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Atherosclerosis pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448235/intracranial-artery-steno-occlusion-diagnosis-by-using-three-dimensional-parallel-multichannel-transmission-mr-imaging
#1
Mi Sun Chung, Seung Chai Jung, Seon-Ok Kim, Ho Sung Kim, Choong Gon Choi, Sang Joon Kim, Sun U Kwon, Dong-Wha Kang, Jong S Kim
Purpose To determine whether magnetic resonance (MR) imaging by using two-dimensional spatially selective radiofrequency (RF) excitation pulses (zoomed MR imaging) is a reliable method for the diagnosis of intracranial artery steno-occlusion compared with full-field-of-view (FOV) MR imaging. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and informed consent was waived. From December 2014 to August 2015, 88 patients who underwent both full-FOV MR imaging and zoomed MR imaging for further evaluation of intracranial artery steno-occlusion at prior luminal evaluation were included...
April 27, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443978/characterisation-of-the-vascular-pathology-in-sigmodon-hispidus-rodentia-cricetidae-following-experimental-infection-with-angiostrongylus-costaricensis-nematoda-metastrongylidae
#2
Danielle Ingrid Bezerra de Vasconcelos, Ester Maria Mota, Marcelo Pelajo-Machado
BACKGROUND: Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a nematode that causes human abdominal angiostrongyliasis, a disease found mainly in Latin American countries and particularly in Brazil and Costa Rica. Its life cycle involves exploitation of both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Its natural reservoir is a vertebrate host, the cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus. The adult worms live in the ileo-colic branches of the upper mesenteric artery of S. hispidus, causing periarteritis. However, there is a lack of data on the development of vasculitis in the course of infection...
May 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439487/modified-rice-bran-hemicellulose-inhibits-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-induced-angiogenesis-in-vitro-via-vegfr2-and-its-downstream-signaling-pathways
#3
Xia Zhu, Aya Okubo, Naoki Igari, Kentaro Ninomiya, Yukari Egashira
Angiogenesis is implicated in diverse pathological conditions such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, and retinal neovascularization. In the present study, we investigated the effects of modified rice bran hemicellulose (MRBH), a water-soluble hemicellulose preparation from rice bran treated with shiitake enzymes, on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in vitro and its mechanism. We found that MRBH significantly inhibited VEGF-induced tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) co-cultured with human dermal fibroblasts...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432434/ventricular-androgenic-anabolic-steroid-related-remodeling-an-immunohistochemical-study
#4
Rossana Cecchi, Barbara Muciaccia, Costantino Ciallella, Natale Mario Di Luca, Akihiko Kimura, Cristina Sestili, Mizuho Nosaka, Toshikazu Kondo
BACKGROUND: Several fatal cases of bodybuilders, following a myocardial infarction after long exposure to androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS), are reported. In recent years, evidence has emerged of cases of heart failure related to AAS consumption, with no signs of coronary or aorta atherosclerosis. This study aims to further investigate the pathogenesis of the ventricular AAS-related remodeling performing immunohistochemistry (IHC). METHOD: In order to examine innate immunity activity and myocytes and endothelial cell apoptosis, IHC analyses were performed on heart tissue of two cases of bodybuilders who died after years of supratherapeutic use of metelonone and nandrolone and where no atherosclerosis or thrombosis were found, using the following antibodies: anti-CD68, anti-iNOS, anti-CD163, anti-CD 15, anti-CD8, anti-CD4, anti-HIF1 α, and in situ TUNEL staining...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428965/natural-killer-cells-in-the-orchestration-of-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Luca Parisi, Barbara Bassani, Marco Tremolati, Elisabetta Gini, Giampietro Farronato, Antonino Bruno
Inflammation, altered immune cell phenotype, and functions are key features shared by diverse chronic diseases, including cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. Natural killer cells are innate lymphoid cells primarily involved in the immune system response to non-self-components but their plasticity is largely influenced by the pathological microenvironment. Altered NK phenotype and function have been reported in several pathological conditions, basically related to impaired or enhanced toxicity...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428217/microrna-33-regulates-macrophage-autophagy-in-atherosclerosis
#6
Mireille Ouimet, Hasini Ediriweera, Milessa Silva Afonso, Bhama Ramkhelawon, Ragunath Singaravelu, Xianghai Liao, Rachel C Bandler, Karishma Rahman, Edward A Fisher, Katey J Rayner, John P Pezacki, Ira Tabas, Kathryn J Moore
OBJECTIVE: Defective autophagy in macrophages leads to pathological processes that contribute to atherosclerosis, including impaired cholesterol metabolism and defective efferocytosis. Autophagy promotes the degradation of cytoplasmic components in lysosomes and plays a key role in the catabolism of stored lipids to maintain cellular homeostasis. microRNA-33 (miR-33) is a post-transcriptional regulator of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis, yet the complete mechanisms by which miR-33 controls lipid metabolism are unknown...
April 20, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427040/cortex-mori-radicis-extract-attenuates-myocardial-damages-in-diabetic-rats-by-regulating-ers
#7
Jiangfang Lian, Jiayuan Chen, Yanyan Yuan, Jiayi Chen, M Daud M Sayed, Lin Luo, Yabing Zhu, Song Li, Shizhong Bu
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is diagnosed when patients with diabetes develop ventricular dysfunction but do not exhibit coronary atherosclerosis or hypertension. Cortex Mori (CM) Radicis,he epidermis of the root of Morus alba L, has been traditionally used for cough treatment in oriental medicine. In this study, we investigated the protection of myocardium by CM in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the underlying mechanisms. Diabetes was induced in rats by an injection of STZ at 25mg/kg. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, diabetes, diabetes with CM treatment, diabetes with CM preventative treatment...
April 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423914/current-views-on-neuropeptide-y-and-diabetes-related-atherosclerosis
#8
Wei-Wei Sun, Ping Zhu, Yan-Chuan Shi, Chen-Liang Zhang, Xu-Feng Huang, Shi-Yu Liang, Zhi-Yuan Song, Shu Lin
Diabetes-induced atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death of diabetic patients. Neuronal regulation plays a critical role in glucose metabolism and cardiovascular function under physiological and pathological conditions, among which, neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y has been shown to be closely involved in these two processes. Elevated central neuropeptide Y level promotes food intake and reduces energy expenditure, thereby increasing adiposity. Neuropeptide Y is co-localized with noradrenaline in central and sympathetic nervous systems...
April 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419584/context-dependent-function-of-ros-in-the-vascular-endothelium-the-role-of-the-notch-pathway-and-shear-stress
#9
REVIEW
Francesco Vieceli Dalla Sega, Giorgio Aquila, Francesca Fortini, Mauro Vaccarezza, Paola Secchiero, Paola Rizzo, Gianluca Campo
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as signal molecules in several biological processes whereas excessive, unregulated, ROS production contributes to the development of pathological conditions including endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. The maintenance of a healthy endothelium depends on many factors and on their reciprocal interactions; in this framework, the Notch pathway and shear stress (SS) play two lead roles. Recently, evidence of a crosstalk between ROS, Notch, and SS, is emerging. The aim of this review is to describe the way ROS interact with the Notch pathway and SS protecting from-or promoting-the development of endothelial dysfunction...
April 17, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413960/circulating-ace2-in-cardiovascular-and-kidney-diseases
#10
Lidia Anguiano Gómez, Marta Riera Oliva, Julio Pascual Santos, María José Soler
Angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE) 2 is a homologue of ACE that catalyzes the conversion of Angiotensin(Ang) II into Ang1-7, which induces vasodilation, anti-fibrotic, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. Given that ACE2 counterbalances the effects of Ang II, it has been proposed as a biomarker in kidney disease patients. Circulating ACE2 has been studied in human and experimental studies under physiological and pathological conditions and different techniques have been assessed to determine its enzymatic activity...
April 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413027/matrix-metalloproteinases-and-platelet-function
#11
Paolo Gresele, Emanuela Falcinelli, Manuela Sebastiano, Stefania Momi
Platelets contain and release several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), including MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, and -14 and TIMP-1, -2, and -4. Although devoid of a nucleus, platelets also synthesize TIMP-2 upon activation. Platelet-released MMPs/TIMPs, as well as MMPs generated by other cells within the cardiovascular system, modulate platelet function in health and disease. In particular, a normal hemostatic platelet response to vessel wall injury may be transformed into pathologic thrombus formation by the release from platelets and/or by the local generation of some MMPs...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412904/the-role-of-exosomes-and-exosome-derived-micrornas-in-atherosclerosis
#12
Xinjie Lu
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and morbidity throughout industrialized nations, accounting for one-fifth of all deaths globally. Exosomes are bi-lipid membranous vesicles containing protein, lipid and nucleic acid contents that are released from cells via the endolysosomal pathway. Exosomes are derived from several cells including macrophages, dendritic cells, platelets as well as human serum. METHODS: In this review, an overview of recent advances and the evidence for the role exosomes and exosome-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in atherosclerosis are provided...
April 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412693/feeding-angptl4-mice-trans-fat-promotes-foam-cell-formation-in-mesenteric-lymph-nodes-without-leading-to-ascites
#13
Antwi Boasiako Oteng, Asmita Bhattacharya, Susanne Brodesser, Ling Qi, Nguan Soon Tan, Sander Kersten
ANGPTL4 regulates plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase. Inactivation of ANGPTL4 decreases plasma triglycerides and reduces risk of coronary artery disease. Unfortunately, targeting ANGPTL4 for the therapeutic management of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis is hampered by the observation that mice and monkeys in which ANGPTL4 is inactivated exhibit lipid accumulation in mesenteric lymph nodes. In mice these pathological events exclusively unfold upon feeding a high saturated fatty acid diet and are followed by an ultimately lethal pro-inflammatory response and chylous ascites...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411233/vasculopathy-in-the-setting-of-cardiorenal-syndrome-the-roles-of-protein-bound-uremic-toxins
#14
Jingbin Guo, Lu Lu, Yue Hua, Kevin Huang, Ian Wang, Li Huang, Qiang Fu, Aihua Chen, Paul Chan, Huimin Fan, Zhong-Min Liu, Bing Hui Wang
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) often leads to and accelerates the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD), whilst CVD also causes kidney dysfunction. This bidirectional interaction leads to the development of a complex syndrome known as cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). CRS not only involves both the heart and the kidney, but also the vascular system through a vast array of contributing factors. In addition to hemodynamic, neuro-hormonal, mechanical and biochemical factors, the non-dialyzable protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) are also key contributing factors that have been demonstrated through in vitro, in vivo and clinical observations...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410994/the-role-of-oxysterols-in-human-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Alzbeta Kloudova, F Peter Guengerich, Pavel Soucek
Oxysterols are oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol formed in the human body or ingested in the diet. By modulating the activity of many proteins [e.g., liver X receptors (LXRs), oxysterol-binding proteins (OSBPs), some ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters], oxysterols can affect many cellular functions and influence various physiological processes (e.g., cholesterol metabolism, membrane fluidity regulation, intracellular signaling pathways). Therefore, the role of oxysterols is also important in pathological conditions (e...
April 12, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405802/vasculo-protective-effect-of-bms-309403-is-independent-of-its-specific-inhibition-of-fatty-acid-binding-protein-4
#16
Yuta Okamura, Kosuke Otani, Akihiro Sekiguchi, Taisuke Kogane, Chiharu Kakuda, Yuzaburo Sakamoto, Tomoko Kodama, Muneyoshi Okada, Hideyuki Yamawaki
Fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 4 is an adipocytokine mainly expressed in adipocyte and macrophage. Blood FABP4 is related not only to metabolic disorders including insulin resistance and atherosclerosis but also increased blood pressure. We tested the hypothesis that FABP4 plays roles in pathogenesis of hypertension development including proliferation, migration, and inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) as well as contractile reactivity. FABP4 alone had no influence on proliferation, migration, and inflammation of rat mesenteric arterial SMCs, while it significantly enhanced smooth muscle contraction and increases of systolic blood pressure (SBP) induced by noradrenaline (NA)...
April 13, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403326/characterisation-of-the-vascular-pathology-in-sigmodon-hispidus-rodentia-cricetidae-following-experimental-infection-with-angiostrongylus-costaricensis-nematoda-metastrongylidae
#17
Danielle Ingrid Bezerra de Vasconcelos, Ester Maria Mota, Marcelo Pelajo-Machado
BACKGROUND: Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a nematode that causes human abdominal angiostrongyliasis, a disease found mainly in Latin American countries and particularly in Brazil and Costa Rica. Its life cycle involves exploitation of both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Its natural reservoir is a vertebrate host, the cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus. The adult worms live in the ileo-colic branches of the upper mesenteric artery of S. hispidus, causing periarteritis. However, there is a lack of data on the development of vasculitis in the course of infection...
April 6, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402100/structural-studies-revealed-active-site-distortions-of-human-furin-by-a-small-molecule-inhibitor
#18
Sven O Dahms, Guan-Sheng Jiao, Manuel E Than
Proprotein Convertases (PCs) represent highly selective serine proteases that activate their substrates upon proteolytic cleavage. Their inhibition is a promising strategy for the treatment of several pathologies including cancer, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolaemia, and infectious diseases. Here we present the first experimental complex of furin with a non substrate-like small molecule inhibitor, and the X-ray structure of the enzyme complexed to the small molecule inhibitor 1 at 1.9 Å resolution. Two molecules of inhibitor 1 were found to interact with furin...
April 12, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400074/regulation-of-mitochondrial-structure-and-function-by-protein-import-a-current-review
#19
REVIEW
Kanchanjunga Prasai
By generating the majority of a cell's ATP, mitochondria permit a vast range of reactions necessary for life. Mitochondria also perform other vital functions including biogenesis and assembly of iron-sulfur proteins, maintenance of calcium homeostasis, and activation of apoptosis. Accordingly, mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked with the pathology of many clinical conditions including cancer, type 2 diabetes, cardiomyopathy, and atherosclerosis. The ongoing maintenance of mitochondrial structure and function requires the import of nuclear-encoded proteins and for this reason, mitochondrial protein import is indispensible for cell viability...
March 16, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393190/galectin%C3%A2-3-induces-the-phenotype-transformation-of-human-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-via-the-canonical-wnt-signaling
#20
Lei Tian, Kan Chen, Jiatian Cao, Zhihua Han, Yue Wang, Lin Gao, Yuqi Fan, Changqian Wang
Galectin‑3, a galactoside‑binding protein, is highly expressed in carotid plaques and plays an important role in the atherosclerotic lesions. The phenotype transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells is the basic pathological change of atherosclerosis. This study investigated the effects of exogenous galectin‑3 on the function and phenotype transformation of human umbilical vascular smooth muscle cells (HUSMC). In this study, we treated vascular smooth muscle cells with recombinant galectin‑3 and tested its effect on cell proliferation, migration, and phenotype transformation...
April 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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