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Surabhi Goyal, Juan Camilo Castrillón-Betancur, Esther Klaile, Hortense Slevogt
Fungi, usually present as commensals, are a major cause of opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. Such infections, if not diagnosed or treated properly, can prove fatal. However, in most cases healthy individuals are able to avert the fungal attacks by mounting proper antifungal immune responses. Among the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are the major players in antifungal immunity. CLRs can recognize carbohydrate ligands, such as β-glucans and mannans, which are mainly found on fungal cell surfaces...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Chengmin He, Zhi Yang, Ying Jin, Xiaoyang Qi, Jin Chu, Xiaoyuan Deng
Adult mammalian skin has a defective regenerative capacity following full-thickness cutaneous injury; this defect overshadows the complete physiological functions of the skin. Immune-mediated skin reconstruction driven by biological scaffolds is a recently developed innovative repair strategy to support regenerative wound healing. However, to date, little is known about how biological scaffolds orchestrate the immune response to promote regeneration. Here, using acellular dermal matrix (ADM) scaffolds, we discovered that the default pro-inflammatory response was altered in response to a pro-regenerative response characterized by specific M2 polarization...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yoko Okunuki, Ryo Mukai, Elizabeth A Pearsall, Garrett Klokman, Deeba Husain, Dong-Ho Park, Ekaterina Korobkina, Howard L Weiner, Oleg Butovsky, Bruce R Ksander, Joan W Miller, Kip M Connor
Retinal detachment (RD) is a sight-threatening complication common in many highly prevalent retinal disorders. RD rapidly leads to photoreceptor cell death beginning within 12 h following detachment. In patients with sustained RD, progressive visual decline due to photoreceptor cell death is common, leading to significant and permanent loss of vision. Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, including the retina, and function in the homeostatic maintenance of the neuro-retinal microenvironment...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sharmeen Nishat, Leah M Wuescher, Randall G Worth
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that can cause mild to severe life threatening infections in many tissues and organs. Platelets are known to participate in protection against S. aureus by directly killing and enhancing the activities of neutrophils and macrophages in clearing S. aureus infection. Platelets have also been shown to induce monocyte differentiation into dendritic cells and to enhance activation of dendritic cells. Therefore, in the present study, we explored the role of platelets in enhancing bone marrow derived dendritic cell (BMDC) function against S...
June 18, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Shohei Kawanishi, Kazuyuki Takata, Shouma Itezono, Hiroko Nagayama, Sayaka Konoya, Yugo Chisaki, Yuki Toda, Susumu Nakata, Yoshitaka Yano, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Eishi Ashihara
Microglia, the primary immune cells in the brain, sense pathogens and tissue damage, stimulate cytokine production, and phagocytosis to maintain homeostasis. Accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) in the brain triggers the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accordingly, promotion of Aβ clearance represents a promising strategy for AD therapy. We previously demonstrated that primary-cultured rat microglia phagocytose Aβ, and that transplantation of these cells ameliorates the Aβ burden in brains of Aβ-injected rats...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Mouldy Sioud, Phuong Westby, Vlada Vasovic, Yngvar Fløisand, Qian Peng
mAbs have emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of cancer. However, in several malignancies, no effective antitumor mAbs are yet available. Identifying therapeutic mAbs that recognize common tumor antigens could render the treatment widely applicable. Here, a human single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody library was sequentially affinity selected against a panel of human cancer cell lines and an antibody fragment (named MS5) that bound to solid and blood cancer cells was identified. The MS5 scFv was fused to the human IgG1 Fc domain to generate an antibody (MS5-Fc fusion) that induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and phagocytosis of cancer cells by macrophages...
April 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Aldo Tagliabue, Rino Rappuoli
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently the most alarming issue for human health. AMR already causes 700,000 deaths/year. It is estimated that 10 million deaths due to AMR will occur every year after 2050. This equals the number of people dying of cancer every year in present times. International institutions such as G20, World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO), UN General Assembly, European Union, and the UK and USA governments are calling for new antibiotics. To underline this emergency, a list of antibiotic-resistant "priority pathogens" has been published by WHO...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Justyna Agier, Joanna Pastwińska, Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk
BACKGROUND: Mast cells (MCs) are long-lived immune cells of the connective tissue which play a key role in development and amplification of inflammatory process initiated inter alia by allergic reactions or microbial infections. They reside in strategic locations in the body that are notably exposed to deleterious factors disturbing homeostasis, which enables them to become one of the first-line defense strategy. MCs have developed a wide range of various mechanisms to deal with invading intruders and harmful endogenic factors...
June 16, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Sanni Kumar, Ena Gupta, Sanket Kaushik, Anupam Jyoti
Neutrophils are the forerunner in innate immunity by defending the host organisms against infectious pathogens. During such process, neutrophils reach the site of inflammation/infection and eliminate the pathogens by phagocytosis as well as by forming the neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs trap and eradicate a number of microbes including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses. NETs consist of DNA which is decorated with histones and granular proteins such as neutrophil elastase (NE), gelatinase, myeloperoxidase...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Barbara Pavan, Alessandro Dalpiaz
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a cell monolayer essential for photoreceptor function and forming the blood-retinal barrier. RPE and retinal neurons share the same origin and a polarized cytoarchitecture. Several factors determine the phagocytosis and permeability of RPE, influencing photoreceptor renewal and drug delivery, efficacy and toxicity. Adult human RPE expresses neuronal markers in vitro, indicating a potential transdifferentiation. Degeneration of the RPE leads to death of photoreceptors and retinal neurons, resulting in the vision loss of retinopathy...
June 13, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Hannah Tomlin, Anna Maria Piccinini
The role of the host extracellular matrix (ECM) in infection tends to be neglected. However, the complex interactions between invading pathogens, host tissues and immune cells occur in the context of the ECM. On the pathogen side, a variety of surface and secreted molecules, including microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM) and tissue degrading enzymes, are employed that interact with different ECM proteins in order to effectively establish an infection at specific sites...
June 16, 2018: Immunology
Syed Aoun Ali, Deeba N Baig
Ezrin, Radixin and Moesin (ERM) are critical membranous component involved in cross-linking of actin filaments. Moesin (Msn) is recognized as a pivotal protein involved in regulation of cell signalling events associated with the maintenance of epithelial integrity, actin organization and polarity. Radixin (Rad) is known to cell-to-cell adherens junction as a barbed end-capping protein whereas ezrin (Ezr) is recognized at cell adhesion, motility, apoptosis and phagocytosis. The current study for the first time reports the transcriptional and RNA secondary structural variations among brain-specific ERM genes...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Jalil Mehrzad, Abbas Bahari, Mohammad Reza Bassami, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Hesam Dehghani
We assessed the effects of naturally occurring levels of AFB1 on the expression of key immune molecules and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) by cell culture, RT-qPCR, and flow cytometry. Data here revealed that an environmentally relevant level of AFB1 led to remarkably weakened key functional capacity of DCs, up-regulation of key transcripts and DCs apoptosis, down-regulation of key phagocytic element, CD64, and creation of pseudolicensing direction of DCs. Flow cytometry data confirmed a damage towards DCs, i...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Tiantian Ye, Yue Wu, Lei Shang, Xueqing Deng, Shujun Wang
Borneol as a penetration enhancer is widely used in guiding other components through the biological barrier into the targeting organs or tissues. This study aimed at studying effect and mechanism of synthetic borneol (S-BO) on improving lymphatic-targeting ability of 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin liposomes (SN-38-Lips) via increasing lymph node uptake. At first, SN-38-Lips prepared had appropriate particle distribution, drug loading property and compatible stability with S-BO. Both in vitro cellular uptake and in vivo fluorescence imaging showed that 2 and 5 mg/mL S-BO, especially 2 mg/mL S-BO, enhanced cytoplasmic fluorescence signal of SN-38-Lips in the macrophages based on phagocytosis effect...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Pei Xiao, Xinxin Long, Lijie Zhang, Yingnan Ye, Jincheng Guo, Pengpeng Liu, Rui Zhang, Junya Ning, Wenwen Yu, Feng Wei, Jinpu Yu
We previously demonstrated that neurotensin (NTS) induces local inflammation and promotes tumor invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this study, positive correlations between NTS and interleukin (IL)-8 were identified at both the mRNA and protein levels in 71 fresh HCC tissues and 100 paraffin-embedded HCC tissues. Furthermore, significant correlations were determined among the co-expression of NTS and IL-8, infiltration of inflammatory cells and enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HCC cells...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Vishnu Jayakumar Sunandhakumari, Arun Sadasivan, Elizabeth Koshi, Aswathy Krishna, Aneesh Alim, Aneesh Sebastian
For years the pathogenesis of periodontitis was under an immunological Th1/Th2 paradigm. Th1 cells are considered to afford protection against the intracellular pathogens. These cells produce the interferons (IFN) that are involved in macrophage activation, which, in turn, plays an important role in phagocytosis, complement fixation, and opsonization. Th2 cells are thought to have evolved as a form of protection against parasitic helminthes. Th17 subset of CD4Not Necessary+ T cells was identified in the year 2005, which added greater complexity to Th function and are pro inflammatory in nature...
June 13, 2018: Dentistry journal
David B Bartlett, Leslie H Willis, Cris A Slentz, Andrew Hoselton, Leslie Kelly, Janet L Huebner, Virginia B Kraus, Jennifer Moss, Michael J Muehlbauer, Guillaume Spielmann, William E Kraus, Janet M Lord, Kim M Huffman
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease in which adults have significant joint issues leading to poor health. Poor health is compounded by many factors, including exercise avoidance and increased risk of opportunistic infection. Exercise training can improve the health of patients with RA and potentially improve immune function; however, information on the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in RA is limited. We sought to determine whether 10 weeks of a walking-based HIIT program would be associated with health improvements as measured by disease activity and aerobic fitness...
June 14, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Julia Catarina Vieira Reuwsaat, Heryk Motta, Ane Wichine Acosta Garcia, Carolina Bettker Vasconcelos, Bárbara Machado Marques, Natália Kronbauer Oliveira, Jéssica Rodrigues, Patrícia Aline Gröhns Ferrareze, Susana Frases, William Lopes, Vanessa Abreu Barcellos, Eamim Daidrê Squizani, Jorge André Horta, Augusto Schrank, Marcio Lourenço Rodrigues, Charley Christian Staats, Marilene Henning Vainstein, Lívia Kmetzsch
The yeast-like pathogen Cryptococcus gattii is an etiological agent of cryptococcosis. The major cryptococcal virulence factor is the polysaccharide capsule, which is composed of glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), galactoxylomannan (GalXM), and mannoproteins (MPs). The GXM and GalXM polysaccharides have been extensively characterized; however, there is little information about the role of mannoproteins in capsule assembly and their participation in yeast pathogenicity. The present study characterized the function of a predicted mannoprotein from C...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
Maria Manich, Nora Hernandez-Cuevas, Juan D Ospina-Villa, Sylvie Syan, Laurence A Marchat, Jean-Christophe Olivo-Marin, Nancy Guillén
Entamoeba histolytica is the anaerobic protozoan parasite responsible for human amoebiasis, the third most deadly parasitic disease worldwide. This highly motile eukaryotic cell invades human tissues and constitutes an excellent experimental model of cell motility and cell shape deformation. The absence of extranuclear microtubules in Entamoeba histolytica means that the actin-rich cytoskeleton takes on a crucial role in not only amoebic motility but also other processes sustaining pathogenesis, such as the phagocytosis of human cells and the parasite's resistance of host immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Fei Shu, Jiahuan Chen, Xiaojie Ma, Yunzhou Fan, Li Yu, Wencheng Zheng, Matthias W Amrein, Tie Xia, Yan Shi
Atherosclerosis is driven by an inflammatory milieu in the walls of artery vessels. Initiated early in life, it progresses to plaque formation and form cell accumulation. A culprit in this cascade is the deposition of cholesterol crystals (CC). The involvement of smaller crystals in the early stage of atherosclerotic changes may be critical to the long-term pathological development. How these small crystals initiate the pro-inflammatory events is under study. We report here an unexpected mechanism that microscopic CC interact with cellular membrane in a phagocytosis-independent manner...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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