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Atherosclerosis pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237549/il-37-increased-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-and-associated-with-a-worse-clinical-outcome-after-st-segment-elevation-acute-myocardial-infarction
#1
Kun Liu, Qiang Tang, Xinyuan Zhu, Xinchun Yang
BACKGROUND: IL-37 emerges as a natural suppressor of inflammatory responses. The potential role of IL-37 in the pathology of atherosclerosis is unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess IL-37 profile in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and the prognostic role of this cytokine in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). METHODS: In a case-control study, we prospectively enrolled 216 patients undergoing the first coronary angiography, which consisted of 5 groups: normal (n=57), stable angina (SAP, n=36), unstable angina (UAP, n=42), non-STEMI (n=36), STEMI (n=45)...
February 22, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223818/an-evidence-based-review-on-urate-lowering-treatments-implications-for-optimal-treatment-of-chronic-hyperuricemia
#2
REVIEW
Marilisa Bove, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe Cicero, Maddalena Veronesi, Claudio Borghi
Several studies suggest that chronic hyperuricemia, the main precursor of gout, is involved in the pathogenesis of different systemic disorders that affect cardiovascular and renal systems, such as hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, chronic heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Recent epidemiological evidence has shown an increasing trend in the prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in the Western world: a number of population-based studies estimate a prevalence of up to 21% for hyperuricemia and 1%-4% for gout...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223234/advanced-glycation-end-products-produced-systemically-and-by-macrophages-a-common-contributor-to-inflammation-and-degenerative-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Kyunghee Byun, YongCheol Yoo, Myeongjoo Son, Jaesuk Lee, Goo-Bo Jeong, Young Mok Park, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh, Bonghee Lee
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor have been implicated in the progressions of many intractable diseases, such as diabetes and atherosclerosis, and are also critical for pathologic changes in chronic degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and alcoholic brain damage. Recently activated macrophages were found to be a source of AGEs, and the most abundant form of AGEs, AGE-albumin excreted by macrophages has been implicated in these diseases and to act through common pathways...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223025/transcriptional-regulation-of-human-paraoxonase-1-by-nuclear-receptors
#4
REVIEW
N Ponce-Ruiz, F E Murillo-González, A E Rojas-García, Mike Mackness, Y Y Bernal-Hernández, B S Barrón-Vivanco, C A González-Arias, I M Medina-Díaz
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a calcium-dependent esterase synthesized primarily in the liver and secreted into the plasma, where it is associates with high density lipoproteins (HDL). PON1 acts as antioxidant preventing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation which is believed to be critical in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Additionally, PON1 hydrolyzes and detoxifies some toxic metabolites of organophosphorus compounds (OPs). Thus, PON1 activity and expression levels are important for determining susceptibility to OPs intoxication and risk of diseases related to inflammation and oxidative stress...
February 18, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222187/a-purified-maa-based-elisa-is-a-useful-tool-for-determining-anti-maa-antibody-titer-with-high-sensitivity
#5
Takasumi Shimomoto, Leonard B Collins, Xianwen Yi, Darcy W Holley, Zhenfa Zhang, Xu Tian, Koji Uchida, Chunguang Wang, Sohvi Hörkkö, Monte S Willis, Avram Gold, Scott J Bultman, Jun Nakamura
Atherosclerosis is widely accepted to be a chronic inflammatory disease, and the immunological response to the accumulation of LDL is believed to play a critical role in the development of this disease. 1,4-Dihydropyridine-type MAA-adducted LDL has been implicated in atherosclerosis. Here, we have demonstrated that pure MAA-modified residues can be chemically conjugated to large proteins without by-product contamination. Using this pure antigen, we established a purified MAA-ELISA, with which a marked increase in anti-MAA antibody titer was determined at a very early stage of atherosclerosis in 3-month ApoE-/- mice fed with a normal diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219095/kaempferol-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-via-regulation-of-ask1-mapk-signaling-pathway-and-oxidative-stress
#6
Hong Feng, Jianlei Cao, Guangyu Zhang, Yanggan Wang
Kaempferol has been demonstrated to provide benefits for the treatment of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its role in cardiac hypertrophy remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of kaempferol on cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying mechanism. Mice subjected to aorta banding were treated with or without kaempferol (100 mg/kg/d, p. o.) for 6 weeks. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac function...
February 20, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215160/cathepsin-d-as-a-promising-target-for-the-discovery-of-novel-anticancer-agents
#7
Vijaya Dubey, Suaib Luqman
BACKGROUND: Cathepsin D (CATD), one of the aspartyl endoproteinase involved in different physiological processes and signaling pathways, is accountable for metabolic breakdown of intracellular proteins, activation of growth factors, hormones, and precursors of enzyme, processing of antigens, enzyme inhibitors and activators and regulation of apoptosis. Implication as a Target: Studies have confirmed the role and significance of CATD in an assortment of pathological conditions like Atherosclerosis, Alzheimer, Cancer, Cardiovascular, Huntington and Parkinson diseases...
December 29, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212679/histopathological-study-of-cardiac-lesions-in-methamphetamine-poisoning-related-deaths
#8
Maryam Akhgari, Homeira Mobaraki, Afshar Etemadi-Aleagha
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine abuse is a worldwide health concern. Methamphetamine causes health hazards in many vital organs. It can cause damage to cardiac tissue via catecholamines release. Methamphetamine related deaths are becoming one of the most important problems in Iran. The purpose of the present study was to determine cardiac pathology in methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths. METHODS: The study included 100 cases of methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths and 100 cases as control group...
February 17, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212288/the-search-for-dietary-supplements-to-elevate-or-activate-circulating-paraoxonases
#9
REVIEW
José M Lou-Bonafonte, Clara Gabás-Rivera, María A Navarro, Jesús Osada
Low levels of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) have been associated with the development of several pathological conditions, whereas high levels have been shown to be anti-atherosclerotic in mouse models. These findings suggest that PON1 could be a good surrogate biomarker. The other members of the family, namely PON2 and PON3, the role of which has been much less studied, deserve more attention. This paper provides a systematic review of current evidence concerning dietary supplements in that regard. Preliminary studies indicate that the response to dietary supplements may have a nutrigenetic aspect that will need to be considered in large population studies or in clinical trials...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205266/role-of-parnaparin-in-atherosclerosis
#10
Francesca Bonomini, Samanta Taurone, Pierpaolo Parnigotto, Loris Zamai, Luigi F Rodella, Marco Artico, Rita Rezzani
Atherosclerosis is characterized by a proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and their migration to the intima, which induces thickening of the intima itself, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) inhibits the proliferation of VSMCs. Previous studies have shown that a LMWH, parnaparin (PNP), acts on the processes of atherogenesis and atheroprogression in experimental animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of oxidative stress, inflammation and VSMCs in the regulation of vascular wall homeostasis...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202258/sudden-cardiac-death-and-coronary-disease-in-the-young-a-nationwide-cohort-study-in-denmark
#11
Sára Zachariasardóttir, Bjarke Risgaard, Frederik Nybye Ågesen, Reza Jabbari, Charlotte Glinge, Ole Ingemann-Hansen, Gyda Lolk Ottesen, Jørgen Lange Thomsen, Stig Haunsø, Jytte Banner, Bo Gregers Winkel, Jacob Tfelt-Hansen
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death caused by coronary artery disease (CAD-SCD) is the most frequent cause of SCD in persons <50years. The aim of this study was to examine differences in clinical characteristics and autopsy findings of the heart among 18-35 and 36-49year old CAD-SCD cases. METHODS: We have previously identified all sudden cardiac deaths in Denmark through review of death certificates and autopsy reports including all deaths between 2000 and 2006 in individuals aged 18-35years and all deaths between 2007 and 2009 in individuals aged 18-49years...
January 28, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191271/the-unchartered-frontier-preventive-cardiology-between-the-ages-of-15-and-35-years
#12
Holly Gooding, Heather M Johnson
It is well established that atherosclerosis, the pathological basis of cardiovascular disease (CVD), begins in childhood and progresses steadily between the ages of 15 to 35 years. These adolescent and young adult years are also marked by significant physiological, psychological, and sociodemographic changes that impact both CVD risk factor development and CVD prevention and treatment strategies. In this review, we highlight the importance of the primordial prevention of CVD risk factors before they ever occur and the primary prevention of CVD by treating CVD risk factors in this age group...
September 2016: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189002/abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-an-independent-disease-to-atherosclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Bradley J Toghill, Athanasios Saratzis, Matthew J Bown
Atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are multifactorial and polygenic diseases with known environmental and genetic risk factors that contribute toward disease development. Atherosclerosis represents an important independent risk factor for AAA, as people with AAA often have atherosclerosis. Studies have shown that comorbidity is usually between ~25% and 55%, but it is still not fully known whether this association is causal or a result of common shared risk profiles. Most recent epidemiological, clinical, and biological evidence suggests that the two pathologies are more distinct than traditionally thought...
January 29, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185804/7-cyclopentyl-5-4-phenoxyphenyl-7h-pyrrolo-2-3-d-pyrimidin-4-ylamine-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-by-suppressing-erk-and-akt-pathways
#14
Hyang-Hee Seo, Sang Woo Kim, Chang Youn Lee, Kyu Hee Lim, Jiyun Lee, Soyeon Lim, Seahyoung Lee, Ki-Chul Hwang
Excessive vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration after vascular injury significantly contributes to the development of occlusive vascular disease. Therefore, inhibiting the proliferation and migration of VSMCs is a validated therapeutic modality for occlusive vascular disease such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. In the present study, we screened chemical compounds for their anti-proliferative effects on VSMCs using multiple approaches, such as MTT assays, wound healing assays, and trans-well migration assays...
February 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167941/nr4a-receptors-differentially-regulate-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-myeloid-cells
#15
Caitriona McEvoy, Monica de Gaetano, Hugh E Giffney, Bojlul Bahar, Eoin P Cummins, Eoin P Brennan, Mary Barry, Orina Belton, Catherine G Godson, Evelyn P Murphy, Daniel Crean
Dysregulation of inflammatory responses is a hallmark of multiple diseases such as atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. As constitutively active transcription factors, NR4A nuclear receptors function to control the magnitude of inflammatory responses and in chronic inflammatory disease can be protective or pathogenic. Within this study, we demonstrate that TLR4 stimulation using the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) rapidly enhances NR4A1-3 expression in human and murine, primary and immortalized myeloid cells with concomitant gene transcription and protein secretion of MIP-3α, a central chemokine implicated in numerous pathologies...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167354/coronary-atherosclerosis-and-dilation-in-hyper-ige-syndrome-patients-depiction-by-magnetic-resonance-vessel-wall-imaging-and-pathological-correlation
#16
Khaled Z Abd-Elmoniem, Nadine Ramos, Saami K Yazdani, Ahmed M Ghanem, Steven M Holland, Alexandra F Freeman, Ahmed M Gharib
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE (AD-HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in STAT3. Elevated levels of IgE, an ineffective immune response, connective tissue abnormalities, and coronary arterial dilation and tortuosity characterize AD-HIES. To date, coronary artery evaluation in AD-HIES patients has been limited to lumenography measurements. Direct in vivo coronary vessel wall (VW) imaging may allow for better interrogation of coronary vessel abnormalities...
January 19, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165553/lncrna-h19-promotes-atherosclerosis-by-regulating-mapk-and-nf-kb-signaling-pathway
#17
J-X Pan
OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of mortality in the world, which is a multistep cardiovascular disease promoted by several of risk factors. However, the detailed mechanism of atherosclerosis remained unclear. LncRNAs have been proved to play an important role in various of biological and pathological processes, but the role of lncRNA in atherosclerosis largely remained unidentified. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Blood sample were collected from 42 patients with atherosclerosis and 37 healthy volunteers...
January 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161804/tryptophan-depletion-under-conditions-that-imitate-insulin-resistance-enhances-fatty-acid-oxidation-and-induces-endothelial-dysfunction-through-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-and-independent-pathways
#18
Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Georgios Pissas, Maria Sounidaki, Georgia Antoniadi, Christos Rountas, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Loannis Stefanidis
In atherosclerosis-associated pathologic entities characterized by malnutrition and inflammation, L-tryptophan (TRP) levels are low. Insulin resistance is an independent cardiovascular risk factor and induces endothelial dysfunction by increasing fatty acid oxidation. It is also associated with inflammation and low TRP levels. Low TRP levels have been related to worse cardiovascular outcome. This study evaluated the effect of TRP depletion on endothelial dysfunction under conditions that imitate insulin resistance...
February 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156019/excessive-angiogenesis-associated-with-psoriasis-as-a-cause-for-cardiovascular-ischaemia
#19
Nina Malecic, Helen S Young
Psoriasis, a common disease affecting 2-3% of the UK population, produces significant impairment of quality of life and is an immense burden on sufferers and their families. Psoriasis is associated with significant cardiovascular co-morbidity and the metabolic syndrome. Angiogenesis, a relatively under-researched component of psoriasis, is a key factor in pathogenesis of psoriasis and also contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a well established mediator of pathological angiogenesis which is upregulated in psoriasis...
February 3, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153917/trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-atherogenesis-impairing-endothelial-self-repair-capacity-and-enhancing-monocyte-adhesion
#20
GuoHua Ma, Bing Pan, Yue Chen, CaiXia Guo, MingMing Zhao, LeMin Zheng, BuXing Chen
Several studies have reported a strong association between high plasma level of Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and atherosclerosis development. However, the exact mechanism underlying this correlation is unknown. In this study, we try to explore the impact of TMAO on endothelial dysfunction. After TMAO treatment, Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) showed significant impairment in cellular proliferation and HUVECs-ECM adhesion compared to control. Likewise, TMAO markedly suppressed HUVECs migration in transwell migration assay and wound healing assay...
February 2, 2017: Bioscience Reports
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