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Phagocytosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029244/elmo1-regulates-the-induction-of-autophagy-and-bacterial-clearance-during-enteric-infection
#1
Arup Sarkar, Courtney Tindle, Rama F Pranadinata, Sharon Reed, Lars Eckmann, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck, Peter B Ernst, Soumita Das
Macrophages are specialized phagocytic cells involved in clearing invading pathogens. Earlier we reported the Engulfment and Cell Motility protein 1 (ELMO1) in macrophages mediates bacterial internalization and intestinal inflammation. Here we studied the role of ELMO1 in the fate of internalized target. ELMO1 is present in the intracellular vesicles and enhanced LC3B accumulation following engulfment of Salmonella or treatment with autophagy-inducing rapamycin. ATG5 and ULK1 are involved in classical autophagy while LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) is ULK1-independent...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028815/striatal-astrocytes-engulf-dopaminergic-debris-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-study-in-an-animal-model
#2
Ingrid Morales, Alberto Sanchez, Clara Rodriguez-Sabate, Manuel Rodriguez
The role of astrocytes in Parkinson's disease is still not well understood. This work studied the astrocytic response to the dopaminergic denervation. Rats were injected in the lateral ventricles with 6-hydroxydopamine (25μg), inducing a dopaminergic denervation of the striatum not accompanied by non-selective tissue damage. The dopaminergic debris were found within spheroids (free-spheroids) which retained some proteins of dopaminergic neurons (e.g., tyrosine hydroxylase, the dopamine transporter protein, and APP) but not others (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027219/death-begets-a-new-beginning
#3
REVIEW
Lidia Bosurgi, Lindsey D Hughes, Carla V Rothlin, Sourav Ghosh
Cell death is a perpetual feature of tissue microenvironments; each day under homeostatic conditions, billions of cells die and must be swiftly cleared by phagocytes. However, cell death is not limited to this natural turnover-apoptotic cell death can be induced by infection, inflammation, or severe tissue injury. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is thus coupled to specific functions, from the induction of growth factors that can stimulate the replacement of dead cells to the promotion of tissue repair or tissue remodeling in the affected site...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027011/let-s-make-microglia-great-again-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Marie-Victoire Guillot-Sestier, Terrence Town
All of the common neurodegenerative disorders-Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and prion diseases-are characterized by accumulation of misfolded proteins that trigger activation of microglia; brain-resident mononuclear phagocytes. This chronic form of neuroinflammation is earmarked by increased release of myriad cytokines and chemokines in patient brains and biofluids. Microglial phagocytosis is compromised early in the disease process, obfuscating clearance of abnormal proteins...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026443/neutrophil-killing-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-diabetes-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-prospective-cellular-surveillance-study
#5
Ingrid Lea Scully, Lisa Kristin McNeil, Sudam Pathirana, Christine Lee Singer, Yongdong Liu, Stanley Mullen, Douglas Girgenti, Alejandra Gurtman, Michael W Pride, Kathrin Ute Jansen, Paul L Huang, Annaliesa S Anderson
BACKGROUND: Obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diabetes are frequent in surgical populations and can enhance susceptibility to postoperative surgical site infections. Reduced neutrophil function has been linked with diabetes and risk of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Therefore, neutrophil function in diabetic and obese subjects (± MetS) was assessed in this prospective serological and cellular surveillance study to determine whether vaccines administered to protect against infections after surgery could be effective in these populations...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026191/mechanisms-involved-in-the-triggering-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-nets-by-candida-glabrata-during-planktonic-and-biofilm-growth
#6
Chad J Johnson, John F Kernien, Amanda R Hoyer, Jeniel E Nett
Candida spp. adhere to medical devices, such as catheters, forming drug-tolerant biofilms that resist killing by the immune system. Little is known about how C. glabrata, an emerging pathogen, resists attack by phagocytes. Here we show that upon encounter with planktonic (non-biofilm) C. glabrata, human neutrophils initially phagocytose the yeast and subsequently release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), complexes of DNA, histones, and proteins capable of inhibiting fungal growth and dissemination. When exposed to C...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024778/direct-comparison-between-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-microsized-particle-phagocytosis-assays-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
K Adolfsson, L Abariute, A P Dabkowska, M Schneider, U Häcker, C N Prinz
The effects of micro and nanoparticles on the innate immune system have been widely investigated and a general lack of agreement between in vivo and in vitro assays has been observed. In order to determine the origin of these discrepancies, there is a need for comparing the results of in vivo and in vitro phagocytosis assays obtained using the same particles and same immune cells. Here, we establish an in vivo polystyrene microsized particle phagocytosis assay in Drosophila melanogaster and compare it with an in vitro assay consisting of exposing the same immune cells in culture to the same particles...
October 9, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024644/m-%C3%A2-tuberculosis-induced-necrosis-of-infected-neutrophils-promotes-bacterial-growth-following-phagocytosis-by-macrophages
#8
Tobias Dallenga, Urska Repnik, Björn Corleis, Jacqueline Eich, Rudolph Reimer, Gareth W Griffiths, Ulrich E Schaible
Neutrophils represent the main infected cell population in the lungs of active tuberculosis patients. Efficient removal of infected and dying neutrophils is required to protect the surrounding tissue from bioactive neutrophil molecules and subsequent pathological sequelae. While the removal of apoptotic M. tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected cells, or efferocytosis, is considered beneficial for host defense, little is known about Mtb-infected necrotic neutrophils. We found that Mtb induces necrosis of human neutrophils in an ESX-1-dependent manner, and neutrophil-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) drive this necrosis...
October 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021582/novel-mechanism-of-regulation-of-the-5-lipoxygenase-leukotriene-b4-pathway-by-high-density-lipoprotein-in-macrophages
#9
Shigeyasu Tsuda, Masakazu Shinohara, Toshihiko Oshita, Manabu Nagao, Nobuaki Tanaka, Takeshige Mori, Tetsuya Hara, Yasuhiro Irino, Ryuji Toh, Tatsuro Ishida, Ken-Ichi Hirata
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) interacts with various cells, particularly macrophages, in functional cell-HDL interactions. Here, we found that HDL protein quality and lipid quality play critical roles in HDL functions. HDL fractions from healthy volunteers (HDLHealthy) and patients with recurrent coronary atherosclerotic disease (HDLCAD) were prepared. To analyse functional HDL-macrophage interactions, macrophages were co-incubated with each HDL, and lipid mediator production was assessed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabololipidomics...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018774/influenza-a-virus-as-a-predisposing-factor-for-cryptococcosis
#10
Lorena V N Oliveira, Marliete C Costa, Thaís F F Magalhães, Rafael W Bastos, Patrícia C Santos, Hellem C S Carneiro, Noelly Q Ribeiro, Gabriella F Ferreira, Lucas S Ribeiro, Ana P F Gonçalves, Caio T Fagundes, Marcelo A Pascoal-Xavier, Julianne T Djordjevic, Tania C Sorrell, Daniele G Souza, Alexandre M V Machado, Daniel A Santos
Influenza A virus (IAV) infects millions of people annually and predisposes to secondary bacterial infections. Inhalation of fungi within the Cryptococcus complex causes pulmonary disease with secondary meningo-encephalitis. Underlying pulmonary disease is a strong risk factor for development of C. gattii cryptococcosis though the effect of concurrent infection with IAV has not been studied. We developed an in vivo model of Influenza A H1N1 and C. gattii co-infection. Co-infection resulted in a major increase in morbidity and mortality, with severe lung damage and a high brain fungal burden when mice were infected in the acute phase of influenza multiplication...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018604/effects-of-invasion-history-on-physiological-responses-to-immune-system-activation-in-invasive-australian-cane-toads
#11
Daniel Selechnik, Andrea J West, Gregory P Brown, Kerry V Fanson, BriAnne Addison, Lee A Rollins, Richard Shine
The cane toad (Rhinella marina) has undergone rapid evolution during its invasion of tropical Australia. Toads from invasion front populations (in Western Australia) have been reported to exhibit a stronger baseline phagocytic immune response than do conspecifics from range core populations (in Queensland). To explore this difference, we injected wild-caught toads from both areas with the experimental antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS, to mimic bacterial infection) and measured whole-blood phagocytosis. Because the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is stimulated by infection (and may influence immune responses), we measured glucocorticoid response through urinary corticosterone levels...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018413/effect-of-the-ethyl-acetate-fraction-of-eugenia-uniflora-on-proteins-global-expression-during-morphogenesis-in-candida-albicans
#12
Walicyranison P Silva-Rocha, Matheus F de Azevedo, Magda R A Ferreira, Julhiany de Fátima da Silva, Terezinha I E Svidzinski, Eveline P Milan, Luiz A L Soares, Keyla B F Rocha, Adriana F Uchôa, Maria J S Mendes-Giannini, Ana M Fusco Almeida, Guilherme M Chaves
Candida albicans is able to switch from yeast to hyphal growth and this is an essential step for tissue invasion and establishment of infection. Due to the limited drug arsenal used to treat fungal infections and the constant emergence of resistant strains, it is important to search for new therapeutic candidates. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate by proteomic analysis the role of a natural product (Eugenia uniflora) in impairing hypha formation in C. albicans. We also tested the potential action of E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018261/alveolar-macrophages-are-critical-for-broadly-reactive-antibody-mediated-protection-against-influenza-a-virus-in-mice
#13
Wenqian He, Chi-Jene Chen, Caitlin E Mullarkey, Jennifer R Hamilton, Christine K Wong, Paul E Leon, Melissa B Uccellini, Veronika Chromikova, Carole Henry, Kevin W Hoffman, Jean K Lim, Patrick C Wilson, Matthew S Miller, Florian Krammer, Peter Palese, Gene S Tan
The aim of candidate universal influenza vaccines is to provide broad protection against influenza A and B viruses. Studies have demonstrated that broadly reactive antibodies require Fc-Fc gamma receptor interactions for optimal protection; however, the innate effector cells responsible for mediating this protection remain largely unknown. Here, we examine the roles of alveolar macrophages, natural killer cells, and neutrophils in antibody-mediated protection. We demonstrate that alveolar macrophages play a dominant role in conferring protection provided by both broadly neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies in mice...
October 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018138/endotoxin-preconditioning-reprograms-s1-tubules-and-macrophages-to-protect-the-kidney
#14
Takashi Hato, Amy Zollman, Zoya Plotkin, Tarek M El-Achkar, Bernhard F Maier, S Louise Pay, Shataakshi Dube, Pablo Cabral, Momoko Yoshimoto, Jeanette McClintick, Pierre C Dagher
Preconditioning with a low dose of endotoxin confers unparalleled protection against otherwise lethal models of sepsis. The mechanisms of preconditioning have been investigated extensively in isolated immune cells such as macrophages. However, the role of tissue in mediating the protective response generated by preconditioning remains unknown. Here, using the kidney as a model organ, we investigated cell type-specific responses to preconditioning. Compared with preadministration of vehicle, endotoxin preconditioning in the cecal ligation and puncture mouse model of sepsis led to significantly enhanced survival and reduced bacterial load in several organs...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994193/interplay-between-fgfr2b-induced-autophagy-and-phagocytosis-role-of-plc%C3%AE-mediated-signalling
#15
Monica Nanni, Danilo Ranieri, Salvatore Raffa, Maria Rosaria Torrisi, Francesca Belleudi
Signalling of the epithelial splicing variant of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2b) induces both autophagy and phagocytosis in human keratinocytes. Here, we investigated, in the cell model of HaCaT keratinocytes, whether the two processes might be related and the possible involvement of PLCγ signalling. Using fluorescence and electron microscopy, we demonstrated that the FGFR2b-induced phagocytosis and autophagy involve converging autophagosomal and phagosomal compartments. Moreover, the forced expression of FGFR2b signalling mutants and the use of specific inhibitors of FGFR2b substrates showed that the receptor-triggered autophagy requires PLCγ signalling, which in turn activates JNK1 via PKCδ...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994118/baccharis-dracunculifolia-dc-asteraceae-selectively-modulates-the-effector-functions-of-human-neutrophils
#16
Andréa S G Figueiredo-Rinhel, Lamartine L de Melo, Leandro O Bortot, Everton O L Santos, Micássio F Andrade, Ana Elisa C S Azzolini, Luciana M Kabeya, Antonio Caliri, Jairo K Bastos, Yara Maria Lucisano-Valim
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the hydroalcoholic extract from Baccharis dracunculifolia leaves (BdE) modulates the human neutrophil oxidative metabolism, degranulation, phagocytosis and microbial killing capacity. METHODS: In-vitro assays based on chemiluminescence, spectrophotometry, flow cytometry and polarimetry were used, as well as docking calculations. KEY FINDINGS: At concentrations that effectively suppressed the neutrophil oxidative metabolism elicited by soluble and particulate stimuli (<10 μg/ml), without clear signs of cytotoxicity, BdE (1) inhibited NADPH oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity; (2) scavenged H2 O2 and HOCl; (3) weakly inhibited phagocytosis; and (4) did not affect neutrophil degranulation and microbial killing capacity, the expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, FcγRIIa, FcγRIIIb and CR3 and the activity of elastase and lysozyme...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992681/ofatumumab-monoclonal-antibody-affinity-maturation-through-in-silico-modeling
#17
Zahra Payandeh, Masoumeh Rajabibazl, Yousef Mortazavi, Azam Rahim-Pour, Amir Hossein Taromchi
Background: Ofatumumab, an anti-CD20 mAb, was approved in 2009 for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This mAb acts through immune-mediated mechanisms, in particular complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by natural killer cells as well as antibody-dependent phagocytosis by macrophages. Apoptosis induction is another mechanism of this antibody. Computational docking is the method of predicting the conformation of an antibody-antigen from its separated elements...
October 10, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992282/intraspecies-variation-in-the-efficacy-of-adjunctive-recombinant-interferon-%C3%AE-therapy-against-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-in-mice
#18
Yurika Ikeda-Dantsuji, Shigeki Nakamura, Hideaki Ohno, Tatsuya Inukai, Minoru Nagi, Keigo Ueno, Takashi Umeyama, Yuki Kinjo, Satoshi Yamagoe, Kazutoshi Shibuya, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki
The efficacy of recombinant interferon γ (rIFN-γ) for cryptococcal meningoencephalitis has been poorly understood. Compared to Cryptococcus gattii, rIFN-γ significantly improved the survival in experimental meningoencephalitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans. The number of phagocytic macrophages and the levels of inflammatory cytokines production for ex vivo co-incubation with C. neoformans were increased after rIFN-γ stimulation but not C. gattii. Intraspecies differences of phagocytosis by the rIFN-γ-activated macrophages might be associated to the severity of cryptococcal infection...
September 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988621/oxidation-of-m252-but-not-m428-in-hu-igg1-is-responsible-for-decreased-binding-to-and-activation-of-hu-fc%C3%AE-riia-his131
#19
Florian Cymer, Marco Thomann, Harald Wegele, Cecile Avenal, Tilman Schlothauer, Daniel Gygax, Hermann Beck
Oxidation of monoclonal therapeutic antibodies (mAbs) can affect binding to Fc-receptors and potentially influence pharmacokinetics or effector functions like e.g. antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Recently, it has been demonstrated that binding to FcγRIIa (H131) is affected by methionine oxidation of the Fc-portion but it is currently unknown which methionine is responsible for decreased binding. We separated an oxidized IgG1 monoclonal antibody based on the oxidation state of methionine 252 and analyzed fractionated material in receptor binding experiments as well as in functional (cell-based) assays...
October 4, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988383/diversity-of-free-living-amoebae-in-soils-and-their-associated-human-opportunistic-bacteria
#20
Elodie Denet, Bénédicte Coupat-Goutaland, Sylvie Nazaret, Michel Pélandakis, Sabine Favre-Bonté
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous protozoa found worldwide in the environment. They feed by phagocytosis on various microorganisms. However, some bacteria, i.e., amoebae-resistant bacteria (ARB) or bacterial endocytobionts, can resist phagocytosis and even multiply inside FLA. This study investigated the diversity of culturable FLA in various soils from agricultural and mining sites and their bacterial endocytobionts. FLA were cultured on non-nutrient agar with alive Escherichia coli and identified by PCR and sequencing...
October 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
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