vanetti, F Agosti, A De Col, E Lucchetti, G Grugni, A Sartorio
Hedonic and homeostatic hunger represent two different forms of eating: just for pleasure or following energy deprivation, respectively. Consumption of food for pleasure was reported to be associated with increased circulating levels of both the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and some specific endocannabinoids in normal-weight subjects and patients with morbid obesity. To date, the effects of palatable food on these mediators in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are still unknown. To explore the role of some gastrointestinal orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides and endocannabinoids (and some related congeners) in chocolate consumption, we measured changes in circulating levels of ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) in eight satiated adult PWS patients after consumption of chocolate and, on a separate day, of a non-palatable isocaloric food with the same macronutrient composition...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514644/the-importance-of-hormonal-circadian-rhythms-in-daily-feeding-patterns-an-illustration-with-simulated-pigs
#11
Iris J M M Boumans, Imke J M de Boer, Gert Jan Hofstede, Susanne E la Fleur, Eddie A M Bokkers
The interaction between hormonal circadian rhythms and feeding behaviour is not well understood. This study aimed to deepen our understanding of mechanisms underlying circadian feeding behaviour in animals, using pigs, Sus scrofa, as a case study. Pigs show an alternans feeding pattern, that is, a small peak of feed intake at the beginning of the day and a larger peak at the end of the day. We simulated the feeding behaviour of pigs over a 24h period. The simulation model contained mechanisms that regulate feeding behaviour of animals, including: processing of feed in the gastrointestinal tract, fluctuation in energy balance, circadian rhythms of melatonin and cortisol and motivational decision-making...
May 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422060/clarifying-the-ghrelin-system-s-ability-to-regulate-feeding-behaviours-despite-enigmatic-spatial-separation-of-the-ghsr-and-its-endogenous-ligand
#12
REVIEW
Alexander Edwards, Alfonso Abizaid
Ghrelin is a hormone predominantly produced in and secreted from the stomach. Ghrelin is involved in many physiological processes including feeding, the stress response, and in modulating learning, memory and motivational processes. Ghrelin does this by binding to its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), a receptor found in relatively high concentrations in hypothalamic and mesolimbic brain regions. While the feeding and metabolic effects of ghrelin can be explained by the effects of this hormone on regions of the brain that have a more permeable blood brain barrier (BBB), ghrelin produced within the periphery demonstrates a limited ability to reach extrahypothalamic regions where GHSRs are expressed...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213203/ghrelin-s-control-of-food-reward-and-body-weight-in-the-lateral-hypothalamic-area-is-sexually-dimorphic
#13
Lorena López-Ferreras, Jennifer E Richard, Rozita H Anderberg, Fredrik H Nilsson, Kajsa Olandersson, Scott E Kanoski, Karolina P Skibicka
Ghrelin is a stomach-produced hormone that stimulates ingestive behavior and increases motivated behavior to obtain palatable foods. Ghrelin receptors (growth hormone secretagogue receptors; Ghsr) are expressed in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and LHA-targeted ghrelin application increases ingestive behavior in male rodents. However, the effects of LHA ghrelin signaling in females are unexplored. Here we investigated whether LHA ghrelin signaling is necessary and sufficient for control of ingestive and motivated behavior for food in male and female rats...
July 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025575/patterned-feeding-induces-neuroendocrine-behavioral-and-genetic-changes-that-promote-palatable-food-intake
#14
S Sirohi, A Van Cleef, J F Davis
BACKGROUND: Selection of a healthy diet is the cornerstone for treating obesity and metabolic disease. Unfortunately, the majority of diets fail leading to weight regain and in some cases, pathological feeding behavior. We hypothesize that alternating bouts of caloric overconsumption and caloric restriction, behavioral manifestations of dieting induce neuroendocrine, behavioral and genetic changes that promote future bouts of palatable food intake. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we subjected male Long-Evans rats to a high-fat diet (HFD) feeding paradigm that induced a pattern of caloric overconsumption and caloric restriction...
January 31, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914942/is-there-a-role-for-ghrelin-in-central-dopaminergic-systems-focus-on-nigrostriatal-and-mesocorticolimbic-pathways
#15
REVIEW
Alicia Stievenard, Mathieu Méquinion, Zane B Andrews, Alain Destée, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Odile Viltart, Christel C Vanbesien-Mailliot
The gastro-intestinal peptide ghrelin has been assigned many functions. These include appetite regulation, energy metabolism, glucose homeostasis, intestinal motility, anxiety, memory or neuroprotection. In the last decade, this pleiotropic peptide has been proposed as a therapeutic agent in gastroparesis for diabetes and in cachexia for cancer. Ghrelin and its receptor, which is expressed throughout the brain, play an important role in motivation and reward. Ghrelin finely modulates the mesencephalic dopaminergic signaling and is thus currently studied in pathological conditions including dopamine-related disorders...
February 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909992/roles-for-orexin-hypocretin-in-the-control-of-energy-balance-and-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
Paulette B Goforth, Martin G Myers
The neuropeptide hypocretin is also commonly referred to as orexin, since its orexigenic action was recognized early. Orexin/hypocretin (OX) neurons project widely throughout the brain and the physiologic and behavioral functions of OX are much more complex than initially conceived based upon the stimulation of feeding. OX most notably controls functions relevant to attention, alertness, and motivation. OX also plays multiple crucial roles in the control of food intake, metabolism, and overall energy balance in mammals...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569684/food-image-induced-brain-activation-is-not-diminished-by-insulin-infusion
#17
R Belfort-DeAguiar, D Seo, S Naik, J Hwang, C Lacadie, C Schmidt, R T Constable, R Sinha, R Sherwin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The obesity epidemic appears to be driven in large part by our modern environment inundated by food cues, which may influence our desire to eat. Although insulin decreases food intake in both animals and humans, the effect of insulin on motivation for food in the presence of food cues is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intravenous insulin infusion on the brain response to visual food cues, hunger and food craving in non-obese human subjects...
November 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521247/ghrelin-receptor-activation-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-amplified-instrumental-responding-but-not-the-excitatory-influence-of-pavlovian-stimuli-on-instrumental-responding
#18
Susanne Sommer, Wolfgang Hauber
Pavlovian stimuli predictive of food are able to amplify instrumental responding for food. This phenomenon termed Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) critically depends on intact VTA function and mesoaccumbens dopamine transmission. Considerable evidence suggests that food-predictive stimuli can enhance the release of ghrelin, an orexigen hormone that promotes food-directed responding. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) appears to be a key region through which stimulation of ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1A) invigorates food-directed responding, in part by activating the mesoaccumbens dopamine system...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129935/the-effect-of-depo-medroxyprogesterone-acetate-dmpa-on-cerebral-food-motivation-centers-a-pilot-study-using-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Tania Basu, Pinglei Bao, Alexander Lerner, Lindsey Anderson, Kathleen Page, Frank Stanczyk, Daniel Mishell, Penina Segall-Gutierrez
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to examine activation of food motivation centers in the brain before and 8 weeks after depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administration. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective experimental pilot study examined the effects of DMPA on food motivation centers utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in eight nonobese, ovulatory subjects. fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was measured using a 3-Tesla Scanner while participants viewed images of high-calorie foods, low-calorie foods and nonfood objects...
October 2016: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26791525/investigation-of-a-role-for-ghrelin-signaling-in-binge-like-feeding-in-mice-under-limited-access-to-high-fat-diet
#20
S J King, T Rodrigues, A Watts, E Murray, A Wilson, A Abizaid
Binge eating is defined by the consumption of an excessive amount of food in a short time, reflecting a form of hedonic eating that is not necessarily motivated by caloric need. Foods consumed during a binge are also often high in fat and/or sugar. Ghrelin, signaling centrally via the growth-hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), stimulates growth hormone release and appetite. GHSR signaling also enhances the rewarding value of palatable foods and increases the motivation for such foods. As ghrelin interacts directly with dopaminergic reward circuitry, shown to be involved in binge eating, the current studies explored the role of GHSR signaling in a limited access model of binge eating in mice...
April 5, 2016: Neuroscience
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