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Atherosclerosis pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355844/endothelial-tie1-mediated-angiogenesis-and-vascular-abnormalization-promote-tumor-progression-and-metastasis
#1
Silvia La Porta, Lise Roth, Mahak Singhal, Carolin Mogler, Carleen Spegg, Benjamin Schieb, Xianghu Qu, Ralf H Adams, H Scott Baldwin, Soniya Savant, Hellmut G Augustin
The endothelial tyrosine kinase receptor Tie1 remains poorly characterized, largely owing to its orphan receptor status. Global Tie1 inactivation causes late embryonic lethality, thereby reflecting its importance during development. Tie1 also plays pivotal roles during pathologies such as atherosclerosis and tumorigenesis. In order to study the contribution of Tie1 to tumor progression and metastasis, we conditionally deleted Tie1 in endothelial cells at different stages of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353772/the-impact-of-development-of-atherosclerosis-on-delamination-resistance-of-the-thoracic-aortic-wall
#2
Marta Kozuń, Magdalena Kobielarz, Agnieszka Chwiłkowska, Celina Pezowicz
The aim of this work is to determine the impact of development of atherosclerosis on dissection of the human thoracic aorta on the basis of an analysis of the mechanical properties of the interfaces between its layers. The research material consisted of 17 pathologically unchanged aortae and 74 blood vessels with atherosclerotic lesions, which were classified according to the histological classification by Stary. The subject of the analysis were the interfaces between the adventitia and the media-intima complex (A-MIC) and between the intima and the media-adventitia complex (I-MAC)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338745/study-of-correlation-between-wall-shear-stress-and-elasticity-in-atherosclerotic-carotid-arteries
#3
Bo Zhang, Junyi Gu, Ming Qian, Lili Niu, Dhanjoo Ghista
OBJECTIVE: This paper presents the use of the texture matching method to measure the rabbit carotid artery elasticity value of the experimental group and control group respectively. It compares the experimental rabbits, when they are prompted by pathological histology to be at the period of carotid atherosclerosis fatty streaks and fiber plaques, with the control group. METHODS: We have used ultrasound linear array probe for scanning the rabbit carotid arteries...
January 16, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332588/treatment-strategies-for-hypercholesterolemia
#4
Sarah Clauss, Jacob Hartz
Atherosclerotic disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in adults and is generally thought of as only affecting adults. However, the pathologic changes in vessels leading to atherosclerosis, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, have been shown to begin in early adolescence. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that earlier treatment, through lifestyle changes and pharmacotherapy, can help reduce this risk.
January 11, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328492/exosomes-derived-from-oxidized-ldl-stimulated-macrophages-attenuate-the-growth-and-tube-formation-of-endothelial-cells
#5
Chaoyang Huang, Yuan Huang, Yijiang Zhou, Wencheng Nie, Xiangyuan Pu, Xiaolei Xu, Jianhua Zhu
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) has a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. The participation of oxLDL‑stimulated macrophages has been well‑established in atherosclerosis, however the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Macrophage‑derived exosomes are actively released and are involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes. However, the function of exosomes secreted by oxLDL‑stimulated macrophages in atherosclerosis remains unknown. Exosomes from oxLDL‑treated macrophages and controls were co‑cultured with endothelial cells and the exosomes were taken up by endocytosis...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323337/regulatory-t-cells-as-a-new-therapeutic-target-for-atherosclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Han-Xiao Ou, Bing-Bing Guo, Qi Liu, Yu-Kun Li, Zhen Yang, Wen-Jie Feng, Zhong-Cheng Mo
Atherosclerosis is an autoimmune disease caused by self- and non-self-antigens contributing to excessive activation of T and B cell immune responses. These responses further aggravate vascular inflammation and promote progression of atherosclerosis and vulnerability to plaques via releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) as the major immunoregulatory cells, in particular, induce and maintain immune homeostasis and tolerance by suppressing the immune responses of various cells such as T and B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs), as well as by secreting inhibitory cytokines interleukin (IL)-10, IL-35 and transcription growth factor β (TGF-β) in both physiological and pathological states...
January 11, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321404/a-clinicopathological-analysis-of-six-autopsy-cases-of-sudden-unexpected-death-due-to-infectious-aortitis-in-patients-with-aortic-tears
#7
Marin Ishikawa Kato, Mishie Ann Tanino, Masaya Miyazaki, Taichi Kimura, Yusuke Ishida, Lei Wang, Masumi Tsuda, Hiroshi Nishihara, Kazuo Nagashima, Shinya Tanaka
Objectives Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of sudden unexpected death even in hospitalized patients. Infectious aortitis is a rare disease that has the potential to cause aortic tears and hemorrhage followed by sudden death. The aim of this study was to reveal the clinicopathological features of infectious aortitis that are related to sudden unexpected death. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 1,310 autopsy cases over 15 years and selected the cases involving patients who died suddenly due to aortic tears...
January 11, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320324/spectrum-of-coronary-artery-aneurysms-from-the-radiologic-pathology-archives
#8
Jean Jeudy, Charles S White, Seth J Kligerman, Jonathan L Killam, Allen P Burke, Jacob W Sechrist, Amar B Shah, Rydhwana Hossain, Aletta Ann Frazier
Advances in medical diagnosis reveal that coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) may develop in several clinical scenarios and manifest variable symptoms, imaging appearances, and outcomes. Aneurysms are pathologically classified into three groups: atherosclerotic, inflammatory, and noninflammatory. The last category is associated with congenital, inherited, and connective tissue disorders. Overlap exists among the groups, because secondary atherosclerotic change may be present in an aneurysm of any cause. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of CAAs in adults, and inflammation is considered the underlying mechanism...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319160/macrophage-plasticity-polarization-and-function-in-health-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Abbas Shapouri Moghaddam, Saeed Mohammadian, Hossein Vazini, Mahdi Taghadosi, Seyed-Alireza Esmaeili, Fatemeh Mardani, Bita Seifi, Asadollah Mohammadi, Jalil Tavakol Afshari, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Macrophages are heterogeneous and their phenotype and functions are regulated by the surrounding micro-environment. Macrophages commonly exist in two distinct subsets: 1) Classically activated or M1 macrophages, which are pro-inflammatory and polarized by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) either alone or in association with Th1 cytokines such as IFN-γ, GM-CSF and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α, and 2) Alternatively activated or M2 macrophages, which are anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory and polarized by Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 and produce anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310805/basic-components-of-vascular-connective-tissue-and-extracellular-matrix
#10
Jaroslava Halper
Though the composition of the three layers constituting the blood vessel wall varies among the different types of blood vessels, and some layers may even be missing in capillaries, certain basic components, and properties are shared by all blood vessels, though each histologically distinct layer contains a unique complement of extracellular components, growth factors and cytokines, and cell types as well. The structure and composition of vessel layers informs and is informed by the function of the particular blood vessel...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310800/matrix-metalloproteinases-vascular-remodeling-and-vascular-disease
#11
Xi Wang, Raouf A Khalil
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that degrade various proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Typically, MMPs have a propeptide sequence, a catalytic metalloproteinase domain with catalytic zinc, a hinge region or linker peptide, and a hemopexin domain. MMPs are commonly classified on the basis of their substrates and the organization of their structural domains into collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, matrilysins, membrane-type (MT)-MMPs, and other MMPs...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310798/mechanotransduction-in-blood-and-lymphatic-vascular-development-and-disease
#12
Sofia Urner, Molly Kelly-Goss, Shayn M Peirce, Eckhard Lammert
The blood and lymphatic vasculatures are hierarchical networks of vessels, which constantly transport fluids and, therefore, are exposed to a variety of mechanical forces. Considering the role of mechanotransduction is key for fully understanding how these vascular systems develop, function, and how vascular pathologies evolve. During embryonic development, for example, initiation of blood flow is essential for early vascular remodeling, and increased interstitial fluid pressure as well as initiation of lymph flow is needed for proper development and maturation of the lymphatic vasculature...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307510/carotid-ultrasound-for-assessment-of-nonobstructive-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-young-adults-with-cryptogenic-stroke
#13
Raphael Buon, Brigitte Guidolin, Aude Jaffre, Marie Lafuma, Marianne Barbieux, Nathalie Nasr, Vincent Larrue
BACKGROUND: The role of nonobstructive (<50% stenosis) carotid atherosclerosis (NOCA) in young adults with ischemic stroke is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and the ultrasonic characteristics of NOCA in a consecutive series of young adults with cryptogenic stroke (CS). METHODS: Patients aged 18-54, consecutively treated in a tertiary hospital for first-ever CS (defined as an ischemic stroke without ASCOD (A: atherosclerosis; S: small-vessel disease; C: cardiac pathology; O: other causes) grade 1 potential cause) in the carotid artery territory, were prospectively enrolled...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301847/long-noncoding-rna-discovery-in-cardiovascular-disease-decoding-form-to-function
#14
REVIEW
Tamer Sallam, Jaspreet Sandhu, Peter Tontonoz
Despite significant improvements during the past 3 decades, cardiovascular disease remains a leading worldwide health epidemic. The recent identification of a fascinating group of mediators known as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has provided a wealth of new biology to explore for cardiovascular risk mitigation. lncRNAs are expressed in a highly context-specific fashion, and multiple lines of evidence implicated them in diverse biological processes. Indeed, abnormalities of lncRNAs have been directly linked with human ailments, including cardiovascular biology and disease...
January 5, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301789/consideration-of-sex-differences-in-design-and-reporting-of-experimental-arterial-pathology-studies-statement-from-atvb-council
#15
REVIEW
Peggy Robinet, Dianna M Milewicz, Lisa A Cassis, Nicholas J Leeper, Hong S Lu, Jonathan D Smith
There are many differences in arterial diseases between men and women, including prevalence, clinical manifestations, treatments, and prognosis. The new policy of the National Institutes of Health, which requires the inclusion of sex as a biological variable for preclinical studies, aims to foster new mechanistic insights and to enhance our understanding of sex differences in human diseases. The purpose of this statement is to suggest guidelines for designing and reporting sex as a biological variable in animal models of atherosclerosis, thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms, and peripheral arterial disease...
January 4, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301708/coronary-artery-calcification-and%C3%A2-its%C3%A2-progression-what-does-it-really-mean
#16
REVIEW
Hiroyoshi Mori, Sho Torii, Matthew Kutyna, Atsushi Sakamoto, Aloke V Finn, Renu Virmani
Coronary artery calcification is concomitant with the development of advanced atherosclerosis. Coronary artery calcification pathologically begins as microcalcifications (0.5 to 15.0 μm) and grows into larger calcium fragments, which eventually result in sheet-like deposits (>3 mm). This evolution is observed to occur concurrently with the progression of plaque. These fragments and sheets of calcification can be easily identified by radiography as well as by computed tomography and intravascular imaging...
January 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301530/understanding-amd-by-analogy-systematic-review-of-lipid-related-common-pathogenic-mechanisms-in-amd-ad-as-and-gn
#17
REVIEW
Qinyuan Xu, Sijia Cao, Sanjeeva Rajapakse, Joanne A Matsubara
RATIONALE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness among the elderly. Due to its complex etiology, current treatments have been insufficient. Previous studies reveal three systems closely involved in AMD pathogenesis: lipid metabolism, oxidation and inflammation. These systems are also involved in Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis and glomerulonephritis. Understanding commonalities of these four diseases may provide insight into AMD etiology...
January 4, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301231/apolipoprotein-m-inhibits-angiogenic-and-inflammatory-response-by-sphingosine-1-phosphate-on-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells
#18
Ryo Terao, Megumi Honjo, Makoto Aihara
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent lipid mediator that modulates inflammatory responses and proangiogenic factors. It has been suggested that S1P upregulates choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and may be deeply involved in the pathogenesis of exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recent studies have suggested that apolipoprotein M (ApoM), a carrier protein for S1P, modulates the biological properties of S1P in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, the role of ApoM/S1P in AMD has not been explored...
December 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296197/lack-of-association-between-the-aplnr-variant-rs9943582-with-ischemic-stroke-in-the-chinese-han-geneid-population
#19
Pengyun Wang, Chuchu Wang, Sisi Li, Binbin Wang, Liang Xiong, Xin Tu, Qing K Wang, Cheng-Qi Xu
Stroke is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Genetic risk factors have been found to play important roles in the pathology of ischemic stroke. In a previous genome-wide association study, a functional variant (rs9943582, -154G/A) in the 5' flanking region of the apelin receptor gene (APLNR) was shown to be significantly associated with stroke in the Japanese population. However, the association required validation in other ethnicities. To validate the genetic relationship between APLNR and ischemic stroke in the Chinese Han population, we genotyped rs9943582 in a case-control population containing 1,158 ischemic stroke patients and 1,265 common controls enrolled from the GeneID database, and performed a genetic association study...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282325/creation-of-disease-inspired-biomaterial-environments-to-mimic-pathological-events-in-early-calcific-aortic-valve-disease
#20
Ana M Porras, Jennifer A Westlund, Austin D Evans, Kristyn S Masters
An insufficient understanding of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) pathogenesis remains a major obstacle in developing treatment strategies for this disease. The aim of the present study was to create engineered environments that mimic the earliest known features of CAVD and apply this in vitro platform to decipher relationships relevant to early valve lesion pathobiology. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) enrichment is a dominant hallmark of early CAVD, but culture of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) in biomaterial environments containing pathological amounts of hyaluronic acid (HA) or chondroitin sulfate (CS) did not directly increase indicators of disease progression such as VIC activation or inflammatory cytokine production...
December 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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