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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794033/ancient-evolution-and-dispersion-of-human-papillomavirus-type-58-variants
#1
Zigui Chen, Wendy C S Ho, Siaw Shi Boon, Priscilla T Y Law, Martin C W Chan, Rob DeSalle, Robert D Burk, Paul K S Chan
Human papillomavirus type 58 is found in 10-18% of cervical cancers in East Asia but rather uncommon elsewhere. The distribution and oncogenic potential of HPV58 variants appear to be heterogeneous since the E7 T20I/G63S variant is more prevalent in East Asia and confers 7-9 fold higher risk for cervical precancer and cancer. However, the underlying genomic mechanisms that explain the geographic and carcinogenic diversity of HPV58 variants are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a combination of phylogenetic analyses and bioinformatics to investigate the deep evolutionary history of HPV58 complete genome variants...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744243/the-odyssey-of-dental-anxiety-from-prehistory-to-the-present-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Enrico Facco, Gastone Zanette
Dental anxiety (DA) can be considered as a universal phenomenon with a high prevalence worldwide; DA and pain are also the main causes for medical emergencies in the dental office, so their prevention is an essential part of patient safety and overall quality of care. Being DA and its consequences closely related to the fight-or-flight reaction, it seems reasonable to argue that the odyssey of DA began way back in the distant past, and has since probably evolved in parallel with the development of fight-or-flight reactions, implicit memory and knowledge, and ultimately consciousness...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740249/neanderthal-derived-genetic-variation-shapes-modern-human-cranium-and-brain
#3
Michael D Gregory, J Shane Kippenhan, Daniel P Eisenberg, Philip D Kohn, Dwight Dickinson, Venkata S Mattay, Qiang Chen, Daniel R Weinberger, Ziad S Saad, Karen F Berman
Before their disappearance from the fossil record approximately 40,000 years ago, Neanderthals, the ancient hominin lineage most closely related to modern humans, interbred with ancestors of present-day humans. The legacy of this gene flow persists through Neanderthal-derived variants that survive in modern human DNA; however, the neural implications of this inheritance are uncertain. Here, using MRI in a large cohort of healthy individuals of European-descent, we show that the amount of Neanderthal-originating polymorphism carried in living humans is related to cranial and brain morphology...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738867/q-a-what-is-human-language-when-did-it-evolve-and-why-should-we-care
#4
Mark Pagel
Human language is unique among all forms of animal communication. It is unlikely that any other species, including our close genetic cousins the Neanderthals, ever had language, and so-called sign 'language' in Great Apes is nothing like human language. Language evolution shares many features with biological evolution, and this has made it useful for tracing recent human history and for studying how culture evolves among groups of people with related languages. A case can be made that language has played a more important role in our species' recent (circa last 200,000 years) evolution than have our genes...
July 24, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733602/distinct-selective-forces-and-neanderthal-introgression-shaped-genetic-diversity-at-genes-involved-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#5
Alessandra Mozzi, Diego Forni, Rachele Cagliani, Uberto Pozzoli, Mario Clerici, Manuela Sironi
In addition to high intelligence, humans evolved specialized social-cognitive skills, which are specifically affected in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Genes affected in ASD represent suitable candidates to study the evolution of human social cognition. We performed an evolutionary analysis on 68 genes associated to neurodevelopmental disorders; our data indicate that genetic diversity was shaped by distinct selective forces, including natural selection and introgression from archaic hominins...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726833/human-occupation-of-northern-australia-by-65-000-years-ago
#6
Chris Clarkson, Zenobia Jacobs, Ben Marwick, Richard Fullagar, Lynley Wallis, Mike Smith, Richard G Roberts, Elspeth Hayes, Kelsey Lowe, Xavier Carah, S Anna Florin, Jessica McNeil, Delyth Cox, Lee J Arnold, Quan Hua, Jillian Huntley, Helen E A Brand, Tiina Manne, Andrew Fairbairn, James Shulmeister, Lindsey Lyle, Makiah Salinas, Mara Page, Kate Connell, Gayoung Park, Kasih Norman, Tessa Murphy, Colin Pardoe
The time of arrival of people in Australia is an unresolved question. It is relevant to debates about when modern humans first dispersed out of Africa and when their descendants incorporated genetic material from Neanderthals, Denisovans and possibly other hominins. Humans have also been implicated in the extinction of Australia's megafauna. Here we report the results of new excavations conducted at Madjedbebe, a rock shelter in northern Australia. Artefacts in primary depositional context are concentrated in three dense bands, with the stratigraphic integrity of the deposit demonstrated by artefact refits and by optical dating and other analyses of the sediments...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689038/a-phylogenetic-view-of-the-out-of-asia-eurasia-and-out-of-africa-hypotheses-in-the-light-of-recent-molecular-and-palaeontological-finds
#7
REVIEW
Úlfur Árnason
The substantiality of the Out of Africa hypothesis was addressed in the light of recent genomic analysis of extant humans (Homo sapiens sapiens, Hss) and progress in Neanderthal palaeontology. The examination lent no support to the commonly assumed Out of Africa scenario but favoured instead a Eurasian divergence between Neanderthals and Hss (the Askur/Embla hypothesis) and an Out of Asia/Eurasia hypothesis according to which all other parts of the world were colonized by Hss migrations from Asia. The examination suggested furthermore that the ancestors of extant KhoeSan and Mbuti composed the first Hss dispersal(s) into Africa and that the ancestors of Yoruba made up a later wave into the same continent...
July 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688460/chronometric-investigations-of-the-middle-to-upper-paleolithic-transition-in-the-zagros-mountains-using-ams-radiocarbon-dating-and-bayesian-age-modelling
#8
Lorena Becerra-Valdivia, Katerina Douka, Daniel Comeskey, Behrouz Bazgir, Nicholas J Conard, Curtis W Marean, Andreu Ollé, Marcel Otte, Laxmi Tumung, Mohsen Zeidi, Thomas F G Higham
The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition is often linked with a bio-cultural shift involving the dispersal of modern humans outside of Africa, the concomitant replacement of Neanderthals across Eurasia, and the emergence of new technological traditions. The Zagros Mountains region assumes importance in discussions concerning this period as its geographic location is central to all pertinent hominin migration areas, pointing to both east and west. As such, establishing a reliable chronology in the Zagros Mountains is crucial to our understanding of these biological and cultural developments...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688457/u-series-dating-and-classification-of-the-apidima-2-hominin-from-mani-peninsula-southern-greece
#9
Antonis Bartsiokas, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Maxime Aubert, Rainer Grün
Laser ablation U-series dating results on a human cranial bone fragment from Apidima, on the western cost of the Mani Peninsula, Southern Greece, indicate a minimum age of 160,000 years. The dated cranial fragment belongs to Apidima 2, which preserves the facial skeleton and a large part of the braincase, lacking the occipital bone. The morphology of the preserved regions of the cranium, and especially that of the facial skeleton, indicates that the fossil belongs to the Neanderthal clade. The dating of the fossil at a minimum age of 160,000 years shows that most of the Neanderthal traits were already present in the MIS 6 and perhaps earlier...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675384/deeply-divergent-archaic-mitochondrial-genome-provides-lower-time-boundary-for-african-gene-flow-into-neanderthals
#10
Cosimo Posth, Christoph Wißing, Keiko Kitagawa, Luca Pagani, Laura van Holstein, Fernando Racimo, Kurt Wehrberger, Nicholas J Conard, Claus Joachim Kind, Hervé Bocherens, Johannes Krause
Ancient DNA is revealing new insights into the genetic relationship between Pleistocene hominins and modern humans. Nuclear DNA indicated Neanderthals as a sister group of Denisovans after diverging from modern humans. However, the closer affinity of the Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to modern humans than Denisovans has recently been suggested as the result of gene flow from an African source into Neanderthals before 100,000 years ago. Here we report the complete mtDNA of an archaic femur from the Hohlenstein-Stadel (HST) cave in southwestern Germany...
July 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602430/comment-on-ecological-niche-of-neanderthals-from-spy-cave-revealed-by-nitrogen-isotopes-of-individual-amino-acids-in-collagen-j-hum-evol-93-2016-82-90
#11
Tamsin C O'Connell, Matthew J Collins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592838/the-first-neanderthal-remains-from-an-open-air-middle-palaeolithic-site-in-the-levant
#12
Ella Been, Erella Hovers, Ravid Ekshtain, Ariel Malinski-Buller, Nuha Agha, Alon Barash, Daniella E Bar-Yosef Mayer, Stefano Benazzi, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Lihi Levin, Noam Greenbaum, Netta Mitki, Gregorio Oxilia, Naomi Porat, Joel Roskin, Michalle Soudack, Reuven Yeshurun, Ruth Shahack-Gross, Nadav Nir, Mareike C Stahlschmidt, Yoel Rak, Omry Barzilai
The late Middle Palaeolithic (MP) settlement patterns in the Levant included the repeated use of caves and open landscape sites. The fossil record shows that two types of hominins occupied the region during this period-Neandertals and Homo sapiens. Until recently, diagnostic fossil remains were found only at cave sites. Because the two populations in this region left similar material cultural remains, it was impossible to attribute any open-air site to either species. In this study, we present newly discovered fossil remains from intact archaeological layers of the open-air site 'Ein Qashish, in northern Israel...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591159/technological-variability-during-the-early-middle-palaeolithic-in-western-europe-reduction-systems-and-predetermined-products-at-the-bau-de-l-aubesier-and-payre-south-east-france
#13
Leonardo Carmignani, Marie-Hélène Moncel, Paul Fernandes, Lucy Wilson
The study of the lithic assemblages of two French sites, the Bau de l'Aubesier and Payre, contributes new knowledge of the earliest Neanderthal techno-cultural variability. In this paper we present the results of a detailed technological analysis of Early Middle Palaeolithic lithic assemblages of MIS 8 and 7 age from the two sites, which are located on opposite sides of the Rhône Valley in the south-east of France. The MIS 9-7 period is considered in Europe to be a time of new behaviours, especially concerning lithic strategies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464262/a-tale-of-agriculturalists-and-hunter-gatherers-exploring-the-thrifty-genotype-hypothesis-in-native-south-americans
#14
Guillermo Reales, Diego L Rovaris, Vanessa C Jacovas, Tábita Hünemeier, José R Sandoval, Alcibiades Salazar-Granara, Darío A Demarchi, Eduardo Tarazona-Santos, Aline B Felkl, Michele A Serafini, Francisco M Salzano, Rafael Bisso-Machado, David Comas, Vanessa R Paixão-Côrtes, Maria Cátira Bortolini
OBJECTIVES: To determine genetic differences between agriculturalist and hunter-gatherer southern Native American populations for selected metabolism-related markers and to test whether Neel's thrifty genotype hypothesis (TGH) could explain the genetic patterns observed in these populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 375 Native South American individuals from 17 populations were genotyped using six markers (APOE rs429358 and rs7412; APOA2 rs5082; CD36 rs3211883; TCF7L2 rs11196205; and IGF2BP2 rs11705701)...
May 2, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447043/comparative-genomics-of-human-stem-cell-factor-scf
#15
Moein Dehbashi, Elahe Kamali, Sadeq Vallian
Stem cell factor (SCF) is a critical protein with key roles in the cell such as hematopoiesis, gametogenesis and melanogenesis. In the present study a comparative analysis on nucleotide sequences of SCF was performed in Humanoids using bioinformatics tools including NCBI-BLAST, MEGA6, and JBrowse. Our analysis of nucleotide sequences to find closely evolved organisms with high similarity by NCBI-BLAST tools and MEGA6 showed that human and Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) were placed into the same cluster. By using JBrowse, we found that SCF in Neanderthal had a single copy number similar to modern human and partly conserved nucleotide sequences...
March 2017: Molecular Biology Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444387/meiotic-genes-are-enriched-in-regions-of-reduced-archaic-ancestry
#16
B Jégou, S Sankararaman, A D Rolland, D Reich, F Chalmel
About 1-6% of the genetic ancestry of modern humans today originates from admixture with archaic humans. It has recently been shown that autosomal genomic regions with a reduced proportion of Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestries are significantly enriched in genes that are more expressed in testis than in other tissues. To determine whether a cellular segregation pattern would exist, we combined maps of archaic introgression with a cross-analysis of three transcriptomic datasets deciphering the transcriptional landscape of human gonadal cell types...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434540/an-updated-age-for-the-xujiayao-hominin-from-the-nihewan-basin-north-china-implications-for-middle-pleistocene-human-evolution-in-east-asia
#17
Hong Ao, Chun-Ru Liu, Andrew P Roberts, Peng Zhang, Xinwen Xu
The Xujiayao site in the Nihewan Basin (North China) is one of the most important Paleolithic sites in East Asia. Twenty Homo fossils, which were previously assigned to an archaic Homo sapiens group, have been excavated along with more than 30,000 lithic artifacts and ∼5000 mammalian fossil specimens. Dating of the Xujiayao hominin has been pursued since its excavation in the 1970s, but its age has remained controversial because of limitations of the dating techniques that have been applied to available materials...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432824/brief-communication-an-analysis-of-dental-development-in-pleistocene-homo-using-skeletal-growth-and-chronological-age
#18
Maja Šešelj
OBJECTIVES: This study takes a new approach to interpreting dental development in Pleistocene Homo in comparison with recent modern humans. As rates of dental development and skeletal growth are correlated given age in modern humans, using age and skeletal growth in tandem yields more accurate dental development estimates. Here, I apply these models to fossil Homo to obtain more individualized predictions and interpretations of their dental development relative to recent modern humans...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398903/biomechanics-of-microliths-manufacture-a-preliminary-approach-to-neanderthal-s-motor-constrains-in-the-frame-of-embodied-cognition
#19
Francia Patiño, Manuel Luque, Marcos Terradillos-Bernal, Manuel Martín-Loeches
The systems of perception and action of the brain appear as important constraining factors in human evolution under current models of embodied cognition. In this view, the emergence of certain items in the archeological record is not necessarily subsequent to the emergence of a 'symbolic' mind, but instead to the appearance of the sensory-motor systems enabling that behavior. One of the products normally absent in pre- Homo sapiens species is the standardized microlith, whose production seems very demanding for the hand due to their small size and need for fine craft...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376731/ad-libs-inferring-ancestry-across-hybrid-genomes-using-low-coverage-sequence-data
#20
Nathan K Schaefer, Beth Shapiro, Richard E Green
BACKGROUND: Inferring the ancestry of each region of admixed individuals' genomes is useful in studies ranging from disease gene mapping to speciation genetics. Current methods require high-coverage genotype data and phased reference panels, and are therefore inappropriate for many data sets. We present a software application, AD-LIBS, that uses a hidden Markov model to infer ancestry across hybrid genomes without requiring variant calling or phasing. This approach is useful for non-model organisms and in cases of low-coverage data, such as ancient DNA...
April 4, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
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