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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742471/the-impact-of-initial-antibiotic-treatment-failure-real-world-insights-in-healthcare-associated-or-nosocomial-pneumonia
#1
Kellie Ryan, Sudeep Karve, Pascale Peeters, Elisa Baelen, Danielle Potter, Sonia Rojas-Farreras, Esther Pascual, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
OBJECTIVES: To assess real-world treatment patterns and clinical outcomes associated with initial antibiotic therapy (IAT, antibiotics received ≤48 h post-initiation of antibiotic therapy), including level of IAT failure, and potential risk factors for IAT failure in healthcare-associated infections. METHODS: Data were obtained from medical records of adult patients hospitalized with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) and nosocomial pneumonia (NP), including ventilator-associated pneumonia, from 1 July 2013 - 30 June 2014 in Brazil, France, Italy, Russia and Spain during the retrospective, observational study, RECOMMEND (NCT02364284; D4280R00005)...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721739/evaluation-of-a-pharmacy-driven-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-surveillance-protocol-in-pneumonia
#2
Sarah Dunaway, Kara W Orwig, Zachary Q Arbogast, Zachary L Myers, James A Sizemore, Stephanie E Giancola
Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of pneumonia and clinicians must determine when empiric antimicrobial therapy directed toward MRSA is needed. Objective To evaluate the effect of a pharmacy-driven protocol utilizing the nasal swab MRSA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to discontinue vancomycin on duration of vancomycin therapy and clinical outcomes in patients with suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) or healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). Setting A teaching hospital in Huntington, WV, USA...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717502/statin-use-high-cholesterol-and-prostate-cancer-progression-results-from-hcap-nc
#3
Emma H Allott, Laura Farnan, Susan E Steck, Lixin Song, Lenore Arab, L Joseph Su, Elizabeth T H Fontham, James L Mohler, Jeannette T Bensen
BACKGROUND: Statin use is associated with lower advanced prostate cancer risk and reduced prostate cancer-specific mortality, but prior studies were conducted mainly in white men. We examined the effect of statin use on risk of prostate cancer progression in a population-based, minority-enriched cohort. METHODS: We used data from prostate cancer cases (45% African American) diagnosed between 2004 and 2007 who participated in the Health Care Access and Prostate Cancer Treatment in North Carolina cohort (HCaP-NC)...
May 1, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691645/healthcare-associated-pneumonia-and-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-bacterial-aetiology-antibiotic-resistance-and-treatment-outcomes-a-study-from-north-india
#4
Sandeep Kumar, Rafi Ahmed Jan, Bashir Ahmad Fomda, Roohi Rasool, Parvaiz Koul, Sonaullah Shah, Umar Hafiz Khan, Syed Mudasir Qadri, Shariq Rashid Masoodi, Suhail Mantoo, Mudasir Muzamil
BACKGROUND: Data regarding the comparative profiling of HCAP and HAP from developing countries like India are scant. We set out to address the microbial aetiology, antibiotic resistance and treatment outcomes in patients with HCAP and HAP. METHODS: 318 consenting patients with HCAP (n = 165, aged 16-90 years; median 60 years; 97 males) or HAP (n = 153; aged 16-85 years; median 45 years; 92 males) presenting to a tertiary care hospital in North India from 2013 to 2015 were prospectively recruited for the study...
April 25, 2018: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520786/preliminary-investigation-of-the-vitamin-d-pathway-in-periodontal-connective-tissue-cells
#5
Zhanyi Gao, Kaining Liu, Huanxin Meng
BACKGROUND: The vitamin D pathway, from toll-like receptor activation to human cationic antimicrobial protein (hCAP-18/LL-37) generation, has been identified in monocytes and keratinocytes. This study aimed to investigate the vitamin D pathway in human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) and human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) and to provide preliminary evidence of its role in periodontal immune defense. METHODS: Primary cultures of hGFs and hPDLCs were stimulated with 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 , with or without Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide...
March 2018: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467813/subunits-of-human-condensins-are-potential-therapeutic-targets-for-cancers
#6
Hong-Zhen Wang, Si-Han Yang, Gui-Ying Li, Xudong Cao
The main role of condensins is to regulate chromosome condensation and segregation during cell cycles. Recently, it has been suggested in the literatures that subunits of condensin I and condensin II are involved in some human cancers. This paper will first briefly discuss discoveries of human condensins, their components and structures, and their multiple cellular functions. This will be followed by reviews of most recent studies on subunits of human condensins and their dysregulations or mutations in human cancers...
2018: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447204/comparison-of-viral-infection-in-healthcare-associated-pneumonia-hcap-and-community-acquired-pneumonia-cap
#7
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Eun Sun Kim, Kyoung Un Park, Sang Hoon Lee, Yeon Joo Lee, Jong Sun Park, Young-Jae Cho, Ho Il Yoon, Choon-Taek Lee, Jae Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: Although viruses are known to be the second most common etiological factor in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), the respiratory viral profile of the patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) has not yet been elucidated. We investigated the prevalence and the clinical impact of respiratory virus infection in adult patients with HCAP. METHODS: Patients admitted with HCAP or CAP, between January and December 2016, to a tertiary referral hospital in Korea, were prospectively enrolled, and virus identification was performed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407178/voltammetric-monitoring-of-linezolid-meropenem-and-theophylline-in-plasma
#8
Ali K Attia, Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Ghada M El-Sayed, Samah M Kamal
Treatment of healthcare associated Pneumonia (HCAP) caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) requires therapeutic protocols formed of linezolid (LIN) either alone or in combination with meropenem (MERO) and theophylline (THEO). The inter-individual pharmacokinetic variations require the development of reliable therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) tools especially in immunocompromised patients. A sensitive square wave voltammetric sensor using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified carbon paste electrode in Britton-Robinson buffer was developed and validated...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377525/mesoporous-bioactive-glass-embedding-propolis-and-cranberry-antibiofilm-compounds
#9
Maria Elisa Galarraga-Vinueza, Joana Mesquita-Guimarães, Ricardo S Magini, Júlio C M Souza, Marcio C Fredel, Aldo R Boccaccini
The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical reactivity of 58S mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) particles in as-synthesized condition and after embedding propolis and cranberry antibiofilm compounds at different concentrations. MBG 58S was synthesized by alkali sol-gel method with the addition of the triblock pluronic copolymer P123 as surfactant. Samples were characterized by physicochemical properties measurement, N2 adsorption/desorption analysis, and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) observations...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340593/the-clinical-utility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-nasal-screening-to-rule-out-mrsa-pneumonia-a-diagnostic-meta-analysis-with-antimicrobial-stewardship-implications
#10
Diane M Parente, Cheston B Cunha, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Tristan T Timbrook
Background: Recent literature has highlighted MRSA nasal screening as a possible antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) tool for avoiding unnecessary empiric MRSA therapy for pneumonia, yet current guidelines recommend MRSA therapy based on risk factors. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic value of MRSA nasal screening in MRSA pneumonia. Methods: Pubmed and EMBASE were searched from inception to November 2016 for English studies evaluating MRSA nasal screening and development of MRSA pneumonia...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260037/cefepime-induced-neurotoxicity-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Cigdem Isitan, Andrew Ferree, Anna DePold Hohler
Cefepime is a fourth generation cephalosporin which is bactericidal for broad spectrum of organisms. This is a case-series of three patients who presented to our hospital with confusion secondary to cefepime use to treat urinary tract infection (UTI) and health care associated pneumonia (HCAP), after excluding other common etiologies of altered mental status (AMS). Of these three patients, one had progressive expressive aphasia and the other two demonstrated asynchronous myoclonic activity of the limbs. The symptoms were seen within four to five days of initiating the treatment and resolved within three days of discontinuation of cefepime...
September 2017: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258809/could-qsofa-and-sofa-score-be-correctly-estimating-the-severity-of-healthcare-associated-pneumonia
#12
Nobuhiro Asai, Hiroki Watanabe, Arufumi Shiota, Hideo Kato, Daisuke Sakanashi, Mao Hagihara, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Hiroshige Mikamo
The Japanese Respiratory Society newly updated the prognostic guidelines for pneumonia in 2017. Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score are used to evaluate the severity of pneumonia and to select the therapy for pneumonia. This is a retrospective study at Aichi Medical University hospital from January to December of 2016 to investigate the accuracy and usefulness of qSOFA and SOFA score in evaluating the severity and prognosis of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP)...
March 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236286/corticosteroids-for-pneumonia
#13
REVIEW
Anat Stern, Keren Skalsky, Tomer Avni, Elena Carrara, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious illness. Corticosteroids have been suggested for the treatment of different types of infection, however their role in the treatment of pneumonia remains unclear. This is an update of a review published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment of pneumonia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS on 3 March 2017, together with relevant conference proceedings and references of identified trials...
December 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126531/cap-hcap-hap-vap-the-diachronic-linguistics-of-pneumonia
#14
EDITORIAL
Jason P Burnham, Marin H Kollef
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091975/treatment-trends-and-outcomes-in-healthcare-associated-pneumonia
#15
Sarah Haessler, Tara Lagu, Peter K Lindenauer, Daniel J Skiest, Aruna Priya, Penelope S Pekow, Marya D Zilberberg, Thomas L Higgins, Michael B Rothberg
BACKGROUND: The American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for management of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), first published in 2005, have been controversial regarding the selection of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics, whether the criteria for HCAP predicts the likelihood of infection with multidrug resistant organisms, and whether HCAP patients have improved outcomes when treated with empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study at 488 US hospitals from July 2007 to November 2011...
November 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091929/the-cathelicidin-protein-cramp-is-a-potential-atherosclerosis-self-antigen-in-apoe-mice
#16
Peter M Mihailovic, Wai Man Lio, Juliana Yano, Xiaoning Zhao, Jianchang Zhou, Kuang-Yuh Chyu, Prediman K Shah, Bojan Cercek, Paul C Dimayuga
Auto-immunity is believed to contribute to inflammation in atherosclerosis. The antimicrobial peptide LL-37, a fragment of the cathelicidin protein precursor hCAP18, was previously identified as an autoantigen in psoriasis. Given the reported link between psoriasis and coronary artery disease, the biological relevance of the autoantigen to atherosclerosis was tested in vitro using a truncated (t) form of the mouse homolog of hCAP18, CRAMP, on splenocytes from athero-prone ApoE(-/-) mice. Stimulation with tCRAMP resulted in increased CD8+ T cells with Central Memory and Effector Memory phenotypes in ApoE(-/-) mice, differentially activated by feeding with normal chow or high fat diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077289/-predictors-of-drug-resistant-pathogens-in-community-onset-pneumonia-are-factors-considered-in-health-care-associated-pneumonia-useful-in-the-emergency-department
#17
Olga H Torres Bonafonte, Eva Gil Olivas, Estefanía Pérez Macho, Cristina Pacho Pacho, Miriam Mateo Roca, Jordi Casademont Pou, Domingo Ruiz Hidalgo
OBJECTIVES: To analyze factors related to drug-resistant pathogens (DRPs) in community-onset pneumonia (COP) and whether previously suggested criteria are useful in our emergency-department. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective 1-year study of adults coming to the emergency department for COP. We assessed the usefulness of criteria used in health-care-associated pneumonia (HCAP), as well the Shorr index, the Barthel index, and clinical suspicion of resistant pathogens...
October 2017: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049213/clinical-characteristics-and-prognostic-risk-factors-of-healthcare-associated-pneumonia-in-a-korean-tertiary-teaching-hospital
#18
June H Ahn, Kwan H Lee, Jin H Chung, Kyeong-Cheol Shin, Choong K Lee, Hyun Jung Kim, Eun Young Choi
The 2016 American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA) guidelines removed the concept of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). We examined whether the 2016 ATS/IDSA guidelines are applicable in Korea.We conducted a retrospective, observational study of pneumonia patients who were hospitalized at a tertiary teaching hospital from March 2012 to February 2014. Identified pathogens that were not susceptible to β-lactams, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones were defined as community-acquired pneumonia drug-resistant pathogens (CAP-DRPs)...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021461/isolation-of-esbl-producing-bacteria-from-sputum-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-or-healthcare-associated-pneumonia-does-not-indicate-the-need-for-antibiotics-with-activity-against-this-class
#19
Hideyuki Horie, Isao Ito, Satoshi Konishi, Yuki Yamamoto, Yuko Yamamoto, Tatsuya Uchida, Hideo Ohtani, Yoshiharu Yoshida
Objective In the past decade, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria have increasingly frequently been isolated from various kinds of clinical specimens. However, the appropriate treatment of pneumonia in which ESBL-producing bacteria are isolated from sputum culture is poorly understood. To investigate whether or not ESBL-producing bacteria isolated from sputum in pneumonia cases should be treated as the causative bacteria. Methods and Patients In this retrospective study, we screened for patients, admitted between January 2009 and December 2015 in whom pneumonia was suspected and for whom sputum cultures yielded Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp...
February 15, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983954/epr-monitoring-of-wound-oxygenation-as-a-biomarker-of-response-to-gene-therapy-encoding-hcap-18-ll37-peptide
#20
Céline M Desmet, Gaëlle Vandermeulen, Caroline Bouzin, Martin C Lam, Véronique Préat, Philippe Levêque, Bernard Gallez
PURPOSE: To investigate the value of electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry to follow oxygenation in wounds treated by a plasmid-encoding host defense peptide hCAP-18/LL37. METHODS: Flaps were created on diabetic mice (7- or 12-week-old db/db mice) presenting different levels of microangiopathy. The hCAP-18/LL37-encoding plasmids were administered in wounds by electroporation. Low-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry using lithium phthalocyanine as the oxygen sensor was used to monitor wound oxygenation in flaps during the healing process...
June 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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