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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198418/circulating-classical-monocytes-are-associated-with-cd11c-macrophages-in-human-visceral-adipose-tissue
#1
Kristiaan Wouters, Katrien Gaens, Mitchell Bijnen, Kenneth Verboven, Johan Jocken, Suzan Wetzels, Erwin Wijnands, Dominique Hansen, Marleen van Greevenbroek, Adriaan Duijvestijn, Erik A L Biessen, Ellen E Blaak, Coen D A Stehouwer, Casper G Schalkwijk
Immune cell accumulation in adipose tissue (AT) is associated with the development of AT inflammation, resulting in metabolic dysfunction. Circulating immune cell patterns may reflect immune cell accumulation in expanding AT. However, data linking human leukocytes in blood and AT is lacking. We investigated whether blood immune cell populations are associated with their counterparts in subcutaneous (scAT) or visceral AT (vAT). Flow cytometry was performed on blood, scAT and vAT from 16 lean and 29 obese men...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196748/up-regulation-of-cx3cr1-on-tonsillar-cd8-positive-cells-in-patients-with-iga-nephropathy
#2
Ryuki Otaka, Miki Takahara, Seigo Ueda, Toshihiro Nagato, Kan Kishibe, Kenichiro Nomura, Akihiro Katada, Tatsuya Hayashi, Yasuaki Harabuchi
Although tonsillectomy are used as therapeutic options to prevent chronic renal failure in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients, the relationship between IgAN and tonsils is not fully proved by basic research. Recently, circulating CX3CR1-positive cells were reportedly involved in promoting hematuria in patients with IgAN. In this study, we focused on the expression of CX3CR1 in tonsillar mononuclear cells in IgAN patients. Immunohistological analysis revealed greater distribution of CX3CR1-positive cells in the inter-follicular area of tonsils in IgAN patients than in non-IgAN patients...
February 11, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170538/microglia-activation-and-recruitment-of-circulating-macrophages-during-ischemic-experimental-branch-retinal-vein-occlusion
#3
Andreas Ebneter, Despina Kokona, Nadia Schneider, Martin S Zinkernagel
Purpose: To characterize retinal microglia activation and macrophage recruitment in experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods: Experimental BRVO was induced in Balb/c mice and histologic changes were studied. Tissue hypoxia was visualized using pimonidazole hydrochloride. Monocyte-derived retinal cells were quantified using histology and flow cytometry. To investigate the dynamics of invading blood-borne macrophages, chimera mice were generated using bone marrow grafts from Cx3cr1(gfp/gfp) mice to rescue lethally irradiated wild-type BALB/c mice...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155899/fingolimod-alters-the-transcriptome-profile-of-circulating-cd4-cells-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Jörg Friess, Michael Hecker, Luisa Roch, Dirk Koczan, Brit Fitzner, Ines Charlotte Angerer, Ina Schröder, Kristin Flechtner, Hans-Jürgen Thiesen, Alexander Winkelmann, Uwe Klaus Zettl
Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system. T cells are known to contribute to this immune-mediated condition. Fingolimod modulates sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors, thereby preventing the egress of lymphocytes, especially CCR7-expressing CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, from lymphoid tissues. Using Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Arrays (HTA 2.0), we performed a transcriptome profiling analysis of CD4+ cells obtained from the peripheral blood of patients with highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153531/a-selective-cb2r-agonist-jwh133-restores-neuronal-circuit-after-germinal-matrix-hemorrhage-in-the-preterm-via-cx3cr1-microglia
#5
Jun Tang, Hongping Miao, Bing Jiang, Qianwei Chen, Liang Tan, Yihao Tao, Jianbo Zhang, Fabao Gao, Hua Feng, Gang Zhu, Zhi Chen
Microglia play dual roles after germinal matrix hemorrhage, and the neurotrophic phenotype maybe neuroprotective. However, the phenotype transformation and the way by which neuron-microglia dialogue remain unclear. We raise the hypothesis that a cannabinoid receptor2 agonist (JWH133) accelerates the CX3CR1(+) microglia secreting neurotrophic factors and restores damaged neuronal circuit. Here, we report a novel function of JWH133 in transforming the microglia CX3CR1 positive that secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which triggers neuron proliferation and neuronal restoration...
January 30, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150777/pathologically-expanded-peripheral-t-helper-cell-subset-drives-b-cells-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#6
Deepak A Rao, Michael F Gurish, Jennifer L Marshall, Kamil Slowikowski, Chamith Y Fonseka, Yanyan Liu, Laura T Donlin, Lauren A Henderson, Kevin Wei, Fumitaka Mizoguchi, Nikola C Teslovich, Michael E Weinblatt, Elena M Massarotti, Jonathan S Coblyn, Simon M Helfgott, Yvonne C Lee, Derrick J Todd, Vivian P Bykerk, Susan M Goodman, Alessandra B Pernis, Lionel B Ivashkiv, Elizabeth W Karlson, Peter A Nigrovic, Andrew Filer, Christopher D Buckley, James A Lederer, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Michael B Brenner
CD4(+) T cells are central mediators of autoimmune pathology; however, defining their key effector functions in specific autoimmune diseases remains challenging. Pathogenic CD4(+) T cells within affected tissues may be identified by expression of markers of recent activation. Here we use mass cytometry to analyse activated T cells in joint tissue from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic immune-mediated arthritis that affects up to 1% of the population. This approach revealed a markedly expanded population of PD-1(hi)CXCR5(-)CD4(+) T cells in synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis...
1, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149656/immune-and-inflammatory-gene-expressions-are-different-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-compared-to-those-in-familial-mediterranean-fever
#7
Filiz Türe Özdemir, Emel Ekşioğlu Demiralp, Sibel Z Aydın, Pamir Atagündüz, Tülin Ergun, Haner Direskeneli
OBJECTIVE: The immune classification of Behçet's disease (BD) is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to compare the immune/inflammatory gene expressions in BD with those in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), an autoinflammatory disorder with innate immune activation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CD4+ T cells and CD14+ monocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Behçet's disease patients (n=10), FMF (n=6) patients, and healthy controls (n=4) with microbeads, and then, the mRNA was isolated...
December 2016: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148720/distinct-functions-of-cxcr4-ccr2-and-cx3cr1-direct-dendritic-cell-precursors-from-the-bone-marrow-to-the-lung
#8
Hideki Nakano, Miranda R Lyons-Cohen, Gregory S Whitehead, Keiko Nakano, Donald N Cook
Precursors of dendritic cells (pre-DCs) arise in the bone marrow (BM), egress to the blood, and finally migrate to peripheral tissue, where they differentiate to conventional dendritic cells (cDCs). Upon their activation, antigen-bearing cDCs migrate from peripheral tissue to regional lymph nodes (LNs) in a manner dependent on the chemokine receptor, CCR7. To maintain immune homeostasis, these departing cDCs must be replenished by new cDCs that develop from pre-DCs, but the molecular signals that direct pre-DC trafficking from the BM to the blood and peripheral tissues remain poorly understood...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128806/association-of-v249i-and-t280m-variants-of-fractalkine-receptor-cx3cr1-with-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-a-mexican-population-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
Rita A Gómez-Díaz, Jorge Gutiérrez, Alicia Contreras-Rodriguez, Adán Valladares-Salgado, Janet Tanus-Hajj, Rafael Mondragón-González, Juan O Talavera, María Aurora Mejía-Benitez, Jaime García-Mena, Miguel Cruz, Niels H Wacher
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of the V249I and T280M variants of CX3CR1 fractalkine gene with carotid intima-media thickness in Mexican subjects with and without type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We analyzed the V249I and T280M variants of the CX3CR1 receptor by TaqMan assays in 111 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 109 healthy controls. Hemoglobin A1c, glucose, and lipid profile were determined. RESULTS: A significant increase in carotid intima-media thickness was observed in type 2 diabetes patients (0...
January 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125278/roles-for-the-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-and-ccl2-ccr2-chemokine-systems-in-hypoxic-pulmonary-hypertension
#10
Valérie Amsellem, Shariq Abid, Lucie Poupel, Aurélien Parpaleix, Mathieu Rodero, Guillaume Gary-Bobo, Mehdi Latiri, Jean-Luc Dubois-Rande, Larissa Lipskaia, Christophe Combadiere, Serge Adnot
Monocytes/macrophages are major effectors of lung inflammation associated with various forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Interactions between the CCL2/CCR2 and CX3CL1/CX3CR1 chemokine systems that guide phagocyte infiltration are incompletely understood. Our objective was to explore the individual and combined actions of CCL2/CCR2 and CX3CL1/CX3CR1 in hypoxia-induced PH in mice, particularly their roles in monocyte trafficking, macrophage polarization, and pulmonary vascular remodeling. The development of hypoxia-induced PH was associated with marked increases in lung levels of CX3CR1, CCR2, and their respective ligands CX3CL1 and CCL2...
January 26, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122354/cx3cl1-a-potential-chemokine-widely-involved-in-the-process-spinal-metastases
#11
WangMi Liu, Chong Bian, Yun Liang, Libo Jiang, Chen Qian, Jian Dong
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate the general mechanism of spinal metastases from five different primary cancers: lung cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancer. RESULTS: From microarray analysis and validation by real-time polymerase chain reaction, CX3C chemokine ligand 1 (CX3CL1) appeared to be a potential chemokine widely involved in the process of spinal metastases. Further studies revealed that, compared with normal controls, serum samples from patients with spinal metastases from the lung (P < 0...
January 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109197/everolimus-is-better-than-rapamycin-in-attenuating-neuroinflammation-in-kainic-acid-induced-seizures
#12
Ming-Tao Yang, Yi-Chin Lin, Whae-Hong Ho, Chao-Lin Liu, Wang-Tso Lee
BACKGROUND: Microglia is responsible for neuroinflammation, which may aggravate brain injury in diseases like epilepsy. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is related to microglial activation with subsequent neuroinflammation. In the present study, rapamycin and everolimus, both as mTOR inhibitors, were investigated in models of kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. METHODS: In vitro, we treated BV2 cells with KA and LPS...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101527/regulation-of-physical-microglia-neuron-interactions-by-fractalkine-signaling-after-status-epilepticus
#13
Ukpong B Eyo, Jiyun Peng, Madhuvika Murugan, Mingshu Mo, Almin Lalani, Ping Xie, Pingyi Xu, David J Margolis, Long-Jun Wu
Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, perform elaborate surveillance in which they physically interact with neuronal elements. A novel form of microglia-neuron interaction named microglial process convergence (MPC) toward neuronal axons and dendrites has recently been described. However, the molecular regulators and pathological relevance of MPC have not been explored. Here, using high-resolution two-photon imaging in vivo and ex vivo, we observed a dramatic increase in MPCs after kainic acid- or pilocarpine-induced experimental seizures that was reconstituted after glutamate treatment in slices from mice...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092668/upregulation-of-ret-induces-perineurial-invasion-of-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#14
M Amit, S Na'ara, L Leider-Trejo, Y Binenbaum, N Kulish, E Fridman, A Shabtai-Orbach, R J Wong, Z Gil
Tumor spread along nerves, a phenomenon known as perineurial invasion, is common in various cancers including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Neural invasion is associated with poor outcome, yet its mechanism remains unclear. Using the transgenic Pdx-1-Cre/KrasG12D /p53R172H (KPC) mouse model, we investigated the mechanism of neural invasion in PDAC. To detect tissue-specific factors that influence neural invasion by cancer cells, we characterized the perineurial microenvironment using a series of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) experiments in transgenic mice expressing single mutations in the Cx3cr1, GDNF and CCR2 genes...
January 16, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088249/interactions-of-human-microglia-cells-with-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#15
Nils Lannes, Viviane Neuhaus, Brigitte Scolari, Solange Kharoubi-Hess, Michael Walch, Artur Summerfield, Luis Filgueira
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a neurotropic flavivirus causing mortality and morbidity in humans. Severe Japanese encephalitis cases display strong inflammatory responses in the central nervous system and an accumulation of viral particles in specific brain regions. Microglia cells are the unique brain-resident immune cell population with potent migratory functions and have been proposed to act as a viral reservoir for JEV. Animal models suggest that the targeting of microglia by JEV is partially responsible for inflammatory reactions in the brain...
January 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069536/m2-macrophages-infusion-ameliorates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-by-remodeling-inflammatory-macrophages-homeostasis-in-obese-mice
#16
Qi Zhang, Haojie Hao, Zongyan Xie, Yu Cheng, Yaqi Yin, Min Xie, Hong Huang, Jieqing Gao, Hongyu Liu, Chuan Tong, Li Zang, Yiming Mu, Weidong Han
OBJECTIVE: The role of M2 macrophages infusion in dealing with obesity is still little known. In this study, the therapeutic effects of M2 macrophages infusion were investigated. METHODS: High fat diet (HFD) was used to induce obesity in C57BL/6N mice. 5 × 10(5) M2 macrophages, derived from the bone marrow, were injected into obese mice through the tail vein twice with an interval of one week. RESULTS: One week after the second injection, weight of inguinal adipose pad was significantly decreased...
January 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066794/altered-monocyte-and-endothelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-expression-is-linked-to-vascular-inflammation-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#17
Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Janelle Gabriel, Taylor Amburgy, Elizabeth Mayne, David A Zidar, Courtney Maierhofer, Abigail Norris Turner, Jose A Bazan, Susan L Koletar, Michael M Lederman, Scott F Sieg, Nicholas T Funderburg
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have increased risk for vascular thrombosis, potentially driven by interactions between activated leukocytes and the endothelium. METHODS: Monocyte subsets (CD14(+)CD16(-), CD14(+)CD16(+), CD14(Dim)CD16(+)) from HIV negative (HIV(-)) and antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV positive (HIV(+)) participants (N = 19 and 49) were analyzed by flow cytometry for adhesion molecule expression (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1], macrophage-1 antigen [Mac-1], CD11c/CD18, very late antigen [VLA]-4) and the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1); these receptors recognize ligands (intercellular adhesion molecules [ICAMs], vascular cell adhesion molecule [VCAM]-1, fractalkine) on activated endothelial cells (ECs) and promote vascular migration...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061814/cx3c-chemokine-receptor-1-deficiency-modulates-microglia-morphology-but-does-not-affect-lesion-size-and-short-term-deficits-after-experimental-stroke
#18
Gerlinde van der Maten, Vivien Henck, Tadeusz Wieloch, Karsten Ruscher
BACKGROUND: The fractalkine/CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) pathway has been identified to play an essential role in the chemotaxis of microglia, leukocyte trafficking and microglia/macrophage recruitment. It has also been shown to be important in the regulation of the inflammatory response in the early phase after experimental stroke. The present study was performed to investigate if CX3CR1 deficiency affects microglia during the first 14 days with consequences for tissue damage after experimental stroke...
January 6, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044051/maturation-phenotype-of-peripheral-blood-monocyte-macrophage-after-stimulation-with-lipopolysaccharides-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#19
Oscar A Rodríguez-Fandiño, Joselín Hernández-Ruiz, Yolanda López-Vidal, Luis Charúa-Guindic, Galileo Escobedo, Max J Schmulson
Background/Aims: Abnormal immune regulation and increased intestinal permeability augmenting the passage of bacterial molecules that can activate immune cells, such as monocytes/macrophages, have been reported in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To compare the maturation phenotype of monocytes/macrophages (CD14+) from IBS patients and controls in the presence or absence of E. coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS), in vitro. Methods: Mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood of 20 Rome II-IBS patients and 19 controls and cultured with or without LPS for 72 hours...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031342/transcriptional-classification-and-functional-characterization-of-human-airway-macrophage-and-dendritic-cell-subsets
#20
Vineet I Patel, J Leland Booth, Elizabeth S Duggan, Steven Cate, Vicky L White, David Hutchings, Susan Kovats, Dennis M Burian, Mikhail Dozmorov, Jordan P Metcalf
The respiratory system is a complex network of many cell types, including subsets of macrophages and dendritic cells that work together to maintain steady-state respiration. Owing to limitations in acquiring cells from healthy human lung, these subsets remain poorly characterized transcriptionally and phenotypically. We set out to systematically identify these subsets in human airways by developing a schema of isolating large numbers of cells by whole-lung bronchoalveolar lavage. Six subsets of phagocytic APC (HLA-DR(+)) were consistently observed...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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