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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754744/reevaluation-of-endocostal-ossifications-on-the-kebara-2-neanderthal-ribs
#1
Daniel García-Martínez, Manuel Campo Martín, Armando González Martín, Óscar Cambra-Moo, Alon Barash, Markus Bastir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747567/recently-evolved-human-specific-methylated-regions-are-enriched-in-schizophrenia-signals
#2
Niladri Banerjee, Tatiana Polushina, Francesco Bettella, Sudheer Giddaluru, Vidar M Steen, Ole A Andreassen, Stephanie Le Hellard
BACKGROUND: One explanation for the persistence of schizophrenia despite the reduced fertility of patients is that it is a by-product of recent human evolution. This hypothesis is supported by evidence suggesting that recently-evolved genomic regions in humans are involved in the genetic risk for schizophrenia. Using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia and 11 other phenotypes, we tested for enrichment of association with GWAS traits in regions that have undergone methylation changes in the human lineage compared to Neanderthals and Denisovans, i...
May 11, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739306/neanderthal-and-denisovan-ancestry-in-papuans-a-functional-study
#3
Evgeny E Akkuratov, Mikhail S Gelfand, Ekaterina E Khrameeva
Sequencing of complete nuclear genomes of Neanderthal and Denisovan stimulated studies about their relationship with modern humans demonstrating, in particular, that DNA alleles from both Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes are present in genomes of modern humans. The Papuan genome is a unique object because it contains both Neanderthal and Denisovan alleles. Here, we have shown that the Papuan genomes contain different gene functional groups inherited from each of the ancient people. The Papuan genomes demonstrate a relative prevalence of Neanderthal alleles in genes responsible for the regulation of transcription and neurogenesis...
April 2018: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728579/climate-deteriorations-and-neanderthal-demise-in-interior-iberia
#4
D Wolf, T Kolb, M Alcaraz-Castaño, S Heinrich, P Baumgart, R Calvo, J Sánchez, K Ryborz, I Schäfer, M Bliedtner, R Zech, L Zöller, D Faust
Time and circumstances for the disappearance of Neanderthals and its relationship with the advent of Modern Humans are not yet sufficiently resolved, especially in case of the Iberian Peninsula. Reconstructing palaeoenvironmental conditions during the last glacial period is crucial to clarifying whether climate deteriorations or competition and contacts with Modern Humans played the pivotal role in driving Neanderthals to extinction. A high-resolution loess record from the Upper Tagus Basin in central Spain demonstrates that the Neanderthal abandonment of inner Iberian territories 42 kyr ago coincided with the evolvement of hostile environmental conditions, while archaeological evidence testifies that this desertion took place regardless of modern humans' activities...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718916/assessing-the-significance-of-palaeolithic-engraved-cortexes-a-case-study-from-the-mousterian-site-of-kiik-koba-crimea
#5
Ana Majkić, Francesco d'Errico, Vadim Stepanchuk
Twenty-Seven Lower and Middle Paleolithic sites from Europe and the Middle East are reported in the literature to have yielded incised stones. At eleven of these sites incisions are present on flint cortexes. Even when it is possible to demonstrate that the engravings are ancient and human made, it is often difficult to distinguish incisions resulting from functional activities such as butchery or use as a cutting board, from those produced deliberately, and even more difficult to identify the scope of the latter...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709293/mandibular-ramus-shape-variation-and-ontogeny-in-homo-sapiens-and-homo-neanderthalensis
#6
Claire E Terhune, Terrence B Ritzman, Chris A Robinson
As the interface between the mandible and cranium, the mandibular ramus is functionally significant and its morphology has been suggested to be informative for taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses. In primates, and particularly in great apes and humans, ramus morphology is highly variable, especially in the shape of the coronoid process and the relationship of the ramus to the alveolar margin. Here we compare ramus shape variation through ontogeny in Homo neanderthalensis to that of modern and fossil Homo sapiens using geometric morphometric analyses of two-dimensional semilandmarks and univariate measurements of ramus angulation and relative coronoid and condyle height...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700382/reconstructing-the-neanderthal-brain-using-computational-anatomy
#7
Takanori Kochiyama, Naomichi Ogihara, Hiroki C Tanabe, Osamu Kondo, Hideki Amano, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Hiromasa Suzuki, Marcia S Ponce de León, Christoph P E Zollikofer, Markus Bastir, Chris Stringer, Norihiro Sadato, Takeru Akazawa
The present study attempted to reconstruct 3D brain shape of Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens based on computational neuroanatomy. We found that early Homo sapiens had relatively larger cerebellar hemispheres but a smaller occipital region in the cerebrum than Neanderthals long before the time that Neanderthals disappeared. Further, using behavioural and structural imaging data of living humans, the abilities such as cognitive flexibility, attention, the language processing, episodic and working memory capacity were positively correlated with size-adjusted cerebellar volume...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685752/dental-calculus-indicates-widespread-plant-use-within-the-stable-neanderthal-dietary-niche
#8
Robert C Power, Domingo C Salazar-García, Mauro Rubini, Andrea Darlas, Katerina Harvati, Michael Walker, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Amanda G Henry
The ecology of Neanderthals is a pressing question in the study of hominin evolution. Diet appears to have played a prominent role in their adaptation to Eurasia. Based on isotope and zooarchaeological studies, Neanderthal diet has been reconstructed as heavily meat-based and generally similar across different environments. This image persists, despite recent studies suggesting more plant use and more variation. However, we have only a fragmentary picture of their dietary ecology, and how it may have varied among habitats, because we lack broad and environmentally representative information about their use of plants and other foods...
June 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681055/reproducing-the-internal-and-external-anatomy-of-fossil-bones-two-new-automatic-digital-tools
#9
Antonio Profico, Stefan Schlager, Veronica Valoriani, Costantino Buzi, Marina Melchionna, Alessio Veneziano, Pasquale Raia, Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi, Giorgio Manzi
OBJECTIVES: We present two new automatic tools, developed under the R environment, to reproduce the internal and external structures of bony elements. The first method, Computer-Aided Laser Scanner Emulator (CA-LSE), provides the reconstruction of the external portions of a 3D mesh by simulating the action of a laser scanner. The second method, Automatic Segmentation Tool for 3D objects (AST-3D), performs the digital reconstruction of anatomical cavities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present the application of CA-LSE and AST-3D methods to different anatomical remains, highly variable in terms of shape, size and structure: a modern human skull, a malleus bone, and a Neanderthal deciduous tooth...
April 21, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668700/chronological-reassessment-of-the-middle-to-upper-paleolithic-transition-and-early-upper-paleolithic-cultures-in-cantabrian-spain
#10
Ana B Marín-Arroyo, Joseba Rios-Garaizar, Lawrence G Straus, Jennifer R Jones, Marco de la Rasilla, Manuel R González Morales, Michael Richards, Jesús Altuna, Koro Mariezkurrena, David Ocio
Methodological advances in dating the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition provide a better understanding of the replacement of local Neanderthal populations by Anatomically Modern Humans. Today we know that this replacement was not a single, pan-European event, but rather it took place at different times in different regions. Thus, local conditions could have played a role. Iberia represents a significant macro-region to study this process. Northern Atlantic Spain contains evidence of both Mousterian and Early Upper Paleolithic occupations, although most of them are not properly dated, thus hindering the chances of an adequate interpretation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658973/searching-for-ancient-balanced-polymorphisms-shared-between-neanderthals-and-modern-humans
#11
Lucas Henriques Viscardi, Vanessa Rodrigues Paixão-Côrtes, David Comas, Francisco Mauro Salzano, Diego Rovaris, Claiton Dotto Bau, Carlos Eduardo G Amorim, Maria Cátira Bortolini
Hominin evolution is characterized by adaptive solutions often rooted in behavioral and cognitive changes. If balancing selection had an important and long-lasting impact on the evolution of these traits, it can be hypothesized that genes associated with them should carry an excess of shared polymorphisms (trans- SNPs) across recent Homo species. In this study, we investigate the role of balancing selection in human evolution using available exomes from modern (Homo sapiens) and archaic humans (H. neanderthalensis and Denisovan) for an excess of trans-SNP in two gene sets: one associated with the immune system (IMMS) and another one with behavioral system (BEHS)...
January 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618551/computer-simulations-show-that-neanderthal-facial-morphology-represents-adaptation-to-cold-and-high-energy-demands-but-not-heavy-biting
#12
Stephen Wroe, William C H Parr, Justin A Ledogar, Jason Bourke, Samuel P Evans, Luca Fiorenza, Stefano Benazzi, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Chris Stringer, Ottmar Kullmer, Michael Curry, Todd C Rae, Todd R Yokley
Three adaptive hypotheses have been forwarded to explain the distinctive Neanderthal face: (i) an improved ability to accommodate high anterior bite forces, (ii) more effective conditioning of cold and/or dry air and, (iii) adaptation to facilitate greater ventilatory demands. We test these hypotheses using three-dimensional models of Neanderthals, modern humans, and a close outgroup ( Homo heidelbergensis ), applying finite-element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is the most comprehensive application of either approach applied to date and the first to include both...
April 11, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603507/model-based-detection-and-analysis-of-introgressed-neanderthal-ancestry-in-modern-humans
#13
Matthias Steinrücken, Jeffrey P Spence, John A Kamm, Emilia Wieczorek, Yun S Song
Genetic evidence has revealed that the ancestors of modern human populations outside Africa and their hominin sister groups, notably Neanderthals, exchanged genetic material in the past. The distribution of these introgressed sequence-tracts along modern-day human genomes provides insight into the selective forces acting on them and the role of introgression in the evolutionary history of hominins.Studying introgression patterns on the X-chromosome is of particular interest, as sex chromosomes are thought to play a special role in speciation...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590205/a-middle-palaeolithic-wooden-digging-stick-from-aranbaltza-iii-spain
#14
Joseba Rios-Garaizar, Oriol López-Bultó, Eneko Iriarte, Carlos Pérez-Garrido, Raquel Piqué, Arantza Aranburu, María José Iriarte-Chiapusso, Illuminada Ortega-Cordellat, Laurence Bourguignon, Diego Garate, Iñaki Libano
Aranbaltza is an archaeological complex formed by at least three open-air sites. Between 2014 and 2015 a test excavation carried out in Aranbaltza III revealed the presence of a sand and clay sedimentary sequence formed in floodplain environments, within which six sedimentary units have been identified. This sequence was formed between 137-50 ka, and includes several archaeological horizons, attesting to the long-term presence of Neanderthal communities in this area. One of these horizons, corresponding with Unit 4, yielded two wooden tools...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570998/the-predecessors-within
#15
Benjamin Vernot, Svante Pääbo
By examining the genomes of present-day people from Asia, researchers show that modern humans met and interbred with Denisovans, distant relatives to Neanderthals, on at least two occasions. As a result, people today carry DNA from two different Denisovan populations.
March 22, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562232/reconstructing-the-genetic-history-of-late-neanderthals
#16
Mateja Hajdinjak, Qiaomei Fu, Alexander Hübner, Martin Petr, Fabrizio Mafessoni, Steffi Grote, Pontus Skoglund, Vagheesh Narasimham, Hélène Rougier, Isabelle Crevecoeur, Patrick Semal, Marie Soressi, Sahra Talamo, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Ivan Gušić, Željko Kućan, Pavao Rudan, Liubov V Golovanova, Vladimir B Doronichev, Cosimo Posth, Johannes Krause, Petra Korlević, Sarah Nagel, Birgit Nickel, Montgomery Slatkin, Nick Patterson, David Reich, Kay Prüfer, Matthias Meyer, Svante Pääbo, Janet Kelso
Although it has previously been shown that Neanderthals contributed DNA to modern humans, not much is known about the genetic diversity of Neanderthals or the relationship between late Neanderthal populations at the time at which their last interactions with early modern humans occurred and before they eventually disappeared. Our ability to retrieve DNA from a larger number of Neanderthal individuals has been limited by poor preservation of endogenous DNA and contamination of Neanderthal skeletal remains by large amounts of microbial and present-day human DNA...
March 29, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554122/retrodeformation-of-fossil-specimens-based-on-3d-bilateral-semi-landmarks-implementation-in-the-r-package-morpho
#17
Stefan Schlager, Antonio Profico, Fabio Di Vincenzo, Giorgio Manzi
Many fossil specimens exhibit deformations caused by taphonomic processes. Due to these deformations, even important specimens have to be excluded from morphometric analyses, impoverishing an already poor paleontological record. Techniques to retrodeform and virtually restore damaged (i.e. deformed) specimens are available, but these methods genenerally imply the use of a sparse set of bilateral landmarks, ignoring the fact that the distribution and amount of control points directly affects the result of the retrodeformation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551270/analysis-of-human-sequence-data-reveals-two-pulses-of-archaic-denisovan-admixture
#18
Sharon R Browning, Brian L Browning, Ying Zhou, Serena Tucci, Joshua M Akey
Anatomically modern humans interbred with Neanderthals and with a related archaic population known as Denisovans. Genomes of several Neanderthals and one Denisovan have been sequenced, and these reference genomes have been used to detect introgressed genetic material in present-day human genomes. Segments of introgression also can be detected without use of reference genomes, and doing so can be advantageous for finding introgressed segments that are less closely related to the sequenced archaic genomes. We apply a new reference-free method for detecting archaic introgression to 5,639 whole-genome sequences from Eurasia and Oceania...
March 22, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531093/correction-for-hoffecker-the-complexity-of-neanderthal-technology
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477182/craniomandibular-form-and-body-size-variation-of-first-generation-mouse-hybrids-a-model-for-hominin-hybridization
#20
Kerryn A Warren, Terrence B Ritzman, Robyn A Humphreys, Christopher J Percival, Benedikt Hallgrímsson, Rebecca Rogers Ackermann
Hybridization occurs in a number of mammalian lineages, including among primate taxa. Analyses of ancient genomes have shown that hybridization between our lineage and other archaic hominins in Eurasia occurred numerous times in the past. However, we still have limited empirical data on what a hybrid skeleton looks like, or how to spot patterns of hybridization among fossils for which there are no genetic data. Here we use experimental mouse models to supplement previous studies of primates. We characterize size and shape variation in the cranium and mandible of three wild-derived inbred mouse strains and their first generation (F1 ) hybrids...
March 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
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