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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646630/characteristics-of-systemic-inflammation-in-hepatitis-b-precipitated-aclf-differentiate-it-from-no-aclf
#1
Wei Wu, Huadong Yan, Hong Zhao, Wenjie Sun, Qiao Yang, Jifang Sheng, Yu Shi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with severe exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B (SE-CHB) are at risk of developing acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Systemic inflammation (SI) is a major driver of ACLF. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of SI in hepatitis B-precipitated-ACLF (HB-ACLF), which may be distinct from No-ACLF patients with SE-CHB. METHODS: Two cohorts of patients with SE-CHB were enrolled in two tertiary hospitals. The associations between circulating leukocyte counts/subsets and ACLF progression and prognoses were analysed in Cohort A...
June 24, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646573/interferon-%C3%AE-regulates-dendritic-cell-activation-and-migration-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#2
Leesa M Pennell, Eleanor N Fish
CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) exert a critical role as antigen-presenting cells in regulating pathogenic T cells in multiple sclerosis (MS). To determine whether the therapeutic benefit of interferon (IFN)-β treatment for MS is in part influenced by IFN regulation of DC function, we examined the immunophenotype of DCs derived from IFN-β(+/+) and IFN-β(-/-) mice using a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide-induced mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our earlier work identified that IFN-β(-/-) mice exhibit earlier onset and more rapid progression of neurologic impairment compared with IFN-β(+/+) mice...
June 24, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646535/targeting-stat3-by-ho3867-induces-apoptosis-in-ovarian-clear-cell-carcinoma
#3
Kristin Bixel, Uksha Saini, Hemant Kumar Bid, John Fowler, Maria Riley, Ross Wanner, Kalpana Deepa Priya Dorayappan, Sneha Rajendran, Ikuo Konishi, Noriomi Matsumura, David E Cohn, Karuppaiyah Selvendiran
Advanced ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) carries a very poor prognosis in large part secondary to the extremely high rate of resistance to standard platinum and taxane chemotherapy. STAT3 expression and activation has been shown to regulate tumor progression in various human cancers, though has not been well studied in OCCC. Preliminary work in our lab has demonstrated constitutive activation of STAT3 (pSTAT3Tyr705 or pSTAT3727) in OCCC cell lines as well as human OCCC tumor tissue samples. Significantly, pSTAT3 is expressed in the absence of other forms of activated STAT (pSTAT1, 2, 6)...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646336/nogo-a-antibodies-enhance-axonal-repair-and-remyelination-in-neuro-inflammatory-and-demyelinating-pathology
#4
Benjamin V Ineichen, Sandra Kapitza, Christiane Bleul, Nicolas Good, Patricia S Plattner, Maryam S Seyedsadr, Julia Kaiser, Marc P Schneider, Björn Zörner, Roland Martin, Michael Linnebank, Martin E Schwab
Two hallmarks of chronic multiple sclerosis lesions are the absence of significant spontaneous remyelination and primary as well as secondary neurodegeneration. Both characteristics may be influenced by the presence of inhibitory factors preventing myelin and neuronal repair. We investigated the potential of antibodies against Nogo-A, a well-known inhibitory protein for neuronal growth and plasticity, to enhance neuronal regeneration and remyelination in two animal models of multiple sclerosis. We induced a targeted experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) lesion in the dorsal funiculus of the cervical spinal cord of adult rats resulting in a large drop of skilled forelimb motor functions...
June 23, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646234/electroporation-as-a-vaccine-delivery-system-and-a-natural-adjuvant-to-intradermal-administration-of-plasmid-dna-in-macaques
#5
Biliana Todorova, Lucille Adam, Slobodan Culina, Raphaël Boisgard, Frédéric Martinon, Antonio Cosma, Mart Ustav, Thierry Kortulewski, Roger Le Grand, Catherine Chapon
In vivo electroporation (EP) is used to enhance the uptake of nucleic acids and its association with DNA vaccination greatly stimulates immune responses to vaccine antigens delivered through the skin. However, the effect of EP on cutaneous cell behavior, the dynamics of immune cell recruitment and local inflammatory factors, have not been fully described. Here, we show that intradermal DNA vaccination combined with EP extends antigen expression to the epidermis and the subcutaneous skin muscle in non-human primates...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646197/upregulate-kif4a-enhances-proliferation-invasion-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-indicates-poor-prognosis-across-human-cancer-types
#6
Guojun Hou, Chuanpeng Dong, Zihui Dong, Gang Liu, Huilin Xu, Lei Chen, Lei Liu, Hongyang Wang, Weiping Zhou
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive and heterogeneous cancers worldwide. Herein, we demonstrate KIF4A (Chromosome-associated kinesin KIF4A) as a potential biomarker, is up-regulated in most samples of HCC. The expression level of KIF4A in tumor tissue is significantly associated with the survival time, and a significant correlation between KIF4A expression and clinical information stage, metastasis and tumor dimension was observed. We further measured the proliferation and migration ability of two HCC cell lines, HCC-LM3 and PLC/PRF/5, following KIF4A-siRNA transfection...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646172/dacomitinib-a-pan-inhibitor-of-erbb-receptors-suppresses-growth-and-invasive-capacity-of-chemoresistant-ovarian-carcinoma-cells
#7
Majid Momeny, Ghazaleh Zarrinrad, Farima Moghaddaskho, Arash Poursheikhani, Ghazaleh Sankanian, Azam Zaghal, Shahab Mirshahvaladi, Fatemeh Esmaeili, Haniyeh Eyvani, Farinaz Barghi, Zahra Sabourinejad, Zivar Alishahi, Hassan Yousefi, Reza Ghasemi, Leila Dardaei, Davood Bashash, Bahram Chahardouli, Ahmad R Dehpour, Javad Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Kamran Alimoghaddam, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh, Seyed H Ghaffari
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynaecological malignancy worldwide. Development of chemoresistance and peritoneal dissemination of EOC cells are the major reasons for low survival rate. Targeting signal transduction pathways which promote therapy resistance and metastatic dissemination is the key to successful treatment. Members of the ErbB family of receptors are over-expressed in EOC and play key roles in chemoresistance and invasiveness. Despite this, single-targeted ErbB inhibitors have demonstrated limited activity in chemoresistant EOC...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646166/atp-release-during-cell-swelling-activates-a-ca-2-dependent-cl-current-by-autocrine-mechanism-in-mouse-hippocampal-microglia
#8
E Murana, F Pagani, B Basilico, M Sundukova, L Batti, S Di Angelantonio, B Cortese, A Grimaldi, A Francioso, P Heppenstall, P Bregestovski, C Limatola, D Ragozzino
Microglia cells, resident immune cells of the brain, survey brain parenchyma by dynamically extending and retracting their processes. Cl(-) channels, activated in the cellular response to stretch/swelling, take part in several functions deeply connected with microglia physiology, including cell shape changes, proliferation, differentiation and migration. However, the molecular identity and functional properties of these Cl(-) channels are largely unknown. We investigated the properties of swelling-activated currents in microglial from acute hippocampal slices of Cx3cr1 (+/GFP) mice by whole-cell patch-clamp and imaging techniques...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646039/monocyte-adhesion-migration-and-extracellular-matrix-breakdown-is-regulated-by-integrin-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#9
Sara Brilha, Riccardo Wysoczanski, Ashley M Whittington, Jon S Friedland, Joanna C Porter
In tuberculosis (TB), the innate inflammatory immune response drives tissue destruction, morbidity, and mortality. Monocytes secrete matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which have key roles in local tissue destruction and cavitation. We hypothesized that integrin signaling might regulate monocyte MMP secretion in pulmonary TB during cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Adhesion to type I collagen and fibronectin by Mycobacterium tuberculosis-stimulated monocytes increased MMP-1 gene expression by 2...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645917/multivalent-binding-of-pwwp2a-to-h2a-z-regulates-mitosis-and-neural-crest-differentiation
#10
Sebastian Pünzeler, Stephanie Link, Gabriele Wagner, Eva C Keilhauer, Nina Kronbeck, Ramona Mm Spitzer, Susanne Leidescher, Yolanda Markaki, Edith Mentele, Catherine Regnard, Katrin Schneider, Daisuke Takahashi, Masayuki Kusakabe, Chiara Vardabasso, Lisa M Zink, Tobias Straub, Emily Bernstein, Masahiko Harata, Heinrich Leonhardt, Matthias Mann, Ralph Aw Rupp, Sandra B Hake
Replacement of canonical histones with specialized histone variants promotes altering of chromatin structure and function. The essential histone variant H2A.Z affects various DNA-based processes via poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we determine the comprehensive interactome of H2A.Z and identify PWWP2A as a novel H2A.Z-nucleosome binder. PWWP2A is a functionally uncharacterized, vertebrate-specific protein that binds very tightly to chromatin through a concerted multivalent binding mode. Two internal protein regions mediate H2A...
June 23, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645896/nucleotide-dependent-farnesyl-switch-orchestrates-polymerization-and-membrane-binding-of-human-guanylate-binding-protein-1
#11
Sergii Shydlovskyi, Anke Y Zienert, Semra Ince, Christine Dovengerds, Annika Hohendahl, Julia M Dargazanli, Ailisa Blum, Saskia D Günther, Nikolay Kladt, Michael Stürzl, Astrid C Schauss, Miriam Kutsch, Aurélien Roux, Gerrit J K Praefcke, Christian Herrmann
Dynamin-like proteins (DLPs) mediate various membrane fusion and fission processes within the cell, which often require the polymerization of DLPs. An IFN-inducible family of DLPs, the guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), is involved in antimicrobial and antiviral responses within the cell. Human guanylate-binding protein 1 (hGBP1), the founding member of GBPs, is also engaged in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. Here, we show how the GTPase cycle of farnesylated hGBP1 (hGBP1F) regulates its self-assembly and membrane interaction...
June 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645895/multiparity-improves-outcomes-after-cerebral-ischemia-in-female-mice-despite-features-of-increased-metabovascular-risk
#12
Rodney M Ritzel, Anita R Patel, Monica Spychala, Rajkumar Verma, Joshua Crapser, Edward C Koellhoffer, Anna Schrecengost, Evan R Jellison, Liang Zhu, Venugopal Reddy Venna, Louise D McCullough
Females show a varying degree of ischemic sensitivity throughout their lifespan, which is not fully explained by hormonal or genetic factors. Epidemiological data suggest that sex-specific life experiences such as pregnancy increase stroke risk. This work evaluated the role of parity on stroke outcome. Age-matched virgin (i.e., nulliparous) and multiparous mice were subjected to 60 min of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion and evaluated for infarct volume, behavioral recovery, and inflammation. Using an established mating paradigm, fetal microchimeric cells present in maternal mice were also tracked after parturition and stroke...
June 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645708/identification-of-major-routes-of-hiv-transmission-throughout-mesoamerica
#13
Antoine Chaillon, Santiago Avila-Ríos, Joel O Wertheim, Ann Dennis, Claudia García-Morales, Daniela Tapia-Trejo, Carlos Mejía-Villatoro, Juan M Pascale, Guillermo Porras-Cortés, Carlos J Quant-Durán, Ivette Lorenzana, Rita I Meza, Elsa Y Palou, Marvin Manzanero, Rolando A Cedillos, Gustavo Reyes-Terán, Sanjay R Mehta
BACKGROUND: Migration and travel are major drivers of the spread of infectious diseases. Geographic proximity and a common language facilitate travel and migration in Mesoamerica, which in turn could affect the spread of HIV in the region. METHODS: 6092 HIV-1 subtype B partial pol sequences sampled from unique antiretroviral treatment-naïve individuals from Mexico (40.7%), Guatemala (24.4%), Honduras (19%), Panama (8.2%), Nicaragua (5.5%), Belize (1.4%), and El Salvador (0...
June 20, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645596/endoscopic-removal-of-a-bullet-migrated-to-the-third-ventricle-causing-hydrocephalus-a-case-report
#14
Aydın Aydoseli, Tugrul Cem Unal, Yavuz Aras, Pulat Akın Sabanci, Emre Altunrende, Nail Izgi
Hydrocephalus caused by an intraventricular bullet is a rare event. We report a case of a man aged 66 years who was admitted to hospital after a suicide attempt with gunshot to the head. The bullet migrated from the frontal parenchyma to the 3rd ventricle 4 days later. On the 21st day of admission, the patient developed hydrocephalus with obstruction of aqueduct. The bullet was then accessed through an endoscopic third ventriculostomy and removed using an endoscope. This is the first case in the literature of foreign object removal from the ventricle via a transcortical endoscopic approach...
June 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645561/boris-up-regulates-oct4-via-histone-methylation-to-promote-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties-in-human-liver-cancer-cells
#15
Qiuying Liu, Kefei Chen, Zhongjian Liu, Yuan Huang, Rongce Zhao, Ling Wei, Xiaoqin Yu, Jingyang He, Jun Liu, Jianguo Qi, Yang Qin, Bo Li
Accumulating evidence has revealed the importance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in chemoresistance and recurrence. BORIS, a testes-specific CTCF paralog, has been shown to be associated with stemness traits of embryonic cancer cells and epithelial CSCs. We previously reported that BORIS is correlated with the expression of the CSC marker CD90 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These results encourage us to wonder whether BORIS exerts functions on CSC-like traits of human liver cancer cells. Here, we report that BORIS was enriched in HCC tissues...
June 20, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645554/monocrotophos-an-organophosphorus-insecticide-disrupts-the-expression-of-hpnetrin-and-its-receptor-neogenin-during-early-development-in-the-sea-urchin-hemicentrotus-pulcherrimus
#16
Xiaona Zhang, Lei Xu, Hua Tian, Cuicui Wang, Wei Wang, Shaoguo Ru
Netrins, chemotropic guidance cues, can guide the extension of serotonergic axons by binding to netrin receptors during neural development. However, little is known about whether disruption of netrin signaling is involved in the mechanisms by which organophosphorus pesticides affect serotonergic nervous system (SNS) development. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the pesticide monocrotophos (MCP) on the expression patterns of HpNetrin and its receptor neogenin as well as on the intracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) levels in Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus (sea urchin) by exposing fertilized embryos to 0, 0...
June 20, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645374/reconstituted-system-for-the-examination-of-repair-dna-synthesis-in-homologous-recombination
#17
Youngho Kwon, James M Daley, Patrick Sung
In homologous recombination (HR), DNA polymerase δ-mediated DNA synthesis occurs within the displacement loop (D-loop) that is made by the recombinase Rad51 in conjunction with accessory factors. We describe in this chapter the reconstitution of the D-loop and repair DNA synthesis reactions using purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae HR (Rad51, RPA, and Rad54) and DNA replication (PCNA, RFC, and DNA polymerase δ) proteins and document the role of the Pif1 helicase in DNA synthesis via a migrating DNA bubble intermediate...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645305/high-expression-of-collagen-triple-helix-repeat-containing-1-cthrc1-facilitates-progression-of-oesophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-through-mapk-mek-erk-fra-1-activation
#18
Chunni Wang, Zitong Li, Fei Shao, Xueying Yang, Xiaoli Feng, Susheng Shi, Yibo Gao, Jie He
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide,and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histological type both globally and in China. Collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) has been found to be upregulated in ESCC. However, its role in tumourigenesis and progression of ESCC remains unclear. METHODS: Using our previous ESCC mRNA profiling data, we screened upregulated genes to identify those required for proliferation...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645185/soil-prokaryotic-communities-in-chernobyl-waste-disposal-trench-t22-are-modulated-by-organic-matter-and-radionuclide-contamination
#19
Nicolas Theodorakopoulos, Laureline Février, Mohamed Barakat, Philippe Ortet, Richard Christen, Laurie Piette, Sviatoslav Levchuk, Karine Beaugelin-Seiller, Claire Sergeant, Catherine Berthomieu, Virginie Chapon
After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, contaminated soils, vegetation from the Red Forest, and other radioactive debris were buried within trenches. In this area, trench T22 has long been a pilot site for the study of radionuclide migration in soil. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to obtain a comprehensive view of the bacterial and archaeal diversity in soils collected inside and in the vicinity of the trench T22 and to investigate the impact of radioactive waste disposal on prokaryotic communities...
June 22, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645168/genomic-reconstruction-of-the-history-of-native-sheep-reveals-the-peopling-patterns-of-nomads-and-the-expansion-of-early-pastoralism-in-east-asia
#20
Yong-Xin Zhao, Ji Yang, Feng-Hua Lv, Xiao-Ju Hu, Xing-Long Xie, Min Zhang, Wen-Rong Li, Ming-Jun Liu, Yu-Tao Wang, Jin-Quan Li, Yong-Gang Liu, Yan-Ling Ren, Feng Wang, EEr Hehua, Juha Kantanen, Johannes Arjen Lenstra, Jian-Lin Han, Meng-Hua Li
China has a rich resource of native sheep (Ovis aries) breeds associated with historical movements of several nomadic societies. However, the history of sheep and the associated nomadic societies in ancient China remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the genomic diversity of Chinese sheep using genome-wide SNPs, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal variations in more than 1,000 modern samples. Population genomic analyses combined with archaeological records and historical ethnic demographics data revealed genetic signatures of their origins, secondary expansions and admixtures, thereby revealing the peopling patterns of nomads and the expansion of early pastoralism in East Asia...
June 22, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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