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Atherosclerosis pathology

T A Patil, Arno Nierich
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) can be used to identify risk factors such as aortic atherosclerosis [2] before any sort of surgical manipulations involving aorta and its related structures. TEE has become an important noninvasive tool to diagnose acute thoracic aortic pathologies. TEE evaluation of endoleaks helps early detection and immediate corrective interventions. TEE is an invaluable imaging modality in the management of aortic pathology. TEE has to a large extent improved the patient outcomes.
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Markus Seeger, Angelos Karlas, Dominik Soliman, Jaroslav Pelisek, Vasilis Ntziachristos
Carotid artery atherosclerosis is a main cause of stroke. Understanding atherosclerosis biology is critical in the development of targeted prevention and treatment strategies. Consequently, there is demand for advanced tools investigating atheroma pathology. We consider hybrid optoacoustic and multiphoton microscopy for the integrated and complementary interrogation of plaque tissue constituents and their mutual interactions. Herein, we visualize human carotid plaque using a hybrid multimodal imaging system that combines optical resolution optoacoustic (photoacoustic) microscopy, second and third harmonic generation microscopy, and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy...
September 2016: Photoacoustics
Malgorzata Furmanik, Catherine M Shanahan
Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The idea that the arterial smooth muscle cell (ASMC) plays a key role in regulating many vascular pathologies has been gaining importance, as has the realisation that not enough is known about the pathological cellular mechanisms regulating ASMC function in vascular remodelling. In the past decade endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been recognised as a stress response underlying many physiological and pathological processes in various vascular cell types...
October 13, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Zhiyou Cai, Chuanling Wang, Wenming Yang
Berberine, an important protoberberine isoquinoline alkaloid, has several pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial, glucose- and cholesterol-lowering, antitumoral, and immunomodulatory properties. Substantial studies suggest that berberine may be beneficial to Alzheimer's disease (AD) by limiting the pathogenesis of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Increasing evidence has indicated that berberine exerts a protective role in atherosclerosis related to lipid- and glucose-lowering properties, implicating that berberine has the potential to inhibit these risk factors for AD...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Peter F Davies, Elisabetta Manduchi, Christian J Stoeckert, Yi-Zhou Jiang
Hemodynamics creates a constantly changing physical and chemical environment to which the arterial endothelium is exquisitely sensitive. Biomechanical stresses are intrinsic to blood flow characteristics and blood pressure and therefore are important considerations in hypertension. Near branching anatomical sites in arteries, blood flow separates from the main flow to undergo complex multi-directional characteristics for a part of each cardiac cycle (collectively referred to as disturbed flow). Atherosclerosis and aneurysmal pathology develop preferentially at disturbed flow locations, particularly when an additional cardiovascular risk factor such as hypercholesterolemia or high blood pressure are present...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jin Cai, Gengze Wu, Pedro A Jose, Chunyu Zeng
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane vesicles including exosomes and shedding vesicles that mediated a cell-to-cell communication. EVs are released from almost all cell types under both physiological and pathological conditions and incorporate nuclear and cytoplasmic molecules for intercellular delivery. Besides protein, mRNA, and microRNA of these molecules, as recent studies show, specific DNA are prominently packaged into EVs. It appears likely that some of exosomes or shedding vesicles, bearing nuclear molecules are released upon bubble-like blebs...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Robert G Salomon
Our research on the roles of lipid oxidation in human disease is guided by chemical intuition. For example, we postulated that 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives of primary amines would be produced through covalent adduction of a γ-hydroxyalkenal generated, in turn, through oxidative fragmentation of docosahexaenoates. Our studies confirmed the natural occurrence of this chemistry, and the biological activities of these natural products and their extensive involvements in human physiology (wound healing) and pathology (age-related macular degeneration, autism, atherosclerosis, sickle cell disease and tumor growth) continue to emerge...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Y Li, C G Zhang, X-H Wang, D-H Liu
OBJECTIVE: To construct the atherosclerosis model of ApoE-knockout (ApoE-/-) mouse after deposition of high-fat diet at brachiocephalic artery and coronary artery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 healthy 8-week SPF-level male ApoE-/- mice of body weigh 16 to 23 g were averagely divided into a high-fat diet group and an ordinary diet group. Mice were sacrificed in a time course study by 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months. The brachiocephalic artery and coronary artery were extracted for pathological examination, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the examination of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) content and the relative expression level of liver peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Ismael González-García, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez, Rubén Nogueiras, Miguel López
Hypothalamic lipid metabolism plays a major role in the physiological regulation of energy balance. Modulation of several enzymatic activities that control lipid biosynthesis, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), impacts both feeding and energy expenditure. However, lipids can also cause pathological alterations in the hypothalamus. Lipotoxicity is promoted by excess lipids in tissues non suitable for their storage. A large amount of evidence has demonstrated that lipotoxicity is a pathophysiological mechanism leading to metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis and steatohepatitis...
October 11, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Salvador Damián-Zamacona, Paola Toledo-Ibelles, Mabel Z Ibarra-Abundis, Laura Uribe-Figueroa, Enrique Hernández-Lemus, Karla Paola Macedo-Alcibia, Blanca Delgado-Coello, Jaime Mas-Oliva, Juan Pablo Reyes-Grajeda
BACKGROUND: Although nowadays it is well known that the human transcriptome can importantly vary according to external or environmental condition, the reflection of this concept when studying oxidative stress and its direct relationship with gene expression profiling during the process of atherogenesis has not been thoroughly achieved. OBJECTIVE: The ability to analyze genome-wide gene expression through transcriptomics has shown that the genome responds dynamically to diverse stimuli...
2016: PloS One
Alexandre Poulin, Cansaran Saygili Demir, Samuel Rosset, Tatiana V Petrova, Herbert Shea
We demonstrate the use of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) for mechanical stimulation of cells in vitro. The development of living tissues is regulated by their mechanical environment through the modification of fundamental cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation and gene expression. Mechanical cues have been linked to numerous pathological conditions, and progress in cellular mechanobiology could lead to better diagnosis and treatments of diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancers...
September 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Rebecca Wilson, Richard Kendall
Low back pain and obesity are both rising epidemics. This article will examine global trends in obesity, contributory lifestyle and societal factors, and morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. With this background information, this article will explore the complex physiological process of atherosclerosis and the association between impaired lumbar perfusion and low back pain. It also will provide specific guidance on exercise and nutrition to help treat these potential underlying and contributory mechanisms of spine pathology...
October 6, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Naoki Matsumoto, Hitoshi Fukuda, Akira Handa, Toshinari Kawasaki, Yoshitaka Kurosaki, Masaki Chin, Sen Yamagata
The mechanism of thrombus formation in Trousseau syndrome remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate specific pathological findings of the thrombi in Trousseau syndrome. The authors report on 2 cases of thrombi in Trousseau syndrome from large cerebral vessels removed by endovascular therapy and compared with thrombi in atherosclerosis or cardiac embolism. The first patient, a 67-year-old man, was transferred to our hospital for sudden onset consciousness disturbance and tetraparesis. He had been diagnosed with stage IV lung cancer...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Dragana Nikolic, Giuseppa Castellino, Maciej Banach, Peter P Toth, Ekaterina Ivanova, Alexander N Orekhov, Giuseppe Montalto, Manfredi Rizzo
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are implicated in the pathology of several metabolic diseases including obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. PPAR agonists exert multiple lipid modifying actions which are beneficial to the prevention of atherosclerosis. Such benefits in lipid lowering actions include improvements in atherogenic dyslipidemia that seems to be particularly expressed in individuals at higher cardiovascular (CV) risk. In addition, the favorable effects of PPAR agonists on different cardio-metabolic parameters are established in several metabolic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and heightened systemic inflammation...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Joanna Martenka, Krystyna Soszyńska
Apolipoprotein E is a transport protein, which by binding to lipids forms a lipoprotein particle. It is responsible for transport and redistribution of lipids between cells and tissues. Apolipoprotein E circulates in blood mainly as a component of VLDL (very low density lipoproteins) HDL (high density lipoproteins) chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants. It assists in the flow of cholesterol from peripheral cells to extracellular space. Apolipoprotein E is one of the most studied apolipoproteins. There are three isoforms of this protein: E2, E3 and E4...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Hao Ding, Qian Yang, Kun Shang, Hailian Lan, Jie Lv, Zhilin Liu, Yang Liu, Lixing Sheng, Yanjun Zeng
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed at developing a myocardial bridge-mural coronary artery simulative device and analyzing the relationship between shear stress on the mural coronary artery and atherosclerosis. METHODS: A myocardial bridge-mural coronary artery simulative device was used to simulate experiments in vitro. In the condition of maintaining any related parameters such as system temperature, average flow rate, and heart rate, we calculated and observed changes in proximal and distal mean values, and oscillatory value of shear stress on the mural coronary artery by regulating the compression level of the myocardial bridge to the mural coronary artery...
October 7, 2016: Cardiology Journal
Jonathan H Kim, Aaron L Baggish
Although moderate levels of exercise reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population, recent data have questioned whether higher doses of physical activity are associated with diminished health benefits and adverse outcomes. This review focuses on several issues at the center of this controversy including epidemiologic data describing mortality trends in those who engage in high levels of physical activity and recent observational data suggesting adverse cardiovascular outcomes among long-term endurance athletes...
November 2016: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Valentin P Yakubenko, Tatiana V Byzova
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are known to be present and/or enriched in vegetable and fish oils. Among fatty acids, n-3 PUFA are generally considered to be protective in inflammation-related diseases. The guidelines for substituting saturated fatty acids for PUFAs have been highly publicized for decades by numerous health organizations. Recently, however, the beneficial properties of n-3 PUFA are questioned by detailed analyses of multiple randomized controlled clinical trials...
October 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Milad Samaee, Mohammad Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Hamed Alavi
Many cardiovascular diseases are closely associated with hemodynamic parameters. The main purpose of this study is mimicking a physiological blood flow in stenotic arteries to provide an understanding of hemodynamic parameters. An experimental setup was designed to produce original pulsatile flow and measure pressure pulse waves through a compliant tube. Moreover, a numerical model considering fluid-solid interaction was developed to investigate wall shear stress and circumferential stress waves, based on the results of the experiments...
October 5, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Kazuko Kato, Seiko Miyata, Motoo Ando, Hiroki Matsuoka, Fumihiko Yasuma, Kunihiro Iwamoto, Naoko Kawano, Masahiro Banno, Norio Ozaki, Akiko Noda
AIMS: Short sleep duration is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Cerebral blood flow and its regulation are affected by pathological conditions commonly observed in the elderly population, such as dementia, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, stroke and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of sleep duration on cortical oxygenated hemoglobin (OxyHb) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). METHODS: Seventy-three individuals (age, 70...
October 3, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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