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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646090/cellular-functions-of-wasp-family-proteins-at-a-glance
#1
REVIEW
Olga Alekhina, Ezra Burstein, Daniel D Billadeau
Proteins of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family function as nucleation-promoting factors for the ubiquitously expressed Arp2/3 complex, which drives the generation of branched actin filaments. Arp2/3-generated actin regulates diverse cellular processes, including the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia, endocytosis and/or phagocytosis at the plasma membrane, and the generation of cargo-laden vesicles from organelles including the Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the endo-lysosomal network...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646038/aging-impairs-alveolar-macrophage-phagocytosis-and-increases-influenza-induced-mortality-in-mice
#2
Christine K Wong, Candice A Smith, Koji Sakamoto, Naftali Kaminski, Jonathan L Koff, Daniel R Goldstein
Influenza viral infections often lead to increased mortality in older people. However, the mechanisms by which aging impacts immunity to influenza lung infection remain unclear. We employed a murine model of influenza infection to identify these mechanisms. With aging, we found reduced numbers of alveolar macrophages, cells essential for lung homeostasis. We also determined that these macrophages are critical for influenza-induced mortality with aging. Furthermore, aging vastly alters the transcriptional profile and specifically downregulates cell cycling pathways in alveolar macrophages...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645512/the-rna-seq-analysis-suggests-a-potential-multi-component-complement-system-in-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#3
Lingling Wang, Huan Zhang, Leilei Wang, Daoxiang Zhang, Zhao Lv, Zhaoqun Liu, Weilin Wang, Zhi Zhou, Limei Qiu, Hao Wang, Jun Li, Linsheng Song
The complement system is one of the major effector mechanisms of immune system, playing essential roles in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, the counterparts of vertebrate complement components were identified by screening the sequenced genome of Crassostrea gigas, resulting in the identification of 792 gene models containing complement-related domains. The transcriptome of haemocytes at 6, 12 and 24 h post lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulation showed differential expression of 77 C1q domain containing proteins, 53 C-type lectins and 42 fibrinogen-related proteins...
June 20, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644129/anti-cd47-antibodies-induce-phagocytosis-of-live-malignant-b-cells-by-macrophages-via-the-fc-domain-resulting-in-cell-death-by-phagoptosis
#4
Lucy E Métayer, Anna Vilalta, G A Amos Burke, Guy C Brown
When expressed on the surface of cells, CD47 inhibits phagocytosis of these cells by phagocytes. Most human cancers overexpress CD47, and antibodies to CD47 have shown a remarkable ability to clear a range of cancers in animal models. However, the mechanism by which these antibodies cause cancer cell death is unclear. We find that CD47 is expressed on the surface of three B-cell lines from human malignancies: 697 (pre-B-ALL lymphoblasts), Ramos and DG-75 (both mature B-cells, Burkitt's lymphoma), and anti-CD47 antibodies greatly increase the phagocytosis of all three cell line by macrophages...
June 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643953/the-entomopathogenic-fungus-nomuraea-rileyi-impairs-cellular-immunity-of-its-host-helicoverpa-armigera
#5
Ke Zhong, Zhan-Chi Liu, Jia-Lin Wang, Xu-Sheng Liu
In this study, we investigated the effect of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi on Helicoverpa armigera cellular immune responses. Nomuraea rileyi infection had no effect on total hemocyte count (THC), but impaired hemocyte-mediated phagocytosis, nodulation, and encapsulation responses. Nomuraea rileyi infection led to a significant reduction in hemocyte spreading. An in vitro assay revealed that plasma from N. rileyi infected H. armigera larvae suppressed the spreading ability of hemocytes from naïve larvae...
June 23, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642575/reactive-astrocytes-function-as-phagocytes-after-brain-ischemia-via-abca1-mediated-pathway
#6
Yosuke M Morizawa, Yuri Hirayama, Noubuhiko Ohno, Shinsuke Shibata, Eiji Shigetomi, Yang Sui, Junichi Nabekura, Koichi Sato, Fumikazu Okajima, Hirohide Takebayashi, Hideyuki Okano, Schuichi Koizumi
Astrocytes become reactive following various brain insults; however, the functions of reactive astrocytes are poorly understood. Here, we show that reactive astrocytes function as phagocytes after transient ischemic injury and appear in a limited spatiotemporal pattern. Following transient brain ischemia, phagocytic astrocytes are observed within the ischemic penumbra region during the later stage of ischemia. However, phagocytic microglia are mainly observed within the ischemic core region during the earlier stage of ischemia...
June 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642550/cytokines-regulate-complement-receptor-immunoglobulin-expression-and-phagocytosis-of-candida-albicans-in-human-macrophages-a-control-point-in-anti-microbial-immunity
#7
Usma Munawara, Annabelle G Small, Alex Quach, Nick N Gorgani, Catherine A Abbott, Antonio Ferrante
Complement Receptor Immunoglobulin (CRIg), selectively expressed by macrophages, plays an important role in innate immunity by promoting phagocytosis of bacteria. Thus modulation of CRIg on macrophages by cytokines can be an important mechanism by which cytokines regulate anti-microbial immunity. The effects of the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor, transforming growth factor-β1, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, lymphotoxin-α, macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and GM-CSF on CRIg expression were examined in human macrophages...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640910/correction-btea-secreted-from-the-bordetella-bronchiseptica-type-iii-secetion-system-induces-necrosis-through-an-actin-cytoskeleton-signaling-pathway-and-inhibits-phagocytosis-by-macrophages
#8
Asaomi Kuwae, Fumitaka Momose, Kanna Nagamatsu, Yasuharu Suyama, Akio Abe
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148387.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640516/damp-molecular-il-33-augments-monocytic-inflammatory-storm-in-hepatitis-b-precipitated-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#9
Xiaoxing Du, Yu Shi, Ying Yang, Ye Yu, Guohua Lou, Fangfang Lv, Zhi Chen, Qiao Yang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) usually exhibit defective monocyte function and excessive systemic inflammatory response. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) acts as a danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) to modulate immune response. However, the role of IL-33 in regulating monocyte function during hepatitis B-precipitated ACLF (HB-ACLF) in response to lipopolisaccharide (LPS) has not been clear. METHODS: In the present study, the levels of IL-33/ST2 in blood and liver samples collected from patients with HB-ACLF, chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and normal controls and the associated of those findings with disease severity were analyzed...
June 22, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635255/characterization-and-immunomodulatory-activity-of-a-novel-peptide-ecfsta-from-wheat-germ-globulin
#10
Wenjia Wu, Mengmeng Zhang, Yao Ren, Xinze Cai, Zhina Yin, Xiaoai Zhang, Tian Min, Hui Wu
A novel peptide was extracted from wheat germ globulin and purified using ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and semi-preparative reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The sequence of the peptide was found to be Glu-Cys-Phe-Ser-Thr-Ala (ECFSTA). Its immunomodulatory effects were evaluated, and the results showed that ECFSTA could enhance phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 cells and significantly increase their secretion of nitric oxide (NO), interleukins-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634213/omega-3-fatty-acids-increase-the-unfolded-protein-response-and-improve-amyloid-%C3%AE-phagocytosis-by-macrophages-of-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
Henry M Olivera-Perez, Larry Lam, Johnny Dang, Weilan Jiang, Fabian Rodriguez, Elizabeth Rigali, Sarah Weitzman, Verna Porter, Liudmilla Rubi, Marco Morselli, Matteo Pellegrini, Milan Fiala
Mϕs of patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are defective in amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ) phagocytosis and have low resistance to apoptosis by Aβ. ω-3 in vitro and in vivo and the ω-3 mediator, resolvin D1, in vitro increase Aβ phagocytosis by Mϕs of patients with MCI. We have investigated the unfolded protein response (UPR) to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by Mϕs in a longitudinal study of fish-derived, ω-3-supplemented patients with MCI. Patients in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE)e3/e3 subgroup over time exhibited an increase of protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) expression, Aβ phagocytosis, intermediate M1-M2 Mϕ type, and a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) rate of change of +1...
June 20, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633893/genes-encoding-cuticular-proteins-are-components-of-the-nimrod-gene-cluster-in-drosophila
#12
Gyöngyi Cinege, János Zsámboki, Maite Vidal-Quadras, Anne Uv, Gábor Csordás, Viktor Honti, Erika Gábor, Zoltán Hegedűs, Gergely I B Varga, Attila L Kovács, Gábor Juhász, Michael J Williams, István Andó, Éva Kurucz
The Nimrod gene cluster, located on the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, is the largest synthenic unit of the Drosophila genome. Nimrod genes show blood cell specific expression and code for phagocytosis receptors that play a major role in fruit fly innate immune functions. We previously identified three homologous genes (vajk-1, vajk-2 and vajk-3) located within the Nimrod cluster, which are unrelated to the Nimrod genes, but are homologous to a fourth gene (vajk-4) located outside the cluster...
June 17, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632731/cd47-overexpression-is-associated-with-decreased-neutrophil-apoptosis-phagocytosis-and-poor-prognosis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients
#13
Lourdes Barrera, Edgar Montes-Servín, Juan-Manuel Hernandez-Martinez, María de Los Ángeles García-Vicente, Elizabeth Montes-Servín, Marytere Herrera-Martínez, José C Crispín, José Rafael Borbolla-Escoboza, Oscar Arrieta
BACKGROUND: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients often exhibit neutrophilia, which has been associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, the mechanisms that lead to neutrophilia have not been fully established. CD47 is an antiphagocytic molecule that promotes neutrophil recruitment. METHODS: Blood was collected from 50 treatment-naive patients with advanced NSCLC and from 25 healthy subjects. The frequency of CD66b(+) cells and the expression of CD47 were determined by flow cytometry...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632140/thermal-stability-and-rheological-properties-of-the-non-stick-caf1-biomaterial
#14
Yakup Ulusu, Gema Dura, Helen Waller, Matthew Benning, David Fulton, Jeremy Lakey, Daniel Thomas Peters
The ability to culture cells in three dimensions has many applications, from drug discovery to wound healing. 3D cell culture methods often require appropriate scaffolds that mimic the cellular environments of different tissue types. The choice of material from which these scaffolds are made is of paramount importance, as its properties will define the manner in which cells interact with the scaffold. Caf1 is a protein polymer that is secreted from its host organism, Yersinia pestis, to enable escape from phagocytosis...
June 20, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631038/the-significance-of-timd4-expression-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#15
Hiromu Yano, Takanobu Motoshima, Chaoya Ma, Cheng Pan, Sohsuke Yamada, Toshiyuki Nakayama, Shohei Kitada, Naohiro Fujimoto, Tomomi Kamba, Motohiro Takeya, Yoshihiro Komohara
T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIMD) family genes are related to innate immune responses. TIMD4 is a receptor for phosphatidylserine and is involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages. In the present study, we found that TIMD4 is expressed on the cancer cells of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). TIMD4 was immunostained in the resected samples of 89 patients diagnosed as ccRCC. High expression of TIMD4 in cancer cells was closely related to short progression free survival time; however, it was not correlated with other clinicopathological factors...
June 19, 2017: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630122/eculizumab-blocks-vaccine-induced-opsonophagocytic-killing-of-meningococci-by-whole-blood-from-immunized-adults
#16
Monica Konar, Dan M Granoff
Eculizumab, a humanized anti-complement C5 monoclonal antibody for treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, blocks the terminal complement pathway required for serum bactericidal activity (SBA). Because treated patients are at >1000-fold increased risk of meningococcal disease, vaccination is recommended, but whether vaccination can protect by opsonophagocytic activity in the absence of SBA is not known. Meningococci were added to anticoagulated blood from 12 healthy adults vaccinated with meningococcal serogroup B and serogroup A,C,W,Y vaccines...
June 19, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630102/the-phenotype-and-function-of-preterm-infant-monocytes-implications-for-susceptibility-to-infection
#17
REVIEW
Emma de Jong, Tobias Strunk, David Burgner, Pascal M Lavoie, Andrew Currie
The extreme vulnerability of preterm infants to invasive microbial infections has been attributed to "immature" innate immune defenses. Monocytes are important innate immune sentinel cells critical in the defense against infection in blood. They achieve this via diverse mechanisms that include pathogen recognition receptor- and inflammasome-mediated detection of microbes, migration into infected tissues, and differentiation into Mϕs and dendritic cells, initiation of the inflammatory cascade by free radicals and cytokine/chemokine production, pathogen clearance by phagocytosis and intracellular killing, and the removal of apoptotic cells...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629387/an-updated-assessment-of-microglia-depletion-current-concepts-and-future-directions
#18
REVIEW
Jinming Han, Robert A Harris, Xing-Mei Zhang
Microglia are the principal resident immune cells in the central nervous system and are believed to be versatile players in both inflammatory and physiological contexts. On the one hand, in order to safeguard the microenvironment microglia can be rapidly activated by contact with microbial products or cell debris, thereby exerting the functions of innate immunity via phagocytosis and secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Conversely, microglia can also assist in brain development, synaptic plasticity and neural repair through the production of neurotrophic factors and clearance of myelin debris...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628831/analysis-of-immunostimulatory-activity-of-polysaccharide-extracted-from-yu-ping-feng-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Wentao Fan, Pimiao Zheng, Yang Wang, Pan Hao, Jianzhu Liu, Xiaona Zhao
As a traditional Chinese multiherbal formula, Yu-Ping-Feng (YPF) is frequently used to treat cold, flu and inflammation-associated diseases. We aimed to evaluate the immunostimulatory effects of polysaccharide isolated from YPF (YPF-PS) in vitro and in vivo. In in vitro experiment, macrophage cell proliferation, phagocytosis rate, cytokine and costimulatory molecule release, T lymphocyte proliferation, cell cycle distribution, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell percentages were determined. To investigate the in vivo effects of YPF-PS treatment, different doses YPF-PS were administered to chicken vaccinated against Newcastle disease...
June 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628771/lentinan-diminishes-apoptotic-bodies-in-the-ileal-crypts-associated-with-s-1-administration
#20
Yasuyo Suga, Kenji Takehana
S-1 is an oral agent containing tegafur (a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil) that is used to treat various cancers, but adverse effects are frequent. Two pilot clinical studies have suggested that lentinan (LNT; β-1,3-glucan) may reduce the incidence of adverse effects caused by S-1 therapy. In this study, we established a murine model for assessment of gastrointestinal toxicity associated with S-1 and studied the effect of LNT. S-1 was administered orally to BALB/c mice at the effective dose (8.3mg/kg, as tegafur equivalent) once daily (5days per week) for 3weeks...
June 16, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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