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Phagocytosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471408/thiazole-derivatives-act-on-virulence-factors-of-cryptococcus-spp
#1
Nívea Pereira de Sá, Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Jéssica Aparecida Vaz, Renata Barbosa de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Rosa, Daniel Assis Santos, Susana Johann
Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic or primary fungal infection considered to be the most prevalent fatal fungal disease worldwide. Owing to the limited number of available drugs, it is necessary to search for novel antifungal compounds. In the present work, we assessed the antifungal efficacy of three thiazole derivatives (1, 2, and 3). We conducted in vitro and in vivo assays to investigate their effects on important virulence factors, such as capsule and biofilm formation. In addition, the phagocytosis index of murine macrophages exposed to compounds 1, 2, and 3 and the in vivo efficacy of 1, 2, and 3 in Galleria mellonella infected with Cryptococcus spp...
February 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471269/how-to-build-a-phagosome-new-concepts-for-an-old-process
#2
REVIEW
Florence Niedergang, Sergio Grinstein
Phagocytosis is a complex and elegant mechanism requiring finely coordinated deformation and restructuring of the membrane and the underlying cytoskeleton. Here we discuss the early events of receptor clustering and engagement required for signal transduction and actin remodeling. In addition, we summarize recent studies of the mechanisms whereby the nascent phagosome seals and evolves into a degradative phagolysosome by a process that seemingly involves the autophagic machinery. These studies provided new insights of the molecular basis of this long-appreciated, essential homeostatic process...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468176/inhibition-of-the-potassium-channel-kv1-3-reduces-infarction-and-inflammation-in-ischemic-stroke
#3
Yi-Je Chen, Hai M Nguyen, Izumi Maezawa, Lee-Way Jin, Heike Wulff
Objective: Inhibitors of the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1.3 are currently in development as immunomodulators for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. As Kv1.3 is also expressed on microglia and has been shown to be specifically up-regulated on "M1-like" microglia, we here tested the therapeutic hypothesis that the brain-penetrant small-molecule Kv1.3-inhibitor PAP-1 reduces secondary inflammatory damage after ischemia/reperfusion. Methods: We studied microglial Kv1...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467937/temozolomide-sirolimus-and-chloroquine-is-a-new-therapeutic-combination-that-synergizes-to-disrupt-lysosomal-function-and-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-gbm-cells
#4
Sanford P C Hsu, John S Kuo, Hsin-Chien Chiang, Hsin-Ell Wang, Yu-Shan Wang, Cheng-Chung Huang, Yi-Chun Huang, Mau-Shin Chi, Minesh P Mehta, Kwan-Hwa Chi
Glioblastoma (GBM) cells are characterized by high phagocytosis, lipogenesis, exocytosis activities, low autophagy capacity and high lysosomal demand are necessary for survival and invasion. The lysosome stands at the cross roads of lipid biosynthesis, transporting, sorting between exogenous and endogenous cholesterol. We hypothesized that three already approved drugs, the autophagy inducer, sirolimus (rapamycin, Rapa), the autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ), and DNA alkylating chemotherapy, temozolomide (TMZ) could synergize against GBM...
January 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467763/functional-role-of-transient-receptor-potential-channels-in-immune-cells-and-epithelia
#5
REVIEW
Mohammad Khalil, Korina Alliger, Carl Weidinger, Cansu Yerinde, Stefan Wirtz, Christoph Becker, Matthias Agop Engel
Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are widely expressed in several tissues throughout the mammalian organism. Originally, TRP channel physiology was focusing on its fundamental meaning in sensory neuronal function. Today, it is known that activation of several TRP ion channels in peptidergic neurons does not only result in neuropeptide release and consecutive neurogenic inflammation. Growing evidence demonstrates functional extra-neuronal TRP channel expression in immune and epithelial cells with important implications for mucosal immunology...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467007/enhanced-glycolysis-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-experimental-autoimmune-neuritis
#6
Ru-Tao Liu, Min Zhang, Chun-Lin Yang, Peng Zhang, Na Zhang, Tong Du, Meng-Ru Ge, Long-Tao Yue, Xiao-Li Li, Heng Li, Rui-Sheng Duan
BACKGROUND: With the recognition of the key roles of cellular metabolism in immunity, targeting metabolic pathway becomes a new strategy for autoimmune disease treatment. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system, characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration. These inflammatory cells, including activated macrophages, Th1 cells, and Th17 cells, generally undergo metabolic reprogramming and rely mainly on glycolysis to exert functions...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466735/noninflammatory-changes-of-microglia-are-sufficient-to-cause-epilepsy
#7
Xiaofeng Zhao, Yuan Liao, Shannon Morgan, Ramkumar Mathur, Paul Feustel, Joseph Mazurkiewicz, Jiang Qian, Julia Chang, Gary W Mathern, Matthew A Adamo, Anthony L Ritaccio, Michael Gruenthal, Xinjun Zhu, Yunfei Huang
Microglia are well known to play a critical role in maintaining brain homeostasis. However, their role in epileptogenesis has yet to be determined. Here, we demonstrate that elevated mTOR signaling in mouse microglia leads to phenotypic changes, including an amoeboid-like morphology, increased proliferation, and robust phagocytosis activity, but without a significant induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We further provide evidence that these noninflammatory changes in microglia disrupt homeostasis of the CNS, leading to reduced synapse density, marked microglial infiltration into hippocampal pyramidal layers, moderate neuronal degeneration, and massive proliferation of astrocytes...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465565/peripheral-whole-blood-lncrna-expression-analysis-in-patients-with-eosinophilic-asthma
#8
Yu-Jin Zhu, Dan Mao, Wei Gao, Hong Hu
Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) plays roles in many diseases including asthma. Several lncRNAs function in the early differentiation of T-helper cells. lncRNA controls gene transcription, protein expression, and epigenetic regulation. Of the 4 asthma phenotypes, eosinophilic asthma (EA) is the most common. However, the lncRNAs associated with eosinophilic asthma have yet to be identified.We designed a study to identify the circulating lncRNA signature in EA samples. We tested whether significant differences in lncRNA expression were observed between blood samples from patients with EA and healthy individuals (control)...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465400/tumor-initiating-cells-induce-cxcr4-mediated-infiltration-of-pro-tumoral-macrophages-into-the-brain
#9
Kelda Chia, Julie Mazzolini, Marina Mione, Dirk Sieger
It is now clear that microglia and macrophages are present in brain tumors, but whether or how they affect initiation and development of tumors is not known. Exploiting the advantages of the zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) model, we showed that macrophages and microglia respond immediately upon oncogene activation in the brain. Overexpression of human AKT1 within neural cells of larval zebrafish led to a significant increase in the macrophage and microglia populations. By using a combination of transgenic and mutant zebrafish lines, we showed that this increase was caused by the infiltration of peripheral macrophages into the brain mediated via Sdf1b-Cxcr4b signaling...
February 21, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463656/-yersinia-pestis-targets-the-host-endosome-recycling-pathway-during-the-biogenesis-of-the-yersinia-containing-vacuole-to-avoid-killing-by-macrophages
#10
Michael G Connor, Amanda R Pulsifer, Donghoon Chung, Eric C Rouchka, Brian K Ceresa, Matthew B Lawrenz
Yersinia pestis has evolved many strategies to evade the innate immune system. One of these strategies is the ability to survive within macrophages. Upon phagocytosis, Y. pestis prevents phagolysosome maturation and establishes a modified compartment termed the Yersinia -containing vacuole (YCV). Y. pestis actively inhibits the acidification of this compartment, and eventually, the YCV transitions from a tight-fitting vacuole into a spacious replicative vacuole. The mechanisms to generate the YCV have not been defined...
February 20, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463646/mutant-idh1-disrupts-pkm2-%C3%AE-catenin-brg1-transcriptional-network-driven-cd47-expression
#11
Pruthvi Gowda, Shruti Patrick, Ankita Singh, Touseef Sheikh, Ellora Sen
Gain-of-function mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase1 (IDH1) affects immune-surveillance in gliomas. As elevated CD47 is associated with immune evasion in cancers, its status in gliomas harboring IDH1-MT was investigated. Decreased CD47 expression in IDH1-R132H overexpressing cells was accompanied by diminished nuclear β-catenin, PKM2 and TCF4 levels as compared to IDH1-WT. Inhibition of β-catenin in IDH1-WT abrogated CD47 expression, β-catenin-TCF4 interaction and transactivational activity of β-catenin/TCF4...
February 20, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462886/lung-macrophage-phenotypes-and-functional-responses-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-copd
#12
REVIEW
Kei Yamasaki, Stephan F van Eeden
Lung macrophages (LMs) are essential immune effector cells that are pivotal in both innate and adaptive immune responses to inhaled foreign matter. They either reside within the airways and lung tissues (from early life) or are derived from blood monocytes. Similar to macrophages in other organs and tissues, LMs have natural plasticity and can change phenotype and function depending largely on the microenvironment they reside in. Phenotype changes in lung tissue macrophages have been implicated in chronic inflammatory responses and disease progression of various chronic lung diseases, including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461939/antibacterial-properties-of-four-novel-hit-compounds-from-a-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-caenorhabditis-elegans-high-throughput-screen
#13
Nagendran Tharmalingam, Rajmohan Rajmuthiah, Wooseong Kim, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Elamparithi Jeyamani, Michael J Kelso, Eleftherios Mylonakis
There is an urgent need for the discovery of effective new antimicrobial agents to combat the rise of bacterial drug resistance. High-throughput screening (HTS) in whole-animal infection models is a powerful tool for identifying compounds that show antibacterial activity and low host toxicity. In this report, we characterize the activities of four novel antistaphylococcal compounds identified from an HTS campaign conducted using Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
February 20, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461260/hemolysis-and-immune-regulation
#14
Hui Zhong, Karina Yazdanbakhsh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hemolytic anemias caused by premature destruction of red blood cells occur in many disorders including hemoglobinopathies, autoimmune conditions, during infection or following reaction to drugs or transfusions. Recent studies which will be reviewed here have uncovered several novel mechanisms by which hemolysis can alter immunological functions and increase the risk of severe complications in hemolytic disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Plasma-free heme can induce the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) through reactive oxygen species signaling...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459776/antibodies-in-children-with-malaria-to-pfemp1-rifin-and-surfin-expressed-at-the-plasmodium-falciparum-parasitized-red-blood-cell-surface
#15
Maria Del Pilar Quintana, Jun-Hong Ch'ng, Kirsten Moll, Arash Zandian, Peter Nilsson, Zulkarnain Md Idris, Somporn Saiwaew, Ulrika Qundos, Mats Wahlgren
Naturally acquired antibodies to proteins expressed on the Plasmodium falciparum parasitized red blood cell (pRBC) surface steer the course of a malaria infection by reducing sequestration and stimulating phagocytosis of pRBC. Here we have studied a selection of proteins representing three different parasite gene families employing a well-characterized parasite with a severe malaria phenotype (FCR3S1.2). The presence of naturally acquired antibodies, impact on rosetting rate, surface reactivity and opsonization for phagocytosis in relation to different blood groups of the ABO system were assessed in a set of sera from children with mild or complicated malaria from an endemic area...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459706/gene-based-predictive-models-of-trophic-modes-suggest-asgard-archaea-are-not-phagocytotic
#16
John A Burns, Alexandros A Pittis, Eunsoo Kim
With the current explosion of genomic data, there is a greater need to draw inference on phenotypic information based on DNA sequence alone. We considered complete genomes from 35 diverse eukaryotic lineages, and discovered sets of proteins predictive of trophic mode, including a set of 485 proteins that are enriched among phagocytotic eukaryotes (organisms that internalize large particles). Our model is also predictive of other aspects of trophic mode, including photosynthesis and the ability to synthesize a set of organic compounds needed for growth (prototrophy for those molecules)...
February 19, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459514/activation-of-macrophages-in-vitro-by-phospholipids-from-brain-of-katsuwonus-pelamis-skipjack-tuna
#17
Hang Lu, Li Zhang, Hui Zhao, Jingjing Li, Hailin You, Lu Jiang, Jianen Hu
The biological activities of phospholipids (PLs) have attracted people's attention, especially marine phospholipids with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids DHA and EPA. In this study, we investigated the immunity activation of macrophages in vitro by phospholipids from skipjack brain. The phospholipids were extracted with hexane and ethanol ultrasonication instead of the traditional method of methanol and chloroform. The content of phospholipids from Skipjack brain was 19.59 g/kg by the method (the ratio of hexane and ethanol 2:1, 40 min, 35°C, 1:9 of the ratio of material to solvent, ultrasonic power 300W, ultrasonic extraction 2 times)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458565/the-dnases-of-pathogenic-lancefield-streptococci
#18
Alex Remmington, Claire E Turner
DNases are abundant among the pathogenic streptococci, with most species harbouring genes for at least one. Despite their prevalence, however, the role for these extracellular enzymes is still relatively unclear. The DNases of the Lancefield group A Streptococcus, S. pyogenes are the best characterized, with a total of eight DNase genes identified so far. Six are known to be associated with integrated prophages. Two are chromosomally encoded, and one of these is cell-wall anchored. Homologues of both prophage-associated and chromosomally encoded S...
January 25, 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458557/evaluation-of-greater-wax-moth-larvae-galleria-mellonella-as-a-novel-in-vivo-model-for-non-tuberculosis-mycobacteria-infections-and-antibiotic-treatments
#19
Frances M Entwistle, Peter J Coote
PURPOSE: To evaluate the suitability of Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo model and drug-screening tool for mycobacteria infections. METHODOLOGY: Larvae were infected using a range of inoculum sizes from a variety of rapid-growing mycobacteria, including strains of M. fortuitum, M. marinum and M. aurum. Larval survival, internal bacterial burden and the effects of amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ethambutol, isoniazid and rifampicin treatment on larval survival were measured over 144 h...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456184/quantified-f-actin-morphology-is-predictive-of-phagocytic-capacity-of-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#20
Claudia Müller, Carol Charniga, Sally Temple, Silvia C Finnemann
With stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) replacement therapies in clinical testing, establishing potency of RPE prior to transplantation is imperative. Phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segment fragments (POS) is a key indicator of RPE functionality. Comparing RPE derived from different donor human adult RPE stem cell lines, we found that cells were either high-phagocytic or low-phagocytic despite sharing phagocytic receptors and ligands, junctional ZO-1, and lack of epithelial-mesenchymal transition...
February 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
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