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Atherosclerosis pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643478/critical-role-of-tnf-inhibition-in-combination-therapy-for-elderly-mice-with-atherosclerosis
#1
Kyung-Yeon Park, Tae-Hwe Heo
We have previously shown that the combination of pravastatin and sarpogrelate is synergistically beneficial for atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated whether the pravastatin-sarpogrelate combination was sufficient for treatment in an old mouse model of atherosclerosis or if additional intervention would be needed to address the newly included aging factor and its complex pathophysiological impact on the atherosclerogenic state. We added an anti-TNF biologic to the combination treatment cocktail because of the known pathologic roles of TNF in the aging process...
June 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642873/serum-amyloid-a-induces-a-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-phenotype-switch-through-the-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway
#2
Xincai Zhang, Jinqin Chen, Shixun Wang
Atherosclerosis is an important pathological condition which is accompanied by a vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype switch toward a synthetic phenotype. As an acute-phase protein, Serum Amyloid A (SAA) is thought to have a close relationship to atherosclerosis development. However, no study has investigated the direct effect of SAA on the VSMC phenotype switch, as well as the underlying mechanisms. The purpose of our study was to explore the effect of SAA on the VSMC phenotype switch and the potential mechanisms involved...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641818/the-role-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-14-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Wei Xie, Liang Li, Xi-Long Zheng, Wei-Dong Yin, Chao-Ke Tang
The Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family, as the SP/XKLF transcription factors, plays important roles in regulating the expression of genes required for the proper execution of important biological and pathological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that KLF14, a member of the KLF family, participates in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). From the molecular function aspect, this review focuses on the impact of KLF14-mediated regulation in major atherosclerosis-related diseases and pathological processes, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, inflammation, obesity, metabolic syndrome, cell proliferation and differentiation...
June 7, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641276/atherosclerosis-and-the-hydrogen-sulfide-signaling-pathway-therapeutic-approaches-to-disease-prevention
#4
Zhi-Jun Wang, Jian Wu, Wei Guo, Yi-Zhun Zhu
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now admitted as a third gasotransmitter together with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), albeit it was originally considered as a foul and poisonous gas. Endogenous H2S production in mammalian cells is counting on the three enzymes acting on cysteine. Involvement of H2S in various physiological and pathological processes has been extensively studied in the last fifteen years. Mounting evidence suggests that H2S is able to protect against atherosclerosis development and progression...
June 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639365/vascular-calcification-vitamin-k-and-warfarin-therapy-possible-or-plausible-connection
#5
Aino Siltari, Heikki Vapaatalo
Atherosclerosis is a pathological process underpinning many cardiovascular diseases; it is the main cause of global mortality. Atherosclerosis is characterized by an invasion of inflammatory cells, accumulation of lipids and the formation of fatty streaks (plaques) which subsequently allow accumulation of calcium and other minerals leading to a disturbance in the vascular endothelium and its regulatory role in arterial function. Vascular calcification is a different process, stringently regulated mainly by local factors, in which osteoblast-like cells accumulate in the muscular layer of arteries ultimately taking on the physiological appearance of bone...
June 21, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636491/atherosclerosis-induced-by-a-high-cholesterol-and-high-fat-diet-in-the-inbred-strain-of-the-wuzhishan-miniature-pig
#6
Yuqiong Zhao, Lei Xiang, Yaqian Liu, Miaomiao Niu, Jifang Yuan, Hua Chen
Coronary artery disease has a significant genetic predisposition, which mainly results from atherosclerosis. Miniature pig is an excellent model to investigate atherosclerosis. This study investigated whether the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis in the Wuzhishan miniature pigs (WZSPs) that were closely bred 12 generations had better consistency. The WZSPs (n = 9) were fed a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet (HCFD). After continuous feeding, 3 WZSPs each were sacrificed at 6, 8, and 12 months, respectively, and the general clinical manifestations and serological indexes were detected...
June 21, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634787/insulin-resistance-in-ischemic-stroke
#7
REVIEW
Xiao-Ling Deng, Zhou Liu, Chuanling Wang, Yanfeng Li, Zhiyou Cai
Insulin resistance often refers to a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond to the normal actions of insulin. Increasing literature has noted a critical role of insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. Insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke via enhancing advanced changes of atherosclerosis. A variety of literature indicates that insulin resistance enhances platelet adhesion, activation and aggregation which are conducive to the occurrence of ischemic stroke...
June 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634267/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-role-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-in-the-vasculature
#8
REVIEW
Jennifer J DuPont, Iris Z Jaffe
Since the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was cloned 30 years ago, it has become clear that MR is expressed in extra-renal tissues, including the cardiovascular system, where it is expressed in all cells of the vasculature. Understanding the role of MR in the vasculature has been of particular interest as clinical trials show that MR antagonism improves cardiovascular outcomes out of proportion to changes in blood pressure. The last 30 years of research have demonstrated that MR is a functional hormone-activated transcription factor in vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624810/the-p38-pathway-a-major-pleiotropic-cascade-that-transduces-stress-and-metastatic-signals-in-endothelial-cells
#9
REVIEW
Isabelle Corre, François Paris, Jacques Huot
By gating the traffic of molecules and cells across the vessel wall, endothelial cells play a central role in regulating cardiovascular functions and systemic homeostasis and in modulating pathophysiological processes such as inflammation and immunity. Accordingly, the loss of endothelial cell integrity is associated with pathological disorders that include atherosclerosis and cancer. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are major signaling pathways that regulate several functions of endothelial cells in response to exogenous and endogenous stimuli including growth factors, stress and cytokines...
May 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621310/single-cell-profiling-reveals-heterogeneity-and-functional-patterning-of-gpcr-expression-in-the-vascular-system
#10
H Kaur, J Carvalho, M Looso, P Singh, R Chennupati, J Preussner, S Günther, J Albarrán-Juárez, D Tischner, S Classen, S Offermanns, N Wettschureck
G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) expression is extensively studied in bulk cDNA, but heterogeneity and functional patterning of GPCR expression in individual vascular cells is poorly understood. Here, we perform a microfluidic-based single-cell GPCR expression analysis in primary smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells (EC). GPCR expression is highly heterogeneous in all cell types, which is confirmed in reporter mice, on the protein level and in human cells. Inflammatory activation in murine models of sepsis or atherosclerosis results in characteristic changes in the GPCR repertoire, and we identify functionally relevant subgroups of cells that are characterized by specific GPCR patterns...
June 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619369/mechanisms-of-atherosclerosis-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-antiphospholipid-syndrome-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-new-therapeutic-approaches
#11
REVIEW
Chary Lopez-Pedrera, M Ángeles Aguirre-Zamorano, Carlos Pérez-Sánchez
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are 2 highly related autoimmune-rheumatic diseases associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Despite the great progresses made in understanding the pathological mechanisms leading to CV diseases in those pathologies, there is still the unmet need to improve long term prognosis. CV diseases in SLE and APS is thought to happen as the result of a complex interaction between traditional CV risk factors, immune deregulation and disease activity, including the synergic effect of cytokines, chemokines, adipokines, proteases, autoantibodies, adhesion receptors, oxidative stress and a plethora of intracellular signalling molecules...
June 12, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619112/docosahexaenoic-acid-regulates-vascular-endothelial-cell-function-and-prevents-cardiovascular-disease
#12
REVIEW
Kazuo Yamagata
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is present in high concentrations in salmon, herring, and trout. Epidemiologic studies have shown that high dietary consumption of these and other oily fish is associated with reduced rates of myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and other ischemic pathologies. Atherosclerosis is induced by inflammation and can lead to acute cardiovascular events and extensive plaque. DHA inhibits the development of inflammation in endothelial cells, alters the function and regulation of vascular biomarkers, and reduces cardiovascular risk...
June 15, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617818/proteome-profiling-in-il-1%C3%AE-and-vegf-activated-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-delineates-the-interlink-between-inflammation-and-angiogenesis
#13
Thomas Mohr, Verena Haudek-Prinz, Astrid Slany, Johannes Grillari, Michael Micksche, Christopher Gerner
Endothelial cells represent major effectors in inflammation and angiogenesis, processes that drive a multitude of pathological states such as atherosclerosis and cancer. Both inflammation and angiogenesis are interconnected with each other in the sense that many pro-inflammatory proteins possess proangiogenic properties and vice versa. To elucidate this interplay further, we present a comparative proteome study of inflammatory and angiogenic activated endothelial cells. HUVEC were stimulated with interleukin 1-β and VEGF, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616354/comparing-american-european-and-asian-practice-guidelines-for-aortic-diseases
#14
Jose Rozado, Maria Martin, Isaac Pascual, Daniel Hernandez-Vaquero, Cesar Moris
The aortic disease comprises a group of different pathologies of high prevalence, seriousness and ever changing by the medical and surgical investigations. Therefore cardiovascular scientific societies in USA, Europe and Asia have created Task Force on practice guidelines (PG) to develop, update and revise PG for aortic diseases. These documents issue recommendations on the diagnosis and management of different aortic diseases. The three societies agree on the recommendations about diagnostic tests and on the value of computed tomography and magnetic resonance as the main tools for the diagnosis and follow-up of aortic disease...
May 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615347/thymic-stromallymphopoietin-induced-hotair-activation-promotes-endothelial-cellproliferation-and-migrationin-atherosclerosis
#15
Yudong Peng, Kai Meng, Lili Jiang, Yucheng Zhong, Yong Yang, Yin Lan, Qiuyang Zeng, Longxian Cheng
Endothelial cells (EC) injury is a major step for the pathological progression of atherosclerosis. Recent study demonstrated that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) exerts a protective role in atherosclerosis. However, the effect of TSLP and the exact molecular mechanism involved in EC remains unknown. In the present study, we found that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR was much lower in EC from atherosclerotic plaque. Functional assays showed that HOTAIR facilitated cell proliferation and migration, and suppressed apoptosis in EC...
June 14, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614536/implications-of-alcoholic-cirrhosis-in-atherosclerosis-of-autopsied-patients
#16
Luciano Alves Matias da Silveira, Bianca Gonçalves Silva Torquato, Mariana Silva Oliveira, Guilherme Ribeiro Juliano, Lívia Ferreira Oliveira, Camila Lourencini Cavellani, Luciana Santos Ramalho, Ana Paula Espindula, Vicente de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Mara Lúcia Fonseca Ferraz
Introduction: Alcoholism is a major public health problem, which has a high social cost and affects many aspects of human activity. Liver disease is one of the first consequences of alcohol abuse, and steatosis, liver cirrhosis and hepatitis may occur. Other organs are also affected with pathological changes, such as pancreatitis, cardiomyopathies, dyslipidemias and atherosclerosis. Objective: To identify the occurrence and degree of atherosclerosis in alcohol-dependent individuals with liver cirrhosis, observing macroscopic and microscopic changes in lipid and collagen deposits and in the liver...
April 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611853/an-unsettled-debate-about-the-potential-role-of-infection-in-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#17
REVIEW
Udip Dahal, Dikshya Sharma, Kumud Dahal
Association of infection with atherosclerosis is by no means new. Several sero-epidemiological and pathologic studies as well as animal models have shown a link between infection and atherosclerosis. Exciting discoveries in recent times related to role of inter-individual genetic variation in modulating inflammatory response to infection have reignited the enthusiasm in proving a causal link between infection and atherosclerosis. The purpose of this article was to review and analyze the available evidence linking infection with atherosclerosis...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611661/discovery-and-development-of-calcium-channel-blockers
#18
REVIEW
Théophile Godfraind
In the mid 1960s, experimental work on molecules under screening as coronary dilators allowed the discovery of the mechanism of calcium entry blockade by drugs later named calcium channel blockers. This paper summarizes scientific research on these small molecules interacting directly with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels. It also reports on experimental approaches translated into understanding of their therapeutic actions. The importance of calcium in muscle contraction was discovered by Sidney Ringer who reported this fact in 1883...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607103/dynamin-related-protein-1-inhibition-attenuates-cardiovascular-calcification-in-the-presence-of-oxidative-stress
#19
Maximillian Rogers, Natalia Maldonado-Martinez, Joshua D Hutcheson, Claudia Goettsch, Shinji Goto, Iwao Yamada, Tyler Faits, Hiromi Sesaki, Masanori Aikawa, Elena Aikawa
Rationale: Mitochondrial changes occur during cell differentiation and cardiovascular disease. Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) is a key regulator of mitochondrial fission. We hypothesized that DRP1 plays a role in cardiovascular calcification, a process involving cell differentiation and a major clinical problem with high unmet needs. Objective: To examine the effects of osteogenic promoting conditions on DRP1, and whether DRP1 inhibition alters the development of cardiovascular calcification. Methods and Results: DRP1 was enriched in calcified regions of human carotid arteries, examined by immunohistochemistry...
June 12, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606699/integrated-assessment-of-exposure-to-pm2-5-in-south-india-and-its-relation-with-cardiovascular-risk-design-of-the-chai-observational-cohort-study
#20
Cathryn Tonne, Maëlle Salmon, Margaux Sanchez, V Sreekanth, Santhi Bhogadi, Sankar Sambandam, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Sanjay Kinra, Julian D Marshall
While there is convincing evidence that fine particulate matter causes cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, little of the evidence is based on populations outside of high income countries, leaving large uncertainties at high exposures. India is an attractive setting for investigating the cardiovascular risk of particles across a wide concentration range, including concentrations for which there is the largest uncertainty in the exposure-response relationship. CHAI is a European Research Council funded project that investigates the relationship between particulate air pollution from outdoor and household sources with markers of atherosclerosis, an important cardiovascular pathology...
June 3, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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