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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902892/neanderthal-and-denisova-tooth-protein-variants-in-present-day-humans
#1
Clément Zanolli, Mathilde Hourset, Rémi Esclassan, Catherine Mollereau
Environment parameters, diet and genetic factors interact to shape tooth morphostructure. In the human lineage, archaic and modern hominins show differences in dental traits, including enamel thickness, but variability also exists among living populations. Several polymorphisms, in particular in the non-collagenous extracellular matrix proteins of the tooth hard tissues, like enamelin, are involved in dental structure variation and defects and may be associated with dental disorders or susceptibility to caries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874524/direct-dating-of-neanderthal-remains-from-the-site-of-vindija-cave-and-implications-for-the-middle-to-upper-paleolithic-transition
#2
Thibaut Devièse, Ivor Karavanić, Daniel Comeskey, Cara Kubiak, Petra Korlević, Mateja Hajdinjak, Siniša Radović, Noemi Procopio, Michael Buckley, Svante Pääbo, Tom Higham
Previous dating of the Vi-207 and Vi-208 Neanderthal remains from Vindija Cave (Croatia) led to the suggestion that Neanderthals survived there as recently as 28,000-29,000 B.P. Subsequent dating yielded older dates, interpreted as ages of at least ∼32,500 B.P. We have redated these same specimens using an approach based on the extraction of the amino acid hydroxyproline, using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (Prep-HPLC). This method is more efficient in eliminating modern contamination in the bone collagen...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874276/the-costal-remains-of-the-el-sidr%C3%A3-n-neanderthal-site-asturias-northern-spain-and-their-importance-for-understanding-neanderthal-thorax-morphology
#3
Daniel García-Martínez, Markus Bastir, Rosa Huguet, Almudena Estalrrich, Antonio García-Tabernero, Luis Ríos, Eugenia Cunha, Marco de la Rasilla, Antonio Rosas
The study of the Neanderthal thorax has attracted the attention of the scientific community for more than a century. It is agreed that Neanderthals have a more capacious thorax than modern humans, but whether this was caused by a medio-lateral or an antero-posterior expansion of the thorax is still debated, and is key to understanding breathing biomechanics and body shape in Neanderthals. The fragile nature of ribs, the metameric structure of the thorax and difficulties in quantifying thorax morphology all contribute to uncertainty regarding precise aspects of Neanderthal thoracic shape...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874274/evidence-of-neanderthals-in-the-balkans-the-infant-radius-from-kozarnika-cave-bulgaria
#4
Anne-Marie Tillier, Nikolay Sirakov, Aleta Guadelli, Philippe Fernandez, Svoboda Sirakova, Irena Dimitrova, Catherine Ferrier, Guillaume Guérin, Maryam Heidari, Ivailo Krumov, Jean-Claude Leblanc, Viviana Miteva, Vasil Popov, Stanimira Taneva, Jean-Luc Guadelli
Excavations conducted by a Bulgarian-French team at Kozarnika Cave (Balkans, Bulgaria) during several seasons yielded a long Paleolithic archaeological sequence and led to the discovery of important faunal, lithic, and human samples. This paper aims to describe the unpublished radius shaft of an infant who died approximately before the sixth month postnatal that was recovered from layer 10b, which contained East Balkan Levallois Mousterian with bifacial leaf points. The layer was dated between 130 and 200 ka (large mammals biochronology) and between 128 ± 13 ka and 183 ± 14 ka (OSL), i...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874271/in-pursuit-of-our-ancestors-hand-laterality
#5
Amèlia Bargalló, Marina Mosquera, Sergi Lozano
The aim of this paper is to apply a previously published method (Bargalló and Mosquera, 2014) to the archaeological record, allowing us to identify the hand laterality of our ancestors and determine when and how this feature, which is exhibited most strongly in humans, appeared in our evolutionary history. The method focuses on identifying handedness by looking at the technical features of the flakes produced by a single knapper, and discovering how many flakes are required to ascertain their hand preference...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874265/newly-discovered-neanderthal-remains-from-shanidar-cave-iraqi-kurdistan-and-their-attribution-to-shanidar-5
#6
Emma Pomeroy, Marta Mirazón Lahr, Federica Crivellaro, Lucy Farr, Tim Reynolds, Chris O Hunt, Graeme Barker
The Neanderthal remains from Shanidar Cave, excavated between 1951 and 1960, have played a central role in debates concerning diverse aspects of Neanderthal morphology and behavior. In 2015 and 2016, renewed excavations at the site uncovered hominin remains from the immediate area where the partial skeleton of Shanidar 5 was found in 1960. Shanidar 5 was a robust adult male estimated to have been aged over 40 years at the time of death. Comparisons of photographs from the previous and recent excavations indicate that the old and new remains were directly adjacent to one another, while the disturbed arrangement and partial crushing of the new fossils is consistent with descriptions and photographs of the older discoveries...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860198/neanderthals-and-denisovans-as-biological-invaders
#7
John Hawks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859637/q-a-where-did-the-neanderthals-go
#8
Kelley Harris, Rasmus Nielsen
Genomic evidence has demonstrated that humans and Neanderthals interbred. Today, the genomes of most individuals outside Africa contain 2-3% Neanderthal DNA. However, it is still hotly debated why the Neanderthals went extinct and if humans contributed to the Neanderthal extinction. In this Q&A we explore what genomic data might have to say about this issue.
September 1, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855259/the-mobile-element-locator-tool-melt-population-scale-mobile-element-discovery-and-biology
#9
Eugene J Gardner, Vincent K Lam, Daniel N Harris, Nelson T Chuang, Emma C Scott, William S Pittard, Ryan E Mills, Scott E Devine
Mobile element insertions (MEIs) represent ~25% of all structural variants in human genomes. Moreover, when they disrupt genes, MEIs can influence human traits and diseases. Therefore, MEIs should be fully discovered along with other forms of genetic variation in whole genome sequencing (WGS) projects involving population genetics, human diseases, and clinical genomics. Here, we describe the Mobile Element Locator Tool (MELT), which was developed as part of the 1000 Genomes Project to perform MEI discovery on a population scale...
August 30, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854627/the-mitonuclear-dimension-of-neanderthal-and-denisovan-ancestry-in-modern-human-genomes
#10
Joel Sharbrough, Justin C Havird, Gregory R Noe, Jessica M Warren, Daniel B Sloan
Some human populations interbred with Neanderthals and Denisovans, resulting in substantial contributions to modern-human genomes. Therefore, it is now possible to use genomic data to investigate mechanisms that shaped historical gene flow between humans and our closest hominin relatives. More generally, in eukaryotes, mitonuclear interactions have been argued to play a disproportionate role in generating reproductive isolation. There is no evidence of mtDNA introgression into modern human populations, which means that all introgressed nuclear alleles from archaic hominins must function on a modern-human mitochondrial background...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794033/ancient-evolution-and-dispersion-of-human-papillomavirus-type-58-variants
#11
Zigui Chen, Wendy C S Ho, Siaw Shi Boon, Priscilla T Y Law, Martin C W Chan, Rob DeSalle, Robert D Burk, Paul K S Chan
Human papillomavirus type 58 is found in 10-18% of cervical cancers in East Asia but rather uncommon elsewhere. The distribution and oncogenic potential of HPV58 variants appear to be heterogeneous since the E7 T20I/G63S variant is more prevalent in East Asia and confers 7-9 fold higher risk for cervical precancer and cancer. However, the underlying genomic mechanisms that explain the geographic and carcinogenic diversity of HPV58 variants are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a combination of phylogenetic analyses and bioinformatics to investigate the deep evolutionary history of HPV58 complete genome variants...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744243/the-odyssey-of-dental-anxiety-from-prehistory-to-the-present-a-narrative-review
#12
REVIEW
Enrico Facco, Gastone Zanette
Dental anxiety (DA) can be considered as a universal phenomenon with a high prevalence worldwide; DA and pain are also the main causes for medical emergencies in the dental office, so their prevention is an essential part of patient safety and overall quality of care. Being DA and its consequences closely related to the fight-or-flight reaction, it seems reasonable to argue that the odyssey of DA began way back in the distant past, and has since probably evolved in parallel with the development of fight-or-flight reactions, implicit memory and knowledge, and ultimately consciousness...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740249/neanderthal-derived-genetic-variation-shapes-modern-human-cranium-and-brain
#13
Michael D Gregory, J Shane Kippenhan, Daniel P Eisenberg, Philip D Kohn, Dwight Dickinson, Venkata S Mattay, Qiang Chen, Daniel R Weinberger, Ziad S Saad, Karen F Berman
Before their disappearance from the fossil record approximately 40,000 years ago, Neanderthals, the ancient hominin lineage most closely related to modern humans, interbred with ancestors of present-day humans. The legacy of this gene flow persists through Neanderthal-derived variants that survive in modern human DNA; however, the neural implications of this inheritance are uncertain. Here, using MRI in a large cohort of healthy individuals of European-descent, we show that the amount of Neanderthal-originating polymorphism carried in living humans is related to cranial and brain morphology...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738867/q-a-what-is-human-language-when-did-it-evolve-and-why-should-we-care
#14
Mark Pagel
Human language is unique among all forms of animal communication. It is unlikely that any other species, including our close genetic cousins the Neanderthals, ever had language, and so-called sign 'language' in Great Apes is nothing like human language. Language evolution shares many features with biological evolution, and this has made it useful for tracing recent human history and for studying how culture evolves among groups of people with related languages. A case can be made that language has played a more important role in our species' recent (circa last 200,000 years) evolution than have our genes...
July 24, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733602/distinct-selective-forces-and-neanderthal-introgression-shaped-genetic-diversity-at-genes-involved-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#15
Alessandra Mozzi, Diego Forni, Rachele Cagliani, Uberto Pozzoli, Mario Clerici, Manuela Sironi
In addition to high intelligence, humans evolved specialized social-cognitive skills, which are specifically affected in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Genes affected in ASD represent suitable candidates to study the evolution of human social cognition. We performed an evolutionary analysis on 68 genes associated to neurodevelopmental disorders; our data indicate that genetic diversity was shaped by distinct selective forces, including natural selection and introgression from archaic hominins...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726833/human-occupation-of-northern-australia-by-65-000-years-ago
#16
Chris Clarkson, Zenobia Jacobs, Ben Marwick, Richard Fullagar, Lynley Wallis, Mike Smith, Richard G Roberts, Elspeth Hayes, Kelsey Lowe, Xavier Carah, S Anna Florin, Jessica McNeil, Delyth Cox, Lee J Arnold, Quan Hua, Jillian Huntley, Helen E A Brand, Tiina Manne, Andrew Fairbairn, James Shulmeister, Lindsey Lyle, Makiah Salinas, Mara Page, Kate Connell, Gayoung Park, Kasih Norman, Tessa Murphy, Colin Pardoe
The time of arrival of people in Australia is an unresolved question. It is relevant to debates about when modern humans first dispersed out of Africa and when their descendants incorporated genetic material from Neanderthals, Denisovans and possibly other hominins. Humans have also been implicated in the extinction of Australia's megafauna. Here we report the results of new excavations conducted at Madjedbebe, a rock shelter in northern Australia. Artefacts in primary depositional context are concentrated in three dense bands, with the stratigraphic integrity of the deposit demonstrated by artefact refits and by optical dating and other analyses of the sediments...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689038/a-phylogenetic-view-of-the-out-of-asia-eurasia-and-out-of-africa-hypotheses-in-the-light-of-recent-molecular-and-palaeontological-finds
#17
REVIEW
Úlfur Árnason
The substantiality of the Out of Africa hypothesis was addressed in the light of recent genomic analysis of extant humans (Homo sapiens sapiens, Hss) and progress in Neanderthal palaeontology. The examination lent no support to the commonly assumed Out of Africa scenario but favoured instead a Eurasian divergence between Neanderthals and Hss (the Askur/Embla hypothesis) and an Out of Asia/Eurasia hypothesis according to which all other parts of the world were colonized by Hss migrations from Asia. The examination suggested furthermore that the ancestors of extant KhoeSan and Mbuti composed the first Hss dispersal(s) into Africa and that the ancestors of Yoruba made up a later wave into the same continent...
September 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688460/chronometric-investigations-of-the-middle-to-upper-paleolithic-transition-in-the-zagros-mountains-using-ams-radiocarbon-dating-and-bayesian-age-modelling
#18
Lorena Becerra-Valdivia, Katerina Douka, Daniel Comeskey, Behrouz Bazgir, Nicholas J Conard, Curtis W Marean, Andreu Ollé, Marcel Otte, Laxmi Tumung, Mohsen Zeidi, Thomas F G Higham
The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition is often linked with a bio-cultural shift involving the dispersal of modern humans outside of Africa, the concomitant replacement of Neanderthals across Eurasia, and the emergence of new technological traditions. The Zagros Mountains region assumes importance in discussions concerning this period as its geographic location is central to all pertinent hominin migration areas, pointing to both east and west. As such, establishing a reliable chronology in the Zagros Mountains is crucial to our understanding of these biological and cultural developments...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688457/u-series-dating-and-classification-of-the-apidima-2-hominin-from-mani-peninsula-southern-greece
#19
Antonis Bartsiokas, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Maxime Aubert, Rainer Grün
Laser ablation U-series dating results on a human cranial bone fragment from Apidima, on the western cost of the Mani Peninsula, Southern Greece, indicate a minimum age of 160,000 years. The dated cranial fragment belongs to Apidima 2, which preserves the facial skeleton and a large part of the braincase, lacking the occipital bone. The morphology of the preserved regions of the cranium, and especially that of the facial skeleton, indicates that the fossil belongs to the Neanderthal clade. The dating of the fossil at a minimum age of 160,000 years shows that most of the Neanderthal traits were already present in the MIS 6 and perhaps earlier...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675384/deeply-divergent-archaic-mitochondrial-genome-provides-lower-time-boundary-for-african-gene-flow-into-neanderthals
#20
Cosimo Posth, Christoph Wißing, Keiko Kitagawa, Luca Pagani, Laura van Holstein, Fernando Racimo, Kurt Wehrberger, Nicholas J Conard, Claus Joachim Kind, Hervé Bocherens, Johannes Krause
Ancient DNA is revealing new insights into the genetic relationship between Pleistocene hominins and modern humans. Nuclear DNA indicated Neanderthals as a sister group of Denisovans after diverging from modern humans. However, the closer affinity of the Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to modern humans than Denisovans has recently been suggested as the result of gene flow from an African source into Neanderthals before 100,000 years ago. Here we report the complete mtDNA of an archaic femur from the Hohlenstein-Stadel (HST) cave in southwestern Germany...
July 4, 2017: Nature Communications
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