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Motor vehicle traffic accident

David A Lombardi, William J Horrey, Theodore K Courtney
OBJECTIVE: Given the aging U.S. population and resulting number of older drivers in the coming years, it is important to understand the factors leading to their involvement in vehicle crashes and develop counter-measures to reduce their frequency and severity. This is also useful for helping older adults "age in place" in terms of accessibility, mobility, quality of life and safety. Thus, the objective of this study was to provide up-to-date data on differences in age-related risks and rates for involvement in fatal intersection motor-vehicle crashes in the US...
November 14, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Lars Uhrenholt
BACKGROUND: Bicyclists are vulnerable road users and are at risk of serious spinal injury if involved in traffic crashes. In Denmark approximately 25 bicyclists are killed each year and some 20.000 bicycle related casualties are registered in the National Patient Registry each year. In addition to these figures, a large number of casualties remain unregistered despite injury. Many of the casualties will consult chiropractors in primary practice with or without preceding evaluation in the established emergency care facilities...
2016: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Erfan Ayubi, Saber Azami-Aghdash, Leila Abedi, Alireza Zemestani, Louiz Amanati, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Naeema Syedi, Saeid Safiri
CONTEXT: Despite considerable attention given to health statistics of road traffic crashes (RTCs), the epidemiological aspects of injuries resulting from RTCs are not fully understood in Iran and other developing countries. The aim of this review was to study the epidemiological pattern and issues arising due to RTCs in Iran. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The scope of this study involves data from a broad range of published literature on RTCs in Iran. Data collection for this study was conducted by searching for keywords such as traffic accidents, traffic crashes, motorcycle accidents, motorcycle crashes, motorcycle injury, motor vehicle injury, motor vehicle crashes and motor vehicle accidents, Iran and Iranian in various databases such as Embase, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Magiran, Iranian scientific information database (SID) and IranMedex...
September 2016: Archives of Trauma Research
Antti Kujansuu, Simo Rautiainen, Helinä Hakko, Juha Kanamüller, Niina Sihvola, Pirkko Riipinen
Relatively little is known about fatal motor vehicle accidents (FMVA) involving drivers with psychiatric disorders. In this study of all drivers killed in FMVAs in Finland between 1990 and 2011, we aimed to study drivers' death rate trends in FMVAs, with special focus on drivers with a history of psychiatric disorders. Prevalence of drivers' hospital treated psychiatric disorders, and characteristics of drivers with psychiatric disorders were also studied. For the purpose of this study, three national registers were accessed...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Chia-Ying Kuo, Hung-Yi Chiou, Jia-Wei Lin, Shin-Han Tsai, Mau-Roung Lin, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Chien-Min Lin, Shu-Fen Chu, Tsan-Hon Liou, Wen-Ta Chiu
Objective Bicycle riding is increasingly popular in Taiwan, but the number of cyclists injured and cyclists' death rate are both increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the different characteristics and clinical outcomes of traffic-accident related head injuries to cyclists in urban and rural areas. Methods Records of 812 patients (533 urban and 279 rural) admitted to 27 hospitals in Taipei City and Hualien County as the result of a traumatic head injury while bicycling between 1998 and 2013 were retrieved for study...
October 18, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Mazen J El Sayed, Hani Tamim, Aurelie Mailhac, N Clay Mann
BACKGROUND: Tourniquet use by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) can be life saving for severely injured patients. The adoption of this intervention is not well described in civilian settings. This study describes patterns and trends of tourniquet use by civilian EMS and identifies predictors of such use. METHODS: A retrospective study of four consecutive releases of the U.S. National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) public research dataset (2011-14) was conducted...
September 30, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
A J Gardner, R Zafonte
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public-health concern. TBI is defined as an acute brain injury resulting from mechanical energy to the head from external physical forces. Some of the leading causes of TBI include falls, assaults, motor vehicle or traffic accidents, and sport-related concussion. Two of the most common identified risk factors are sex (males are nearly three times more likely to suffer a TBI than females); and a bimodal age pattern (persons 65 years and older, and children under 14 years old)...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Selma Marie Siddiqui, Sushma Sagar, Mahesh C Misra, Amit Gupta, Marie Crandall, Mamta Swaroop
BACKGROUND: Motorized two-wheelers (MTWs) such as scooters and motorcycles place drivers and passengers at significant risk of injury and death in the event of a road traffic accident. In India, where road traffic is poorly regulated and consists of vehicles ranging from semitrucks to animal carts, the MTW pillion rider (backseat passenger) is particularly vulnerable. Annually, approximately 140,000 Indians are injured or killed in MTW road traffic accidents. In 2011, the city of New Delhi renewed a mandatory helmet use exemption for its 8 million women...
September 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Zachary Dezman, Luciano de Andrade, Joao Ricardo Vissoci, Deena El-Gabri, Abree Johnson, Jon Mark Hirshon, Catherine A Staton
INTRODUCTION: Road traffic injuries are a leading killer of youth (aged 15-29) and are projected to be the 7th leading cause of death by 2030. To better understand road traffic crash locations and characteristics in the city of Baltimore, we used police and census data, to describe the epidemiology, hotspots, and modifiable risk factors involved to guide further interventions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on all crashes in Baltimore City from 2009 to 2013 were made available from the Maryland Automated Accident Reporting System...
September 3, 2016: Injury
Sun-Young Jung, Byungkwan Hwang, Bo Ram Yang, Ye-Jee Kim, Joongyub Lee
BACKGROUND: Medical conditions and medications may be associated with motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), which pose a major public health problem worldwide. Further epidemiological assessment is necessary for certain diseases and medications. Moreover, since disease aetiology and patterns of medication use may differ among ethnicities and healthcare systems, a population-specific approach is necessary. The present epidemiological study is designed to assess the medical conditions and medications associated with the risk of fatal MVCs among at-fault drivers in the Korean population...
September 5, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Gyanendra Singh, S N Sachdeva, Mahesh Pal
This work examines the application of M5 model tree and conventionally used fixed/random effect negative binomial (FENB/RENB) regression models for accident prediction on non-urban sections of highway in Haryana (India). Road accident data for a period of 2-6 years on different sections of 8 National and State Highways in Haryana was collected from police records. Data related to road geometry, traffic and road environment related variables was collected through field studies. Total two hundred and twenty two data points were gathered by dividing highways into sections with certain uniform geometric characteristics...
November 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
V A Fetisov, A A Gusarov, S A Smirenin
The present article deals with the problem of forensic medical diagnostics of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger car compartment during motor vehicle accidents. The authors place special emphasis on the fact of a significant increase in the number of road traffic accidents (RTA) with such consequences throughout the world. The modern automobile industry pays much attention to the enhancement of the car safety features by significantly improving the design of passenger compartments. It accounts for a change in the traditional character of the injuries to both the driver and the passengers resulting from motor vehicle accidents...
July 2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Thomas Skallebæk Buch, Søren Underlien Jensen
Accidents between right-turning motor vehicles and straight-ahead cyclists are one of the most common accident types leading to cyclist injuries at signalised junctions in Denmark. A before-after safety evaluation of applying staggered stop lines in 189 arms at 123 signalised junctions is presented. The evaluation accounts for long-term accident trends and changes in motor vehicle traffic volumes. Applying staggered stop lines gives no decline in accidents between right-turning motor vehicles and straight-ahead cyclists...
August 1, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Nina Verzosa, Rebecca Miles
Pedestrians are considered as one of the most vulnerable road users in less developed countries (LDCs). Yet, pedestrian safety remains poorly addressed in both urban and rural transportation plans in most LDCs. Since most pedestrian injury severity studies are conducted in developed countries, this study fills the gap with an inquiry focused on a highly urbanized region of an LDC that faces a rapid increase in car ownership and increasing pedestrian-related traffic injuries, documenting specific pedestrian safety issues and providing guidance for injury prevention measures in such places...
September 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Mohammadreza Mehmandar, Hamid Soori, Yadolah Mehrabi
BACKGROUND: Predicting the trend in traffic accidents deaths and its analysis can be a useful tool for planning and policy-making, conducting interventions appropriate with death trend, and taking the necessary actions required for controlling and preventing future occurrences. OBJECTIVE: Predicting and analyzing the trend of traffic accidents deaths in Iran in 2014 and 2015. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: It was a cross-sectional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the information related to fatal traffic accidents available in the database of Iran Legal Medicine Organization from 2004 to the end of 2013 were used to determine the change points (multi-variable time series analysis)...
April 2016: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
Jan Brož, Lenka Syčová Kriváňová, Zuzana Fedáková, Lilit Petrosyan, Milan Kvapil, Jan Polák
Diabetes mellitus is a disease which may affect the eligibility to hold a driving license and increase the risk of a road accident. Hypoglycemia while driving is considered to be the most risky situation, with diabetes increasing the mentioned risk for instance due to impaired vision in the case of possible retinopathy. The group of drivers with diabetes being at the greatest risk as to accidents are those with a case history of severe hypoglycemia or hypoglycemia occurred while driving, or possibly of a road accident...
March 2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Tetsuya Matsubayashi, Michiko Ueda
This study examined whether people have a higher risk of death on and around their birthday using a large national mortality data. We examined 2,073,656 death records of individuals who died in Japan from major external causes between 1974 and 2014. Poisson regression analysis showed that people were more likely to die on their birthday than on any other calendar day by means of suicide, traffic accidents, accidental falls, drowning, and choking. For suicide cases in particular, people are 50% more likely to die on their birthday compared to any other dates...
June 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Ayman El-Menyar, Husham Abdelrahman, Ammar Al-Hassani, Mohammad Ellabib, Mohammad Asim, Ahmad Zarour, Hassan Al-Thani
BACKGROUND: Blunt chest trauma (BCT) poses significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the clinical presentation and outcome of BCT related to road traffic accidents (RTA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational analysis for patients who sustained BCT secondary to RTA in terms of motor vehicle crash (MVC) and pedestrian-motor vehicle accidents (PMVA) who were admitted to the trauma center at Hamad general hospital, Doha, Qatar, between 2008 and 2011...
March 2016: Archives of Trauma Research
Luzitu Severin Nangana, Ben Monga, Nlandu Roger Ngatu, Etongola Papy Mbelambela, Lukuke Hendrick Mbutshu, Kaj Francoise Malonga
OBJECTIVES: Road traffic accident (RTA)-related trauma remains a public health issue. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, causes and human impact of motor vehicle-related RTA in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the first semester of the year 2015 in which 288 drivers (144 RTA-causing drivers and 144 control drivers who have been declared not guilty by road safety agents) involved in 144 motor vehicle-related RTA were interviewed, and only data on all RTA involving two motor vehicles with at least four wheels were recorded and analyzed...
May 4, 2016: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Yu I Pigolkin, I A Dubrovin, E P Sedykh, A S Mosoyan
The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the injuries to three spinal regions in the victims of a head-on car collision found in the passenger compartments of modern motor vehicles equipped with seat belts and other safety means. It was shown that most frequent fatal injuries to the driver include the fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. These injuries are much less frequent in the passengers occupying the front and the right back seats. The multilayer and multiple character of the fractures in different parts of the spinal column in the car drivers is attributable to more pronounced spine flexion and extension associated with injuries of this kind...
January 2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
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