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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853181/selective-sweep-on-human-amylase-genes-postdates-the-split-with-neanderthals
#1
Charlotte E Inchley, Cynthia D A Larbey, Nzar A A Shwan, Luca Pagani, Lauri Saag, Tiago Antão, Guy Jacobs, Georgi Hudjashov, Ene Metspalu, Mario Mitt, Christina A Eichstaedt, Boris Malyarchuk, Miroslava Derenko, Joseph Wee, Syafiq Abdullah, François-Xavier Ricaut, Maru Mormina, Reedik Mägi, Richard Villems, Mait Metspalu, Martin K Jones, John A L Armour, Toomas Kivisild
Humans have more copies of amylase genes than other primates. It is still poorly understood, however, when the copy number expansion occurred and whether its spread was enhanced by selection. Here we assess amylase copy numbers in a global sample of 480 high coverage genomes and find that regions flanking the amylase locus show notable depression of genetic diversity both in African and non-African populations. Analysis of genetic variation in these regions supports the model of an early selective sweep in the human lineage after the split of humans from Neanderthals which led to the fixation of multiple copies of AMY1 in place of a single copy...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843675/evidence-for-the-paleoethnobotany-of-the-neanderthal-a-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Gerhard P Shipley, Kelly Kindscher
Our perception of our closest human relatives, the Neanderthals, has evolved in the last few decades from brutish ape-men to intelligent archaic human peoples. Our understanding and appreciation of their cultural sophistication has only recently extended to their diet. Only within the last few years, with new techniques and a shift in focus, have we begun to truly investigate and understand the role of plants in their diet and culture. The more we learn about Neanderthals, the more we realize that biological and cultural distinctions between them and us were relatively small...
2016: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824859/the-strength-of-selection-against-neanderthal-introgression
#3
Ivan Juric, Simon Aeschbacher, Graham Coop
Hybridization between humans and Neanderthals has resulted in a low level of Neanderthal ancestry scattered across the genomes of many modern-day humans. After hybridization, on average, selection appears to have removed Neanderthal alleles from the human population. Quantifying the strength and causes of this selection against Neanderthal ancestry is key to understanding our relationship to Neanderthals and, more broadly, how populations remain distinct after secondary contact. Here, we develop a novel method for estimating the genome-wide average strength of selection and the density of selected sites using estimates of Neanderthal allele frequency along the genomes of modern-day humans...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808237/timing-and-causes-of-north-african-wet-phases-during-the-last-glacial-period-and-implications-for-modern-human-migration
#4
Dirk L Hoffmann, Mike Rogerson, Christoph Spötl, Marc Luetscher, Derek Vance, Anne H Osborne, Nuri M Fello, Gina E Moseley
We present the first speleothem-derived central North Africa rainfall record for the last glacial period. The record reveals three main wet periods at 65-61 ka, 52.5-50.5 ka and 37.5-33 ka that lead obliquity maxima and precession minima. We find additional minor wet episodes that are synchronous with Greenland interstadials. Our results demonstrate that sub-tropical hydrology is forced by both orbital cyclicity and North Atlantic moisture sources. The record shows that after the end of a Saharan wet phase around 70 ka ago, North Africa continued to intermittently receive substantially more rainfall than today, resulting in favourable environmental conditions for modern human expansion...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805907/human-and-rodent-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ahr-from-mediator-of-dioxin-toxicity-to-physiologic-ahr-functions-and-therapeutic-options
#5
Karl Walter Bock
Metabolism of aryl hydrocarbons and toxicity of dioxins led to the discovery of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Tremendous advances have been made on multiplicity of AHR signaling and identification of endogenous ligands including the tryptophan metabolites FICZ and kynurenine. However, human AHR functions are still poorly understood due to marked species differences as well as cell-type- and cell context-dependent AHR functions. Observations in dioxin-poisoned individuals may provide hints to physiologic AHR functions in humans...
November 1, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783325/the-driving-forces-of-cultural-complexity-neanderthals-modern-humans-and-the-question-of-population-size
#6
Laurel Fogarty, Joe Yuichiro Wakano, Marcus W Feldman, Kenichi Aoki
The forces driving cultural accumulation in human populations, both modern and ancient, are hotly debated. Did genetic, demographic, or cognitive features of behaviorally modern humans (as opposed to, say, early modern humans or Neanderthals) allow culture to accumulate to its current, unprecedented levels of complexity? Theoretical explanations for patterns of accumulation often invoke demographic factors such as population size or density, whereas statistical analyses of variation in cultural complexity often point to the importance of environmental factors such as food stability, in determining cultural complexity...
October 25, 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744216/the-impact-of-recent-population-history-on-the-deleterious-mutation-load-in-humans-and-close-evolutionary-relatives
#7
REVIEW
Yuval B Simons, Guy Sella
Over the past decade, there has been both great interest and confusion about whether recent demographic events-notably the Out-of-Africa-bottleneck and recent population growth-have led to differences in mutation load among human populations. The confusion can be traced to the use of different summary statistics to measure load, which lead to apparently conflicting results. We argue, however, that when statistics more directly related to load are used, the results of different studies and data sets consistently reveal little or no difference in the load of non-synonymous mutations among human populations...
October 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719693/the-most-brutal-of-human-skulls-measuring-and-knowing-the-first-neanderthal
#8
Paige Madison
A fossilized skeleton discovered in 1856 presented naturalists with a unique challenge. The strange, human-looking bones of the first recognized Neanderthal confronted naturalists with a new type of object for which they had no readily available interpretive framework. This paper explores the techniques and approaches used to understand these bones in the years immediately following the discovery, in particular 1856-1864. Historians have previously suggested that interpretations and debates about Neanderthals hinged primarily on social, political and cultural ideologies...
September 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704536/a-neanderthal-deciduous-human-molar-with-incipient-carious-infection-from-the-middle-palaeolithic-de-nadale-cave-italy
#9
Julie Arnaud, Stefano Benazzi, Matteo Romandini, Alessandra Livraghi, Daniele Panetta, Piero A Salvadori, Lisa Volpe, Marco Peresani
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is the assessment of Nadale 1, a Neanderthal deciduous tooth recently discovered in Northeastern Italy in the De Nadale cave (Middle Palaeolithic). Together with the clear archaeological context of the site, this study brings new insight on Neanderthal behavior and dental morphological variability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used microCT data to provide a morphological description and morphometric analysis (diameter measurements and dental tissue volumes) of the Nadale 1 human tooth...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662059/archaic-admixture-in-human-history
#10
Jeffrey D Wall, Debora Yoshihara Caldeira Brandt
Modern humans evolved in Southern or Eastern Africa, and spread from there across the rest of the world. As they expanded across Africa and Eurasia, they encountered other hominin groups. The extent to which modern and 'archaic' human groups interbred is an area of active research, and while we know that modern humans interbred with Neanderthals and Denisovans, there is not yet agreement on how many admixture events there were or on how much Neanderthal or Denisovan DNA can be found in contemporary genomes...
September 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606907/statistical-methods-for-analyzing-ancient-dna-from-hominins
#11
Montgomery Slatkin
In the past few years, the number of autosomal DNA sequences from human fossils has grown explosively and numerous partial or complete sequences are available from our closest relatives, Neanderthal and Denisovans. I review commonly used statistical methods applied to these sequences. These methods fall into three broad classes: methods for estimating levels of contamination, descriptive methods, and methods based on population genetic models. The latter two classes are largely methods developed for the analysis of present-day genomic data...
September 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569548/ancestral-origins-and-genetic-history-of-tibetan-highlanders
#12
Dongsheng Lu, Haiyi Lou, Kai Yuan, Xiaoji Wang, Yuchen Wang, Chao Zhang, Yan Lu, Xiong Yang, Lian Deng, Ying Zhou, Qidi Feng, Ya Hu, Qiliang Ding, Yajun Yang, Shilin Li, Li Jin, Yaqun Guan, Bing Su, Longli Kang, Shuhua Xu
The origin of Tibetans remains one of the most contentious puzzles in history, anthropology, and genetics. Analyses of deeply sequenced (30×-60×) genomes of 38 Tibetan highlanders and 39 Han Chinese lowlanders, together with available data on archaic and modern humans, allow us to comprehensively characterize the ancestral makeup of Tibetans and uncover their origins. Non-modern human sequences compose ∼6% of the Tibetan gene pool and form unique haplotypes in some genomic regions, where Denisovan-like, Neanderthal-like, ancient-Siberian-like, and unknown ancestries are entangled and elevated...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488556/evolution-of-speech-and-evolution-of-language
#13
Bart de Boer
Speech is the physical signal used to convey spoken language. Because of its physical nature, speech is both easier to compare with other species' behaviors and easier to study in the fossil record than other aspects of language. Here I argue that convergent fossil evidence indicates adaptations for complex vocalizations at least as early as the common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans. Furthermore, I argue that it is unlikely that language evolved separately from speech, but rather that gesture, speech, and song coevolved to provide both a multimodal communication system and a musical system...
August 3, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463216/opsin-gene-repertoires-in-northern-archaic-hominids
#14
John S Taylor, Thomas E Reimchen
The Neanderthals' northern distribution, hunting techniques, and orbit breadths suggest that they were more active in dim light than modern humans. We surveyed visual opsin genes from four Neanderthals and two other archaic hominids to see if they provided additional support for this hypothesis. This analysis was motivated by the observation that alleles responsible for anomalous trichromacy in humans are more common in northern latitudes, by data suggesting that these variants might enhance vision in mesopic conditions, and by the observation that dim light active species often have fewer opsin genes than diurnal relatives...
August 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459054/genomic-insights-into-the-origin-of-farming-in-the-ancient-near-east
#15
Iosif Lazaridis, Dani Nadel, Gary Rollefson, Deborah C Merrett, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Daniel Fernandes, Mario Novak, Beatriz Gamarra, Kendra Sirak, Sarah Connell, Kristin Stewardson, Eadaoin Harney, Qiaomei Fu, Gloria Gonzalez-Fortes, Eppie R Jones, Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg, György Lengyel, Fanny Bocquentin, Boris Gasparian, Janet M Monge, Michael Gregg, Vered Eshed, Ahuva-Sivan Mizrahi, Christopher Meiklejohn, Fokke Gerritsen, Luminita Bejenaru, Matthias Blüher, Archie Campbell, Gianpiero Cavalleri, David Comas, Philippe Froguel, Edmund Gilbert, Shona M Kerr, Peter Kovacs, Johannes Krause, Darren McGettigan, Michael Merrigan, D Andrew Merriwether, Seamus O'Reilly, Martin B Richards, Ornella Semino, Michel Shamoon-Pour, Gheorghe Stefanescu, Michael Stumvoll, Anke Tönjes, Antonio Torroni, James F Wilson, Loic Yengo, Nelli A Hovhannisyan, Nick Patterson, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich
We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 44 ancient Near Easterners ranging in time between ~12,000 and 1,400 bc, from Natufian hunter-gatherers to Bronze Age farmers. We show that the earliest populations of the Near East derived around half their ancestry from a 'Basal Eurasian' lineage that had little if any Neanderthal admixture and that separated from other non-African lineages before their separation from each other. The first farmers of the southern Levant (Israel and Jordan) and Zagros Mountains (Iran) were strongly genetically differentiated, and each descended from local hunter-gatherers...
August 25, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429943/hominin-interbreeding-and-the-evolution-of-human-variation
#16
REVIEW
Kwang Hyun Ko
Mitochondrial Eve confirms the "out of Africa" theory, but the evidence also supports interbreeding between Homo sapiens and other hominins: Neanderthals, Denisovans, and Homo heidelbergensis. This article explains how interbreeding between early H. sapiens and archaic hominins occurred. The availability of edible insects in East Asia aided the spread of the unaggressive, highly cooperative Neanderthals, who interbred with H. sapiens in Asia, resulting in a higher admixture of Neanderthal DNA in East Asian populations...
December 2016: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405260/paranasal-sinuses-a-problematic-proxy-for-climate-adaptation-in-neanderthals
#17
Marlijn L Noback, Elfriede Samo, Casper H A van Leeuwen, Niels Lynnerup, Katerina Harvati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389305/direct-radiocarbon-dating-and-genetic-analyses-on-the-purported-neanderthal-mandible-from-the-monti-lessini-italy
#18
Sahra Talamo, Mateja Hajdinjak, Marcello A Mannino, Leone Fasani, Frido Welker, Fabio Martini, Francesca Romagnoli, Roberto Zorzin, Matthias Meyer, Jean-Jacques Hublin
Anatomically modern humans replaced Neanderthals in Europe around 40,000 years ago. The demise of the Neanderthals and the nature of the possible relationship with anatomically modern humans has captured our imagination and stimulated research for more than a century now. Recent chronological studies suggest a possible overlap between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans of more than 5,000 years. Analyses of ancient genome sequences from both groups have shown that they interbred multiple times, including in Europe...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337483/paleogenetics-and-past-infections-the-two-faces-of-the-coin-of-human-immune-evolution
#19
Laurent Abi-Rached, Didier Raoult
With the advent of next-generation sequencing, paleogenetics has considerably expanded over the past few years and notably encompassed the characterization of the genomes of archaic humans who lived more than 30,000 years ago. These paleogenetics investigations have revealed that admixture between modern and archaic humans occurred, with Neanderthals having contributed to 1.5% to 2.1% of modern Eurasian genomes, and Denisovans to 3% to 6% of modern Melanesian genomes and to approximately 0.2% of modern Asian genomes...
June 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298468/the-origin-and-evolution-of-homo-sapiens
#20
REVIEW
Chris Stringer
If we restrict the use of Homo sapiens in the fossil record to specimens which share a significant number of derived features in the skeleton with extant H. sapiens, the origin of our species would be placed in the African late middle Pleistocene, based on fossils such as Omo Kibish 1, Herto 1 and 2, and the Levantine material from Skhul and Qafzeh. However, genetic data suggest that we and our sister species Homo neanderthalensis shared a last common ancestor in the middle Pleistocene approximately 400-700 ka, which is at least 200 000 years earlier than the species origin indicated from the fossils already mentioned...
July 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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