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Phagocytosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821818/an-essential-role-for-tagln2-in-phagocytosis-of-lipopolysaccharide-activated-macrophages
#1
Hye-Ran Kim, Hyun-Su Lee, Kyung-Sik Lee, In Duk Jung, Min-Sung Kwon, Chang-Hyun Kim, Seong-Min Kim, Myung-Han Yoon, Yeong-Min Park, Sang-Myeong Lee, Chang-Duk Jun
Activated macrophages have a greater ability of phagocytosis against pathogens that is mediated by large-scale actin rearrangement. However, molecular machineries that conduct this task have not been fully identified. Here, we demonstrate an unanticipated role of TAGLN2, a 22-kDa actin-binding protein, in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-stimulated phagocytosis. TAGLN2 was greatly induced in macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a ligand for TLR4, partly via the NF-κB pathway. TAGLN2-deficient macrophages (TAGLN2 (-/-)) showed defective phagocytic functions of IgM- and IgG-coated sheep red blood cells as well as bacteria...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819044/the-parkinson-s-disease-associated-protein-dj-1-plays-a-positive-nonmitochondrial-role-in-endocytosis-in-dictyostelium-cells
#2
Suwei Chen, Sarah J Annesley, Rasha A F Jasim, Vanessa J Musco, Oana Sanislav, Paul R Fisher
The loss of function of DJ-1 caused by mutations of DJ-1 causes a form of familial Parkinson's Disease (PD). However, the role of DJ-1 in healthy and in PD cells is poorly understood. Even its subcellular localization in mammalian cells is uncertain, both cytosolic and mitochondrial locations having been reported. We show here that DJ-1 is normally located in the cytoplasm in healthy Dictyostelium discoideum cells. With its unique life cycle, straightforward genotype-phenotype relationships, experimental accesibility and genetic tractability, Dictyostelium discoideum offers an attractive model to investigate the roles of PD-associated genes...
August 17, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817934/mannose-surfaces-exhibit-self-latching-water-structuring-and-resilience-to-chaotropes-implications-for-pathogen-virulence
#3
Hashanthi K Abeyratne-Perera, Preethi L Chandran
Several viral and fungal pathogens, including HIV, SARS, Dengue, Ebola and Cryptococcus neoformans, display a preponderance of mannose residues on their surface, particularly during the infection cycle or in harsh environments. The innate immune system, on the other hand, abounds in mannose receptors which recognize mannose residues on pathogens and trigger their phagocytosis. We pose the question if there is a surface advantage for pathogens to display mannose on their surface, despite these residues being recognized by the immune system...
August 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817455/jak-kinase-3-signaling-in-microgliogenesis-from-the-spinal-nestin-progenitors-in-both-development-and-response-to-injury
#4
Sumit Barua, Jee-In Chung, A Young Kim, Soo-Yeon Lee, Soo Hwan Lee, Eun Joo Baik
During spinal cord development, endogenous progenitors expressing nestin can migrate into the target and differentiate into neurons and other glial cells. Microglial cells can also be derived from nestin progenitor cells, even in the adult brain. Knockdown of Jak kinase 3 (Jak3) signaling can increase neurogenesis with longer neurite outgrowth in cortical progenitor cells. This study investigated the effect of Jak3 signaling on differentiation from nestin progenitor cells using E13.5 spinal progenitor cell cultures...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815890/a-semi-synthetic-glycoconjugate-vaccine-candidate-for-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#5
Peter H Seeberger, Claney L Pereira, Naeem Khan, Guozhi Xiao, Elizabeth Diago-Navarro, Katrin Reppe, Bastian Opitz, Bettina C Fries, Martin Witzenrath
Hospital acquired infections are an increasingly serious health concern. Infections caused by carpabenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) are especially problematic, with a 50% average survival rate. CR-Kp are isolated from patients with ever greater frequency: 7% within the EU but 62% in Greece. At a time when antibiotics are becoming less effective, no vaccines to protect from this severe bacterial infection exist. Here, we describe the convergent [3+3] synthesis of the hexasaccharide repeating unit from its capsular polysaccharide and related sequences...
August 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815590/juxtanodin-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-expression-and-biological-activities-in-regulating-cell-morphology-and-actin-cytoskeleton-organization
#6
Fengyi Liang, Ji Hyun Hwang, Nicholas Weiwei Tang, Walter Hunziker
Juxtanodin (also known as ermin) was initially identified as an actin cytoskeleton-related oligodendroglial protein in the rat central nervous system. It was subsequently also found in the rat olfactory neuroepithelium, especially at the apical junctional belt of the sustentacular cells. We further examined juxtanodin expression and functional roles in the retina using fluorescence histochemistry, confocal microscopy, immuno-electron microscopy, molecular biology and cell culture. Prominent juxtanodin expression was found in the photoreceptor-supporting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), especially in a zone corresponding to the apices of RPE cells, at the roots of the RPE microvilli, and at the base of RPE cells next to the Bruch's membrane...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815056/hemojuvelin-regulates-the-innate-immune-response-to-peritoneal-bacterial-infection-in-mice
#7
Qian Wu, Yuanyuan Shen, Yunlong Tao, Jiayu Wei, Hao Wang, Peng An, Zhuzhen Zhang, Hong Gao, Tianhua Zhou, Fudi Wang, Junxia Min
Hereditary hemochromatosis and iron imbalance are associated with susceptibility to bacterial infection; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we performed in vivo bacterial infection screening using several mouse models of hemochromatosis, including Hfe (Hfe(-/-) ), hemojuvelin (Hjv(-/-) ), and macrophage-specific ferroportin-1 (Fpn1(fl/fl) ;LysM-Cre(+) ) knockout mice. We found that Hjv(-/-) mice, but not Hfe(-/-) or Fpn1(fl/fl) ;LysM-Cre(+) mice, are highly susceptible to peritoneal infection by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814727/disruption-of-the-structural-and-functional-features-of-surfactant-protein-a-by-acrolein-in-cigarette-smoke
#8
Rina Takamiya, Koji Uchida, Takahiro Shibata, Toshitaka Maeno, Masaki Kato, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Shigeru Ariki, Yoshihiro Hasegawa, Atsushi Saito, Soichi Miwa, Hiroki Takahashi, Takaaki Akaike, Yoshio Kuroki, Motoko Takahashi
The extent to which defective innate immune responses contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not fully understood. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays an important role in regulating innate immunity in the lungs. In this study, we hypothesised that cigarette smoke (CS) and its component acrolein might influence pulmonary innate immunity by affecting the function of SP-A. Indeed, acrolein-modified SP-A was detected in the lungs of mice exposed to CS for 1 week. To further confirm this finding, recombinant human SP-A (hSP-A) was incubated with CS extract (CSE) or acrolein and then analysed by western blotting and nanoscale liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814603/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-of-the-high-affinity-igg-receptor-fc%C3%AE-ri-reduce-immune-complex-binding-and-downstream-effector-functions
#9
Arianne M Brandsma, Toine Ten Broeke, Evelien van Dueren den Hollander, Thomas G Caniels, Tineke Kardol-Hoefnagel, Jürgen Kuball, Jeanette H W Leusen
Binding of IgG Abs to FcγRs on immune cells induces FcγR cross-linking that leads to cellular effector functions, such as phagocytosis, Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and cytokine release. However, polymorphisms in low affinity FcγRs have been associated with altered avidity toward IgG, thereby substantially impacting clinical outcomes of multimodular therapy when targeting cancer or autoimmune diseases with mAbs as well as the frequency and severity of autoimmune diseases. In this context, we investigated the consequences of three nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the high affinity receptor for IgG, FcγRI...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810892/absence-of-cx3cr1-impairs-the-internalization-of-tau-by-microglia
#10
Marta Bolós, María Llorens-Martín, Juan Ramón Perea, Jerónimo Jurado-Arjona, Alberto Rábano, Félix Hernández, Jesús Avila
BACKGROUND: Extracellular Tau is toxic for neighboring cells, and it contributes to the progression of AD. The CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis is an important neuron/microglia communication mechanism. METHODS: We studied Tau clearance by microglia both in vitro (microglia primary cultures treated with Cy5-Tau, affinity chromatography to study the binding of Tau to CX3CR1, and Tau-CX3CL1 competition assays) and in vivo (stereotaxic injection of Cy5-Tau into WT and CX3CR1(-/-) mice)...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809832/phagocytosis-assay-for-apoptotic-cells-in-drosophila-embryos
#11
Saori Nonaka, Aki Hori, Yoshinobu Nakanishi, Takayuki Kuraishi
The molecular mechanisms underlying the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells need to be elucidated in more detail because of its role in immune and inflammatory intractable diseases. We herein developed an experimental method to investigate phagocytosis quantitatively using the fruit fly Drosophila, in which the gene network controlling engulfment reactions is evolutionally conserved from mammals. In order to accurately detect and count engulfing and un-engulfing phagocytes using whole animals, Drosophila embryos were homogenized to obtain dispersed cells including phagocytes and apoptotic cells...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808160/incremental-contributions-of-fbaa-and-other-impetigo-associated-surface-proteins-to-fitness-and-virulence-of-a-classical-group-a-streptococcal-skin-strain
#12
Candace N Rouchon, Anhphan T Ly, John P Noto, Feng Luo, Sergio Lizano, Debra E Bessen
Group A streptococci (GAS) are highly prevalent human pathogens whose primary ecological niche is the superficial epithelial layers of the throat and/or skin. Many GAS strains having a strong tendency to cause pharyngitis are distinct from strains that tend to cause impetigo; thus, genetic differences between them may confer host tissue-specific virulence. In this study, the FbaA surface protein gene is found to be present in most skin specialist strains, but largely absent from a genetically-related subset of pharyngitis isolates...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808028/immune-evasion-by-a-staphylococcal-inhibitor-of-myeloperoxidase
#13
Nienke W M de Jong, Kasra X Ramyar, Fermin E Guerra, Reindert Nijland, Cindy Fevre, Jovanka M Voyich, Alex J McCarthy, Brandon L Garcia, Kok P M van Kessel, Jos A G van Strijp, Brian V Geisbrecht, Pieter-Jan A Haas
Staphylococcus aureus is highly adapted to its host and has evolved many strategies to resist opsonization and phagocytosis. Even after uptake by neutrophils, S. aureus shows resistance to killing, which suggests the presence of phagosomal immune evasion molecules. With the aid of secretome phage display, we identified a highly conserved protein that specifically binds and inhibits human myeloperoxidase (MPO), a major player in the oxidative defense of neutrophils. We have named this protein "staphylococcal peroxidase inhibitor" (SPIN)...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807275/recombinant-miro-domain-containing-protein-of-haemonchus-contortus-rmiro-1-activates-goat-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-vitro
#14
YuLing Wen, YuJian Wang, WenJuan Wang, MingMin Lu, Muhammad Ehsan, XiaoWei Tian, RuoFeng Yan, XiaoKai Song, LiXin Xu, XiangRui Li
In our previous proteomics study, we identified Miro domain-containing protein (Miro-1), an excretory and secretory product of the pole worm, Haemonchus contortus, binds to goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vivo. However, our understanding of the role of Miro-1and its potential immune impact on goat PBMCs is limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Miro-1 on functions of goat PBMCs in vitro. Recombinant protein (rMiro-1) was expressed in a prokaryote and incubated with goat PBMCs...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806664/porous-plga-microparticles-formed-by-one-step-emulsification-for-pulmonary-drug-delivery-the-surface-morphology-and-the-aerodynamic-properties
#15
Shinnosuke Nishimura, Taku Takami, Yoshihiko Murakami
In the present study, by using a newly developed one-step emulsification technique, we tried to prepare porous PLGA particles having a proper diameter and surface morphology in order to achieve both a high efficient delivery of the particles to the lungs and a phagocytosis-avoidance ability. We found that our porous particles have the very low tapped density of 0.04g/cm(3). Experimental and theoretical studies strongly suggest that the shape factor should not be determined only by the outline of the particles, although previous research assigned a value of 1 to the shape factor for particles regardless of the presence of pores and their distribution...
August 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806402/multi-functional-mechanisms-of-immune-evasion-by-the-streptococcal-complement-inhibitor-c5a-peptidase
#16
Nicola N Lynskey, Mark Reglinski, Damien Calay, Matthew K Siggins, Justin C Mason, Marina Botto, Shiranee Sriskandan
The complement cascade is crucial for clearance and control of invading pathogens, and as such is a key target for pathogen mediated host modulation. C3 is the central molecule of the complement cascade, and plays a vital role in opsonization of bacteria and recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. Streptococcal species have evolved multiple mechanisms to disrupt complement-mediated innate immunity, among which ScpA (C5a peptidase), a C5a inactivating enzyme, is widely conserved. Here we demonstrate for the first time that pyogenic streptococcal species are capable of cleaving C3, and identify C3 and C3a as novel substrates for the streptococcal ScpA, which are functionally inactivated as a result of cleavage 7 amino acids upstream of the natural C3 convertase...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804558/nadph-oxidase-2-inhibitor-diphenyleneiodonium-enhances-ros-independent-bacterial-phagocytosis-in-murine-macrophages-via-activation-of-the-calcium-mediated-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway
#17
Yuanfeng Zhu, Shijun Fan, Ning Wang, Xiaoli Chen, Yongjun Yang, Yongling Lu, Qian Chen, Jiang Zheng, Xin Liu
Activation of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, both of which are essential for robust microbial clearance by phagocytes. However, it is unknown whether inhibition of NOX2 activation or ROS generation affects cellular phagocytosis. Here, we found that the classic NOX2 inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) induced uptake of E. coli by murine peritoneal macrophages through enhancing phagocytosis, and this effect was temperature-sensitive and attenuated by cytochalasin D as well as chemical inhibition of Syk and PLCγ, two downstream kinases involved in actin polymerization during phagocytosis...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804502/purification-preliminary-characterization-and-immunological-activity-of-polysaccharides-from-crude-drugs-of-sijunzi-formula
#18
Yunfei Ji, Ruijun Wang, Ying Peng, Chongsheng Peng, Xiaobo Li
Sijunzi Decoction (SJZD) is a conventional prescription for curing spleen deficiency in Traditional Chinese Medicine and polysaccharide is its main ingredient. In order to explore the effective ingredients contributing to the immunological activity of SJZD, we isolated and purified seven homogeneous polysaccharides from Radix Ginseng (RS-3-1 and RS-3-2), Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (BZ-3-1, BZ-3-2, and BZ-3-3), Poria (FL-3-1), and Radix Glycyrrhizae (GC-3-1) decoctions, respectively. The molecular weight of seven homogeneous polysaccharides ranged from 5...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803930/identification-of-neuroglobin-as-a-novel-player-in-anti-bacterial-responses-in-amphioxus
#19
Yu Bai, Shousheng Liu, Xia Wang, Xiaoyuan Du, Guangdong Ji, Shicui Zhang
Theoretical considerations support various functions of neuroglobin (Ngb), but further studies are required for full characterization of these functions. In this study, we identified the presence of a single Ngb gene, BjNgb, in the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum. BjNgb was expressed in various tissues including the notochord, gonads (ovary and testis) and gill, and up-regulated significantly in response to the challenge with LPS and LTA, suggesting involvement in immune response of amphioxus against bacterial infection...
August 10, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803442/neutrophils-nets-netosis-old-or-new-factors-in-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#20
Małgorzata Lipinska-Gediga
Neutrophils are an key part of the innate immune system in the host's defences against pathogens. Circulating neutrophils are recruited at the sites of infection or sterile inflammation in response to pathogen and host-derived inflammatory mediators. In addition to phagocytosis and degranulation, neutrophils display the release of NETs in order to restrain infection. NETs are able to entrap and kill microbes, and display proinflammatory and prothrombotic properties.
2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
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