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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151252/dominant-c3-glomerulopathy-new-roles-for-an-old-actor-in-renal-pathology
#1
REVIEW
Nicola Pirozzi, Antonella Stoppacciaro, Paolo Menè
Recently, a number of reports have described dominant C3 deposits in renal biopsies of patients with infection-related glomerulonephritis (GN). While acute post-infectious GN and membranoproliferative GN are commonly characterized by immune deposits containing C3 and/or C4, the absence of immunoglobulin (Ig) and/or immune complexes at light or electron microscopy is a rather unusual observation. Dominant C3 deposition is believed to result from the alternative pathway of complement activation via the C3bBb "tickover" convertase...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151231/sleep-medicine-is-coming-of-age-in-military-medicine-report-from-the-military-health-system-research-symposium-2017-in-kissimmee-florida
#2
Arn H Eliasson, Christopher Lettieri, Nikolaus Netzer
In August 2017, the US Military Health System held its sixth annual Research Symposium for medical researchers from the US Army, Navy, Air Force, and Public Health Service. The symposium provides a collaborative environment for academia, industry, and military researchers who address advancement in areas of Combat Casualty Care, Military Operational Medicine, Clinical and Rehabilitative Medicine, and Military Infectious Diseases. This year, Sleep Medicine received substantial attention with presentations scattered throughout the program, poster presentations as well as a scheduled breakout session with podium presentations...
November 18, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151103/immunoregulatory-role-of-cannabinoids-during-infectious-disease
#3
Rosalía Hernández-Cervantes, Mónica Méndez-Díaz, Óscar Prospéro-García, Jorge Morales-Montor
Although the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in the regulation of several physiological processes, including sleep and the immune response, its role during infections has not been fully studied. It is well known that the use of this drug increases susceptibility to infections because of the impact on the modulation of the immune system. Concerning the medicinal or recreational use of marijuana, its influence on the course of an infection, whether this has been caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and to a lesser degree, fungi, has been reported...
November 18, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150916/outbreak-investigation-and-molecular-diagnosis-of-lumpy-skin-disease-among-livestock-in-saudi-arabia-2016
#4
S Kasem, M Saleh, I Qasim, O Hashim, A Alkarar, A Abu-Obeida, A Gaafer, R Hussien, A Al-Sahaf, A Al-Doweriej, F Bayoumi, A Hodhood, M Abdelatif
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly infectious disease of cattle caused by a virus of the Capripoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae. The disease is a major concern for the dairy industry in Saudi Arabia. In this study, an outbreak of LSD in cattle herds was detected in Saudi Arabia in 2016. LSD outbreak was investigated in five regions of Saudi Arabia: Al-Hassa, Al-Sharqia, Al-Qassim, Riyadh and Al-Taif during the period from April to July 2016. Tissues from skin nodules were collected to characterize the virus by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR)...
November 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150905/sarcoptic-mange-in-wombats-a-review-and-future-research-directions
#5
REVIEW
J M Old, C Sengupta, E Narayan, J Wolfenden
Sarcoptic mange is caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and has recently been recognized as an emerging infectious disease of wildlife worldwide. The mite is one of the main causes of population decline in southern hairy-nosed (Lasiorhinus latifrons) and bare-nosed wombats (Vombatus ursinus). This review focuses on Sarcoptes scabiei infestations in wombats and provides insights into why the disease may be so prevalent in wombats. Current treatment practices and trials conducted in the field to reduce the incidence of sarcoptic mange in wombats are described and critically reviewed...
November 18, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150834/il-22-neutralizing-autoantibodies-impair-fungal-clearance-in-murine-oropharyngeal-candidiasis-model
#6
Rudolf Bichele, Jaanika Kärner, Kai Truusalu, Imbi Smidt, Reet Mändar, Heather R Conti, Sarah L Gaffen, Pärt Peterson, Martti Laan, Kai Kisand
Protection against mucocutaneous candidiasis depends on the T helper (Th)17 pathway, as gene defects affecting its integrity result in inability to clear Candida albicans infection on body surfaces. Moreover, autoantibodies neutralizing Th17 cytokines have been related to chronic candidiasis in a rare inherited disorder called autoimmune polyendocriopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) caused by mutations in autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. However, the direct pathogenicity of these autoantibodies has not yet been addressed...
November 17, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150278/a-hypothetical-role-for-notch-signaling-pathway-in-immunopathogenesis-of-leprosy
#7
Héctor Serrano-Coll, Liliana Acevedo-Saenz, Nora Cardona-Castro
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae mainly affecting skin and peripheral nerves. Leprosy has a broad range of clinical manifestations that range from mild (tuberculoid leprosy) to severe (lepromatous leprosy) forms, and are highly dependent on the host's immune response. Among the immune response elements involved in the pathogenesis of leprosy are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), vitamin D receptor (VDR), natural killer cells (NK), and T cells. These innate and adaptive immune response elements may be related to the Notch signaling pathway, which is involved in immune cell growth, differentiation, and proliferation...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150269/potential-role-of-the-virchow-robin-space-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bacterial-meningitis
#8
Patrick Chan, Denis J Meerdink, James A Uchizono
Meningitis is an infectious disease commonly arising from a bacterial etiology. The rapid progression of morbidity and mortality due to bacterial meningitis requires critical and imminent time-dependent clinical intervention. Although it is unambiguously clear that bacteria must infiltrate the cerebrospinal fluid, the sequence of events in the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis has not been fully elucidated. Most reviews of the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis do not specify the anatomical location of bacteria following BBB traversal...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150103/body-composition-of-fanconi-anemia-patients-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
Priscilla Peixoto Policarpo da Silva, Daniella Schmit, Carmem Bonfim, Denise Johnsson Campos, Estela Iraci Rabito, Regina Maria Vilela
INTRODUCTION: Fanconi anemia is a rare genetic disease linked to bone marrow failure; a possible treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Changes in the nutritional status of Fanconi anemia patients are not very well known. This study aimed to characterize body composition of adult, children and adolescent patients with Fanconi anemia who were submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or not. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 63 patients (29 adults and 34 children and adolescents)...
October 2017: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149980/incidence-of-infectious-complications-in-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-treated-with-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#10
A Zaucha-Prażmo, J R Kowalczyk, K Drabko, K Czyżewski, J Goździk, O Zając-Spychała, J Wachowiak, J Frączkiewicz, E Gorczyńska, K Kałwak, J Styczyński
OBJECTIVE: We analyzed incidence and profile of infections in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in Polish pediatric HSCT departments, over a 2-year period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Hospital records of 67 patients, who underwent allogeneic HSCT for ALL, were analyzed retrospectively for microbiologically documented infection: bacterial infection (BI), viral infection (VI), and fungal infection (FI)...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149937/personalizing-sepsis-care
#11
REVIEW
Mervyn Singer
Sepsis describes a broad-based syndrome covering many infectious agents, affecting various sites in patients of differing age, gender, and comorbidity and resulting in varying degrees and combinations of organ dysfunction. Protocolized care with rigid goals may suit populations, assuming the evidence-lite recommendations are beneficial, but not necessarily individual patients. A personalized approach to management is rational and preferable. Other than clinical heterogeneity, a range of biological signatures exist in sepsis, and these fluctuate over the disease course...
January 2018: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149886/antibiotic-susceptibility-profiles-of-mycoplasma-synoviae-strains-originating-from-central-and-eastern-europe
#12
Zsuzsa Kreizinger, Dénes Grózner, Kinga M Sulyok, Kristin Nilsson, Veronika Hrivnák, Dušan Benčina, Miklós Gyuranecz
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma synoviae causes infectious synovitis and respiratory diseases in chickens and turkeys and may lead to egg shell apex abnormalities in chickens; hence possesses high economic impact on the poultry industry. Control of the disease consists of eradication, vaccination or medication. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to 14 different antibiotics and an antibiotic combination of M. synoviae strains originating from Hungary and other countries of Central and Eastern Europe...
November 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149857/putative-progressive-and-abortive-feline-leukemia-virus-infection-outcomes-in-captive-jaguarundis-puma-yagouaroundi
#13
Claudia Filoni, A Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Mara Cristina Marques, Luciana Neves Torres, Manfred Reinacher, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an exogenous gammaretrovirus of domestic cats (Felis catus) and some wild felids. The outcomes of FeLV infection in domestic cats vary according to host susceptibility, virus strain, and infectious challenge dose. Jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi) are small wild felids from South and Central America. We previously reported on FeLV infections in jaguarundis. We hypothesized here that the outcomes of FeLV infection in P. yagouaroundi mimic those observed in domestic cats...
November 17, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149706/exploring-the-impact-of-route-of-administration-on-medication-acceptance-in-hospitalized-patients-implications-for-venous-thromboembolism-prevention
#14
Victor O Popoola, Farrah Tavakoli, Brandyn D Lau, Matthew Lankiewicz, Patricia Ross, Peggy Kraus, Dauryne Shaffer, Deborah B Hobson, Jonathan K Aboagye, Norma A Farrow, Elliott R Haut, Michael B Streiff
BACKGROUND: Non-administration of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis contributes to preventable patient harm. We hypothesized that non-administration would be more common for parenteral VTE prophylaxis than oral infectious disease or cardiac prophylaxis or for treatment medications. The primary study goal was to determine if non-administration of parenteral VTE prophylaxis is more frequent than other prophylactic or treatment medications. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study of consecutive admissions we used descriptive statistics and risk ratios (RR) to compare the number of non-administered doses of VTE prophylaxis, oral infectious disease and cardiovascular prophylaxis and treatment medications...
October 21, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149602/specification-of-physiologic-and-disease-states-by-distinct-proteins-and-protein-conformations
#15
REVIEW
Daniel F Jarosz, Vikram Khurana
Protein conformational states-from intrinsically disordered ensembles to amyloids that underlie the self-templating, infectious properties of prion-like proteins-have attracted much attention. Here, we highlight the diversity, including differences in biophysical properties, that drive distinct biological functions and pathologies among self-templating proteins. Advances in chemical genomics, gene editing, and model systems now permit deconstruction of the complex interplay between these protein states and the host factors that react to them...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149530/proteases-and-protease-inhibitors-in-infectious-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Ayodeji A Agbowuro, Wilhelmina M Huston, Allan B Gamble, Joel D A Tyndall
There are numerous proteases of pathogenic organisms that are currently targeted for therapeutic intervention along with many that are seen as potential drug targets. This review discusses the chemical and biological makeup of some key druggable proteases expressed by the five major classes of disease causing agents, namely bacteria, viruses, fungi, eukaryotes, and prions. While a few of these enzymes including HIV protease and HCV NS3-4A protease have been targeted to a clinically useful level, a number are yet to yield any clinical outcomes in terms of antimicrobial therapy...
November 17, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149432/ebola-in-the-netherlands-2014-2015-costs-of-preparedness-and-response
#17
Anita W M Suijkerbuijk, Corien M Swaan, Marie-Josee J Mangen, Johan J Polder, Aura Timen, Wilhelmina L M Ruijs
The recent epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) resulted in countries worldwide to prepare for the possibility of having an EVD patient. In this study, we estimate the costs of Ebola preparedness and response borne by the Dutch health system. An activity-based costing method was used, in which the cost of staff time spent in preparedness and response activities was calculated based on a time-recording system and interviews with key professionals at the healthcare organizations involved. In addition, the organizations provided cost information on patient days of hospitalization, laboratory tests, personal protective equipment (PPE), as well as the additional cleaning and disinfection required...
November 17, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149377/multi-patch-and-multi-group-epidemic-models-a-new-framework
#18
Derdei Bichara, Abderrahman Iggidr
We develop a multi-patch and multi-group model that captures the dynamics of an infectious disease when the host is structured into an arbitrary number of groups and interacts into an arbitrary number of patches where the infection takes place. In this framework, we model host mobility that depends on its epidemiological status, by a Lagrangian approach. This framework is applied to a general SEIRS model and the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] is derived. The effects of heterogeneity in groups, patches and mobility patterns on [Formula: see text] and disease prevalence are explored...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149283/multivalent-rotavirus-vaccine-and-wild-type-rotavirus-strain-shedding-in-australian-infants-a-birth-cohort-study
#19
Suifang Ye, David M Whiley, Robert S Ware, Carl D Kirkwood, Stephen B Lambert, Keith Grimwood
Background: Rotavirus vaccines have reduced moderate-to-severe gastroenteritis episodes in infants and young children. Nevertheless, knowledge gaps exist concerning rotavirus vaccine shedding and vaccine impact upon mild and asymptomatic wild-type infections. Our primary objective was to investigate vaccine shedding in Australian infants where the multivalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq®, was part of the routine vaccination schedule. Methods: The Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID) birth cohort study was conducted in Brisbane, Australia, from September 2010 to October 2014...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149266/association-between-prior-antibiotic-therapy-and-subsequent-risk-of-community-acquired-infections-a-systematic-review
#20
Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White
Background: Antibiotic use can have negative unintended consequences including disruption of the human microbiota, which is thought to protect against pathogen overgrowth. We conducted a systematic review to assess whether there is an association between exposure to antibiotics and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published before 30 June 2017, examining the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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