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Atherosclerosis pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944871/shear-stress-induces-human-aortic-endothelial-cell-apoptosis-via-interleukin%C3%A2-1-receptor%C3%A2-associated-kinase-2%C3%A2-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#1
Longfei Pan, Zhou Hong, Lei Yu, Yanxia Gao, Rui Zhang, Hui Feng, Lijuan Su, Gang Wang
Atherosclerosis is characterized by localized lesions distributed in the arterial tree due to the shear stress produced by blood flow. Endothelial cells are directly affected by alterations in blood flow. Dysfunction and injury to endothelial cells has been hypothesized to initiate the pathological processes of atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of shear stress‑induced endothelial cellular apoptosis. Shear stress was generated using an artificial device to mimic the impact of disturbed blood flow on cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs)...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944836/aberrant-promoter-methylation-of-multiple-genes-in-vsmc-proliferation-induced-by-hcy
#2
Sheng-Chao Ma, Jian-Cheng Cao, Hui-Ping Zhang, Yun Jiao, Hui Zhang, Yang-Yang He, Yan-Hua Wang, Xiao-Ling Yang, An-Ning Yang, Jue Tian, Ming-Hao Zhang, Xiao-Ming Yang, Guan-Jun Lu, Shao-Ju Jin, Yue-Xia Jia, Yi-Deng Jiang
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is a primary pathological event in atherosclerosis (AS), and homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for AS. However, the underlying mechanisms are still lagging. Studies have used the combination of methylation of promoters of multiple genes to diagnose tumors, thus the aim of the current study was to investigate the role of methylation status of several genes in VSMCs treated with Hcy. CpG islands were identified in the promoters of platelet‑derived growth factor (PDGF), p53, phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2)...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942921/mitochondrial-fission-promotes-the-continued-clearance-of-apoptotic-cells-by-macrophages
#3
Ying Wang, Manikandan Subramanian, Arif Yurdagul, Valéria C Barbosa-Lorenzi, Bishuang Cai, Jaime de Juan-Sanz, Timothy A Ryan, Masatoshi Nomura, Frederick R Maxfield, Ira Tabas
Clearance of apoptotic cells (ACs) by phagocytes (efferocytosis) prevents post-apoptotic necrosis and dampens inflammation. Defective efferocytosis drives important diseases, including atherosclerosis. For efficient efferocytosis, phagocytes must be able to internalize multiple ACs. We show here that uptake of multiple ACs by macrophages requires dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission, which is triggered by AC uptake. When mitochondrial fission is disabled, AC-induced increase in cytosolic calcium is blunted owing to mitochondrial calcium sequestration, and calcium-dependent phagosome formation around secondarily encountered ACs is impaired...
September 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942481/high-resolution-vessel-wall-mri-for-the-evaluation-of-intracranial-atherosclerotic-disease
#4
REVIEW
Adam de Havenon, Mahmud Mossa-Basha, Lubdha Shah, Seong-Eun Kim, Min Park, Dennis Parker, J Scott McNally
High-resolution vessel wall MRI (vwMRI) of the intracranial arteries is an emerging diagnostic imaging technique with the goal of evaluating vascular pathology. vwMRI sequences have high spatial resolution and directly image the vessel wall by suppressing blood signal. With vwMRI, it is possible to identify distinct morphologic and enhancement patterns of atherosclerosis that can provide important information about stroke etiology and recurrence risk. We present a review of vwMRI research in relation to intracranial atherosclerosis, with a focus on the relationship between ischemic stroke and atherosclerotic plaque T1 post-contrast enhancement or plaque/vessel wall morphology...
September 23, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941727/intravenous-treatment-with-human-recombinant-apoa-i-milano-reduces-beta-amyloid-cerebral-deposition-in-the-app23-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Sofía Fernández-de Retana, Alex Montañola, Paula Marazuela, Maialen De La Cuesta, Aina Batlle, Marc Fatar, Saskia Grudzenski, Joan Montaner, Mar Hernández-Guillamon
Beyond the crucial role of apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) on peripheral cholesterol metabolism, this apolipoprotein has also been implicated in beta amyloid (Aβ)-related neuropathologies. ApoA-I-Milano (M) is a mutated variant, which showed increased vasoprotective properties compared to ApoA-I-wild type in models of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular damage. We speculated that ApoA-I-M may also protect Aβ-affected vasculature and reverse some of the pathological features associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
September 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936736/pathological-effects-of-exosomes-in-mediating-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#6
Esam S B Salem, Guo-Chang Fan
Diabetic subjects are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease, which accounts for 60-80% of diabetes-related mortality. Atherosclerosis is still considered as a leading cause of heart failure in diabetic patients, but it could also be an intrinsic and long-term effect of contractile cardiac cells malfunction, known as diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Pathologically, this cardiac dysfunction is manifested by inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, hypertrophy and altered cardiomyocytes metabolism. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of DCM pathophysiology are not clearly understood...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933287/modulation-of-abc-transporters-by-nuclear-receptors-physiological-pathological-and-pharmacological-aspects
#7
Juan Pablo Rigalli, Guillermo Nicolás Tocchetti, Johanna Weiss
ABC transporters are membrane proteins mediating the efflux of endo- and xenobiotics. Transporter expression is not static but instead is subject to a dynamic modulation aiming at responding to changes in the internal environment and thus at maintaining homeostatic conditions. Nuclear receptors are ligand modulated transcription factors that get activated upon changes in the intracellular concentrations of the respective agonists and bind to response elements within the promoter of ABC transporters, thus modulating their expression and, consequently, their activity...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930997/using-in-vivo-and-tissue-and-cell-explant-approaches-to-study-the-morphogenesis-and-pathogenesis-of-the-embryonic-and-perinatal-aorta
#8
Ashish Misra, Zhonghui Feng, Jiasheng Zhang, Zhi-Yin Lou, Daniel M Greif
The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The aortic wall is composed of an inner layer of endothelial cells, a middle layer of alternating elastic lamellae and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and an outer layer of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix. In contrast to the widespread study of pathological models (e.g., atherosclerosis) in the adult aorta, much less is known about the embryonic and perinatal aorta. Here, we focus on SMCs and provide protocols for the analysis of the morphogenesis and pathogenesis of embryonic and perinatal aortic SMCs in normal development and disease...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930596/modified-low-density-lipoproteins-as-biomarkers-in-diabetes-and-metabolic-syndrome
#9
Andrea Rivas-Urbina, Sonia Benitez, Antonio Perez, Jose Luis Sanchez-Quesada
Cardiovascular disease of atherosclerotic origin is the main cause of death in diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. One of the mechanisms involved in such increased risk is the high incidence of lipoprotein modification in these pathologies. Increased glycosylation, oxidative stress or high non-esterified fatty acid levels in blood, among other factors, promote the modification and subsequent alteration of the properties of lipoproteins. Since the modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is the triggering factor in the development of atherosclerosis, considerable research has been focused on the quantification of modified LDLs in blood to be used as biomarkers of cardiovascular risk...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924163/large-scale-metabolomic-analysis-reveals-potential-biomarkers-for-early-stage-coronary-atherosclerosis
#10
Xueqin Gao, Chaofu Ke, Haixia Liu, Wei Liu, Kang Li, Bo Yu, Meng Sun
Coronary atherosclerosis (CAS) is the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, which is a prevalent and chronic life-threatening disease. Initially, this disease is not always detected until a patient presents with seriously vascular occlusion. Therefore, new biomarkers for appropriate and timely diagnosis of early CAS is needed for screening to initiate therapy on time. In this study, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to identify potential biomarkers that could enable highly sensitive and specific CAS detection...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923905/acute-coronary-syndromes-the-way-forward-from-mechanisms-to-precision-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Filippo Crea, Peter Libby
Well into the 21st century, we still triage acute myocardial infarction on the basis of the presence or absence of ST-segment elevation, a century-old technology. Meanwhile, we have learned a great deal about the pathophysiology and mechanisms of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) at the clinical, pathological, cellular, and molecular levels. Contemporary imaging studies have shed new light on the mechanisms of ACS. This review discusses these advances and their implications for clinical management of the ACS for the future...
September 19, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920704/endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-a-potential-mechanism-for-atherosclerosis-plaque-progression-and-destabilization
#12
Afang Li, Wenxi Peng, Xiaodan Xia, Rongqing Li, Yu Wang, Dangheng Wei
Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a cellular reprogramming mechanism by which endothelial cells acquire a mesenchymal phenotype. EndMT is associated with fibroproliferative diseases, such as cancer progression and metastasis and cardiac and kidney fibrosis, and this condition has been extensively investigated over the past decade. Recently, studies showed that EndMT contributes to the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesion and plaque destabilization. Unstable atherosclerotic plaque rupture and subsequent thrombosis are the main pathological causes of acute cardiovascular events...
September 18, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919014/regulation-and-function-of-endothelial-glycocalyx-layer-in-vascular-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Irina Sieve, Anja Münster-Kühnel, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner
In the vascular system, the endothelial surface layer (ESL) as the inner surface of blood vessels affects mechanotransduction, vascular permeability, rheology, thrombogenesis, and leukocyte adhesion. It creates barriers between endothelial cells and blood and neighbouring cells. The glycocalyx, composed of glycoconjugates and proteoglycans, is an integral component of the ESL and a key element in inter- and intracellular communication and tissue homeostasis. In pathophysiological conditions (atherosclerosis, infection, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes, trauma and acute lung injury) glycocalyx-degrading factors, i...
September 12, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916531/diabetes-prediabetes-and-brain-volumes-and-subclinical-cerebrovascular-disease-on-mri-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-neurocognitive-study-aric-ncs
#14
Andrea L C Schneider, Elizabeth Selvin, A Richey Sharrett, Michael Griswold, Josef Coresh, Clifford R Jack, David Knopman, Thomas Mosley, Rebecca F Gottesman
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of prediabetes, diabetes, and diabetes severity (as assessed by HbA1c and diabetes duration) with brain volumes and vascular pathology on brain MRI and to assess whether the associations of diabetes with brain volumes are mediated by brain vascular pathology. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 1,713 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study (mean age 75 years, 60% female, 27% black, 30% prediabetes, and 35% diabetes) who underwent 3T brain MRI scans in 2011-2013...
September 15, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903453/the-p38-pathway-a-major-pleiotropic-cascade-that-transduces-stress-and-metastatic-signals-in-endothelial-cells
#15
REVIEW
Isabelle Corre, François Paris, Jacques Huot
By gating the traffic of molecules and cells across the vessel wall, endothelial cells play a central role in regulating cardiovascular functions and systemic homeostasis and in modulating pathophysiological processes such as inflammation and immunity. Accordingly, the loss of endothelial cell integrity is associated with pathological disorders that include atherosclerosis and cancer. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are major signaling pathways that regulate several functions of endothelial cells in response to exogenous and endogenous stimuli including growth factors, stress and cytokines...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902812/-the-use-nicergoline-in-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus
#16
I V Popova, A A Karpenko
Presented herein is a literature review aimed at investigating the appropriateness and possibility of using nicergoline (sermion) for treatment of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. The analysis includes the most clinically significant results of scientific studies. The material to be reviewed was retrieved using the following key words: 'nicergoline', 'sermion', and 'diabetes mellitus' (with their respective Russian equivalents) in such databases as Medline, PubMed, ScienceDirect, PMC, Cochrane, as well as archives of both Russian and foreign journals, guidelines (clinical guidelines on rendering medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus, selected lectures on endocrinology)...
2017: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901253/bacterial-toxins-a-hope-towards-angiogenic-ailments
#17
Rekha Khandia, Ashok Kumar Munjal, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik
Angiogenesis is a vital physiological process essential for growth and maintenance of the body. It plays an important role during embryonic development and generally absent in adults with some exceptions like during wound repair and menstrual cycle in women. Excess as well as deficiency in angiogenesis, result in pathological conditions. It is a tightly regulated process; rely on cascade of several molecular signalling pathways involving many effectors like VEGF, FGF, PDGF, IGF etc. Excessive angiogenesis is associated with disorders like tumor, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetic retinopathy, endometriosis, psoriasis, adiposity...
September 11, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899695/preeclampsia-and-coronary-plaque-erosion-manifestations-of-endothelial-dysfunction-resulting-in-cardiovascular-events-in-women
#18
Saskia C A de Jager, John A L Meeuwsen, Freeke M van Pijpen, Gerbrand A Zoet, Arjan D Barendrecht, Arie Franx, Gerard Pasterkamp, Bas B van Rijn, Marie-José Goumans, Hester M den Ruijter
Atherosclerosis is the major underlying pathology of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk for CVD is increased in women with a history of preeclampsia. Multiple studies have indicated that accelerated atherosclerosis underlies this increased CVD risk. Furthermore, it has been suggested that endothelial dysfunction and inflammation play an important role in the increased CVD risk of women with preeclampsia. Rupture or erosion of atherosclerotic plaques can induce the formation of thrombi that underlie the onset of acute clinical CVD such as myocardial infarction and stroke...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899580/the-interplay-between-cytokines-and-the-kynurenine-pathway-in-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis
#19
Roland Baumgartner, Maria J Forteza, Daniel F J Ketelhuth
The kynurenine pathway (KP) is the major metabolic route of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), the enzyme responsible for the first and rate-limiting step in the pathway, as well as other enzymes in the pathway, have been shown to be highly regulated by cytokines. Hence, the KP has been implicated in several pathologic conditions, including infectious diseases, psychiatric disorders, malignancies, and autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Additionally, recent studies have linked the KP with atherosclerosis, suggesting that Trp metabolism could play an essential role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the vascular wall...
September 9, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899419/increased-plasma-lipid-levels-exacerbate-muscle-pathology-in-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#20
Nadia Milad, Zoe White, Arash Y Tehrani, Stephanie Sellers, Fabio M V Rossi, Pascal Bernatchez
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by loss of dystrophin expression and leads to severe ambulatory and cardiac function decline. However, the dystrophin-deficient mdx murine model of DMD only develops a very mild form of the disease. Our group and others have shown vascular abnormalities in animal models of MD, a likely consequence of the fact that blood vessels express the same dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) proteins as skeletal muscles. METHODS: To test the blood vessel contribution to muscle damage in DMD, mdx (4cv) mice were given elevated lipid levels via apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene knockout combined with normal chow or lipid-rich Western diets...
September 12, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
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