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GnRH Antagonist

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330973/neurokinin-b-regulates-reproduction-via-inhibition-of-kisspeptin-in-a-teleost-the-striped-bass
#1
Nilli Zmora, Ten Tsao Wong, John David Stubblefield, Berta Levavi-Sivan, Yonathan Zohar
Kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) are neuropeptides co-expressed in the mammalian hypothalamus and coordinately control GnRH signaling. We have found that Nkb and kisspeptin neurons are distinct in the teleost, striped bass (stb), and capitalized on this phenomenon to study the mode of action of Nkb and its related neuropeptide-F (Nkf), both of which are encoded by the tac3 gene. In vitro brain slices and in vivo administration studies revealed that Nkb/f consistently down-regulated kiss2, while antagonist (AntD) administration restored this effect...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328155/does-dynorphin-play-a-role-in-the-onset-of-puberty-in-female-sheep
#2
J A Lopez, M N Bedenbaugh, R B McCosh, P W Weems, L J Meadows, B Wisman, L M Coolen, R L Goodman, S M Hileman
Puberty onset involves increased gonadotrophin-release (GnRH) release as a result of decreased sensitivity to oestrogen (E2 )-negative feedback. Because GnRH neurones lack E2 receptor α, this pathway must contain interneurones. One likely candidate is KNDy neurones (kisspeptin, neurokinin B, dynorphin). The overarching hypothesis of the present study was that the prepubertal hiatus in luteinising hormone (LH) release involves reduced kisspeptin and/or heightened dynorphin input. We first tested the specific hypothesis that E2 would reduce kisspeptin-immunopositive cell numbers and increase dynorphin-immunopositive cell numbers...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323948/dose-dependent-suppression-of-gonadotropins-and-ovarian-hormones-by-elagolix-in-healthy-premenopausal-women
#3
Juki Ng, Kristof Chwalisz, David C Carter, Cheri E Klein
Context: Elagolix is a nonpeptide, oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist being developed for sex-hormone dependent diseases in women. Objective: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of elagolix. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-ascending dose study in 45 healthy premenopausal women at a research unit. Interventions: Elagolix 150 mg once daily or 100, 200, 300 or 400 mg twice daily or placebo for 21 days...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323291/vaginal-use-of-micronized-progesterone-for-luteal-support-a-randomized-study-comparing-utrogestan%C3%A2-and-crinone%C3%A2-8
#4
Lucie Michnova, Jiri Dostal, Milan Kudela, Petr Hamal, Katerina Langova
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Luteal phase physiology is distorted by in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists, Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation leads to luteal phase defect and for this reason, luteal phase support is now an integral part of IVF/ICSI-ET programs. The support is provided by hCG, progesterone or GnRH-a. This study compared the efficiency, safety and tolerance of two vaginal micronized progesterones, Utrogestan and Crinone 8%...
March 14, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290093/the-effect-of-rlh-supplementation-to-the-gnrh-antagonist-protocol-on-endocrine-dynamics-in-the-advanced-reproductive-age
#5
J S Younis, I Izhaki, M Ben-Ami
PURPOSE: To explore serum endocrine dynamics, specifically LH levels, following rLH supplementation to rFSH following GnRH-antagonist treatment in the advance reproductive age. METHODS: Women were prospectively and similarly treated employing rFSH and the flexible GnRH-antagonist protocol, while rLH was supplemented only to the study group. Serum FSH, LH, E2, and P were evaluated throughout the follicular phase. Three strategies were a priori planned to examine endocrine dynamics among women enrolled...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288389/ovarian-ablation-for-premenopausal-breast-cancer-a-review-of-treatment-considerations-and-the-impact-of-premature-menopause
#6
REVIEW
Melica Nourmoussavi, Gary Pansegrau, Jason Popesku, Geoffrey L Hammond, Janice S Kwon, Mark S Carey
Historically, ovarian ablation (OA) was used as therapy for women with recurrent hormone-receptor-positive (HRP) premenopausal breast cancer. With the publication of the SOFT (Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial) and TEXT (Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial) randomized trials, there is considerable interest in OA as an adjuvant treatment, either in combination with tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor (AI). Thus, we have reviewed current guidelines and key studies on this important topic and have highlighted the relevant biological and pharmacological aspects of the various endocrine therapies...
February 22, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285952/ovarian-response-to-150%C3%A2-%C3%A2%C2%B5g-corifollitropin-alfa-in-a-gnrh-antagonist-multiple-dose-protocol-a-prospective-cohort-study
#7
Tamara Lerman, Marion Depenbusch, Askan Schultze-Mosgau, Soeren von Otte, Markus Scheinhardt, Inke Koenig, Axel Kamischke, Milan Macek, Arne Schwennicke, Sabine Segerer, Georg Griesinger
The incidence of low (<6 oocytes) and high (>18 oocytes) ovarian response to 150 µg corifollitropin alfa in relation to anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and other biomarkers was studied in a multi-centre (n = 5), multi-national, prospective, investigator-initiated, observational cohort study. Infertile women (n = 212), body weight >60 kg, underwent controlled ovarian stimulation in a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-antagonist multiple-dose protocol. Demographic, sonographic and endocrine parameters were prospectively assessed on cycle day 2 or 3 of a spontaneous menstruation before the administration of 150 µg corifollitropin alfa...
March 2, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277113/mild-versus-conventional-antagonist-ovarian-stimulation-protocols-in-expected-normal-responders-undergoing-ivf-icsi-a-case-control-study
#8
Charalampos Siristatidis, Konstantinos Dafopoulos, Tereza Vrantza, George Salamalekis, George Basios, Paraskevi Vogiatzi, Vasileios Pergialiotis, Nikolaos Papantoniou
Mild controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) protocols combining clomiphene citrate (CC) or letrozole with gonadotropins were introduced as an effective alternative of conventional COH in normal responders undergoing IVF/ICSI. In this case-control study, we compared 41 participants treated with a mild stimulation protocol receiving gonadotropins combined with either CC (n = 24) or letrozole (n = 17) with 71 subfertile participants with matching baseline characteristics, conforming with the same inclusion criteria and treated with a conventional antagonist protocol...
March 3, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271699/individualization-of-controlled-ovarian-stimulation-in-ivf-using-ovarian-reserve-markers
#9
Valentina Grisendi, Antonio La Marca
INTRODUCTION: In assisted reproduction technologies (ART) the controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) therapy is the starting point from which a good oocytes retrieval depends. Treatment individualization is based on ovarian response prediction, which largely depends on a woman's ovarian reserve. AMH and AFC are considered the most accurate and reliable markers of ovarian reserve. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search was carried out for studies that addressed the ability of AMH and AFC to predict poor and/or excessive ovarian response in IVF cycles...
March 7, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271235/expression-of-akt1-along-with-akt2-in-granulosa-lutein-cells-of-hyperandrogenic-pcos-patients
#10
Saeid Nekoonam, Mohammad Naji, Maryam Shabani Nashtaei, Keywan Mortezaee, Morteza Koruji, Leili Safdarian, Fardin Amidi
PURPOSE: AKTs have a pivotal role in the granulosa-lutein cell (GC) proliferation and folliculogenesis, and there is a reciprocal feedback between AKT with androgen. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the role of AKTs in GCs of hyperandrogenic (+HA) PCOS cases. METHOD: There were three groups: control, +HA PCOS and -HA (non-hyperandrogenic) PCOS. All groups were subjected to GnRH antagonist protocol for stimulation of ovulation. Follicular fluid was aspirated from large follicles, and GCs were isolated using cell strainer method...
April 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255765/research-development-of-a-new-gnrh-antagonist-elagolix-for-the-treatment-of-endometriosis-a-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
Pontis Alessandro, Nappi Luigi, Sorrentino Felice, Paoletti Anna Maria, Melis Gian Benedetto, Angioni Stefano
PURPOSE: Limitated studies have reported the efficacy of GnRH antagonist on endometriosis symptoms. The aim of our study was to review all available trials to investigate the medical treatment of endometriosis with only GnRH antagonists, with special attention to pharmacodynamic activity, safety, and efficacy. METHODS: Pub Med and Sciencedirect database were searched using terms of "endometriosis treatment", "GnRH antagonist", and "Elagolix". The search was limited to clinical studies published in English...
April 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246628/outcomes-and-recommendations-of-an-indian-expert-panel-for-improved-practice-in-controlled-ovarian-stimulation-for-assisted-reproductive-technology
#12
REVIEW
Baiju Ahemmed, Vani Sundarapandian, Rohit Gutgutia, Sathya Balasubramanyam, Richa Jagtap, Reeta Biliangady, Priti Gupta, Sachin Jadhav, Ruma Satwik, Pavitra Raj Dewda, Priti Thakor, Sandro C Esteves
Purpose. To improve success of in vitro fertilization (IVF), assisted reproductive technology (ART) experts addressed four questions. What is optimum oocytes number leading to highest live birth rate (LBR)? Are cohort size and embryo quality correlated? Does gonadotropin type affect oocyte yield? Should "freeze-all" policy be adopted in cycles with progesterone >1.5 ng/mL on day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration? Methods. Electronic database search included ten studies on which panel gave opinions for improving current practice in controlled ovarian stimulation for ART...
2017: International Journal of Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228316/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-analogue-as-sole-luteal-support-in-antagonist-based-assisted-reproductive-technology-cycles
#13
Itai Bar Hava, Moran Blueshtein, Hadas Ganer Herman, Yeela Omer, Gila Ben David
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of GnRH agonists (GnRH-a) as sole luteal phase support in patients undergoing IVF in antagonist-based cycles compared with standard vaginal P preparations. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Private fertility clinic. PATIENT(S): Patients who underwent antagonist-based cycles performed at our clinic between 2009 and 2015. INTERVENTION(S): Intranasal GnRH-a or vaginal P as luteal support...
January 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215488/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist-gnrha-trigger-state-of-the-art
#14
REVIEW
C Dosouto, T Haahr, P Humaidan
GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger for final oocyte maturation in GnRH antagonist co-treated IVF/ICSI cycles significantly reduces the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). GnRHa trigger followed by modifications of the standard luteal phase support (modified luteal phase support) secures fresh transfer in the majority of patients with excellent reproductive outcomes. In freeze all cycles (segmented cycles) GnRHa trigger allows oocyte retrieval with a minimal risk of early onset OHSS and good reproductive outcomes in subsequent frozen thaw cycles...
February 16, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213801/efficacy-of-a-neoadjuvant-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-antagonist-plus-low-dose-estramustine-phosphate-in-high-risk-prostate-cancer-a-single-center-study
#15
Kazuhisa Hagiwara, Takuya Koie, Chikara Ohyama, Hayato Yamamoto, Atsushi Imai, Shingo Hatakeyama, Takahiro Yoneyama, Yasuhiro Hashimoto, Yuki Tobisawa, Tohru Yoneyama
PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for high-risk prostate cancer (Pca) remains to be established. We previously reported favorable biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS) for high-risk Pca patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy comprising a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist plus low-dose estramustine (LHRH + EMP) prior to radical prostatectomy (RP). In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy comprising a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist plus low-dose estramustine phosphate (GnRH + EMP) in patients with high-risk Pca...
February 17, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197932/effect-of-gnrha-ovulation-trigger-dose-on-follicular-fluid-characteristics-and-granulosa-cell-gene-expression-profiles
#16
Thi Ngoc Lan Vuong, M T Ho, T Q Ha, M Brehm Jensen, C Yding Andersen, P Humaidan
PURPOSE: A recent dose-finding study showed no significant differences in number of mature oocytes, embryos and top-quality embryos when triptorelin doses of 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4 mg were used to trigger final oocyte maturation in oocyte donors co-treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist. This analysis investigated whether triptorelin dosing for triggering final oocyte maturation in oocyte donors induced differences in follicular fluid (FF) hormone levels and granulosa cell gene expression...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197776/effects-of-melanocortin-4-receptor-agonists-and-antagonists-on-expression-of-genes-related-to-reproduction-in-spotted-scat-scatophagus-argus
#17
Dong-Neng Jiang, Jian-Tao Li, Ya-Xiong Tao, Hua-Pu Chen, Si-Ping Deng, Chun-Hua Zhu, Guang-Li Li
Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r) function related to reproduction in fish has not been extensively investigated. Here, we report on gene expression changes by real-time PCR following treatment with Mc4r agonists and antagonists in the spotted scat (Scatophagus argus). Using in vitro incubated hypothalamus, the Mc4r nonselective agonist NDP-MSH ([Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-α-melanocyte stimulating hormone; 10(-6) M) and selective agonist THIQ (N-[(3R)-1, 2, 3, 4-Tetrahydroisoquinolinium-3-ylcarbonyl]- (1R)-1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2-[4-cyclohexyl-4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl) piperidin-1-yl]-2-oxoethylamine; 10(-7) M) significantly increased the expression of gnrh (Gonadotropin releasing hormone), while the Mc4r nonselective antagonist SHU9119 (Ac-Nle-[Asp-His-DPhe/DNal(2')-Arg-Trp-Lys]-NH2; 10(-6) M) and selective antagonist Ipsen 5i (compound 5i synthesized in Ipsen Research Laboratories; 10(-6) M) significantly inhibited gnrh expression after 3 h of incubation...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173995/gnrh-antagonist-and-letrozole-co-treatment-in-diminished-ovarian-reserve-patients-a-proof-of-concept-study
#18
Safak Olgan, Peter Humaidan
The current study aimed to investigate the effects of luteal gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist pretreatment on the outcomes of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) patients who were treated using a FSH/letrozole/GnRH antagonist (FLA) protocol. Thus, patients who had luteal GnRH antagonist pretreatment (AFLA) prior to stimulation were compared to patients who had the FLA protocol, only. An electronic database was used to identify patients and stimulation characteristics. Women who had a total antral follicle count (AFC) of <7 were included in the analysis...
February 4, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152037/reassessing-the-feasibility-of-the-zygote-score-for-predicting-embryo-viability-in-ivf-icsi-using-the-gnrh-antagonist-protocol-compared-to-the-long-protocol
#19
Pin-Yao Lin, Fu-Jen Huang, Fu-Tsai Kung, Yi-Chi Lin, Hsin-Ju Chiang, Yu-Ju Lin, Kuo-Chung Lan
BACKGROUND: Many factors from the oocyte/sperm or the process of fertilization may affect the zygote formation. The zygote score (Z-score) describes the quality of a human zygote based on its pronuclear morphology, nucleolar precursor bodies, and alignment of polar bodies, and it can be used in the selection process at the zygote stage for embryo transfer or cryopreservation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the relationship between different controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols and the zygote score (Z-score) and to assess the feasibility of the Z-score for predicting embryo survival in the GnRH-antagonist (GnRH-ant) protocol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144621/glp-1r-signaling-directly-activates-arcuate-nucleus-kisspeptin-action-in-brain-slices-but-does-not-rescue-luteinizing-hormone-inhibition-in-ovariectomized-mice-during-negative-energy-balance
#20
Kristy M Heppner, Arian F Baquero, Camdin M Bennett, Sarah R Lindsley, Melissa A Kirigiti, Baylin Bennett, Martha A Bosch, Aaron J Mercer, Oline K Rønnekleiv, Cadence True, Kevin L Grove, M Susan Smith
Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) are key components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, as they regulate the basal pulsatile release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). ARC Kiss1 action is dependent on energy status, and unmasking metabolic factors responsible for modulating ARC Kiss1 neurons is of great importance. One possible factor is glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an anorexigenic neuropeptide produced by brainstem preproglucagon neurons. Because GLP fiber projections and the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) are abundant in the ARC, we hypothesized that GLP-1R signaling could modulate ARC Kiss1 action...
January 2017: ENeuro
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