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Yuyan Gao, Li Li, David C Schwebel, Peishan Ning, Peixia Cheng, Guoqing Hu
Social medical insurance schemes are crucial for realizing universal health coverage and health equity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how reimbursement for injury-induced medical expenses is addressed in Chinese legislative documents relevant to social medical insurance. We retrieved legislative documents from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure and the Lawyee databases. Four types of social medical insurance schemes were included: urban employee basic medical insurance, urban resident basic medical insurance, new rural cooperative medical system, and urban and rural resident medical insurance...
2018: PloS One
Vladimir D Mendelevich
This article examines the psychiatric and political issues surrounding the case of the controversial Russian performance artist Pyotr Pavlensky, who received a number of court-ordered psychiatric evaluations as part of the legal actions initiated subsequent to his political protest actions. The author presents the results of his own clinical investigation into Pavlensky's case, arguing that previous diagnoses made by psychiatrists were unwarranted and unreasonable. This case draws the attention of experts to a problem: the need for more accurate criteria for the differentiation of behavioral disorders from behavior understood locally as socially-deviant...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Nancy D Campbell
Using the ethical and legal concept of shared responsibility for healthy births, this article considers social, cultural, and historical contexts in which medicalization and criminalization have worked in tandem to widen surveillance in ways that intensify scrutiny of women's lives under the guise of child protection, bringing women who are pregnant, postpartum, or parenting under criminal justice control. Although pregnant and postpartum women are prime candidates for medication-assisted treatment (MAT), the expanding carceral system has not prioritized drug treatment or reproductive justice...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Amy G Bryant, Jonas J Swartz
Crisis pregnancy centers are organizations that seek to intercept women with unintended pregnancies who might be considering abortion. Their mission is to prevent abortions by persuading women that adoption or parenting is a better option. They strive to give the impression that they are clinical centers, offering legitimate medical services and advice, yet they are exempt from regulatory, licensure, and credentialing oversight that apply to health care facilities. Because the religious ideology of these centers' owners and employees takes priority over the health and well-being of the women seeking care at these centers, women do not receive comprehensive, accurate, evidence-based clinical information about all available options...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Patrycja Klimek, Tom Hildebrandt
OBJECTIVE: Theoretically, legal supplement use precedes and increases the risk for illicit appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use-also referred to as the gateway hypothesis. Little is known about associations between the speed of progression, or gap time, from legal to illicit APED use, and psychological risk factors, such as sociocultural influence, eating disorders, body image disturbance, and impulsivity. METHOD: The sample taken from two studies included 172 active steroid users (n = 143) and intense-exercising healthy controls (n = 29) between the ages of 18 and 60 (M = 34...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Evgeny A Kuzmin
The article presents data on the corporate survival rate in Russia in 1991-2014. The empirical survey was based on a random sample with the average number of non-repeated observations (number of companies) for the survey each year equal to 75,958 (24,236 minimum and 126,953 maximum). The actual limiting mean error ∆ p was 2.24% with 99% integrity. The survey methodology was based on a cross joining of various formal periods in the corporate life cycles (legal and business), which makes it possible to talk about a conventionally active time life of companies' existence with a number of assumptions...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Debasish Basu, Aniruddha Basu, Abhishek Ghosh
A large proportion of patients with substance use disorders have clinical comorbidities, either medical or psychiatric. An initial assessment is necessary initially for prompt identification and management of any psychiatric or medical emergency, and thereafter a more detailed assessment for the comprehensive understanding of the individual. This should be done keeping in mind the goals of both immediate and long term assessment so that a comprehensive but individualized, context and culture sensitive, reality based, recovery-oriented management plan can be formulated...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Pratima Murthy
While guidelines for psychosocial interventions in addictive disorders in India were earlier rooted in clinical experience and global empirical evidence, recently there have been efforts to develop guidelines for intervention based on the local needs assessments of specific populations and more appreciably, a testing of the effectiveness of the interventions. This supplement on psychosocial interventions for addictive disorders covers some of the important aspects of psychosocial interventions in five sections...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Nick Jikomes, Michael Zoorob
The majority of adults in the U.S. now have state-legal access to medical or recreational cannabis products, despite their federal prohibition. Given the wide array of pharmacologically active compounds in these products, it is essential that their biochemical profile is measured and reported to consumers, which requires accurate laboratory testing. However, no universal standards for laboratory testing protocols currently exist, and there is controversy as to whether all reported results are legitimate. To investigate these concerns, we analyzed a publicly available seed-to-sale traceability dataset from Washington state containing measurements of the cannabinoid content of legal cannabis products from state-certified laboratories...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Clare Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Leandro Nóbrega, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
New psychoactive substances (NPS), often referred as 'legal highs' or 'designer drugs', are derivatives and analogs of existing psychoactive drugs that are introduced in the recreational market to circumvent existing legislation on drugs of abuse. This work aims to review the state-of-the-art regarding chemical, molecular pharmacology, and in vitro and in vivo data on toxicokinetics of the potent synthetic cathinone α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP or flakka or zombie drug). Chemical, pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical effects of α-PVP were searched in PubMed (U...
March 14, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Loren Collingwood, Ben Gonzalez O'Brien, Sarah Dreier
BACKGROUND: In 2012, Washington and Colorado became the first U.S. states to legalise recreational marijuana. By 2016, eight states and the District of Columbia had legalised recreational marijuana, with more expected to consider it in 2018. Despite this trend, little academic research explains what drives ballot-initiative vote choice on marijuana legalisation. METHODS: This paper uses a pre-election random sample voter survey to examine the individual characteristics that correlated with Washington voters' support for legal recreational marijuana...
March 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Sarah Jane Holcombe
Unsafe abortion is one of the three leading causes of maternal mortality in low-income countries; however, few countries have reformed their laws to permit safer, legal abortion, and professional medical associations have not tended to spearhead this type of reform. Support from a professional association typically carries more weight than does that from an individual medical professional. However, theory predicts and the empirical record largely reveals that medical associations shy from engagement in conflictual policymaking such as on abortion, except when professional autonomy or income is at stake...
March 12, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Silvia de Souza Campos Fernandes, Dirceu Solé, Paulo Camargos, Cláudia Ribeiro de Andrade, Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors associated with asthma symptoms in adolescents in the 13- to 14-year age bracket. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving adolescents enrolled in randomly selected public schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, and conducted with the use of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and its supplementary module for risk factor assessment. The ISAAC questionnaire was completed by the students themselves, whereas the supplementary questionnaire was completed by their parents or legal guardians...
January 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
Natalie Colaneri, Mark Sheldon, Andrew Adesman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the pervasiveness of psychotropic medication in the youth population and an increasingly competitive culture regarding educational performance, children, teenagers, and/or their parents may increasingly seek psychotropic substances in an effort to enhance a student's cognitive abilities and/or academic performance. Physicians must become aware of this very important and clinically relevant issue and work to ensure that medications remain in the hands of patients seeking wellness and not enhancement...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Pamela J Taylor, Natasha Kalebic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The contribution of people with psychosis to homicide statistics is small, but there is a statistically significantly higher rate of homicide among them than in the general population. Legal authorities and the wider public call for more information. Our aim was a narrative synthesis of empirical literature generated by systematic searches for the five complete years 2013-2017. RECENT FINDINGS: One article showed that people with psychosis are five times more likely to be homicide victims than those without, but focus remains on perpetrators...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Bradley J Schaffer, Kelly Fulmer
The study examines and evaluates the effectiveness of a federal and county collaboration in Pennsylvania designed to help military veterans with child support arrearages in the criminal justice system. The study focused on the veteran participants (n=232) identified psychosocial problems, their range of justice involvement, strategies to mitigate, address barriers and legal dilemmas through the collaborative. The average age 40, majority male, Caucasian, divorced, enrolled in Veterans Administration (VA) healthcare, serving on supervised parole or probation, homeless episodes, and income <$500...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
Ebony Rempel, Lorie Donelle, Jodi Hall, Susan Rodger
Violence against women (VAW) is a global social issue affecting health, social, and legal systems. VAW contributes to the inequities with respect to the social determinants of health that many women face today. The onus on self-care in the face of violence remains almost singularly with the victims. Access to information and services in support of women's health and safety is fundamental. However, research gaps exist regarding how women access health information across all stages of an abusive intimate relationship...
March 14, 2018: Informatics for Health & Social Care
Amy O'Brien, Julie McCormack, Kimberley J Hoiles, Hunna J Watson, Rebecca A Anderson, Phillipa Hay, Sarah J Egan
OBJECTIVE: There are few evidence-based guidelines for inpatient pediatric eating disorders. The aim was to gain perspectives from those providing and receiving inpatient pediatric eating disorder care on the essential components treatment. METHOD: A modified Delphi technique was used to develop consensus-based opinions. Participants (N = 74) were recruited for three panels: clinicians (n = 24), carers (n = 31), and patients (n = 19), who endorsed three rounds of statements online...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Kevin M Walters, Gwenith G Fisher, Liliana Tenney
BACKGROUND: Understanding worker health and safety in the rapidly growing legal U.S. cannabis industry is important. Although little published research exists, workers may be exposed to biological, chemical, and physical hazards. This study investigated the Colorado cannabis industry workforce and both physical and psychosocial hazards to worker health and safety. METHODS: Two hundred and fourteen Colorado cannabis workers completed an online survey after in-person and online recruitment...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
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