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Leptin and motivation

Renata Belfort-DeAguiar, Dongju Seo, Cheryl Lacadie, Sarita Naik, Christian Schmidt, Wai Lam, Janice Hwang, Todd Constable, Rajita Sinha, Robert S Sherwin
Blood glucose levels influence brain regulation of food intake. This study assessed the effect of mild physiological hyperglycemia on brain response to food cues in obese (OB) versus normal weight (NW) individuals. Brain responses in ten OB and ten NW non-diabetic healthy adults (BMI: 34{plus minus}3 vs. 23{plus minus}2 kg/m2, p<0.0001) were measured with functional MRI (BOLD contrast) in combination with a 2-step-normoglycemic-hyperglycemic-clamp. Participants were shown food and non-food (NF) images during normoglycemia (~95 mg/dL) and hyperglycemia (~130 mg/dL)...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mehala Subramaniapillai, Roger S McIntyre
Obesity is becoming an increasing problem worldwide. In addition to causing many physical health consequences, there is increasing evidence demonstrating that obesity is toxic to the brain and, as such, can be considered a disease of the central nervous system. Peripheral level regulators of appetite, such as leptin, insulin, ghrelin, and cholecystokinin, feed into the appetite center of the brain, which is controlled by the hypothalamus, to maintain homeostasis and energy balance. However, food consumption is not solely mediated by energy balance, but is also regulated by the mesolimbic reward system, where motivation, reward, and reinforcement factors influence obesity...
December 2017: CNS Spectrums
César Agostinis-Sobrinho, Jonatan R Ruiz, Carla Moreira, Sandra Abreu, Luís Lopes, José Oliveira-Santos, Jorge Mota, Rute Santos
PURPOSE: Then objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of several nontraditional cardiometabolic and inflammatory biomarkers in identifying high cardiometabolic risk in adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 529 Portuguese adolescents (267 girls) aged 14.3 ± 1.7 years. A clustered cardiometabolic risk score (body fat percentage, systolic blood pressure, ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and negative values of cardiorespiratory fitness) was computed...
March 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Matthew Jackson, Fardin Fatahi, Kholoud Alabduljader, Charlotte Jelleyman, Jonathan P Moore, Hans-Peter Kubis
Individuals show high variability in body weight responses to exercise training. Expectations and motivation towards effects of exercise on body weight might influence eating behaviour and could conceal regulatory mechanisms. We conducted two single-blind exercise trials (4 weeks (study 1) and 8 weeks (study 2)) with concealed objectives and exclusion of individuals with weight loss intention. Circuit exercise training programs (3 times a week (45-90 min), intensity 50-90% VO2peak, for 4 and 8 weeks) were conducted...
November 2, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Jing-Jing Liu, Nicholas T Bello, Zhiping P Pang
Synaptic transmission controls brain activity and behaviors, including food intake. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, acts on neurons located in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to maintain energy homeostasis and regulate food intake behavior. The specific synaptic mechanisms, cell types, and neural projections mediating this effect remain unclear. In male mice, using pathway-specific retrograde tracing, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and post hoc cell type identification, we found that leptin reduces excitatory synaptic strength onto both melanin-concentrating hormone- and orexin-expressing neurons projecting from the LHA to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which may affect dopamine signaling and motivation for feeding...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Gregory N Ruegsegger, Frank W Booth
Physical inactivity is a primary contributor to diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. Accelerometry data suggest that a majority of US adults fail to perform substantial levels of physical activity needed to improve health. Thus, understanding the molecular factors that stimulate physical activity, and physical inactivity, is imperative for the development of strategies to reduce sedentary behavior and in turn prevent chronic disease. Despite many of the well-known health benefits of physical activity being described, little is known about genetic and biological factors that may influence this complex behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Iris J M M Boumans, Imke J M de Boer, Gert Jan Hofstede, Susanne E la Fleur, Eddie A M Bokkers
The interaction between hormonal circadian rhythms and feeding behaviour is not well understood. This study aimed to deepen our understanding of mechanisms underlying circadian feeding behaviour in animals, using pigs, Sus scrofa, as a case study. Pigs show an alternans feeding pattern, that is, a small peak of feed intake at the beginning of the day and a larger peak at the end of the day. We simulated the feeding behaviour of pigs over a 24h period. The simulation model contained mechanisms that regulate feeding behaviour of animals, including: processing of feed in the gastrointestinal tract, fluctuation in energy balance, circadian rhythms of melatonin and cortisol and motivational decision-making...
May 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
Paulette B Goforth, Martin G Myers
The neuropeptide hypocretin is also commonly referred to as orexin, since its orexigenic action was recognized early. Orexin/hypocretin (OX) neurons project widely throughout the brain and the physiologic and behavioral functions of OX are much more complex than initially conceived based upon the stimulation of feeding. OX most notably controls functions relevant to attention, alertness, and motivation. OX also plays multiple crucial roles in the control of food intake, metabolism, and overall energy balance in mammals...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Jonathan N Flak
The visible burrow system produces a distinct combination of psychological and metabolic stress on, primarily, subordinate individuals that results in pronounced physiologic and behavioral dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying the consequences of chronic subordination stress are largely unknown. The simplest mechanistic explanation is that adaptations within brain systems with overlapping functions of both psychological and metabolic control provide immediate benefits that result in lasting susceptibility to diseases, disorders, and increased mortality rates in subordinates...
September 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
A D McNeilly, A Gao, A Y Hill, T Gomersall, D J K Balfour, C Sutherland, C A Stewart
Previous studies have shown that rats fed a high calorie diet rich in saturated fat for 12weeks exhibit peripheral insulin resistance and impairments of behavioural flexibility when switched from an operant delayed matching to place (DMTP) schedule to a delayed non-matching to place (DNMTP) schedule. However, the metabolic changes evoked by feeding a high fat (HF) diet can be observed within two weeks of commencing the diet. The current study has confirmed that 4weeks exposure to an HF diet resulted in increased body weight, peripheral insulin resistance and plasma leptin...
December 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
R Belfort-DeAguiar, D Seo, S Naik, J Hwang, C Lacadie, C Schmidt, R T Constable, R Sinha, R Sherwin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The obesity epidemic appears to be driven in large part by our modern environment inundated by food cues, which may influence our desire to eat. Although insulin decreases food intake in both animals and humans, the effect of insulin on motivation for food in the presence of food cues is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intravenous insulin infusion on the brain response to visual food cues, hunger and food craving in non-obese human subjects...
November 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Theodore Garland, Meng Zhao, Wendy Saltzman
Although behavior may often be a fairly direct target of natural or sexual selection, it cannot evolve without changes in subordinate traits that cause or permit its expression. In principle, changes in endocrine function could be a common mechanism underlying behavioral evolution because they are well positioned to mediate integrated responses to behavioral selection. More specifically, hormones can influence both motivational (e.g., brain) and performance (e.g., muscles) components of behavior simultaneously and in a coordinated fashion...
August 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Georgios Athanasiadis, Laura Arranz, Andrey Ziyatdinov, Helena Brunel, Mercedes Camacho, Jorge Malouf, Nerea Hernandez-de Sosa, Luis Vila, Jordi Casademont, Jose Manuel Soria
Osteoporosis is a common multifactorial disorder characterized by low bone mass and reduced bone strength that may cause fragility fractures. In recent years, there have been substantial advancements in the biochemical monitoring of bone metabolism through the measurement of bone turnover markers. Currently, good knowledge of the genetics of such markers has become an indispensable part of osteoporosis research. In this study, we used the Genetic Analysis of Osteoporosis Project to study the genetics of the plasma levels of 12 markers related to bone metabolism and osteoporosis...
September 2016: Bone
Mona S Calvo, Anita Mehrotra, Robert B Beelman, Girish Nadkarni, Lingzhi Wang, Weijing Cai, Boon Cher Goh, Michael D Kalaras, Jaime Uribarri
Adults with metabolic syndrome from different race/ethnicities are often predisposed to developing type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, growing evidence suggests that healthy diets and lifestyle choices can significantly slow or prevent progression to T2D. This poorly understood relationship to healthy dietary patterns and prevention of T2D motivated us to conduct a retrospective analysis to determine the potential impact of a minor dietary lifestyle change (daily mushroom consumption) on known T2D risk factors in racially diverse adults with confirmed features of the metabolic syndrome...
September 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Nandini Mukherjee, Gabrielle A Lockett, Simon K Merid, Erik Melén, Göran Pershagen, John W Holloway, Syed Hasan Arshad, Susan Ewart, Hongmei Zhang, Wilfried Karmaus
The leptin gene (LEP) plays a regulatory role in satiety, inflammation, and allergy. Prior findings linking leptin to asthma motivated us to investigate whether DNA methylation (DNA-M) of CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites in concert with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LEP can explain the risk of asthma and lung function. Methylation of CpG sites was assessed using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 beadchip in blood samples collected from 10- and 18-year-old boys and girls from the Isle of Wight (IOW) birth cohort (UK)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics
Tania Basu, Pinglei Bao, Alexander Lerner, Lindsey Anderson, Kathleen Page, Frank Stanczyk, Daniel Mishell, Penina Segall-Gutierrez
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to examine activation of food motivation centers in the brain before and 8 weeks after depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administration. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective experimental pilot study examined the effects of DMPA on food motivation centers utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in eight nonobese, ovulatory subjects. fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was measured using a 3-Tesla Scanner while participants viewed images of high-calorie foods, low-calorie foods and nonfood objects...
October 2016: Contraception
Isadora C Furigo, Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Renata Frazão, J Donato
Several growth factors and cytokines recruit the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling pathway to control cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Nonetheless, the importance of this transcription factor for brain functions is still poorly understood. Because some STAT5-inducing hormones, such as prolactin and leptin, act in the brain to regulate the expression of motivated behaviors, this signaling pathway is likely involved in behavioral modulation. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to summarize and discuss the available data regarding the possible role of central STAT5 signaling in the regulation of brain functions, especially on behavioral control...
December 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
L Puga, V Alcántara-Alonso, U Coffeen, O Jaimes, P de Gortari
The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), an anorexigenic factor that reduces food intake in food-restricted animals, may be involved in motivation for food. Injected centrally, TRH impairs acquisition of food-rewarded behavior. Through the TRH-R1 receptors, TRH injected in the nucleus accumbens increases dopamine content-perhaps the mechanism by which the peptide modulates food motivation. This, however, is still to be demonstrated. We sought to evaluate dopamine release by microdialysis after a TRH injection into the nucleus accumbens shell in free-moving fasted rats...
June 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase
Amylin, a peptide hormone produced in the pancreas and in the brain, has well-established physiological roles in glycemic regulation and energy balance control. It improves postprandial blood glucose levels by suppressing gastric emptying and glucagon secretion; these beneficial effects have led to the FDA-approved use of the amylin analog pramlintide in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Amylin also acts centrally as a satiation signal, reducing food intake and body weight. The ability of amylin to promote negative energy balance, along with its unique capacity to cooperatively facilitate or enhance the intake- and body weight-suppressive effects of other neuroendocrine signals like leptin, have made amylin a leading target for the development of novel pharmacotherapies for the treatment of obesity...
August 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Dianne P Figlewicz
UNLABELLED: Since the publication of the observation that dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra of the rat express receptors for insulin and leptin, numerous studies have extended and validated these findings. Thus, these major metabolic hormones have effects on synaptic and cell signaling function of the midbrain dopamine neurons, across a range of concentrations that reflect physiologic (fasting vs. fed) and pathophysiologic (diabetes) circumstances. The capacity of metabolic hormones to alter reward behaviors, including palatability-related food intake; motivation for food; and the conditioning of place preference by food, is now appreciated as an integral part of the larger actions of these hormones to regulate caloric homeostasis...
August 15, 2016: Brain Research
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