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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241624/the-macrophage-phenotype-and-inflammasome-component-nlrp3-contributes-to-nephrocalcinosis-related-chronic-kidney-disease-independent-from-il-1-mediated-tissue-injury
#1
Hans-Joachim Anders, Beatriz Suarez-Alvarez, Melissa Grigorescu, Orestes Foresto-Neto, Stefanie Steiger, Jyaysi Desai, Julian A Marschner, Mohsen Honarpisheh, Chongxu Shi, Jutta Jordan, Lisa Müller, Nicolai Burzlaff, Tobias Bäuerle, Shrikant R Mulay
Primary/secondary hyperoxalurias involve nephrocalcinosis-related chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to end-stage kidney disease. Mechanistically, intrarenal calcium oxalate crystal deposition is thought to elicit inflammation, tubular injury and atrophy, involving the NLRP3 inflammasome. Here, we found that mice deficient in NLRP3 and ASC adaptor protein failed to develop nephrocalcinosis, compromising conclusions on nephrocalcinosis-related CKD. In contrast, hyperoxaluric wild-type mice developed profound nephrocalcinosis...
December 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239897/ex-vivo-expression-of-chemokine-receptors-on-cells-surrounding-cutaneous-nerves-in-patients-with-hiv-associated-sensory-neuropathy
#2
Jenjira Mountford, Fitri Octaviana, Riwanti Estiasari, Denise Dewanto Setiawan, Ibnu Ariyanto, Silvia Lee, Jessica Gaff, Constance Chew, Connie Jackaman, Peter Kamerman, Catherine Cherry, Patricia Price
OBJECTIVE: HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) remains common in HIV+ individuals receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART), even though neurotoxic anti-retroviral drugs (e.g. stavudine) have been phased out of use. Accumulating evidence indicates that the neuropathy is immune-mediated. We hypothesise that chemokines produced locally in the skin promote migration of macrophages and T-cells into the tissue, damaging cutaneous nerves causing HIV-SN. DESIGN: We assessed chemokine receptor expression on infiltrating CD14 and CD3 cells around cutaneous nerves in standardised skin biopsies from HIV-SN+ patients (n = 5), HIV-SN- patients (n = 9) and healthy controls (n = 4)...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234059/p16ink4a-and-p21cip1-waf1-promote-tumour-growth-by-enhancing-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-chemotaxis
#3
Atsushi Okuma, Aki Hanyu, Sugiko Watanabe, Eiji Hara
p16Ink4a and p21Cip1/Waf1 act as tumour suppressors through induction of cellular senescence. However, senescence-independent roles of these CDK inhibitors are not well understood. Here, we report an unexpected function of p16Ink4 and p21Cip1/Waf1, namely, tumour promotion through chemotaxis. In monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Mo-MDSCs), p16Ink4 and p21Cip1/Waf1 are highly expressed and stimulate CX3CR1 chemokine receptor expression by preventing CDK-mediated phosphorylation and inactivation of SMAD3...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229785/the-chemokine-receptor-cx3cr1-coordinates-monocyte-recruitment-and-endothelial-regeneration-after-arterial-injury
#4
Tobias Getzin, Kashyap Krishnasamy, Jaba Gamrekelashvili, Tamar Kapanadze, Anne Limbourg, Christine Häger, L Christian Napp, Johann Bauersachs, Hermann Haller, Florian P Limbourg
Regeneration of arterial endothelium after injury is critical for the maintenance of normal blood flow, cell trafficking, and vascular function. Using mouse models of carotid injury, we show that the transition from a static to a dynamic phase of endothelial regeneration is marked by a strong increase in endothelial proliferation, which is accompanied by induction of the chemokine CX3CL1 in endothelial cells near the wound edge, leading to progressive recruitment of Ly6Clo monocytes expressing high levels of the cognate CX3CR1 chemokine receptor...
December 11, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225599/promoter-specificity-and-efficacy-in-conditional-and-inducible-transgenic-targeting-of-lung-macrophages
#5
Alexandra L McCubbrey, Kristen C Allison, Alisa B Lee-Sherick, Claudia V Jakubzick, William J Janssen
Conditional and inducible Cre-loxP systems are used to target gene deletion to specific cell lineages and tissues through promoter-restricted expression of the bacterial DNA recombinase, Cre. Although Cre-loxP systems are widely used to target gene deletion in lung macrophages, limited data are published on the specificity and efficiency of "macrophage targeting" Cre lines. Using R26-stopfl/fl-TdTomato and tetOn-GFP reporter lines, we assessed the specificity and efficiency of four commercially available Cre driver lines that are often considered "macrophage specific...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217759/opposing-roles-of-dendritic-cell-subsets-in-experimental-gn
#6
Sebastian Brähler, Bernd H Zinselmeyer, Saravanan Raju, Maximilian Nitschke, Hani Suleiman, Brian T Saunders, Michael W Johnson, Alexander M C Böhner, Susanne F Viehmann, Derek J Theisen, Nicole M Kretzer, Carlos G Briseño, Konstantin Zaitsev, Olga Ornatsky, Qing Chang, Javier A Carrero, Jeffrey B Kopp, Maxim N Artyomov, Christian Kurts, Kenneth M Murphy, Jeffrey H Miner, Andrey S Shaw
Dendritic cells (DCs) are thought to form a dendritic network across barrier surfaces and throughout organs, including the kidney, to perform an important sentinel function. However, previous studies of DC function used markers, such as CD11c or CX3CR1, that are not unique to DCs. Here, we evaluated the role of DCs in renal inflammation using a CD11c reporter mouse line and two mouse lines with DC-specific reporters, Zbtb46-GFP and Snx22-GFP. Multiphoton microscopy of kidney sections confirmed that most of the dendritically shaped CD11c+ cells forming a network throughout the renal interstitium expressed macrophage-specific markers...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217163/cx3cr1-regulates-osteoarthrosis-chondrocyte-proliferation-and-apoptosis-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#7
You Sun, Feifei Wang, Xuehui Sun, Xiaoxue Wang, Lei Zhang, Yang Li
OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed to investigate the impact of CX3CR1 expression on the proliferation and apoptosis of osteoarthrosis (OA) chondrocytes through Wnt/ β-catenin pathway. METHODS: The expression levels of CX3CR1 and Wnt/β-catenin pathway-related genes mRNA and protein in OA chondrocytes were examined by qRT-PCR and western blot. MTT and flow cytometry (FCM) assays were employed to assess cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis. XAV-939, a Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor, was used to inhibit the pathway...
December 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203799/essential-involvement-of-the-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-axis-in-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-regulation-of-fibrocyte-and-m2-macrophage-migration
#8
Yuko Ishida, Akihiko Kimura, Mizuho Nosaka, Yumi Kuninaka, Hiroaki Hemmi, Izumi Sasaki, Tsuneyasu Kaisho, Naofumi Mukaida, Toshikazu Kondo
The potential role of macrophages in pulmonary fibrosis (PF) prompted us to evaluate the roles of CX3CR1, a chemokine receptor abundantly expressed in macrophages during bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF. Intratracheal BLM injection induced infiltration of leukocytes such as macrophages into the lungs, which eventually resulted in fibrosis. CX3CR1 expression was mainly detected in the majority of macrophages and in a small portion of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in the lungs, while CX3CL1 was expressed in macrophages...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203542/pro-inflammatory-role-of-monocyte-derived-cx3cr1int-macrophages-in-helicobacter-hepaticus-induced-colitis
#9
Calum C Bain, Christopher J Oliphant, Carolyn A Thomson, Marika C Kullberg, Allan McI Mowat
Cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage play important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases, but they are also present in the normal healthy intestine, where they are critical for maintaining homeostasis. It has been unclear whether the pro-inflammatory roles of intestinal macrophages reflect altered behaviour of the existing resident cells, or if they involve recruitment of a distinct cell type. Here we have explored these ideas using the model of colitis induced by Helicobacter hepaticus (Hh) in the context of neutralisation or deletion of interleukin 10 (IL-10)...
December 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194444/behavioral-stress-alters-corticolimbic-microglia-in-a-sex-and-brain-region-specific-manner
#10
Justin L Bollinger, Kaitlyn E Collins, Rushi Patel, Cara L Wellman
Women are more susceptible to numerous stress-linked psychological disorders (e.g., depression) characterized by dysfunction of corticolimbic brain regions critical for emotion regulation and cognitive function. Although sparsely investigated, a number of studies indicate sex differences in stress effects on neuronal structure, function, and behaviors associated with these regions. We recently demonstrated a basal sex difference in- and differential effects of stress on- microglial activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190915/the-prognostic-significance-of-cd11b-cx3cr1-monocytes-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#11
Ho-Young Yhim, Jeong-A Kim, Sun-Hye Ko, Youngrok Park, Eunjung Yim, Hee Sun Kim, Jae-Yong Kwak
Despite their critical roles in angiogenesis and host immunosuppression within the tumor microenvironment, the prognostic significance of myeloid-lineage cells expressing CD11b and CX3CR1 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has not been well studied. We prospectively enrolled newly-diagnosed DLBCL patients at two Korean institutions between May 2011 and Aug 2015. CD11b+CX3CR1+ cells were analyzed by flow cytometry using peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) aspirate samples before treatments. Eighty-nine patients (52 males) were enrolled...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178104/-susceptibility-genes-and-serum-markers-of-intestinal-fibrosis-in-crohn-disease
#12
Guanwei Li, Jian'an Ren, Jieshou Li
Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease which progressively affects the digestive tract with unknown etiology. During the disease course, intestinal fibrosis will gradually develop in many CD patients and results in irreversible fibrosis stricture, causing refractory abdominal pain and even intestinal obstruction, and necessitating one or more surgical interventions. Thus far the exact etiology of CD remains unknown. It is believed that genetic, environmental and immunologic factors are involved, which may also predict the development of intestinal fibrosis...
November 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163165/the-modulatory-properties-of-chronic-antidepressant-drugs-treatment-on-the-brain-chemokine-chemokine-receptor-network-a-molecular-study-in-an-animal-model-of-depression
#13
Ewa Trojan, Joanna Ślusarczyk, Katarzyna Chamera, Katarzyna Kotarska, Katarzyna Głombik, Marta Kubera, Agnieszka Basta-Kaim
An increasing number of studies indicate that the chemokine system may be the third major communication system of the brain. Therefore, the role of the chemokine system in the development of brain disorders, including depression, has been recently proposed. However, little is known about the impact of the administration of various antidepressant drugs on the brain chemokine - chemokine receptor axis. In the present study, we used an animal model of depression based on the prenatal stress procedure. We determined whether chronic treatment with tianeptine, venlafaxine, or fluoxetine influenced the evoked by prenatal stress procedure changes in the mRNA and protein levels of the homeostatic chemokines, CXCL12 (SDF-1α), CX3CL1 (fractalkine) and their receptors, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155795/in-vivo-imaging-of-cx3cr1gfp-gfp-reporter-mice-with-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-and-scanning-laser-ophthalmoscopy
#14
Despina Kokona, Joël Jovanovic, Andreas Ebneter, Martin S Zinkernagel
Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) are extensively used in experimental ophthalmology. In the present protocol, mice expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp) under the promoter of Cx3cr1 (BALB/c-Cx3cr1(gfp/gfp)) were used to image microglia cells in vivo in the retina. Microglia are resident macrophages of the retina and have been implicated in several retinal diseases(1)(,)(2)(,)(3)(,)(4)(,)(5)(,)(6). This protocol provides a detailed approach for generation of retinal B-scans, with SD-OCT, and imaging of microglia cell distribution in Cx3cr1(gfp/gfp) mice with SLO in vivo, using an ophthalmic imaging platform system...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155051/peripheral-monocyte-entry-is-required-for-alpha-synuclein-induced-inflammation-and-neurodegeneration-in-a-model-of-parkinson-disease
#15
Ashley S Harms, Aaron D Thome, Zhaoqi Yan, Aubrey M Schonhoff, Gregory P Williams, Xinru Li, Yudong Liu, Hongwei Qin, Etty N Benveniste, David G Standaert
Accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in the central nervous system (CNS) is a core feature of Parkinson disease (PD) that leads to activation of the innate immune system, production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and subsequent neurodegeneration. Here, we used heterozygous reporter knock-in mice in which the first exons of the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) and of the C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) are replaced with fluorescent reporters to study the role of resident microglia (CX3CR1+) and infiltrating peripheral monocytes (CCR2+), respectively, in the CNS...
November 16, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150240/dichotomous-expression-of-tnf-superfamily-ligands-on-antigen-presenting-cells-controls-post-priming-anti-viral-cd4-t-cell-immunity
#16
Yu-Han Chang, Kuan Chung Wang, Kuan-Lun Chu, Derek L Clouthier, Anh T Tran, Miguel S Torres Perez, Angela C Zhou, Ali A Abdul-Sater, Tania H Watts
T cell antigen-presenting cell (APC) interactions early during chronic viral infection are crucial for determining viral set point and disease outcome, but how and when different APC subtypes contribute to these outcomes is unclear. The TNF receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) member GITR is important for CD4+ T cell accumulation and control of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We found that type I interferon (IFN-I) induced TNFSF ligands GITRL, 4-1BBL, OX40L, and CD70 predominantly on monocyte-derived APCs and CD80 and CD86 predominantly on classical dendritic cells (cDCs)...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128575/strain-specificities-in-age-related-changes-in-mechanisms-promoting-and-controlling-rat-spinal-cord-damage-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#17
Zorica Stojić-Vukanić, Ivan Pilipović, Jasmina Djikić, Ivana Vujnović, Mirjana Nacka-Aleksić, Biljana Bufan, Nevena Arsenović-Ranin, Duško Kosec, Gordana Leposavić
The study investigated strain specificities in age-related differences in CD8+ T cell- and microglial cell-mediated mechanisms implicated in induction/perpetuation and/or control of neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA) rats exhibiting age-related changes in the susceptibility to EAE in the opposite direction (increase in relatively resistant AO rats vs decrease in DA rats). In the inductive phase of EAE, the greater number of fully differentiated effector CD8+ T lymphocytes was found in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) from aged rats of both strains than in strain-matched young rats, but this was particularly prominent in AO rats, which exhibited milder EAE of prolonged duration compared with their DA counterparts...
November 8, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126427/a-murine-model-for-developmental-dysplasia-of-the-hip-ablation-of-cx3cr1-affects-acetabular-morphology-and-gait
#18
George Feldman, Arlene Offemaria, Hind Sawan, Javad Parvizi, Theresa A Freeman
BACKGROUND: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a debilitating condition whose distinguishing signs include incomplete formation of the acetabulum leading to dislocation of the femur, accelerated wear of the articular cartilage and joint laxity resulting in osteoarthritis. It is a complex disorder having environmental and genetic causes. Existing techniques fail to detect milder forms of DDH in newborns leading to hip osteoarthritis in young adults. A sensitive, specific and cost effective test would allow identification of newborns that could be non-invasively corrected by the use of a Pavlik harness...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082919/decreased-post-synaptic-density-95-protein-expression-on-dendrites-of-newborn-neurons-following-cx3cr1-modulation-in-the-epileptogenic-adult-rodent-brain
#19
Idrish Ali, Una Avdic, Deepti Chugh, Christine T Ekdahl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077981/tissue-specific-differences-in-immune-cell-subsets-located-in-the-naso-oropharyngeal-associated-lymphoid-tissues
#20
Maria Bankvall, Mats Jontell, Agnes Wold, Sofia Östman
Defining the immune cells within the naso-oropharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissues would promote the development of efficient oral and nasal delivered immunotherapies. The aim was to compare murine antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T-cell subsets in the nose-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT), cervical lymph nodes (CLN), mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and peripheral lymph nodes (PLN) using flow cytometry and in vitro proliferation assays. Overall, the NALT contained a higher proportion of APCs and a lower proportion of T cells compared to the CLN, MLN, and PLN...
October 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
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