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infectious disease

Daniel M Autenrieth, Daniel C Baumgart
In the past decade the gut microbiome has received scientific attention like few other topics. It has become increasingly apparent that the commensal microbiota plays an important role in maintaining the health of the host. Changes of the microbiota composition or function coincide with different disorders such as infectious (i. e. Clostridium difficile infection) or inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Although the significance of this observation has not yet been fully elucidated and understood, several of attempts aimed at modulating the microbiota composition have been made...
February 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Jens D Rollnik
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also called myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a challenge to physicians. CFS prevalence is below 1 % in a general population. There are no convincing models that might explain etiology and pathogenesis of CFS as an independent, unique disease. No consistent diagnostic criteria are available. In the differential diagnosis of chronic fatigue, a variety of somatic (e. g. chronic infectious diseases, multiple sclerosis, endocrinological disorders) and psychiatric/psychosomatic diseases should be considered...
February 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Xu Chen, Haiyan Ye, Shilin Li, Baihai Jiao, Jianqin Wu, Peibin Zeng, Limin Chen
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel bunyavirus (SFTS virus, SFTSV). At present there is still no specific antiviral treatment for SFTSV; To understand which cells support SFTSV life cycle and whether SFTSV infection activates host innate immunity, four different cell lines (Vero, Hela, Huh7.5.1, and Huh7.0) were infected with SFTSV. Intracellular/extracellular viral RNA and expression of IFNα, and IFNß were detected by real-time RT- PCR following infection...
2017: PloS One
Arwa Kurabi, Kerry A Beasley, Lisa Chang, James McCann, Kwang Pak, Allen F Ryan
Otitis media (OM) is the most common infectious disease of children under six, causing more antibiotic prescriptions and surgical procedures than any other pediatric condition. By screening a bacteriophage (phage) library genetically engineered to express random peptides on their surfaces, we discovered unique peptides that actively transport phage particles across the intact tympanic membrane (TM) and into the middle ear (ME). Herein our goals were to characterize the physiochemical peptide features that may underlie trans-TM phage transport; assess morphological and functional effects of phage peptides on the ME and inner ear (IE); and determine whether peptide-bearing phage transmigrate from the ME into the IE...
2017: PloS One
Francisca Hid Segers, Lucie Kešnerová, Michael Kosoy, Philipp Engel
The genus Bartonella comprises facultative intracellular bacteria with a unique lifestyle. After transmission by blood-sucking arthropods they colonize the erythrocytes of mammalian hosts causing acute and chronic infectious diseases. Although the pathogen-host interaction is well understood, little is known about the evolutionary origin of the infection strategy manifested by Bartonella species. Here we analyzed six genomes of Bartonella apis, a honey bee gut symbiont that to date represents the closest relative of pathogenic Bartonella species...
February 24, 2017: ISME Journal
M Bryła, E Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, I Maniecka-Bryła
SETTING: Central European countries such as Poland have higher tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality than Western European Union countries. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in mortality due to TB during the period 1999-2012 in Poland and years of life lost due to the disease. DESIGN: Information obtained from 5 219 205 death certificates in Poland during the period 1999-2012 was used for the study. Crude (CDRs) and standardised (SDRs) death rates due to TB were analysed...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Naveen Kondru, Sireesha Manne, Justin Greenlee, Heather West Greenlee, Vellareddy Anantharam, Patrick Halbur, Arthi Kanthasamy, Anumantha Kanthasamy
Protein misfolding is a key pathological event in neurodegenerative diseases like prion diseases, synucleinopathies, and tauopathies that are collectively termed protein misfolding disorders. Prions are a prototypic model to study protein aggregation biology and therapeutic development. Attempts to develop anti-prion therapeutics have been impeded by the lack of screening models that faithfully replicate prion diseases and the lack of rapid, sensitive biological screening systems. Therefore, a sensitive model encompassing prion replication and neurotoxicity would be indispensable to the pursuit of intervention strategies...
February 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
J Beck, C Pluchart, A Durlach, O Durez, M Abely, C Pietrement
A subcutaneous mass of the skull in children can have many different causes (infectious, tumoral, and inflammatory). We report on the case of a 5-year-old patient with a subcutaneous mass of the skull evolving over several months. The first pathological analysis concluded in Kimura disease. The progression and scarcity of this entity in children led to a second pathological analysis that showed lymphoblastic lymphoma B (LLB). This case reminds us that when there are discrepancies between pathological conclusions and clinical progression of a tumoral process, repeated analysis and immunochemistry are necessary...
February 20, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Ramon Boixeda, Josep Antón Capdevila, Vanessa Vicente, Elisabet Palomera, Jordi Juanola, Laia Albiach, Ainhoa Rex, Jordi Almirall
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the levels of the serum gamma globulin fraction in proteinograms as a biomarker to assess the severity, and to predict the mortality and new exacerbations in patients admitted for an exacerbation of a COPD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The VIRAE study was carried out on a cohort of patients hospitalized for an exacerbation of probable infectious origin of COPD over a period of 2 years. The levels of the serum gamma globulin fraction were analyzed in the proteinogram of 120 patients...
February 20, 2017: Medicina Clínica
Jeffrey A Tornheim, Kelly E Dooley
Tuberculosis (TB) has recently surpassed HIV as the primary infectious disease killer worldwide, but the two diseases continue to display lethal synergy. The burden of TB is disproportionately borne by people living with HIV, particularly where HIV and poverty coexist. The impact of these diseases on one another is bidirectional, with HIV increasing risk of TB infection and disease progression and TB slowing CD4 recovery and increasing progression to AIDS and death among the HIV infected. Both antiretroviral therapy (ART) and latent TB infection (LTBI) treatment mitigate the impact of coinfection, and ART is now recommended for HIV-infected patients independent of CD4 count...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
Diana C Valentín, Nicole Candelario, Osward Y Carrasquillo, Luz Figueroa, Jorge L Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) defined the elimination of the disease as a global prevalence of less than one case per 10,000 population. However, disease transmission is an ongoing worldwide public health concern, as evidenced by the more than 220,000 new cases diagnosed each year. METHODS: This study is an update of the incidence and prevalence of leprosy in Puerto Rico for the period of 2000-2014...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
Elisa C Sánchez-Moreno, Selina Marioni-Manriquez, Ramón F Fernández-Martínez, Gabriela Moreno-Coutiño
BACKGROUND: Many factors have been noted to alter the growth rate of both finger and toe nails, some with harder evidence than others. Infectious diseases are among the ones reported as slowing the growth rate. However, on previous studies we noticed that patients living with HIV and onychomycosis could be cured without the use of antifungal therapy, only with the immunological improvement provided by the combined antiretroviral therapy, and we wanted to prove that the growth rate is also increased in this group and thus probably contributes to the cure of onychomycosis...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
David A Johnson, Philip O Katz, David Armstrong, Henry Cohen, Brendan C Delaney, Colin W Howden, Peter Katelaris, Radu I Tutuian, Donald O Castell
The availability of over-the-counter (OTC) proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for the short-term (2 weeks) management of frequent heartburn (≥2 days/week) has increased markedly, yet evidence-based recommendations have not been developed. A panel of nine international experts in gastroesophageal reflux disease developed consensus statements regarding the risks and benefits of OTC PPIs using a modified Delphi process. Consensus (based on ≥80% approval) was reached through multiple rounds of remote voting and a final round of live voting...
February 23, 2017: Drugs
S N Levin, T B Kaplan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system most often characterized by clinical relapses and periods of remission. RECENT FINDINGS: The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in disease-modifying therapies for MS. Fourteen FDA-approved immunomodulatory drugs are currently available, and more medications are in development. A growing number of reported opportunistic infections, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), highlight the serious complications of these new drugs and the need for specific screening guidelines...
February 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
A E Maraolo, D S Y Ong, J Cortez, K Dedić, D Dušek, A Martin-Quiros, P J Maver, C Skevaki, E Yusuf, M Poljak, M Sanguinetti, E Tacconelli
The purpose of this investigation was to assess the balance between the personal and professional lives of trainees and young European specialists in clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious diseases (ID), and determine differences according to gender, country of training, workplace and specialty. The Steering Committee of the Trainee Association of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) devised a questionnaire survey consisting, beyond the demographic questions, of nine yes/no questions, 11 Likert scale self-evaluations and one open-response item on parenthood, working conditions, quality of life, alcohol consumption and burnout...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Ritu Gaur, Syed Imteyaz Alam, Dev Vrat Kamboj
Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, has attained the status of one of the high priority agents that could be used in the act of bioterrorism. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine for this highly infectious intracellular pathogen. Being a listed 'Category A' agent of the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), vaccines and therapeutics are immediately required against this pathogen. In this study, an immunoproteomic approach based on the techniques of 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and immunoblotting combined with mass spectrometry (MS) was used for elucidation of immunogenic components and putative vaccine candidates...
February 23, 2017: Current Microbiology
Vera Ec Debets, Theo Jm Verheij, Alike W van der Velden
BACKGROUND: Unnecessary and non-first-choice antibiotic prescribing is a significant problem in primary care. It is often argued that irrational prescribing is higher during out-of-hours (OOH) consultations. AIM: To obtain insight into the quantity and quality of OOH antibiotic prescribing for commonly presented infectious diseases. DESIGN AND SETTING: Two two-way comparisons of 1) nationally dispensed antibiotics during office hours and OOH care, using data from the Dutch Foundation of Pharmaceutical Statistics, and 2) regional prescribing quality data from 45 primary care practices from Utrecht and its vicinity, and two large OOH services in Utrecht and Woerden...
March 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Ling Zhu, Xingli Wang, Kaiyu Wang, Qian Yang, Jie He, Zhenyang Qin, Yi Geng, Ping Ouyang, Xiaoli Huang
Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a member of the Aquabirnavirus genus, which caused mass mortality (nearly 100%) in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in aquaculture farms in 2016, China. Major clinical signs included decreased appetite, mucous-like stools, and darkened pigmentation. Pathological changes in moribund fish were observed, such as marked vacuolar degeneration of the pancreatic cells with pyknotic nucleus and decreased zymogen granules, severe hemorrhage in the liver, and tumidness of respiratory epithelium in gills...
February 20, 2017: Acta Tropica
Lei Zhan, Wen Bi Wu, Lin Yang, Cheng Zhi Huang
The timely detection of infectious pathogen is critical in clinical early diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Plasmonic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), by means of enzyme-mediated growth or aggregation of AuNPs, has received considerable attention because it allows a naked-eye detection of target in very low numbers. In this work, a dual-signal amplified plasmonic ELISA combined the high loading capacity of magnetic beads with the establishing stimulation effect of zinc ion has been developed to detect RSV as a model pathogen based on alkaline phosphatase-triggered dispersion of aggregated AuNPs...
April 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Rodrigo Trolezi, Juliana Maziero Azanha, Natália Rodrigues Paschoal, Jéssica Luana Chechi, Marcelo José Dias Silva, Viciany Eric Fabris, Wagner Vilegas, Ramon Kaneno, Ary Fernandes Junior, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes Bosco
BACKGROUND: Pythium insidiosum is the etiological agent of pythiosis, an emerging life-threatening infectious disease in tropical and subtropical regions. The pathogen is a fungus-like organism resistant to antifungal therapy, for this reason, most cases need extensive surgical debridments as treatment, but depending on the size and anatomical region of the lesion, such approach is unfeasible. We investigate the fungicidal effect and toxicity of crude bark extract of Stryphnodendron adstringens and commercially available tannin on Pythium insidiosum both in vitro and in vivo...
February 23, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
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