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Phagocytosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092793/high-dilutions-of-antimony-modulate-cytokines-production-and-macrophage-leishmania-l-amazonensis-interaction-in-vitro
#1
Fabiana Rodrigues de Santana, Luciane C Dalboni, Kátia F Nascimento, Fabiana Toshie Konno, Anuska M Alvares-Saraiva, Michelle S F Correia, Maristela Dutra Correa Bomfim, Renato C V Casarin, Elizabeth C Perez, Maria Anete Lallo, Giovani B Peres, Márcia Dalastra Laurenti, Nilson R Benites, Dorly F Buchi, Leoni Villano Bonamin
BACKGROUND: In previous results mice treated with high dilutions of antimony presented reduction of monocyte migration to the site of infection with increase in B lymphocytes population in the local lymph node. AIMS: To know the mechanisms involved, a series of in vitro studies was done, using co-cultures of macrophages (RAW 264.7) and Leishmania (L.) amazonensis treated with different dilutions of antimony (Antimonium crudum or AC), in different times. METHODOLOGY: Spreading, phagocytosis, the oxidative activity of macrophages, the viability of free promastigotes and the cytokines/chemokines concentration in the supernatant were evaluated...
January 13, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091553/shifts-in-the-fluorescence-lifetime-of-egfp-during-bacterial-phagocytosis-measured-by-phase-sensitive-flow-cytometry
#2
Wenyan Li, Kevin D Houston, Jessica P Houston
Phase-sensitive flow cytometry (PSFC) is a technique in which fluorescence excited state decay times are measured as fluorescently labeled cells rapidly transit a finely focused, frequency-modulated laser beam. With PSFC the fluorescence lifetime is taken as a cytometric parameter to differentiate intracellular events that are challenging to distinguish with standard flow cytometry. For example PSFC can report changes in protein conformation, expression, interactions, and movement, as well as differences in intracellular microenvironments...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088779/comprehensive-proteome-analysis-of-lysosomes-reveals-the-diverse-function-of-macrophages-in-immune-responses
#3
Yanpan Gao, Yanyu Chen, Shaohua Zhan, Wenhao Zhang, Feng Xiong, Wei Ge
Phagocytosis and autophagy in macrophages have been shown to be essential to both innate and adaptive immunity. Lysosomes are the main catabolic subcellular organelles responsible for degradation and recycling of both extracellular and intracellular material, which are the final steps in phagocytosis and autophagy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lysosomal functions after infection remain obscure. In this study, we conducted a quantitative proteomics analysis of the changes in constitution and glycosylation of proteins in lysosomes derived from murine RAW 264...
January 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088550/novel-involvement-of-mir-522-3p-in-high-mobility-group-box-1-induced-prostaglandin-reductase-1-expression-and-reduction-of-phagocytosis
#4
Gyeoung-Jin Kang, Hye-Ja Lee, Hyun Jung Byun, Eun Ji Kim, Hyun Ji Kim, Mi Kyung Park, Chang-Hoon Lee
Resolution of inflammation is important for physiological homeostasis. Chronic inflammatory diseases may be caused by abnormal resolution of inflammation. However, what causes a failure of inflammatory resolution is unclear. Here we investigated the involvement of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein in the control of inflammatory resolution as a 'anti-resolution factor'. We first confirmed the increased expression of HMGB1 and prostaglandin reductase 1 (PTGR1) in inflammatory conditions and HMGB1-mediated regulation of the expression of PTGR1...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088470/the-effects-of-dietary-kefir-and-low-molecular-weight-sodium-alginate-on-serum-immune-parameters-resistance-against-streptococcus-agalactiae-and-growth-performance-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#5
Hien Van Doan, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Wanaporn Tapingkae, Pimporn Khamtavee
The present study evaluates the effects of dietary kefir and low molecular weight sodium alginate (LWMSA) (singular or combined) on non-specific immune response, disease resistance and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish with average weight of 18.60 ± 0.04 g were supplied and randomly stocked in sixteen glass tanks (150 L) at density of 20 fish per tank. Fish were fed experimental diets as follows: 0 g kg(-1) LMWSA (Control, Diet 1), 10 g kg(-1) LMWSA (Diet 2), 40 g kg(-1) kefir (Diet 3), and 10 g kg(-1) LMWSA + 40 g kg(-1) kefir (Diet 4) for 50 days...
January 11, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087694/iso-%C3%AE-acids-bitter-components-of-beer-prevent-inflammation-and-cognitive-decline-induced-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Yasuhisa Ano, Atsushi Dhata, Yoshimasa Taniguchi, Ayaka Hoshi, Kazuyuki Uchida, Akihiko Takashima, Hiroyuki Nakayama
Alongside the rapid growth in aging populations worldwide, prevention and therapy for age-related memory decline and dementia are in great demand to maintain a long healthy life. Here we found that iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter compounds in beer, enhance microglial phagocytosis and suppress inflammation via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ). In normal mice, oral administration of iso-α-acids led to a significant increase both in CD11b and CD206 double-positive anti-inflammatory type microglia (P<0...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087651/frontline-science-multiple-cathepsins-promote-inflammasome-independent-particle-induced-cell-death-during-nlrp3-dependent-il-1%C3%AE-activation
#7
Gregory M Orlowski, Shruti Sharma, Jeff D Colbert, Matthew Bogyo, Stephanie A Robertson, Hiroshi Kataoka, Francis K Chan, Kenneth L Rock
Sterile particles cause several chronic, inflammatory diseases, characterized by repeating cycles of particle phagocytosis and inflammatory cell death. Recent studies have proposed that these processes are driven by the NLRP3 inflammasome, a platform activated by phagocytosed particles, which controls both caspase-1-dependent cell death (pyroptosis) and mature IL-1β secretion. After phagocytosis, particles can disrupt lysosomes, and inhibitor studies have suggested that the resulting release of a lysosomal protease-cathepsin B-into the cytosol somehow activates NLRP3...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086806/age-related-macular-degeneration-associated-polymorphism-rs10490924-in-arms2-results-in-deficiency-of-a-complement-activator
#8
Sven Micklisch, Yuchen Lin, Saskia Jacob, Marcus Karlstetter, Katharina Dannhausen, Prasad Dasari, Monika von der Heide, Hans-Martin Dahse, Lisa Schmölz, Felix Grassmann, Medhanie Alene, Sascha Fauser, Harald Neumann, Stefan Lorkowski, Diana Pauly, Bernhard H Weber, Antonia M Joussen, Thomas Langmann, Peter F Zipfel, Christine Skerka
BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries. The polymorphism rs10490924 in the ARMS2 gene is highly associated with AMD and linked to an indel mutation (del443ins54), the latter inducing mRNA instability. At present, the function of the ARMS2 protein, the exact cellular sources in the retina and the biological consequences of the rs10490924 polymorphism are unclear. METHODS: Recombinant ARMS2 was expressed in Pichia pastoris, and protein functions were studied regarding cell surface binding and complement activation in human serum using fluoresence-activated cell sorting (FACS) as well as laser scanning microscopy (LSM)...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081295/connected-component-masking-accurately-identifies-the-ratio-of-phagocytosed-and-cell-bound-particles-in-individual-cells-by-imaging-flow-cytometry
#9
Chenjie Fei, Dustin M E Lillico, Brian Hall, Aja M Rieger, James L Stafford
Innate immune cell-mediated recognition, capture, and engulfment of large particulate targets such as bacteria is known as phagocytosis. This highly dynamic cellular process involves a series of steps including receptor-mediated target binding, phagocytic cup formation, pseudopod extension, and phagosome closure, which depend on distinct actin polymerization events. Using flow cytometry, precise determination of target locations relative to cell membranes (i.e., surface-bound vs. fully engulfed/internalized) during the phagocytic process is difficult to quantify...
January 12, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080992/microevolutionary-traits-and-comparative-population-genomics-of-the-emerging-pathogenic-fungus-cryptococcus-gattii
#10
Rhys A Farrer, Kerstin Voelz, Daniel A Henk, Simon A Johnston, Matthew C Fisher, Robin C May, Christina A Cuomo
Emerging fungal pathogens cause an expanding burden of disease across the animal kingdom, including a rise in morbidity and mortality in humans. Yet, we currently have only a limited repertoire of available therapeutic interventions. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of fungal virulence and of the emergence of hypervirulence within species is therefore needed for new treatments and mitigation efforts. For example, over the past decade, an unusual lineage of Cryptococcus gattii, which was first detected on Vancouver Island, has spread to the Canadian mainland and the Pacific Northwest infecting otherwise healthy individuals...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077800/oxidative-stress-induced-by-se-deficient-high-energy-diet-implicates-neutrophil-dysfunction-via-nrf2-pathway-suppression-in-swine
#11
Tianshu Yang, Zeping Zhao, Tianqi Liu, Ziwei Zhang, Pengzu Wang, Shiwen Xu, Xin Gen Len, Anshan Shan
The mechanism of the interaction between Se deficiency and high energy remains limited. The aim of the current study was to identify whether Se-deficient, high-energy diet can induce oxidative stress, and downregulate the Nrf2 pathway and phagocytic dysfunction of neutrophils. We detected the phagocytic activity, ROS production, protein levels of Nrf2 and Nrf2 downstream target genes, and the mRNA levels of 25 selenoproteins, heat shock proteins, and cytokines in neutrophils. Cytokine ELISA kits were used to measure the serum cytokines...
January 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077740/the-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-after-antibiotic-treatment-of-spirochetal-infections-a-review-of-recent-cases-and-our-understanding-of-pathogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Thomas Butler
Within 24 hours after antibiotic treatment of the spirochetal infections syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, and relapsing fever (RF), patients experience shaking chills, a rise in temperature, and intensification of skin rashes known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) with symptoms resolving a few hours later. Case reports indicate that the JHR can also include uterine contractions in pregnancy, worsening liver and renal function, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury, hypotension, meningitis, alterations in consciousness, seizures, and strokes...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076333/surgical-debulking-promotes-recruitment-of-macrophages-and-triggers-glioblastoma-phagocytosis-in-combination-with-cd47-blocking-immunotherapy
#13
Huaiyang Zhu, Lina Leiss, Ning Yang, Cecilie B Rygh, Siddhartha S Mitra, Samuel H Cheshier, Irving L Weissman, Bin Huang, Hrvoje Miletic, Rolf Bjerkvig, Per Ø Enger, Xingang Li, Jian Wang
Surgical resection is a standard component of treatment in the clinical management of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, experimental therapies are rarely investigated in the context of tumor debulking in preclinical models. Here, a surgical debulking GBM xenograft model was developed in nude rats, and was used in combination with CD47 blocking immunotherapy, a novel treatment strategy that triggers phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages in diverse cancer types including GBM. Orthotopic patient-derived xenograft tumors expressing CD47 were resected at 4 weeks after implantation and immediately thereafter treated with anti-CD47 or control antibodies injected into the cavity...
January 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074867/the-role-of-macrophages-in-the-susceptibility-of-fc-gamma-receptor-iib-deficient-mice-to-cryptococcus-neoformans
#14
Saowapha Surawut, Thunnicha Ondee, Sujittra Taratummarat, Tanapat Palaga, Prapaporn Pisitkun, Ariya Chindamporn, Asada Leelahavanichkul
Dysfunctional polymorphisms of FcγRIIb, an inhibitory receptor, are associated with Systemic Lupus Erythaematosus (SLE). Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection in SLE, perhaps due to the de novo immune defect. We investigated cryptococcosis in the FcγRIIb-/- mouse-lupus-model. Mortality, after intravenous C. neoformans-induced cryptococcosis, in young (8-week-old) and older (24-week-old) FcγRIIb-/- mice, was higher than in age-matched wild-types. Severe cryptococcosis in the FcγRIIb-/- mice was demonstrated by high fungal burdens in the internal organs with histological cryptococcoma-like lesions and high levels of TNF-α and IL-6, but not IL-10...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072882/impact-of-dietary-protein-concentration-and-quality-on-immune-function-of-cats
#15
Nadine Paßlack, Barbara Kohn, Marcus G Doherr, Jürgen Zentek
Protein levels and quality in cat food can vary significantly and might affect immune function in various ways. In the present study, 3 diets with a low protein quality (LQ) and 3 diets with a high protein quality (HQ) were offered to 10 healthy adult cats for 6 weeks each, using a randomized cross-over design. The LQ and HQ diets differed in the collagen content and had low (36.7% and 36.2%), medium (45.0% and 43.3%) and high (56.1% and 54.9%) protein levels. At the end of each feeding period, blood was collected for phenotyping of leukocyte subsets, lymphocyte proliferation assay and cytokine measurements, phagocytosis assay and differential blood count...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072517/arthropod-innate-immune-systems-and-vector-borne-diseases
#16
Richard H G Baxter, Alicia Contet, Kathryn Krueger
Arthropods, especially ticks and mosquitoes, are the vectors for a number of parasitic and viral human diseases including malaria, sleeping sickness, Dengue and Zika. Yet arthropods show tremendous individual variation in their capacity to transmit disease. A key factor in this capacity is genetically encoded immune factors that counteract infection by the pathogen. Arthropod-specific pattern recognition receptors and protease cascades detect and respond to infection. Proteins such as antimicrobial peptides, thioester-containing proteins, and transglutaminases effect responses such as lysis, phagocytosis, melanization and agglutination...
January 10, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071722/spict-a-cyst-cell-specific-gene-regulates-starvation-induced-spermatogonial-cell-death-in-the-drosophila-testis
#17
Ason C-Y Chiang, Heiko Yang, Yukiko M Yamashita
Tissues are maintained in a homeostatic state by balancing the constant loss of old cells with the continued production of new cells. Tissue homeostasis can shift between high and low turnover states to cope with environmental changes such as nutrient availability. Recently, we discovered that the elimination of transit-amplifying cells plays a critical role in maintaining the stem cell population during protein starvation in the Drosophila testis. Here, we identify spict, a gene expressed specifically in differentiating cyst cells, as a regulator of spermatogonial death...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070672/opposing-effects-of-progranulin-deficiency-on-amyloid-and-tau-pathologies-via-microglial-tyrobp-network
#18
Hideyuki Takahashi, Zoe A Klein, Sarah M Bhagat, Adam C Kaufman, Mikhail A Kostylev, Tsuneya Ikezu, Stephen M Strittmatter
Progranulin (PGRN) is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Genetic studies demonstrate an association of the common GRN rs5848 variant that results in reduced PGRN levels with increased risk for AD. However, the mechanisms by which PGRN reduction from the GRN AD risk variant or mutation exacerbates AD pathophysiology remain ill defined. Here, we show that the GRN AD risk variant has no significant effects on florbetapir positron emission tomographic amyloid imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ levels, whereas it is associated with increased CSF tau levels in human subjects of the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative studies...
January 9, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069430/functional-characterization-of-avidins-in-amphioxus-branchiostoma-japonucum-evidence-for-a-dual-role-in-biotin-binding-and-immune-response
#19
Xiaomin Guo, Jiajing Xin, Peng Wang, Xiaoyuan Du, Guangdong Ji, Zhan Gao, Shicui Zhang
Avidin is well known for its high affinity to biotin and has been found in many egg-laying vertebrate species. However, little is known about avidin in invertebrate species to date. Here we clearly showed the presence of two avidin genes, Bjavidin1 and Bjavidin2, in the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum, the first ones in non-vertebrate animals. We also showed that the expression of both Bjavidin1 and Bjavidin2 were inducible by progesterone, LTA and LPS. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that in addition to biotin-binding, the recombinant proteins rBjAVIDIN1 and rBjAVIDIN2 were not only able to interact with Gram-positive and negative bacteria as well as their conserved surface components LTA and LPS but also to enhance phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages, suggesting that BjAVIDIN1 and BjAVIDIN2 both function as pattern recognition receptors and opsonins...
January 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068663/collectin-kidney-1-plays-an-important-role-in-innate-immunity-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#20
Insu Hwang, Kenichiro Mori, Katsuki Ohtani, Yasuyuki Matsuda, Nitai Roy, YounUck Kim, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Nobutaka Wakamiya
Collectins are C-type lectins that are involved in innate immunity as pattern recognition molecules. Recently, collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1) has been discovered, and in vitro studies have shown that CL-K1 binds to microbes and activates the lectin complement pathway. However, in vivo functions of CL-K1 against microbes have not been elucidated. To investigate the biological functions of CL-K1, we generated CL-K1 knockout (CL-K1-/-) mice and then performed a Streptococcus pneumoniae infection analysis. First, we found that recombinant human CL-K1 bound to S...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
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