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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913674/immunoglobulins-and-their-receptors-and-subversion-of-their-protective-roles-by-bacterial-pathogens
#1
REVIEW
Jenny M Woof
Immunoglobulins (Igs) play critical roles in immune defence against infectious disease. They elicit potent elimination processes such as triggering complement activation and engaging specific Fc receptors present on immune cells, resulting in phagocytosis and other killing mechanisms. Many important pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert or evade Ig-mediated defence. One such mechanism used by several pathogenic bacteria features proteins that bind the Ig Fc region and compromise engagement of host effector molecules...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913647/diversity-of-antiviral-igg-effector-activities-observed-in-hiv-infected-and-vaccinated-subjects
#2
Yunda Huang, Guido Ferrari, Galit Alter, Donald N Forthal, John C Kappes, George K Lewis, J Christopher Love, Bhavesh Borate, Linda Harris, Kelli Greene, Hongmei Gao, Tran B Phan, Gary Landucci, Brittany A Goods, Karen G Dowell, Hao D Cheng, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, David C Montefiori, Margaret E Ackerman
Diverse Ab effector functions mediated by the Fc domain have been commonly associated with reduced risk of infection in a growing number of nonhuman primate and human clinical studies. This study evaluated the anti-HIV Ab effector activities in polyclonal serum samples from HIV-infected donors, VAX004 vaccine recipients, and healthy HIV-negative subjects using a variety of primary and cell line-based assays, including Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), Ab-dependent cell-mediated viral inhibition, and Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913484/cold-agglutinin-disease
#3
Sigbjørn Berentsen
Primary chronic cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is a well-defined clinicopathologic entity in which a specific, clonal lymphoproliferative B-cell bone marrow disorder results in autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The immune hemolysis is entirely complement-dependent, predominantly mediated by activation of the classical pathway and phagocytosis of erythrocytes opsonized with complement protein C3b. Typical clinical features in CAD have diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Pharmacologic treatment should be offered to patients with symptom-producing anemia or disabling circulatory symptoms...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913388/iap-antagonists-promote-phagocytosis-of-multiple-myeloma-in-vivo
#4
(no author information available yet)
The IAP antagonist LCL161 has activity against multiple myeloma cells independent of apoptosis.
December 2, 2016: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910963/daratumumab-monoclonal-antibody-therapy-to-treat-multiple-myeloma
#5
C Xia, M Ribeiro, S Scott, S Lonial
Daratumumab (Darzalex[TM]) is a human monoclonal antibody (MAb) that targets CD38; a surface protein highly expressed across multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Preclinical studies have shown daratumumab induces MM cell death through several mechanisms, including complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), apoptosis upon secondary crosslinking and immunomodulatory effects via a decrease in immune suppressive cells. Daratumumab has a favorable toxicity profile and encouraging clinical activity as a single agent and in combination with lenalidomide in heavily pretreated, relapsed patients in whom other novel agents (such as bortezomib, thalidomide and lenalidomide) and stem cell transplant have already failed...
October 2016: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909959/effects-of-anti-cd206-antibodies-on-macrophage-functions-in-male-cbf1-mice-with-lipidemia
#6
A P Lykov, T A Korolenko, L V Sakhno, O V Poveshchenko, N A Bondarenko, M A Surovtseva, N V Goncharova
The effects of anti-CD208 antibodies (mannose receptor) on functional characteristics of peritoneal macrophages were studied in intact mice and mice with lipidemia induced by poloxamer-407. Lipidemia was associated with suppression of phagocytosis and increase in spontaneous proliferative potential and NO production by macrophages. Anti-CD206 antibodies suppressed NO production by macrophages in mice with lipidemia.
December 1, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909711/effect-of-partial-pegylation-on-particle-uptake-by-macrophages
#7
Lucero Sanchez, Yi Yi, Yan Yu
Controlling the internalization of synthetic particles by immune cells remains a grand challenge for developing successful drug carrier systems. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is frequently used as a protective coating on particles to evade immune clearance, but it also hinders the interactions of particles with their intended target cells. In this study, we investigate a spatial decoupling strategy, in which PEGs are coated on only one hemisphere of particles, so that the other hemisphere is available for functionalization of cell-targeting ligands without the hindrance effect from the PEGs...
December 2, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906902/comparison-of-transcriptome-between-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-impaired-fasting-glucose
#8
Ying Cui, Wen Chen, Jinfeng Chi, Lei Wang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the transcriptome between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and further research their molecular mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS The original microarray GSE21321, including miRNA and mRNA expression profiles, was downloaded from the GEO database. Data preprocessing was processed by limma package, and differentially expressed genes (DGs) and miRNA (DMs) were screened. Then, the regulatory relationships among miRNA, TF, and genes were screened and the regulatory network was constructed...
December 1, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906023/surface-area-dependence-of-gas-particle-interactions-influences-pulmonary-and-neuroinflammatory-outcomes
#9
Christina R Tyler, Katherine E Zychowski, Bethany N Sanchez, Valeria Rivero, Selita Lucas, Guy Herbert, June Liu, Hammad Irshad, Jacob D McDonald, Barry E Bleske, Matthew J Campen
BACKGROUND: Deleterious consequences of exposure to traffic emissions may derive from interactions between carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) and gaseous components in a manner that is dependent on the surface area or complexity of the particles. To determine the validity of this hypothesis, we examined pulmonary and neurological inflammatory outcomes in C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) male mice after acute and chronic exposure to vehicle engine-derived particulate matter, generated as ultrafine (UFP) and fine (FP) sizes, with additional exposures using UFP or FP combined with gaseous copollutants derived from fresh gasoline and diesel emissions, labeled as UFP + G and FP + G...
December 1, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905560/increased-emr2-expression-on-neutrophils-correlates-with-disease-severity-and-predicts-overall-mortality-in-cirrhotic-patients
#10
Chien-Hao Huang, Wen-Juei Jeng, Yu-Pin Ho, Wei- Teng, Yi-Chung Hsieh, Wei-Ting Chen, Yi-Cheng Chen, Hsi-Hsien Lin, I-Shyan Sheen, Chun-Yen Lin
Patients with liver cirrhosis are susceptible to infections with high short-term mortalities. One CD97-related EGF-TM7 molecule, EMR2 (EGF-like molecule containing mucin-like hormone receptor 2), had been shown to regulate human neutrophil function, potentiate systemic inflammation. Nevertheless, EMR2 could also suppress neutrophil survival. Studying the role of EMR2 on neutrophil would be intriguing. 48 healthy volunteers and 100 cirrhotic patients were enrolled. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral blood and cell surface markers were measured by flow cytometry...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905286/netosis-alternative-defense-method-used-by-neutrophils-to-fight-pathogen
#11
Kader Yıldız
Neutrophils form the first line of defense of the innate immune system in organisms. They use three fighting methods to combat pathogens: phagocytosis, degranulation, and netosis. In this review, we aim to provide information about netosis.
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904525/exosomes-as-nanocarriers-for-sirna-delivery-paradigms-and-challenges
#12
Fahimeh Shahabipour, Maciej Banach, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles that facilitate intercellular communications through carrying genetic materials and functional biomolecules. Owing to their unique size and structure, exosomes have emerged as a useful tool to overcome the limitations of siRNA delivery. The use of exosomes as siRNA delivery vehicles lacks certain disadvantages of the existing foreign delivery systems such as viruses, polycationic polymers and liposomes, and introduces several advantages including inherent capacity to pass through biological barriers and escape from phagocytosis by the reticuloendothelial system, as well as being biocompatible, non-toxic, and immunologically inert...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904472/clearing-the-corpses-regulatory-mechanisms-novel-tools-and-therapeutic-potential-of-harnessing-microglial-phagocytosis-in-the-diseased-brain
#13
REVIEW
Irune Diaz-Aparicio, Sol Beccari, Oihane Abiega, Amanda Sierra
Apoptosis is a widespread phenomenon that occurs in the brain in both physiological and pathological conditions. Dead cells must be quickly removed to avoid the further toxic effects they exert in the parenchyma, a process executed by microglia, the brain professional phagocytes. Although phagocytosis is critical to maintain tissue homeostasis, it has long been either overlooked or indirectly assessed based on microglial morphology, expression of classical activation markers, or engulfment of artificial phagocytic targets in vitro...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900675/sirp-alpha-protein-downregulates-in-human-astrocytoma-presumptive-involvement-of-hsa-mir-520d-5p-and-hsa-mir-520d-3p
#14
Ravindra Pramod Deshpande, Y B V K Chandra Sekhar, Manas Panigrahi, Phanithi Prakash Babu
Astrocytomas are the most common brain tumors with poor survival in malignant forms. Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRP alpha) is a transmembrane protein expressed on immune cells and macrophages and is reported to modulate tumor cell phagocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of miR-520d-5p and miR-520d-3p in regulation of SIRP alpha expression. Here, we report mRNA and protein expression profile of SIRP alpha in 39 surgically resected human astrocytoma tissue samples and 14 control brain tissue samples...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900599/melatonin-attenuates-manganese-and-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-activation-of-bv2-microglia
#15
Euteum Park, Hong Sung Chun
Melatonin, a naturally occurring neurohormone in the pineal gland, has been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the effects of melatonin on manganese (Mn) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation. Melatonin (10 μM) inhibited Mn (100 μM) and/or LPS (0.5 μg/ml)-induced phagocytotic activity of activated BV2 microglia. It also inhibited the lipid peroxidation and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion induced by Mn and/or LPS. Melatonin effectively suppressed the upregulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at both mRNA and protein levels in Mn and/or LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900049/toll-like-receptors-and-cutaneous-melanoma
#16
Ilaria Coati, Serena Miotto, Irene Zanetti, Mauro Alaibac
Innate immune cells recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Previous studies have demonstrated that PRRs also recognize endogenous molecules, termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are derived from damaged cells. PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), scavenger receptors, C-type lectin receptors and nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors. To date, 10 TLRs have been identified in humans and each receptor responds to a different ligand...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899767/immune-function-parameters-as-markers-of-biological-age-and-predictors-of-longevity
#17
Irene Martínez de Toda, Ianire Maté, Carmen Vida, Julia Cruces, Mónica De la Fuente
Chronological age is not a good indicator of how each individual ages and thus how to maintain good health. Due to the long lifespan in humans and the consequent difficulty of carrying out longitudinal studies, finding valid biomarkers of the biological age has been a challenge both for research and clinical studies. The aim was to identify and validate several immune cell function parameters as markers of biological age. Adult, mature, elderly and long-lived human volunteers were used. The chemotaxis, phagocytosis, natural killer activity and lymphoproliferation in neutrophils and lymphocytes of peripheral blood were analyzed...
November 28, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896563/broad-spectrum-antiviral-properties-of-andrographolide
#18
REVIEW
Swati Gupta, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju
Andrographolide, a diterpenoid, is known for its anti-inflammatory effects. It can be isolated from various plants of the genus Andrographis, commonly known as 'creat'. This purified compound has been tested for its anti-inflammatory effects in various stressful conditions, such as ischemia, pyrogenesis, arthritis, hepatic or neural toxicity, carcinoma, and oxidative stress, Apart from its anti-inflammatory effects, andrographolide also exhibits immunomodulatory effects by effectively enhancing cytotoxic T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, phagocytosis, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)...
November 28, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896028/the-scavenger-receptor-repertoire-in-six-cnidarian-species-and-its-putative-role-in-cnidarian-dinoflagellate-symbiosis
#19
Emilie F Neubauer, Angela Z Poole, Virginia M Weis, Simon K Davy
Many cnidarians engage in a mutualism with endosymbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates that forms the basis of the coral reef ecosystem. Interpartner interaction and regulation includes involvement of the host innate immune system. Basal metazoans, including cnidarians have diverse and complex innate immune repertoires that are just beginning to be described. Scavenger receptors (SR) are a diverse superfamily of innate immunity genes that recognize a broad array of microbial ligands and participate in phagocytosis of invading microbes...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895507/fc-gamma-receptors-glycobiology-and-therapeutic-prospects
#20
REVIEW
Jerrard M Hayes, Mark R Wormald, Pauline M Rudd, Gavin P Davey
Therapeutic antibodies hold great promise for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases, and developments in antibody-drug conjugates and bispecific antibodies continue to enhance treatment options for patients. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies are proteins with complex modifications, which have a significant impact on their function. The most important of these modifications is glycosylation, the addition of conserved glycans to the antibody Fc region, which is critical for its interaction with the immune system and induction of effector activities such as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity, complement activation and phagocytosis...
2016: Journal of Inflammation Research
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