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infectious disease

Robert Strassl, Martin Schiemann, Konstantin Doberer, Irene Görzer, Elisabeth Puchhammer-Stöckl, Farsad Eskandary, Željko Kikic, Guido A Gualdoni, Mathias G Vossen, Susanne Rasoul-Rockenschaub, Harald Herkner, Georg A Böhmig, Gregor Bond
Background: Drug-induced immunosuppression following kidney transplantation is crucial to prevent allograft rejection, but increases risk for infectious disease. Tailoring of drug dosing to prevent both rejection and infection is greatly desirable. The apathogenic and ubiquitous torque teno virus (TTV) reflects immunocompetence of the host and might be a potential candidate for immunologic monitoring. Methods: To assess TTV as an infection biomarker, virus load was prospectively quantified in peripheral blood of 169 consecutive renal allograft recipients at the Medical University Vienna...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Farzana Rahiman, Usuf Chikte, Gail D Hughes
BACKGROUND: Nurses in sub-Saharan Africa are particularly at a higher risk of acquiring nosocomial infections, considering the increased prevalence of infectious diseases. It is therefore imperative that these nurses have a sound knowledge and understanding of infection prevention procedures. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning infection prevention and control precautions among nursing students in a resource limited setting...
June 30, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Sandra A Springer, P Todd Korthuis, Carlos Del Rio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Alia Saberi, Shahin Akhondzadeh, Samaneh Kazemi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes demyelination of white matter of central nervous system and neuro-degeneration due to inflammation. Different types of MS, as well as disease progression, come with different pathology and pathophysiology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible association between different micro-organisms and the relapse or progression of MS. Studies indexed in Medline/PMC, Scopus and Web of Science published without time and language limitation until March 2017 were identified through the search terms "infection" or "infectious" and "multiple sclerosis"...
July 13, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Mazyar Irani, Vedran Lovric, William R Walsh
Tendon allografts, when autograft options are limited or when obtaining an autograft is not aligned with the patients' best interest, play an important role in tendon and ligament reconstruction. To minimize the risk of infectious disease transmission tissue banks perform screening tests and the allografts cleaned are sterilized. The current study examines and compares the initial mechanical properties and histological appearance of supercritical CO2 (SCCO2 )-treated and gamma-irradiated porcine extensor tendons...
July 13, 2018: Cell and Tissue Banking
Lingyu Yang, Chao Liu, Wenjing Zhao, Chuan He, Jinmei Ding, Ronghua Dai, Ke Xu, Lu Xiao, Lingxiao Luo, Shuyun Liu, Wei Li, He Meng
Establishing and maintaining beneficial interactions between the host and associated gut microbiota are pivotal requirements for host health. Autophagy is an important catabolic recycling pathway that degrades long-lived proteins and some organelles by lysosome to maintain cellular homeostasis. Although impaired autophagy is thought to be closely correlated with Crohn's disease (CD), the functional role of autophagy in the maintenance of gut microbiota is poorly understood. As autophagy-related 5 ( Atg5 ) is a key gene associated with the extension of the phagophoric membrane in autophagic vesicles, we established a gut-specific Atg5 knockout mouse model, and found that the disruption of autophagic flux in the intenstinal epithelium cells dramatically altered the composition of the gut microbiota and reduced alpha diversity...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Mónica G Malmierca, Ignacio Pérez-Victoria, Jesús Martín, Fernando Reyes, Carmen Méndez, Carlos Olano, José A Salas
Macrolactams comprise a family of natural compounds with important bioactivities such as antibiotic, antifungal or antiproliferative. Sipanmycins A and B are two novel members of this family with two sugar moieties attached to the aglycon. In the related macrolactam vicenistatin, the sugar moiety has been proved essential for cytotoxicity. In this work, the gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of sipanmycins ( sip cluster) in Streptomyces sp. CS149 is described and the steps involved in the glycosylation of the final compounds unraveled...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Guiqiang Zhang, Peiyuan Jia, Hongtao Liu, Tao Hu, Yuguang Du
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-associated diseases have led to great economic losses to the pig industry. Our lab previously found that conjugation of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) or via a carrier protein enhanced the immunogenicity of PCV2 vaccine against infectious pathogens. However, precise mechanisms and signal transduction pathways underlying the efficacy of COS conjugation remains poorly defined. In this study, to better understand the effects and mechanism of COS conjugates maintain the adjuvant potential in vivo, we investigated its augmentation of macrophage function, including cell activation, NO production, cytokine production and phagocytosis...
July 6, 2018: Immunobiology
Andreia C Lino, Van Duc Dang, Vicky Lampropoulou, Anna Welle, Jara Joedicke, Jelka Pohar, Quentin Simon, Jessie Thalmensi, Aurelia Baures, Vinciane Flühler, Imme Sakwa, Ulrik Stervbo, Stefanie Ries, Luc Jouneau, Pierre Boudinot, Takeshi Tsubata, Takahiro Adachi, Andreas Hutloff, Thomas Dörner, Ursula Zimber-Strobl, Alex F de Vos, Katja Dahlke, Gunnar Loh, Sarantis Korniotis, Christian Goosmann, Jean-Claude Weill, Claude-Agnès Reynaud, Stefan H E Kaufmann, Jörn Walter, Simon Fillatreau
B lymphocytes can suppress immunity through interleukin (IL)-10 production in infectious, autoimmune, and malignant diseases. Here, we have identified a natural plasma cell subset that distinctively expresses the inhibitory receptor LAG-3 and mediates this function in vivo. These plasma cells also express the inhibitory receptors CD200, PD-L1, and PD-L2. They develop from various B cell subsets in a B cell receptor (BCR)-dependent manner independently of microbiota in naive mice. After challenge they upregulate IL-10 expression via a Toll-like receptor-driven mechanism within hours and without proliferating...
July 2, 2018: Immunity
Rui Tada, Akira Hidaka, Hiroshi Kiyono, Jun Kunisawa, Yukihiko Aramaki
OBJECTIVE: Infectious diseases remain a threat to human life. Vaccination against pathogenic microbes is a primary method of treatment as well as prevention of infectious diseases. Particularly mucosal vaccination is a promising approach to fight against most infectious diseases, because mucosal surfaces are a major point of entry for most pathogens. We recently developed an effective mucosal adjuvant of cationic liposomes composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] (DC-chol) (DOTAP/DC-chol liposomes)...
July 13, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Katie Thomson, Frances Hillier-Brown, Adam Todd, Courtney McNamara, Tim Huijts, Clare Bambra
BACKGROUND: Socio-economic inequalities are associated with unequal exposure to social, economic and environmental risk factors, which in turn contribute to health inequalities. Understanding the impact of specific public health policy interventions will help to establish causality in terms of the effects on health inequalities. METHODS: Systematic review methodology was used to identify systematic reviews from high-income countries that describe the health equity effects of upstream public health interventions...
July 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Kasper Warrick, Sandra K Althouse, April Rahrig, Joy Rupenthal, Sandeep Batra
BACKGROUND: High Risk (HR) or Very High Risk (VHR) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with 4 drug induction chemotherapy is often associated with adverse events. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with a prolonged inpatient length of stay LOS during induction chemotherapy. PROCEDURE: Data from patients (N = 73) (age<21 years) was collected through a retrospective chart review. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to test for statistical significance...
June 30, 2018: Leukemia Research
Fang Yuan, Yuan Tian, Weirong Qin, Jingxu Li, Dan Yang, Bingchuan Zhao, Feng Yin, Zigang Li
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short cationic peptides with a high affinity for membranes and emerged as a promising therapeutic approach with potential for treating infectious diseases. Chemical stabilization of short peptides proved to be a successful approach for enhancing their bio-physical properties. Herein, we designed and synthesized a panel of conformationally constrained antimicrobial peptides with either α-helical or β-hairpin conformation using templating strategies. These synthetic short constrained peptides possess different topological distributions of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues and displayed distinct antimicrobial activity...
July 13, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Susan J Rehm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
F Black, F Amien, J Shea
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to the international and national burden of disease. Global estimates suggest that there were 10.4 million new cases of TB in 2015. Children accounted for ~10% of these cases, although in South Africa (SA) this figure is thought to be higher. Despite clear evidence that isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) can reduce the risk of progression from TB infection to disease in TB contacts, IPT has been poorly implemented in SA national TB control programmes...
February 27, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Mudassar Imran, Muhammad Usman, Tufail Malik, Ali R Ansari
The Zika virus is transmitted to humans primarily through Aedes mosquitoes and through sexual contact. It is documented that the virus can be transmitted to newborn babies from their mothers. We consider a deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of the Zika virus infectious disease that spreads in, both humans and vectors, through horizontal and vertical transmission. The total populations of both humans and mosquitoes is assumed to be constant. Our models consist of a system of eight differential equations describing the human and vector populations during the different stages of the disease...
July 9, 2018: Virus Research
Yurika Yada, Melbourne Rio Talactac, Kodai Kusakisako, Emmanuel Pacia Hernandez, Remil Linggatong Galay, Masako Andoh, Kozo Fujisaki, Tetsuya Tanaka
Ticks are key vectors of some important diseases of humans and animals. Although they are carriers of disease agents, the viability and development of ticks are not harmed by the infectious agents due to their innate immunity. Antimicrobial peptides directly protect hosts against pathogenic agents such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Among the identified and characterized antimicrobial peptides, defensins have been considerably well studied. Defensins are commonly found among fungi, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
V V Krishnan, Senthamil R Selvan, Nishanth Parameswaran, Neeraja Venkateswaran, Paul A Luciw, Kodumudi S Venkateswaran
Advances in high-throughput proteomic approaches have provided substantial momentum to novel disease-biomarker discovery research and have augmented the quality of clinical studies. Applications based on multiplexed microsphere suspension array technology are making strong in-roads into the clinical diagnostic/prognostic practice. Conventional proteomic approaches are designed to discover a broad set of proteins that are associated with a specific medical condition. In comparison, multiplex microsphere immunoassays use quantitative measurements of selected set(s) of specific/particular molecular markers such as cytokines, chemokines, pathway signaling or disease-specific markers for detection, metabolic disorders, cancer, and infectious agents causing human, plant and animal diseases...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Paul O Lewis, Emily L Heil, Kelly L Covert, David B Cluck
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia is a long-standing challenge to health care, often complicated by metastatic infections, treatment failure and mortality. When MRSA bacteraemia persists despite adequate initial treatment, current Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines recommend evaluation and removal of possible sources of infection. In addition, a change in therapy may be considered. The objective of this review was to explore the therapeutic options for the treatment of persistent MRSA bacteraemia...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Ying-Fei Yang, Tien-Hsuan Lu, Hsing-Chieh Lin, Chi-Yun Chen, Chung-Min Liao
A novel virus, tilapia lake virus (TiLV), has been identified as a key pathogen responsible for disease outbreak and mass mortality of farmed tilapia. We used a deterministic susceptible-infectious-mortality (SIM) model to derive key disease information appraised with published TiLV-induced cumulative mortality data. The relationship between tilapia mortality and TiLV exposure dosages was described by the Hill model. Furthermore, a disease control model was proposed to determine the status of controlled TiLV infection using a parsimonious control reproduction number (RC )-control line criterion...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
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