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Phagocytosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684605/development-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-igm-of-sea-bass-lateolabrax-japonicus-and-analysis-of-phagocytosis-by-migm-lymphocytes
#1
Shun Yang, Xiaoqian Tang, Xiuzhen Sheng, Jing Xing, Wenbin Zhan
B cells in some fish were recently found to have potent phagocytic activities. Sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) as an important economical marine fish species, it could be used as an appropriate model to study the functions of B cells in phagocytosis. In the paper, three positive hybridomas designated as 1E11, 2H4 and 3F3 secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against sea bass immunoglobulin M (IgM) were produced and used as research tools. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that all the three MAbs had a high binding capacity with sea bass serum IgM...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682724/neutrophil-phenotypes-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Pien Hellebrekers, Nienke Vrisekoop, Leo Koenderman
Neutrophils are one of the most important effector cells of the innate immune response(1). They are traditionally seen as a homogenous population of short lived cells mainly involved in the defense against extracellular micro-organisms by phagocytosis and intracellular killing(1,2). The cells contain a large armamentarium that aids in this function and ranges from the production of reactive oxygen species by a membrane-bound NADPH oxidase to cytotoxic proteins and peptides residing in the different granules present in the cytoplasm(3)...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680907/nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-regulates-aged-rbc-clearance
#3
Li Qin, Zhao Fengyong, Zhang Jiamin, Yang Qixiu, Lu Geming, Xia Rongwei, Zhu Ziyan
The NLR family pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is triggered by various stimuli. Whether the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated during the monocyte clearing of aged or damaged erythrocytes is unknown. This work aimed to determine whether the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated during the THP-1 cell engulfing of aged erythrocytes. In the study, THP-1 cells were treated with PMA and then coincubated with untreated red blood cells (RBCs), 42 °C-treated RBCs, immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-D-sensitized RBCs, Rhnull/Rhmod RBC sample, hemoglobin, and RBC ghost...
April 21, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680844/utilizing-the-nanosecond-pulse-technique-to-improve-antigen-intracellular-delivery-and-presentation-to-treat-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
C Gao, X Zhang, J Chen, J Zhao, Y Liu, J Zhang, J Wang
BACKGROUND: Tongue squamous cell carcinoma is the most common squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Immunotherapy has great potential in the treatment of tongue squamous cell carcinoma because of its unique advantages. However, the efficacy of immunotherapy is limited by the efficiency of antigen phagocytosis by immune cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We extracted dendritic cells (DCs) from human peripheral blood. Utilizing a nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF), we deliver the tumour lysate protein into DCs and then incubate the DCs with PBMCs to obtain specific T cells to kill tumour cells...
April 22, 2018: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680689/chicken-type-lysozyme-functions-in-the-antibacterial-immunity-in-red-swamp-cray%C3%AF-sh-procambarus-clarkii
#5
Tian-Jiang Liao, Jie Gao, Jin-Xing Wang, Xian-Wei Wang
Lysozymes possess antibacterial activities, making them crucial defense proteins in innate immunity. In this study, a chicken-type (c-type) lysozyme (designated PcLyzc) was cloned and characterized from red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. The full-length cDNA had an open reading frame of 435 base pairs encoding a polypeptide of 144 amino acid residues. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis revealed that PcLyzc shared high similarity to the other known invertebrate c-type lysozymes. PcLyzc transcripts were steadily expressed in a wide range of tissues in healthy crayfish, and were prominently up-regulated in the hepatopancreas and gills after Vibrio anguillarum or Aeromonas hydrophila challenge...
April 11, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680655/enhanced-phagocytosis-of-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-cells-by-macrophages-activated-by-a-probiotic-lactobacillus-strain
#6
N Jaffar, T Okinaga, T Nishihara, T Maeda
The activation of phagocytosis is one important approach to clearing pathogenic cells in a host. This study evaluated the ability of probiotic lactobacilli to induce phagocytic activity as well as the clearance of a periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. First, the activation of phagocytosis was found by using lyophilized dead cells. Probiotic Lactobacillus strains significantly enhanced the phagocytic activity of macrophage cells, indicating that the probiotic lactobacilli have a remarkable ability to stimulate the macrophages...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680489/molecular-characterization-of-shrimp-harbinger-transposase-derived-1-harbi1-like-and-its-role-in-white-spot-syndrome-virus-and-vibrio-alginolyticus-infection
#7
Baozhen Sun, Xiyi Qian, Fei Zhu
The role of the nuclease, HARBI1-like protein (mjHARBI1-like) in the innate immunity of Marsupenaeus japonicus was explored in this study. The 1361 bp cDNA sequence of mjHARBI1-like was cloned from M. japonicus using RACE. RT-qPCR analysis results showed that the gills and hepatopancreas of M. japonicus were the main tissues where mjHARBI1-like is expressed. In addition, it was also found that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or Vibrio alginolyticus challenge could stimulate mjHARBI1-like expression. After mjHARBI1-likewas inhibited, expression of immune genes such as toll, p53, myosin, and proPO were significantly downregulated (P < 0...
April 19, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680378/characterisation-of-bergeyella-spp-isolated-from-the-nasal-cavities-of-piglets
#8
M Lorenzo de Arriba, S Lopez-Serrano, N Galofre-Mila, V Aragon
The aim of this study was to characterise bacteria in the genus Bergeyella isolated from the nasal passages of healthy piglets. Nasal swabs from 3 to 4 week-old piglets from eight commercial domestic pig farms and one wild boar farm were cultured under aerobic conditions. Twenty-nine Bergeyella spp. isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and 11 genotypes were discriminated by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR. Bergeyella zoohelcum and Bergeyella porcorum were identified within the 11 genotypes...
April 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679762/scavenger-receptor-b-promotes-bacteria-clearance-by-enhancing-phagocytosis-and-attenuates-white-spot-syndrome-virus-proliferation-in-scylla-paramamosian
#9
Tongtong Kong, Yi Gong, Yan Liu, Xiaobo Wen, Ngoc Tuan Tran, Jude Juventus Aweya, Yueling Zhang, Hongyu Ma, Huaiping Zheng, Shengkang Li
Phagocytosis and apoptosis are key cellular innate immune responses against bacteria and virus in invertebrates. Class B scavenger receptors (SRBs), which contain a CD36 domain, are critical pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of phagocytosis for bacteria and apoptotic cells. In the present study, we identified a member of SRB subfamily in mud crab Scylla paramamosain, named Sp-SRB. The full-length cDNA of Sp-SRB is 2593 bp with a 1629 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 542 amino acids, and predicted to contain a CD36 domain with two transmembrane regions at the C- and N-terminals...
April 18, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679665/comparison-of-exosomes-and-ferritin-protein-nanocages-for-the-delivery-of-membrane-protein-therapeutics
#10
Eunji Cho, Gi-Hoon Nam, Yeonsun Hong, Yoon Kyoung Kim, Dong-Hwee Kim, Yoosoo Yang, In-San Kim
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted by most cell types that play an important role in intercellular communication. Due to the characteristic of transferring their biomacromolecules, exosomes have potential as a new alternative for delivering protein therapeutics. Here, we investigate whether exosomes provide crucial advantages over other nanoparticles, in particular protein nanocage formulations, as a delivery system for membrane protein therapeutics. We characterized membrane-scaffold-based exosomes and protein-scaffold-based ferritin nanocages, both harboring SIRPα (signal regulatory protein α), an antagonist of CD47 on tumor cells...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674123/effects-of-dietary-toxic-cyanobacteria-and-ammonia-exposure-on-immune-function-of-blunt-snout-bream-megalabrama-amblycephala
#11
Hu Xia, Ting Song, Li Wang, Liangsen Jiang, Qiting Zhou, Weimin Wang, Liangguo Liu, Pinhong Yang, Xuezhen Zhang
Cyanobacterial blooms caused by water eutrophication have become a worldwide problem. During the degradation of toxic cyanobacterial blooms, elevated ammonia and microcystins concentrations co-occur and exert toxicity on fish. Up to now, the combined effect of microcystins and ammonia on fish immunotoxicity has not been reported. The present study investigated immune responses of blunt snout bream (Megalabrama amblycephala) to dietary toxic cyanobacteria and ammonia exposure. Megalobrama amblycephala were exposed to solutions with different concentrations of NH3 -N (0, 0...
April 16, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673839/development-of-a-macrophage-targeting-and-phagocytosis-inducing-bio-nanocapsule-based-nanocarrier-for-drug-delivery
#12
Hao Li, Kenji Tatematsu, Masaharu Somiya, Masumi Iijima, Shun' Ichi Kuroda
Macrophage hyperfunction or dysfunction is tightly associated with various diseases, such as osteoporosis, inflammatory disorder, and cancers. However, nearly all conventional drug delivery system (DDS) nanocarriers utilize endocytosis for entering target cells; thus, the development of macrophage-targeting and phagocytosis-inducing DDS nanocarriers for treating these diseases is required. In this study, we developed a hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope L particle (i.e., bio-nanocapsule (BNC)) outwardly displaying a tandem form of protein G-derived IgG Fc-binding domain and protein L-derived IgG Fab-binding domain (GL-BNC)...
April 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673307/the-pathology-of-wobbly-hedgehog-syndrome
#13
Josué Díaz-Delgado, Derick B Whitley, Ralph W Storts, Jill J Heatley, Sharman Hoppes, Brian F Porter
Wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) is a leading cause of neurologic disease in African pygmy hedgehogs (APHs; Atelerix albiventris). This study describes the signalment, clinical signs, gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural lesions of WHS in a cohort of 12 pet APHs. Microscopically, lesions consisted of status spongiosus of the white matter, typically bilateral and symmetrical, with myelin degeneration and loss that was accompanied by neuronal/axonal degeneration plus reactive microgliosis and mild, focal astrocytosis and astrogliosis...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672850/ursolic-acid-ameliorates-ccl4-induced-liver-fibrosis-through-the-noxs-ros-pathway
#14
Dakai Gan, Wang Zhang, Chenkai Huang, Jiang Chen, Wenhua He, Anjiang Wang, Bimin Li, Xuan Zhu
Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response that occurs after liver injury. NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are expressed in hepatocytes (HCs), hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and Kupffer cells (KCs) play an important role in the development of hepatic fibrosis. In in vitro studies, we had shown that ursolic acid (UA) could reverse liver fibrosis by inhibiting the activation of NOX-mediated fibrotic signaling networks in HSCs. In this study, we verified that UA could alleviate CCl4-induced liver fibrosis by reducing the expression of NOXs/ROS in HCs, HSCs, KCs...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672626/engystol-reduces-onset-of-experimental-respiratory-syncytial-virus-induced-respiratory-inflammation-in-mice-by-modulating-macrophage-phagocytic-capacity
#15
Sabine Wronski, Julia Dannenmaier, Sabine Schild, Olaf Macke, Laura Müller, Yvonne Burmeister, Bernd Seilheimer, Meike Müller
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or rhinovirus are one of the major causes for respiratory tract infections causing common cold disease. Respiratory viral infections range from mild symptoms in adults to serious illness especially in the very young or elderly as well as patients suffering from lung diseases or being immunocompromised due to other reasons. Engystol (EGY-2) is a multicomponent, multitarget preparation consisting of Vincetoxicum hirundinaria and Sulfur in various dilutions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672589/neutrophil-killing-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-by-intra-and-extracellular-mechanisms
#16
Kenneth C Malcolm, Silvia M Caceres, Kerstin Pohl, Katie R Poch, Audrey Bernut, Laurent Kremer, Donna L Bratton, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Jerry A Nick
Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterium, are increasingly present in soft tissue infections and chronic lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, and infections are characterized by growth in neutrophil-rich environments. M. abscessus is observed as two distinct smooth and rough morphotypes. The environmental smooth morphotype initiates infection and has a relatively limited ability to activate neutrophils. The rough morphotype has increased virulence and immunogenicity. However, the neutrophil response to the rough morphotype has not been explored...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670632/quantitative-simulations-predict-treatment-strategies-against-fungal-infections-in-virtual-neutropenic-patients
#17
Sandra Timme, Teresa Lehnert, Maria T E Prauße, Kerstin Hünniger, Ines Leonhardt, Oliver Kurzai, Marc Thilo Figge
The condition of neutropenia, i.e., a reduced absolute neutrophil count in blood, constitutes a major risk factor for severe infections in the affected patients. Candida albicans and Candida glabrata are opportunistic pathogens and the most prevalent fungal species in the human microbiota. In immunocompromised patients, they can become pathogenic and cause infections with high mortality rates. In this study, we use a previously established approach that combines experiments and computational models to investigate the innate immune response during blood stream infections with the two fungal pathogens C...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670625/immunology-of-cryptococcal-infections-developing-a-rational-approach-to-patient-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Waleed Elsegeiny, Kieren A Marr, Peter R Williamson
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is responsible for upwards of 15% of HIV-related deaths worldwide and is currently the most common cause of non-viral meningitis in the US, affecting both previously healthy and people with immune suppression caused by cancer chemotherapy, transplantation, and biologic therapies. Despite a continued 30-50% attributable mortality, recommended therapeutic strategies have remained largely unchanged since the 1950s. Recent murine models and human studies examining the role of the immune system in both susceptibility to the infection as well as host damage have begun to influence patient care decisions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670154/comprehensive-comparison-of-polysaccharides-from-ganoderma-lucidum-and-g-sinense-chemical-antitumor-immunomodulating-and-gut-microbiota-modulatory-properties
#19
Li-Feng Li, Hong-Bing Liu, Quan-Wei Zhang, Zhi-Peng Li, Tin-Long Wong, Hau-Yee Fung, Ji-Xia Zhang, Su-Ping Bai, Ai-Ping Lu, Quan-Bin Han
Both Ganoderma lucidum (GL) and G. sinense (GS) are used as Lingzhi in China. Their functions are assumed to mainly derive from triterpenes and polysaccharides; however, the two species have very different triterpenes profiles, if this was the case, then the bioactivity of these two species should differ. Instead, could the polysaccharides be similar, contributing to the shared therapeutic basis? In this study, two main polysaccharide fractions from different batches of GL and GS were systematically compared by a series of chemical and biological experiments...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670130/a-novel-s100a8-a9-induced-fingerprint-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-associated-with-enhanced-wound-healing
#20
Abhijit Basu, Saira Munir, Medanie A Mulaw, Karmveer Singh, Benedikt Herold, Diana Crisan, Anca Sindrilaru, Nicolai Treiber, Meinhard Wlaschek, Markus Huber-Lang, Florian Gebhard, Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek
We here investigated whether the unique capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to re-establish tissue homeostasis depends on their potential to sense danger associated molecular pattern (DAMP) and to mount an adaptive response in the interest of tissue repair. Unexpectedly, after injection of MSCs which had been pretreated with the calcium-binding DAMP protein S100A8/A9 into murine full-thickness wounds, we observed a significant acceleration of healing even exceeding that of non-treated MSCs. This correlates with a fundamental reprogramming of the transcriptome in S100A8/A9 treated MSCs as deduced from RNA-seq analysis and its validation...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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