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Giovanni Bernardini, Fabrizio Antonangeli, Valentina Bonanni, Angela Santoni
Chemokines are small chemotactic molecules that play key roles in physiological and pathological conditions. Upon signaling via their specific receptors, chemokines regulate tissue mobilization and trafficking of a wide array of immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells. Current research is focused on analyzing changes in chemokine/chemokine receptor expression during various diseases to interfere with pathological trafficking of cells or to recruit selected cell types to specific tissues. NK cells are a heterogeneous lymphocyte population comprising several subsets endowed with distinct functional properties and mainly representing distinct stages of a linear development process...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Olugbenga Awolaran, Susan A Brooks, Verna Lavender
Metastasis accounts for most of the deaths from breast cancer and the preference of invasive breast cancer metastasising to bone has been widely reported. However, the biological basis of breast cancer osteotropism is not fully understood. This paper provides, for the first time, an integrative, systematic review of evidence of molecular factors that have functional roles in the homing of metastatic breast cancer to the bone. Pubmed, Web of Science and EBSCOhost were searched using keywords and synonyms for molecular, metastasis, breast cancer and bone to identify articles published between January 2004 and August 2016...
October 14, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Jijun Xu, Yuying Tang, Mian Xie, Bihua Bie, Jiang Wu, Hui Yang, Joseph F Foss, Bin Yang, Richard W Rosenquist, Mohamed Naguib
Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-I) remains one of the most clinically challenging neuropathic pain syndromes and its mechanism has not been fully characterized. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has emerged as a promising target for treating different neuropathic pain syndromes. In neuropathic pain models, activated microglia expressing CB2 receptors are seen in the spinal cord. Chemokine fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) plays a substantial role in microglial activation and neuroinflammation. We hypothesized that a CB2 agonist could modulate neuroinflammation and neuropathic pain in an ischemia model of CRPS by regulating CB2 and CX3CR1 signaling...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
G Marelli, C Belgiovine, A Mantovani, M Erreni, P Allavena
Mucosal immunity at the intestinal level is constantly challenged by the presence of external food and microbial antigens and must be kept under strict control to avoid the rise of aberrant inflammation. Among cells of the innate immunity, macrophages expressing the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 are strategically located near the gut epithelial barrier. These cells contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis by producing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10; however, their role in the control of full blown inflammation and tissue injury is controversial...
August 2, 2016: Immunobiology
Joseph C Mudd, Soumya Panigrahi, Benjamin Kyi, So Hee Moon, Maura M Manion, Souheil-Antoine Younes, Scott F Sieg, Nicholas T Funderburg, David A Zidar, Michael M Lederman, Michael L Freeman
Increases in inflammation, coagulation, and CD8 T cell numbers are associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV infection. Circulating memory CD8 T cells that express the vascular endothelium-homing receptor CX3CR1 (fractalkine receptor) are enriched in ART-treated HIV-infected subjects. Thrombin-activated receptor (PAR-1) expression is increased in ART-treated HIV-infected subjects and is particularly elevated on CX3CR1+ CD8 T cells, suggesting that these cells could interact with coagulation elements...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lourdes Fernández de Cossío, Andrea Guzmán, Suzanne van der Veldt, Giamal N Luheshi
Environmental challenges to the maternal immune system during pregnancy have been associated with an increase in the frequency of neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) appearing in the offspring. Microglia, the brain's resident immune-cells, are now known to be critically involved in normal brain development, shaping connections between neurons by pruning superfluous synaptic spines. Our aim was to investigate whether maternal infection during critical stages of gestation compromises the role of microglia in sculpting neuronal circuits...
September 30, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Yianzhu Liu, Wenhao Chen, Chenglin Wu, Laurie J Minze, Jacek Z Kubiak, Xian C Li, Malgorzata Kloc, Rafik M Ghobrial
BACKGROUND: The cellular and molecular mechanisms of chronic rejection of transplanted organs remain obscure; however, macrophages are known to play a critical role in the injury and repair of allografts. Among multiple factors influencing macrophage infiltration to allografts, the fractalkine chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1(CX3CL1)/chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3CR1) signaling pathway and actin cytoskeleton, which is regulated by a small guanosine-5׳-triphosphatase Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA), are of the utmost importance...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Yoojin Seo, Hyung-Sik Kim, Insung Kang, Soon Won Choi, Tae-Hoon Shin, Ji-Hee Shin, Byung-Chul Lee, Jin Young Lee, Jae-Jun Kim, Myung Geun Kook, Kyung-Sun Kang
Microglia can aggravate olfactory dysfunction by mediating neuronal death in the olfactory bulb (OB) of a murine model of Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by lipid trafficking defects. In this study, we focused on the crosstalk between neurons and microglia to elucidate the mechanisms underlying extensive microgliosis in the NPC1-affected brain. Microglia in the OB of NPC1 mice strongly expressed CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (Cx3cr1), a specific receptor for the neural chemokine C-X3-C motif ligand 1 (Cx3cl1)...
September 30, 2016: Glia
Andrew Baird, Chenliang Deng, Matthew H Eliceiri, Fatima Haghi, Xitong Dang, Raul Coimbra, Todd W Costantini, Bruce E Torbett, Brian P Eliceiri
Mice engrafted with human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (CD34(+) -HSPCs) have been used to study human infection, diabetes, sepsis, and burn, suggesting that they could be highly amenable to characterizing the human inflammatory response to injury. To this end, human leukocytes infiltrating subcutaneous implants of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges were analyzed in immunodeficient NSG mice reconstituted with CD34(+) -HSPCs. It was reported that human CD45(+) (hCD45(+) ) leukocytes were present in PVA sponges 3 and 7 days postimplantation and could be localized within the sponges by immunohistochemistry...
September 24, 2016: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Sung Hoon Baik, Seokjo Kang, Sung Min Son, Inhee Mook-Jung
Pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include extracellularly accumulated amyloid β (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Activated microglia, brain-resident macrophages, are also found surrounding Aβ plaques. The study of the brain of AD mouse models revealed that Aβ plaque formation is completed by the consolidation of newly generated plaque clusters in vicinity of existed plaques. However, the dynamics of Aβ plaque formation, growth and the mechanisms by which microglia contribute to Aβ plaque formation are unknown...
December 2016: Glia
P B Tran, R E Miller, S Ishihara, R J Miller, A M Malfait
OBJECTIVE: Microgliosis, the activation of microglial cells, is thought to contribute to synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn and thereby promote chronic pain. The primary aim of this study was to document the temporal profile of dorsal horn microgliosis after destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) in wild type (WT) and Adamts5 null mice. Since neuronal fractalkine (CX3CL1) contributes to microgliosis, we assessed its release from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures after DMM...
September 16, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Sabine Sellner, Ricardo Paricio-Montesinos, Alena Spieß, Annette Masuch, Daniel Erny, Laura A Harsan, Dominik V Elverfeldt, Marius Schwabenland, Knut Biber, Ori Staszewski, Sergio Lira, Steffen Jung, Marco Prinz, Thomas Blank
Homo and heterozygote cx3cr1 mutant mice, which harbor a green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in their cx3cr1 loci, represent a widely used animal model to study microglia and peripheral myeloid cells. Here we report that microglia in the dentate gyrus (DG) of cx3cr1 (-/-) mice displayed elevated microglial sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression levels and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) p65 activation, despite unaltered morphology when compared to cx3cr1 (+/-) or cx3cr1 (+/+) controls...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Yifang Fan, Xiaoxing Xiong, Yongming Zhang, Dongmei Yan, Zhihong Jian, Baohui Xu, Heng Zhao
BACKGROUND: MKEY, a synthetic cyclic peptide inhibitor of CXCL4-CCL5 heterodimer formation, has been shown to protect against atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm formation by mediating inflammation, but whether it modulates neuroinflammation and brain injury has not been studied. We therefore studied the role of MKEY in stroke-induced brain injury in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: MKEY was injected into mice after stroke with 60 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion...
September 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Abhik Saha, Sejal Chauhan, Tamishraha Bagchi
BACKGROUND: Recombinant proteins and vaccine candidates of Plasmodium vivax have met with limited success. One of the reasons could be their effect on monocytes which are important in malaria pathogenesis. Our aim was therefore to investigate the effect of selected recombinant malarial proteins on monocytes functions. METHODS: Phagocytosis rate and respiratory burst of healthy individuals' monocytes treated with antigens were examined. The homing capacity of monocytes was studied by examining the mRNA level of chemokine receptors from patients and healthy individuals...
August 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Gu Gong, Ling Hu, Fuen Qin, Liang Yin, Xiaobo Yi, Libang Yuan, Wei Wu
BACKGROUND: Tremendous experimental and clinical studies identify that remifentanil anesthesia might elicit postoperative opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) and aggravate nociceptive hypersensitivity, whereas definite mechanisms remain equivocal. WNT signaling and fractalkine pathway have been manifested to participate in varieties of pain pathogenesis, respectively, but no report is on whether they could lead to OIH. This study intended to investigate the effect of WNT3a/β-catenin on fractalkine and its receptor CX3CR1 in OIH in rats model of incision pain...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Annette Pachnio, Miriam Ciaurriz, Jusnara Begum, Neeraj Lal, Jianmin Zuo, Andrew Beggs, Paul Moss
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection elicits a very strong and sustained intravascular T cell immune response which may contribute towards development of accelerated immune senescence and vascular disease in older people. Virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses have been investigated extensively through the use of HLA-peptide tetramers but much less is known regarding CMV-specific CD4+ T cells. We used a range of HLA class II-peptide tetramers to investigate the phenotypic and transcriptional profile of CMV-specific CD4+ T cells within healthy donors...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Michael L Lehmann, Hannah A Cooper, Dragan Maric, Miles Herkenham
BACKGROUND: We are interested in the causal interactions between psychological stress and activity within different compartments of the immune system. Psychosocial stress has been reported to not only alter microglia morphology but also produce anxiety-like and depressive-like effects by triggering CNS infiltration of macrophages from the periphery. We sought to test these phenomena in a somewhat different but standardized model of chronic social defeat (SD) stress. METHODS: We used a paradigm of dyadic home pairing of dominant and subordinate mice that has been validated to induce powerful anxiety-like and depressive-like effects manifested by behavior assessed in social tasks...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Tsuyoshi Matsuura, Shizuko Ichinose, Masako Akiyama, Yuki Kasahara, Noriko Tachikawa, Ken-Ichi Nakahama
The trigger for bone remodeling is bone resorption by osteoclasts. Osteoclast differentiation only occurs on the old bone, which needs to be repaired under physiological conditions. However, uncontrolled bone resorption is often observed in pro-inflammatory bone diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Mature osteoclasts are multinuclear cells that differentiate from monocyte/macrophage lineage cells by cell fusion. Although Osteoclast precursors should migrate across osteoblast layer to reach bone matrix before maturation, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been elucidated in detail...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ilvira M Khan, Yashashwi Pokharel, Razvan T Dadu, Dorothy E Lewis, Ron C Hoogeveen, Huaizhu Wu, Christie M Ballantyne
CONTEXT: Postprandial hyperlipidemia has been suggested to contribute to atherogenesis by inducing proinflammatory changes in monocytes. Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MS), shown to have higher blood triglyceride concentration and delayed triglyceride clearance, may thus have increased risk for development of atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE: To examine fasting levels and effects of a high-fat meal on phenotypes of monocyte subsets in individuals with obesity and MS and in healthy controls...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Bruna Araujo David, Rafael Machado Rezende, Maísa Mota Antunes, Mônica Morais Santos, Maria Alice Freitas Lopes, Ariane Barros Diniz, Rafaela Vaz Sousa Pereira, Sarah Cozzer Marchesi, Débora Moreira Alvarenga, Brenda Naemi Nakagaki, Alan Moreira Araújo, Daniela Silva Dos Reis, Renata Monti Rocha, Pedro Elias Marques, Woo-Yong Lee, Justin Deniset, Pei Xiong Liew, Stephen Rubino, Laura Cox, Vanessa Pinho, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Gabriel Rocha Fernandes, André Gustavo Oliveira, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Paul Kubes, Gustavo Batista Menezes
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Resident macrophages are derived from yolk sac precursors and seed the liver during embryogenesis. Native cells may be replaced by bone marrow precursors during extensive injuries, irradiation and infections. We investigated the liver populations of myeloid immune cells and their location as well as the dynamics of phagocyte repopulation after full depletion. The effects on liver function due to the substitution of original phagocytes by bone marrow-derived surrogates were also examined...
August 25, 2016: Gastroenterology
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