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Leptin and motivation

Paulette B Goforth, Martin G Myers
The neuropeptide hypocretin is also commonly referred to as orexin, since its orexigenic action was recognized early. Orexin/hypocretin (OX) neurons project widely throughout the brain and the physiologic and behavioral functions of OX are much more complex than initially conceived based upon the stimulation of feeding. OX most notably controls functions relevant to attention, alertness, and motivation. OX also plays multiple crucial roles in the control of food intake, metabolism, and overall energy balance in mammals...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Jonathan N Flak
The visible burrow system produces a distinct combination of psychological and metabolic stress on, primarily, subordinate individuals that results in pronounced physiologic and behavioral dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying the consequences of chronic subordination stress are largely unknown. The simplest mechanistic explanation is that adaptations within brain systems with overlapping functions of both psychological and metabolic control provide immediate benefits that result in lasting susceptibility to diseases, disorders, and increased mortality rates in subordinates...
November 22, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
A D McNeilly, A Gao, A Y Hill, T Gomersall, D J K Balfour, C Sutherland, C A Stewart
Previous studies have shown that rats fed a high calorie diet rich in saturated fat for 12weeks exhibit peripheral insulin resistance and impairments of behavioural flexibility when switched from an operant delayed matching to place (DMTP) schedule to a delayed non-matching to place (DNMTP) schedule. However, the metabolic changes evoked by feeding a high fat (HF) diet can be observed within two weeks of commencing the diet. The current study has confirmed that 4weeks exposure to an HF diet resulted in increased body weight, peripheral insulin resistance and plasma leptin...
December 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
R Belfort-DeAguiar, D Seo, S Naik, J Hwang, C Lacadie, C Schmidt, R T Constable, R Sinha, R Sherwin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The obesity epidemic appears to be driven in large part by our modern environment inundated by food cues, which may influence our desire to eat. Although insulin decreases food intake in both animals and humans, the effect of insulin on motivation for food in the presence of food cues is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intravenous insulin infusion on the brain response to visual food cues, hunger and food craving in non-obese human subjects...
November 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Theodore Garland, Meng Zhao, Wendy Saltzman
Although behavior may often be a fairly direct target of natural or sexual selection, it cannot evolve without changes in subordinate traits that cause or permit its expression. In principle, changes in endocrine function could be a common mechanism underlying behavioral evolution because they are well positioned to mediate integrated responses to behavioral selection. More specifically, hormones can influence both motivational (e.g., brain) and performance (e.g., muscles) components of behavior simultaneously and in a coordinated fashion...
August 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Georgios Athanasiadis, Laura Arranz, Andrey Ziyatdinov, Helena Brunel, Mercedes Camacho, Jorge Malouf, Nerea Hernandez-de Sosa, Luis Vila, Jordi Casademont, Jose Manuel Soria
Osteoporosis is a common multifactorial disorder characterized by low bone mass and reduced bone strength that may cause fragility fractures. In recent years, there have been substantial advancements in the biochemical monitoring of bone metabolism through the measurement of bone turnover markers. Currently, good knowledge of the genetics of such markers has become an indispensable part of osteoporosis research. In this study, we used the Genetic Analysis of Osteoporosis Project to study the genetics of the plasma levels of 12 markers related to bone metabolism and osteoporosis...
September 2016: Bone
Mona S Calvo, Anita Mehrotra, Robert B Beelman, Girish Nadkarni, Lingzhi Wang, Weijing Cai, Boon Cher Goh, Michael D Kalaras, Jaime Uribarri
Adults with metabolic syndrome from different race/ethnicities are often predisposed to developing type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, growing evidence suggests that healthy diets and lifestyle choices can significantly slow or prevent progression to T2D. This poorly understood relationship to healthy dietary patterns and prevention of T2D motivated us to conduct a retrospective analysis to determine the potential impact of a minor dietary lifestyle change (daily mushroom consumption) on known T2D risk factors in racially diverse adults with confirmed features of the metabolic syndrome...
September 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Nandini Mukherjee, Gabrielle A Lockett, Simon K Merid, Erik Melén, Göran Pershagen, John W Holloway, Syed Hasan Arshad, Susan Ewart, Hongmei Zhang, Wilfried Karmaus
The leptin gene (LEP) plays a regulatory role in satiety, inflammation, and allergy. Prior findings linking leptin to asthma motivated us to investigate whether DNA methylation (DNA-M) of CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites in concert with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LEP can explain the risk of asthma and lung function. Methylation of CpG sites was assessed using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 beadchip in blood samples collected from 10- and 18-year-old boys and girls from the Isle of Wight (IOW) birth cohort (UK)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics
Tania Basu, Pinglei Bao, Alexander Lerner, Lindsey Anderson, Kathleen Page, Frank Stanczyk, Daniel Mishell, Penina Segall-Gutierrez
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to examine activation of food motivation centers in the brain before and 8 weeks after depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administration. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective experimental pilot study examined the effects of DMPA on food motivation centers utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in eight nonobese, ovulatory subjects. fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal was measured using a 3-Tesla Scanner while participants viewed images of high-calorie foods, low-calorie foods and nonfood objects...
October 2016: Contraception
Isadora C Furigo, Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Renata Frazão, J Donato
Several growth factors and cytokines recruit the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling pathway to control cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Nonetheless, the importance of this transcription factor for brain functions is still poorly understood. Because some STAT5-inducing hormones, such as prolactin and leptin, act in the brain to regulate the expression of motivated behaviors, this signaling pathway is likely involved in behavioral modulation. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to summarize and discuss the available data regarding the possible role of central STAT5 signaling in the regulation of brain functions, especially on behavioral control...
April 24, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
L Puga, V Alcántara-Alonso, U Coffeen, O Jaimes, P de Gortari
The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), an anorexigenic factor that reduces food intake in food-restricted animals, may be involved in motivation for food. Injected centrally, TRH impairs acquisition of food-rewarded behavior. Through the TRH-R1 receptors, TRH injected in the nucleus accumbens increases dopamine content-perhaps the mechanism by which the peptide modulates food motivation. This, however, is still to be demonstrated. We sought to evaluate dopamine release by microdialysis after a TRH injection into the nucleus accumbens shell in free-moving fasted rats...
June 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase
Amylin, a peptide hormone produced in the pancreas and in the brain, has well-established physiological roles in glycemic regulation and energy balance control. It improves postprandial blood glucose levels by suppressing gastric emptying and glucagon secretion; these beneficial effects have led to the FDA-approved use of the amylin analog pramlintide in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Amylin also acts centrally as a satiation signal, reducing food intake and body weight. The ability of amylin to promote negative energy balance, along with its unique capacity to cooperatively facilitate or enhance the intake- and body weight-suppressive effects of other neuroendocrine signals like leptin, have made amylin a leading target for the development of novel pharmacotherapies for the treatment of obesity...
August 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Dianne P Figlewicz
UNLABELLED: Since the publication of the observation that dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra of the rat express receptors for insulin and leptin, numerous studies have extended and validated these findings. Thus, these major metabolic hormones have effects on synaptic and cell signaling function of the midbrain dopamine neurons, across a range of concentrations that reflect physiologic (fasting vs. fed) and pathophysiologic (diabetes) circumstances. The capacity of metabolic hormones to alter reward behaviors, including palatability-related food intake; motivation for food; and the conditioning of place preference by food, is now appreciated as an integral part of the larger actions of these hormones to regulate caloric homeostasis...
August 15, 2016: Brain Research
E V Belik, O V Gruzdeva, V N Karetnikova, E G Uchasova, Yu A Dyleva, A A Kuz'mina, E A Shurygina
The present study was motivated by the lack of data on the role ofvariations in the levels of leptin and its soluble receptors and their interaction with proinflammatory factors in the development of acute coronary syndrome. The study included patients suffering myocardial infarction with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hyperleptinemia and its relationship with myocardial necrosis markers (creatine phosphokinase, creatine phosphokinase-MB, troponin) give reason to suggest the important role of leptin in the development of inflammatory process associated with myocardial infarction in patients with and without diabetes mellitus...
2015: Klinicheskaia Meditsina
S A Johnson, M S Painter, A B Javurek, M R Ellersieck, C E Wiedmeyer, J P Thyfault, C S Rosenfeld
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) have received considerable attention as potential obesogens. Past studies examining obesogenic potential of one widespread EDC, bisphenol A (BPA), have generally focused on metabolic and adipose tissue effects. However, physical inactivity has been proposed to be a leading cause of obesity. A paucity of studies has considered whether EDC, including BPA, affects this behavior. To test whether early exposure to BPA and ethinyl estradiol (EE, estrogen present in birth control pills) results in metabolic and such behavioral disruptions, California mice developmentally exposed to BPA and EE were tested as adults for energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry), body composition (echoMRI) and physical activity (measured by beam breaks and voluntary wheel running)...
December 2015: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Maria Fernanda A Fernandes, Dominique Matthys, Cécile Hryhorczuk, Sandeep Sharma, Shabana Mogra, Thierry Alquier, Stephanie Fulton
The adipose hormone leptin potently influences physical activity. Leptin can decrease locomotion and running, yet the mechanisms involved and the influence of leptin on the rewarding effects of running ("runner's high") are unknown. Leptin receptor (LepR) signaling involves activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), including in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that are essential for reward-relevant behavior. We found that mice lacking STAT3 in dopamine neurons exhibit greater voluntary running, an effect reversed by viral-mediated STAT3 restoration...
October 6, 2015: Cell Metabolism
G van der Plasse, R van Zessen, M C M Luijendijk, H Erkan, G D Stuber, G M J Ramakers, R A H Adan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The rewarding value of palatable foods contributes to overconsumption, even in satiated subjects. Midbrain dopaminergic activity in response to reward-predicting environmental stimuli drives reward-seeking and motivated behavior for food rewards. This mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system is sensitive to changes in energy balance, yet it has thus far not been established whether reward signaling of DA neurons in vivo is under control of hormones that signal appetite and energy balance such as ghrelin and leptin...
December 2015: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Cecile Hryhorczuk, Marc Florea, Demetra Rodaros, Isabelle Poirier, Caroline Daneault, Christine Des Rosiers, Andreas Arvanitogiannis, Thierry Alquier, Stephanie Fulton
Overconsumption of dietary fat is increasingly linked with motivational and emotional impairments. Human and animal studies demonstrate associations between obesity and blunted reward function at the behavioral and neural level, but it is unclear to what degree such changes are a consequence of an obese state and whether they are contingent on dietary lipid class. We sought to determine the impact of prolonged ad libitum intake of diets rich in saturated or monounsaturated fat, separate from metabolic signals associated with increased adiposity, on dopamine (DA)-dependent behaviors and to identify pertinent signaling changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
February 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Celine Cansell, Serge Luquet
In both developed and emerging countries, sedentary life style and over exposition to high energy dense foods has led to a thermodynamic imbalance and consequently obesity. Obesity often involves a behavioural component in which, similar to drugs abuse, compulsive consumption of palatable food rich in lipids and sugar drives energy intake far beyond metabolic demands. The hypothalamus is one of the primary integration sites of circulating energy-related signals like leptin or ghrelin and is therefore considered as one of the main central regulators of energy balance...
January 2016: Biochimie
A S Bazyan, A V Rogal
In this review is analyzed four kinds of needs, which include both humans and animals. These are: 1--the need to eat 2--need to drink 3--sexual need and, 4--the need to enhance or prolong the positive emotional state, and conversely, the need to dispose or avoid pain and unpleasant effects or negative emotional state. The centers of the first three needs are localized in the hypothalamus. The fourth need induced by integrative processes and determined the key role of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system of brain...
January 2015: Uspekhi Fiziologicheskikh Nauk
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