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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346568/are-infection-specialists-recommending-short-antibiotic-treatment-durations-an-escmid-international-cross-sectional-survey
#1
Gabriel Macheda, Oliver J Dyar, Amandine Luc, Bojana Beovic, Guillaume Béraud, Bernard Castan, Rémy Gauzit, Philippe Lesprit, Pierre Tattevin, Nathalie Thilly, Céline Pulcini
Objectives: To evaluate the current practice and the willingness to shorten the duration of antibiotic therapy among infection specialists. Methods: Infection specialists giving at least weekly advice on antibiotic prescriptions were invited to participate in an online cross-sectional survey between September and December 2016. The questionnaire included 15 clinical vignettes corresponding to common clinical cases with favourable outcomes; part A asked about the antibiotic treatment duration they would usually advise to prescribers and part B asked about the shortest duration they were willing to recommend...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346512/validation-of-the-pids-idsa-severity-criteria-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#2
Todd A Florin, Cole Brokamp, Rachel Mantyla, Bradley DePaoli, Richard Ruddy, Samir S Shah, Lilliam Ambroggio
Background: The Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS)/Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guideline for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) recommends intensive care unit (ICU) admission or continuous monitoring for children meeting severity criteria. Our objective was to validate these criteria. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of children age 3 months-18 years diagnosed with CAP in a pediatric Emergency Department (ED) from 9/2014-8/2015...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346380/rapidly-progressive-dementia-an-eight-year-2008-2016-retrospective-study
#3
Patil Anuja, Vishnu Venugopalan, Naheed Darakhshan, Pandit Awadh, Vinny Wilson, Goyal Manoj, Modi Manish, Lal Vivek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rapidly progressive dementia (RPD) is an emergency in cognitive neurology, defined as cognitive impairment affecting the daily living activities developed over less than 1 year. This study investigated the profile of patients with rapidly progressive dementia at first presentation. METHODS: Retrospective case analysis was done in 187 patients with rapidly progressive dementia who presented to the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India from January 2008 to August 2016...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346373/reconciling-pasteur-and-darwin-to-control-infectious-diseases
#4
Samuel Alizon, Pierre-Olivier Méthot
The continual emergence of new pathogens and the increased spread of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations remind us that microbes are living entities that evolve at rates that impact public health interventions. Following the historical thread of the works of Pasteur and Darwin shows how reconciling clinical microbiology, ecology, and evolution can be instrumental to understanding pathology, developing new therapies, and prolonging the efficiency of existing ones.
January 18, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346344/development-of-immune-and-microbial-environments-is-independently-regulated-in-the-mammary-gland
#5
K Niimi, K Usami, Y Fujita, M Abe, M Furukawa, Y Suyama, Y Sakai, M Kamioka, N Shibata, E J Park, S Sato, H Kiyono, H Yoneyama, H Kitazawa, K Watanabe, T Nochi, H Aso
Breastfeeding is important for mammals, providing immunological and microbiological advantages to neonates, together with the nutritional supply from the mother. However, the mechanisms of this functional diversity in the mammary gland remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that, similar to the gastrointestinal tract, the mammary gland develops immune and microbial environments consisting of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the microflora, respectively, both of which are important for protecting neonates and the mother from infectious diseases...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346269/identification-of-secreted-proteins-involved-in-nonspecific-dsrna-mediated-lutzomyia-longipalpis-ll5-cell-antiviral-response
#6
Andrea Martins-da-Silva, Erich Loza Telleria, Michel Batista, Fabricio Klerynton Marchini, Yara Maria Traub-Csekö, Antonio Jorge Tempone
Hematophagous insects transmit infectious diseases. Sand flies are vectors of leishmaniasis, but can also transmit viruses. We have been studying immune responses of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. We identified a non-specific antiviral response in L. longipalpis LL5 embryonic cells when treated with non-specific double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). This response is reminiscent of interferon response in mammals. We are investigating putative effectors for this antiviral response...
January 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346193/perceptions-of-infection-risk-with-immunomodulatory-medications
#7
Rebecca Sharim, Preethi Thomas, Leny Mathew, Michael George, Misha Rosenbach
OBJECTIVES: Physicians of many specialties encounter patients treated with immunomodulatory medications and must weigh the risk of infection when making medical decisions. We explored how physician perceptions of the infection risk of immunomodulatory medications differ by specialty and level of experience. METHODS: A survey was distributed to physicians from the internal medicine, family medicine, emergency medicine, rheumatology, dermatology, and infectious disease departments at 1 tertiary care institution...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346184/synergistic-impact-of-training-followed-by-on-site-support-on-hiv-clinical-practice-a-mixed-design-study-in-uganda-with-pre-post-and-cluster-randomized-trial-components
#8
Sarah Burnett, Norbert Mubiru, Peace Imani, Martin K Mbonye, Leigh Fisher, Robert Colebunders, Yukari C Manabe, Marcia R Weaver
BACKGROUND: Task-shifting can expand antiretroviral therapy access, but little is known about effective approaches to improve clinical practice among mid-level practitioners' (MLP) such as clinical officers, nurses, and midwives. The Integrated Infectious Diseases Capacity-Building Evaluation compared training alone to training combined with on-site support (OSS). METHODS: Two MLP each from 36 health facilities attended the five-week Integrated Management of Infectious Disease training...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345577/probiotics-and-paraprobiotics-in-viral-infection-clinical-application-and-effects-on-the-innate-and-acquired-immune-systems
#9
Osamu Kanauchi, Akira Andoh, Sazaly AbuBakar, Naoki Yamamoto
Recently, the risk of viral infection has dramatically increased owing to changes in human ecology such as global warming and an increased geographical movement of people and goods. However, the efficacy of vaccines and remedies for infectious diseases is limited by the high mutation rates of viruses, especially, RNA viruses. Here, we comprehensively review the effectiveness of several probiotics and paraprobiotics (sterilized probiotics) for the prevention or treatment of virally-induced infectious diseases...
January 16, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345518/bacterial-pathogenesis-and-interleukin-17-interconnecting-mechanisms-of-immune-regulation-host-genetics-and-microbial-virulence-that-influence-severity-of-infection
#10
Michelle N Chamoun, Antje Blumenthal, Matthew J Sullivan, Mark A Schembri, Glen C Ulett
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the control of many different disorders, including autoimmune, oncogenic, and diverse infectious diseases. In the context of infectious diseases, IL-17 protects the host against various classes of microorganisms but, intriguingly, can also exacerbate the severity of some infections. The regulation of IL-17 expression stems, in part, from the activity of Interleukin-23 (IL-23), which drives the maturation of different classes of IL-17-producing cells that can alter the course of infection...
January 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345511/clinical-characteristics-of-herpes-simplex-virus-associated-anterior-uveitis
#11
Barbara Wensing, Manabu Mochizuki, Joke H De Boer
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics of molecularly proven Herpes simplex virus (HSV) anterior uveitis. METHODS: The literature on HSV anterior uveitis whereby the diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and or Goldmann-Witmer coefficient in aqueous humor was reviewed. Three studies from Europe and one from Japan could be included. RESULTS: It was observed that HSV anterior uveitis is mostly an acute unilateral disease mainly occurring in middle-aged people with a predominance in females...
January 18, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345056/for-when-bacterial-infections-persist-toll-like-receptor-inducible-direct-antimicrobial-pathways-in-macrophages
#12
REVIEW
Claudia J Stocks, Mark A Schembri, Matthew J Sweet, Ronan Kapetanovic
Macrophages are linchpins of innate immunity, responding to invading microorganisms by initiating coordinated inflammatory and antimicrobial programs. Immediate antimicrobial responses, such as NADPH-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS), are triggered upon phagocytic receptor engagement. Macrophages also detect and respond to microbial products through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as TLRs. TLR signaling influences multiple biological processes including antigen presentation, cell survival, inflammation, and direct antimicrobial responses...
January 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344355/impact-of-an-antifungal-stewardship-intervention-on-optimization-of-candidemia-management
#13
Hana Rac, Jamie L Wagner, S Travis King, Katie E Barber, Kayla R Stover
Background: Candidemia represents a leading cause of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections with significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that comprehensive care bundles improve candidemia management but are time-consuming. Objective: To determine the impact of a one-time targeted candidemia intervention on time to initiation of adequate therapy compared to standard of care. Methods: This Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, quasi-experiment evaluated a targeted candidemia intervention involving a single phone call to the primary team providing recommendations for care...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344035/hypercalcaemic-pancreatitis-adrenal-insufficiency-autoimmune-thyroiditis-and-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-girl-with-probable-sarcoidosis
#14
Devi Dayal, Olivia Pepper, Renuka Ramakrishnan, Eileen Baildam, Poonam Dharmaraj, Gavin Cleary, Liza McCann, Clare Pain, Senthil Senniappan
Introduction: Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disease with diverse and often non-specific symptoms during childhood. The clinical manifestations sometimes include endocrinopathies related to sarcoid infiltration of various endocrine organs, but more commonly due to the associated autoimmune endocrine disorders. There are only a few reports of multiple autoimmune and non-autoimmune endocrine problems occurring simultaneously in patients with sarcoidosis. We report a girl with probable sarcoidosis who also had Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and secondary adrenal insufficiency...
October 2017: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343887/synovial-tuberculosis-of-the-hand-an-ancient-disease-in-an-unusual-localisation
#15
REVIEW
Renato Franz Matta Ramos, Lucas Cancian, Fernando Calcagnotto, Ricardo Zeni, Gabriel Varela, Tamsin Burgues, Jefferson Braga Silva
Background: Tuberculosis is the most prevalent infectious disease in the world. It is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Osteoarticular tuberculosis represents 1%-3%. Tenosynovitis is the most common form of the disease in the hand. Aims: The aim of this study is to present an update of synovial tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The authors present a literature review, the clinical and surgical management and case reports. Results: The outcomes were satisfactory and were not report complications...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343627/risk-ratios-for-contagious-outcomes
#16
Olga Morozova, Ted Cohen, Forrest W Crawford
Epidemiologists commonly use the risk ratio to summarize the relationship between a binary covariate and outcome, even when outcomes may be dependent. Investigations of transmissible diseases in clusters-households, villages or small groups-often report risk ratios. Epidemiologists have warned that risk ratios may be misleading when outcomes are contagious, but the nature of this error is poorly understood. In this study, we assess the meaning of the risk ratio when outcomes are contagious. We provide a mathematical definition of infectious disease transmission within clusters, based on the canonical stochastic susceptible-infective model...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343543/an-autoimmune-disease-associated-risk-variant-in-the-tnfaip3-gene-plays-a-protective-role-in-brucellosis-that-is-mediated-by-the-nf-kappa-b-signaling-pathway
#17
Lixin Lou, Wanguo Bao, Xianjun Liu, Hongxiao Song, Yang Wang, Kaiyu Zhang, Wenjing Gao, Haijun Li, Zhengkun Tu, Shaofeng Wang
Naturally occurring functional variants (rs148314165 and rs200820567, collectively referred to as TT>A) reduce the expression of the tumor necrosis factor α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) gene, a negative regulator of NF-κB signaling, and predispose individuals to autoimmune disease. In this analysis, we conducted a genetic association study of the TT>A variants in 1209 controls and in 150 patients with brucellosis, an infectious disease, and further assessed the role of the variants in brucellosis. Our data demonstrated that the TT>A variants were correlated with cases of brucellosis (P = 0...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343258/mass-spectrometric-profiling-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-reveals-metabolite-biomarkers-for-cns-involvement-in-varicella-zoster-virus-reactivation
#18
Maike Kuhn, Kurt-Wolfram Sühs, Manas K Akmatov, Frank Klawonn, Junxi Wang, Thomas Skripuletz, Volkhard Kaever, Martin Stangel, Frank Pessler
BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation spans the spectrum from uncomplicated segmental herpes zoster to life-threatening disseminated CNS infection. Moreover, in the absence of a small animal model for this human pathogen, studies of pathogenesis at the organismal level depend on analysis of human biosamples. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolites may reflect critical aspects of host responses and end-organ damage in neuroinfection and neuroinflammation. We therefore applied a targeted metabolomics screen of CSF to three clinically distinct forms of VZV reactivation and infectious and non-infectious disease controls in order to identify biomarkers for CNS involvement in VZV reactivation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343216/an-appraisal-how-notifiable-infectious-diseases-are-reported-by-hungarian-family-physicians
#19
Katalin Vraukó, Zoltán Jancsó, László Kalabay, Andrea Lukács, Gabriella Maráczi, Lajos Mester, Anna Nánási, József Rinfel, Tamás Sárosi, Ferenc Tamás, Albert Varga, József Vitrai, Imre Rurik
BACKGROUND: Within the frame of National Epidemiological Surveillance System, family physicians have an obligation to report infections and suspicions cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, daily practice and the reporting activities of Hungarian family physicians regarding to infectious diseases. METHODS: A self-administered survey was developed, validated and used. The survey was completed by family physicians who had taken part in continuous medical educational programmes of all Hungarian medical faculties...
January 17, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342931/transcriptome-analysis-based-on-rna-seq-in-understanding-pathogenic-mechanisms-of-diseases-and-the-immune-system-of-fish-a-comprehensive-review
#20
REVIEW
Arun Sudhagar, Gokhlesh Kumar, Mansour El-Matbouli
In recent years, with the advent of next-generation sequencing along with the development of various bioinformatics tools, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq)-based transcriptome analysis has become much more affordable in the field of biological research. This technique has even opened up avenues to explore the transcriptome of non-model organisms for which a reference genome is not available. This has made fish health researchers march towards this technology to understand pathogenic processes and immune reactions in fish during the event of infection...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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