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#1
Moshe Shiller, Vladimir Gens, Ganem Kassem, Wisam Sbeit
BACKGROUND: The relationships between physicians and patients are very complex. One of their principles is to receive informed consent from the patient. This principle facilitates patient autonomy. The physician must explain to the patient: his condition, treatment alternatives, stating the advantages and disadvantages of each option, to enable the patient to choose between them. There are various attitudes towards the health system as a result of different cultures in different societies...
May 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551279/influence-of-carbonation-under-oxy-fuel-combustion-flue-gas-on-the-leachability-of-heavy-metals-in-mswi-fly-ash
#2
Peng Ni, Zhuo Xiong, Chong Tian, Hailong Li, Yongchun Zhao, Junying Zhang, Chuguang Zheng
Due to the high cost of pure CO2, carbonation of MSWI fly ash has not been fully developed. It is essential to select a kind of reaction gas with rich CO2 instead of pure CO2. The CO2 uptake and leaching toxicity of heavy metals in three typical types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were investigated with simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas under different reaction temperatures, which was compared with both pure CO2 and simulated air combustion flue gas. The CO2 uptake under simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas were similar to that of pure CO2...
May 24, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551276/responsible-surgical-innovation-and-research-in-maternal-fetal-surgery
#3
REVIEW
Ryan M Antiel, Alan W Flake
The field of maternal-fetal intervention is rapidly evolving with new technologies and innovations. This raises complex ethical and medico-legal challenges related to what constitutes innovative treatment versus human experimentation, with or without the umbrella of "medical research." There exists a gray zone between these black and white classifications, but there are also clear guidelines that should be responsibly negotiated when making the essential transition between an innovative treatment and a validated therapy...
May 24, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550830/-biologicals-and-biosimilars-gaps-in-the-pharmacovigilance-system-in-portugal
#4
Maria Conceição Portela, Carlos Sinogas, Fernando Albuquerque Almeida, Ricardo Baptista-Leite, Alexandre Castro-Caldas
INTRODUCTION: Biological and biosimilar medicinal products have specific characteristics that call for a closer monitoring of their safety profile. Since the current legal framework stems from both European and national regulations, some gaps in the operational field may be expected. The goal of this paper is to identify these gaps and propose changes to the current information systems and pharmacovigilance regulations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative analysis of current pharmacovigilance regulatory framework and supporting information system was conducted...
March 31, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550762/forensic-age-estimation-by-morphometric-analysis-of-the-manubrium-from-3d-mr-images
#5
Naira P Martínez Vera, Johannes Höller, Thomas Widek, Bernhard Neumayer, Thomas Ehammer, Martin Urschler
Forensic age estimation research based on skeletal structures focuses on patterns of growth and development using different bones. In this work, our aim was to study growth-related evolution of the manubrium in living adolescents and young adults using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is an image acquisition modality that does not involve ionizing radiation. In a first step, individual manubrium and subject features were correlated with age, which confirmed a statistically significant change of manubrium volume (Mvol:p<0...
May 12, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550699/the-poet-prevention-of-error-based-transfers-project
#6
Jill Oliver, Paula Chidwick
The PoET (Prevention of Error-based Transfers) Project is one of the Ethics Quality Improvement Projects (EQIPs) taking place at William Osler Health System. This specific project is designed to reduce transfers from long-term care to hospital that are caused by legal and ethical errors related to consent, capacity and substitute decision-making. The project is currently operating in eight long-term care homes in the Central West Local Health Integration Network and has seen a 56% reduction in multiple transfers before death in hospital...
2017: Healthcare Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550456/what-doesn-t-work-for-whom-exploring-heterogeneity-in-responsiveness-to-the-family-check-up-in-early-childhood-using-a-mixture-model-approach
#7
William E Pelham, Thomas J Dishion, Jenn-Yun Tein, Daniel S Shaw, Melvin N Wilson
This study applied latent class analysis to a family-centered prevention trial in early childhood to identify subgroups of families with differential responsiveness to the Family Check-Up (FCU) intervention. The sample included 731 families with 2-year-olds randomized to the FCU or control condition and followed through age 5 with yearly follow-up assessments. A two-step mixture model was used to examine whether specific constellations of family characteristics at age 2 (baseline) were related to intervention response across ages 3, 4, and 5...
May 27, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550158/viewing-benefit-sharing-in-global-health-research-through-the-lens-of-aristotelian-justice
#8
REVIEW
Bege Dauda, Kris Dierickx
The ethics of benefit sharing has been a topical issue in global health research in resource-limited countries. It pertains to the distribution of goods, benefits and advantages to the research participants, communities and countries that are involved in research. One of the nuances in benefit sharing is the ethical justification on which the concept should be based. Extensive literature outlining the different principles underlying benefit sharing is available. The purpose of this paper is to examine the proposed principles using Aristotelian principles of justice...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549980/trends-in-malpractice-claims-for-obstetric-and-gynecologic-procedures-2005-2014
#9
Laura M Glaser, Farah A Alvi, Magdy P Milad
BACKGROUND: Interest in medical malpractice and areas of medico-legal vulnerability for practicing obstetricians and gynecologists has grown substantially, and many providers report changing surgical practice out of fear of litigation. Furthermore, education on medical malpractice and risk management is lacking for obstetrics and gynecology trainees. Recent obstetric and gynecologic malpractice claims data is lacking. We report on recent trends in malpractice claims for obstetrics and gynecology procedures, and compare these trends to those of other medical specialties...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549805/immunization-requirements-of-the-top-200-universities-implications-for-vaccine-hesitant-families
#10
Allison Noesekabel, Ada M Fenick
BACKGROUND: The majority of pediatricians encounter vaccine hesitancy in their practices. As part of a broad discussion about vaccination, school requirements arise as a topic yet providers may lack information about the effects of immunization on university matriculation. METHODS: We surveyed the top-ranked 200 universities regarding required immunizations, medical, religious, and philosophical exemptions, and noncompliance policies. We examined the legal requirements for involved jurisdictions...
May 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549263/prevalence-reasons-perceived-effects-and-correlates-of-medical-marijuana-use-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Ji-Yeun Park, Li-Tzy Wu
BACKGROUND: The use of marijuana for medical purposes is now legal in some U.S. states and other jurisdictions, such as Canada, and Israel. Despite the widespread legalization of medical marijuana globally, there is limited information on patterns and correlates of medical marijuana use (MMU). We conducted a literature review to assess prevalence, reasons, perceived effects, and correlates of MMU among adolescents and adults. METHODS: We searched peer-reviewed articles in English between January 1996 and August 2016 from several databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) using different combinations of keywords...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548865/a-national-survey-of-canadian-psychiatrists-attitudes-toward-medical-assistance-in-death
#12
Skye Rousseau, Sarah Turner, Harvey Max Chochinov, Murray W Enns, Jitender Sareen
BACKGROUND: Bill C-14 allows for medical assistance in dying (MAID) for patients who have intolerable physical or psychological suffering that occurs in the context of a reasonably foreseeable death. In Canada, psychiatrist support for MAID on the basis of mental illness and beliefs influencing level of support are unknown. The objectives of this research were to 1) determine if psychiatrists are supportive of MAID under certain conditions and on the basis of mental illness and 2) determine what factors are related to psychiatrist support for MAID on the basis of mental illness...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548646/prevalence-and-the-risk-factors-for-visual-impairment-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#13
S Srinivasan, G Swaminathan, V Kulothungan, R Raman, T Sharma
PurposeTo characterize the type, and the causes of visual impairment (VI) in various stages of early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the factors associated with visual impairment in subjects with AMDMethods6617 subjects ≥60 years were enumerated; 5495 (83.04%) participated in eye examination. Of which, 4791 subjects had gradable fundus images. AMD was graded per International ARM Epidemiological Study Group. Subjects underwent detailed ophthalmic exam. VI was defined per the WHO classification...
May 26, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548558/the-role-of-genetic-testing-in-epilepsy-diagnosis-and-management
#14
Yvonne G Weber, Saskia Biskup, Katherine L Helbig, Sarah von Spiczak, Holger Lerche
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. More than 500 epilepsy-associated genes have been described in the literature. Most of these genes play an important role in neuronal excitability, cortical development or synaptic transmission. A growing number of genetic variations have implications on diagnosis and prognostic or therapeutic advice in terms of a personalized medicine. Area covered: The review presents the different forms of genetic epilepsies with respect to their underlying genetic and functional pathophysiology and aims to give advice for recommended genetic testing...
May 26, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548223/cannabis-smoking-and-cardiovascular-health-it-s-complicated
#15
M R Piano
Many states have legalized cannabis use for treatment of certain medical conditions or have legalized cannabis for recreational use. Consequently, cannabis use prevalence has escalated, giving rise to concerns about potential health effects. Cannabis smoking remains the most prevalent route of administration and is associated with inhalation of chemical toxicants. The aim of this article is to summarize the effects of cannabis smoking on the vasculature and occurrence of cardiovascular (CV) events such as myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke...
May 26, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548107/current-controversies-in-brain-death-determination
#16
REVIEW
Ariane Lewis, David Greer
Although the concept of brain death is accepted by the majority of physicians, lawyers, ethicists and society at large, controversies about determination of death by neurological criteria persist, and often reach the public eye. In this article, we examine four prominent controversial brain death cases from 2013-2016. We review current controversies, including protocol variability, recognition of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) criteria for brain death as an accepted medical standard, and management of objections to discontinuation of organ support after determination of brain death...
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548009/letter-to-editor-of-medico-legal-journal
#17
George E Fowler, Pirashanthie Vivekananda-Schmidt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548003/medicolegal-cases-involving-periviable-births-from-a-major-united-states-legal-database
#18
Hemananda Muniraman, Miranda Cascione, Rangasamy Ramanathan, Jimmy Nguyen
OBJECTIVE: The management of expectant mothers and infants born at the threshold of viability is challenging. We describe medicolegal cases from a major United States legal database involving periviable births in an effort to identify areas for improvement. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective review of all United States state and federal cases in the Westlaw database from 1980 through 2016 involving peripartum and immediate post-delivery management of infants born between 22 0/7 and 25 6/7 weeks' gestation...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547759/blood-donors-attitudes-towards-voluntary-non-remunerated-donation-in-trinidad-and-tobago
#19
K S Charles, A Poon King, A Ramai, K Rajnath, D Ramkissoon, S Ramkissoon, C Ramlal, K Ramnarine, K Rampersad, G Legall, S Pooransingh, A D Chantry
OBJECTIVES: To assess the attitude towards voluntary non-remunerated blood donation among blood donors in Trinidad and Tobago (TRT). BACKGROUND: Blood donors in TRT are either family replacement (F/R, 87%) or remunerated (13%). There is chronic blood shortage and high seroreactivity for transfusion-transmissible infections (TTI) in donors. Converting existing to voluntary non-remunerated donors (VNRD) reduces the need to recruit news donors in achieving 100% VNRD...
May 26, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546785/on-religious-and-secular-exemptions-a-case-study-of-childhood-vaccination-waivers
#20
Roland Pierik
This paper analyses exemptions to general law through the prism of vaccine waivers in the United States. All US states legally require the vaccination of children prior to school or daycare entry; however, this obligation is accompanied with a system of medical, religious, and/or philosophical exemptions. Nonmedical exemptions became subject of discussion after the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak in California, which unequivocally brought to light what had been brewing below the surface for a while: a slow but steady decline in vaccination rates in Western societies, resulting in the reoccurrence of measles outbreaks...
April 2017: Ethnicities
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