keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Neanderthal

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464262/a-tale-of-agriculturalists-and-hunter-gatherers-exploring-the-thrifty-genotype-hypothesis-in-native-south-americans
#1
Guillermo Reales, Diego L Rovaris, Vanessa C Jacovas, Tábita Hünemeier, José R Sandoval, Alcibiades Salazar-Granara, Darío A Demarchi, Eduardo Tarazona-Santos, Aline B Felkl, Michele A Serafini, Francisco M Salzano, Rafael Bisso-Machado, David Comas, Vanessa R Paixão-Côrtes, Maria Cátira Bortolini
OBJECTIVES: To determine genetic differences between agriculturalist and hunter-gatherer southern Native American populations for selected metabolism-related markers and to test whether Neel's thrifty genotype hypothesis (TGH) could explain the genetic patterns observed in these populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 375 Native South American individuals from 17 populations were genotyped using six markers (APOE rs429358 and rs7412; APOA2 rs5082; CD36 rs3211883; TCF7L2 rs11196205; and IGF2BP2 rs11705701)...
May 2, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447043/comparative-genomics-of-human-stem-cell-factor-scf
#2
Moein Dehbashi, Elahe Kamali, Sadeq Vallian
Stem cell factor (SCF) is a critical protein with key roles in the cell such as hematopoiesis, gametogenesis and melanogenesis. In the present study a comparative analysis on nucleotide sequences of SCF was performed in Humanoids using bioinformatics tools including NCBI-BLAST, MEGA6, and JBrowse. Our analysis of nucleotide sequences to find closely evolved organisms with high similarity by NCBI-BLAST tools and MEGA6 showed that human and Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) were placed into the same cluster. By using JBrowse, we found that SCF in Neanderthal had a single copy number similar to modern human and partly conserved nucleotide sequences...
March 2017: Molecular Biology Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444387/meiotic-genes-are-enriched-in-regions-of-reduced-archaic-ancestry
#3
B Jégou, S Sankararaman, A D Rolland, D Reich, F Chalmel
About 1-6% of the genetic ancestry of modern humans today originates from admixture with archaic humans. It has recently been shown that autosomal genomic regions with a reduced proportion of Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestries are significantly enriched in genes that are more expressed in testis than in other tissues. To determine whether a cellular segregation pattern would exist, we combined maps of archaic introgression with a cross-analysis of three transcriptomic datasets deciphering the transcriptional landscape of human gonadal cell types...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434540/an-updated-age-for-the-xujiayao-hominin-from-the-nihewan-basin-north-china-implications-for-middle-pleistocene-human-evolution-in-east-asia
#4
Hong Ao, Chun-Ru Liu, Andrew P Roberts, Peng Zhang, Xinwen Xu
The Xujiayao site in the Nihewan Basin (North China) is one of the most important Paleolithic sites in East Asia. Twenty Homo fossils, which were previously assigned to an archaic Homo sapiens group, have been excavated along with more than 30,000 lithic artifacts and ∼5000 mammalian fossil specimens. Dating of the Xujiayao hominin has been pursued since its excavation in the 1970s, but its age has remained controversial because of limitations of the dating techniques that have been applied to available materials...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432824/brief-communication-an-analysis-of-dental-development-in-pleistocene-homo-using-skeletal-growth-and-chronological-age
#5
Maja Šešelj
OBJECTIVES: This study takes a new approach to interpreting dental development in Pleistocene Homo in comparison with recent modern humans. As rates of dental development and skeletal growth are correlated given age in modern humans, using age and skeletal growth in tandem yields more accurate dental development estimates. Here, I apply these models to fossil Homo to obtain more individualized predictions and interpretations of their dental development relative to recent modern humans...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398903/biomechanics-of-microliths-manufacture-a-preliminary-approach-to-neanderthal-s-motor-constrains-in-the-frame-of-embodied-cognition
#6
Francia Patiño, Manuel Luque, Marcos Terradillos-Bernal, Manuel Martín-Loeches
The systems of perception and action of the brain appear as important constraining factors in human evolution under current models of embodied cognition. In this view, the emergence of certain items in the archeological record is not necessarily subsequent to the emergence of a 'symbolic' mind, but instead to the appearance of the sensory-motor systems enabling that behavior. One of the products normally absent in pre- Homo sapiens species is the standardized microlith, whose production seems very demanding for the hand due to their small size and need for fine craft...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376731/ad-libs-inferring-ancestry-across-hybrid-genomes-using-low-coverage-sequence-data
#7
Nathan K Schaefer, Beth Shapiro, Richard E Green
BACKGROUND: Inferring the ancestry of each region of admixed individuals' genomes is useful in studies ranging from disease gene mapping to speciation genetics. Current methods require high-coverage genotype data and phased reference panels, and are therefore inappropriate for many data sets. We present a software application, AD-LIBS, that uses a hidden Markov model to infer ancestry across hybrid genomes without requiring variant calling or phasing. This approach is useful for non-model organisms and in cases of low-coverage data, such as ancient DNA...
April 4, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366202/human-predatory-behavior-and-the-social-implications-of-communal-hunting-based-on-evidence-from-the-td10-2-bison-bone-bed-at-gran-dolina-atapuerca-spain
#8
Antonio Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Palmira Saladié, Andreu Ollé, Juan Luis Arsuaga, José María Bermúdez de Castro, Eudald Carbonell
Zooarcheological research is an important tool in reconstructing subsistence, as well as for inferring relevant aspects regarding social behavior in the past. The organization of hunting parties, forms of predation (number and rate of animals slaughtered), and the technology used (tactics and tools) must be taken into account in the identification and classification of hunting methods in prehistory. The archeological recognition of communal hunting reflects an interest in evolutionary terms and their inherent implications for anticipatory capacities, social complexity, and the development of cognitive tools, such as articulated language...
April 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355292/a-decorated-raven-bone-from-the-zaskalnaya-vi-kolosovskaya-neanderthal-site-crimea
#9
Ana Majkić, Sarah Evans, Vadim Stepanchuk, Alexander Tsvelykh, Francesco d'Errico
We analyze a radius bone fragment of a raven (Corvus corax) from Zaskalnaya VI rock shelter, Crimea. The object bears seven notches and comes from an archaeological level attributed to a Micoquian industry dated to between 38 and 43 cal kyr BP. Our study aims to examine the degree of regularity and intentionality of this set of notches through their technological and morphometric analysis, complemented by comparative experimental work. Microscopic analysis of the notches indicate that they were produced by the to-and-fro movement of a lithic cutting edge and that two notches were added to fill in the gap left between previously cut notches, probably to increase the visual consistency of the pattern...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351985/living-in-an-adaptive-world-genomic-dissection-of-the-genus-homo-and-its-immune-response
#10
REVIEW
Hélène Quach, Lluis Quintana-Murci
More than a decade after the sequencing of the human genome, a deluge of genome-wide population data are generating a portrait of human genetic diversity at an unprecedented level of resolution. Genomic studies have provided new insight into the demographic and adaptive history of our species, Homo sapiens, including its interbreeding with other hominins, such as Neanderthals, and the ways in which natural selection, in its various guises, has shaped genome diversity. These studies, combined with functional genomic approaches, such as the mapping of expression quantitative trait loci, have helped to identify genes, functions, and mechanisms of prime importance for host survival and involved in phenotypic variation and differences in disease risk...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348941/cutting-the-stone-health-defined-in-the-era-of-value-based-care
#11
REVIEW
Ger Rijkers
The immune system contributes to the maintenance of health by preventing and limiting the clinical consequences of infections by pathogenic microorganisms. During the evolution of Homo sapiens, those with the fittest immune system survived. The immune system of Homo sapiens was further improved and adapted by admixture with Neanderthal genes. Nowadays, the human immune system provides adequate protection against the majority of infections. For some 20 infectious diseases, the immune system needs to be improved by vaccination...
February 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277523/neanderthal-tooth-plaque-hints-at-meals-and-kisses
#12
Ewen Callaway
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273061/neanderthal-behaviour-diet-and-disease-inferred-from-ancient-dna-in-dental-calculus
#13
Laura S Weyrich, Sebastian Duchene, Julien Soubrier, Luis Arriola, Bastien Llamas, James Breen, Alan G Morris, Kurt W Alt, David Caramelli, Veit Dresely, Milly Farrell, Andrew G Farrer, Michael Francken, Neville Gully, Wolfgang Haak, Karen Hardy, Katerina Harvati, Petra Held, Edward C Holmes, John Kaidonis, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Marco de la Rasilla, Antonio Rosas, Patrick Semal, Arkadiusz Soltysiak, Grant Townsend, Donatella Usai, Joachim Wahl, Daniel H Huson, Keith Dobney, Alan Cooper
Recent genomic data have revealed multiple interactions between Neanderthals and modern humans, but there is currently little genetic evidence regarding Neanderthal behaviour, diet, or disease. Here we describe the shotgun-sequencing of ancient DNA from five specimens of Neanderthal calcified dental plaque (calculus) and the characterization of regional differences in Neanderthal ecology. At Spy cave, Belgium, Neanderthal diet was heavily meat based and included woolly rhinoceros and wild sheep (mouflon), characteristic of a steppe environment...
April 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252042/understanding-the-emergence-of-modern-humans-and-the-disappearance-of-neanderthals-insights-from-kaldar-cave-khorramabad-valley-western-iran
#14
Behrouz Bazgir, Andreu Ollé, Laxmi Tumung, Lorena Becerra-Valdivia, Katerina Douka, Thomas Higham, Jan van der Made, Andrea Picin, Palmira Saladié, Juan Manuel López-García, Hugues-Alexandre Blain, Ethel Allué, Mónica Fernández-García, Iván Rey-Rodríguez, Diego Arceredillo, Faranak Bahrololoumi, Moloudsadat Azimi, Marcel Otte, Eudald Carbonell
Kaldar Cave is a key archaeological site that provides evidence of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in Iran. Excavations at the site in 2014-2015 led to the discovery of cultural remains generally associated with anatomically modern humans (AMHs) and evidence of a probable Neanderthal-made industry in the basal layers. Attempts have been made to establish a chronology for the site. These include four thermoluminescence (TL) dates for Layer 4, ranging from 23,100 ± 3300 to 29,400 ± 2300 BP, and three AMS radiocarbon dates from charcoal samples belonging to the lower part of the same layer, yielding ages of 38,650-36,750 cal BP, 44,200-42,350 cal BP, and 54,400-46,050 cal BP (all at the 95...
March 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238406/the-effect-of-trauma-on-neanderthal-culture-a-mathematical-analysis
#15
W Nakahashi
Traumatic lesions are often observed in ancient skeletal remains. Since ancient medical technology was immature, severely traumatized individuals may have frequently lost the physical ability for cultural skills that demand complex body movements. I develop a mathematical model to analyze the effect of trauma on cultural transmission and apply it to Neanderthal culture using Neanderthal fossil data. I estimate from the data that the proportion of adult individuals who suffered traumatic injuries before death was approximately 0...
February 4, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195302/testing-biomechanical-models-of-human-lumbar-lordosis-variability
#16
Eric R Castillo, Connie Hsu, Ross W Mair, Daniel E Lieberman
OBJECTIVES: Lumbar lordosis (LL) is a key adaptation for bipedalism, but factors underlying curvature variations remain unclear. This study tests three biomechanical models to explain LL variability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty adults (15 male, 15 female) were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a standing posture analysis was conducted, and lumbar range of motion (ROM) was assessed. Three measures of LL were compared. The trunk's center of mass was estimated from external markers to calculate hip moments (Mhip ) and lumbar flexion moments...
May 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185859/association-of-irf5-polymorphisms-with-increased-risk-for-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-population-of-crete-a-southern-eastern-european-greek-island
#17
M I Zervou, J M Dorschner, Y Ghodke-Puranik, D T Boumpas, T B Niewold, G N Goulielmos
Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) regulates type I interferon (IFN)-responsive genes, and has been one of the most consistently associated genes with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We sought to investigate whether IRF5 haplotypes are associated with risk for SLE in the genetically homogeneous Greek population of the island of Crete, as well as whether these haplotypes are associated with increased type I IFN. 322 SLE patients and 247 healthy controls from Crete were genotyped for rs2004640, rs3807306, rs10488631 and rs2280714 SNPs of IRF5 gene by using Taqman primer-probe sets...
April 30, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166906/the-morphology-of-the-enamel-dentine-junction-in-neanderthal-molars-gross-morphology-non-metric-traits-and-temporal-trends
#18
Robert M G Martin, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Philipp Gunz, Matthew M Skinner
This study explores the morphological differences between the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) of maxillary and mandibular molars of Neanderthals (n = 150) and recent modern humans (n = 106), and between an earlier Neanderthal sample (consisting of Pre-Eemian and Eemian Neanderthals dating to before 115 ka) and a later Neanderthal sample (consisting of Post-Eemian Neanderthals dating to after 115 ka). The EDJ was visualised by segmenting microtomographic scans of each molar. A geometric morphometric methodology compared the positioning of the dentine horns, the shape of the marginal ridge between the dentine horns, and the shape of the cervix...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154067/interglacial-neanderthal-habitats
#19
Andrew M Sugden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125602/the-aggradational-successions-of-the-aniene-river-valley-in-rome-age-constraints-to-early-neanderthal-presence-in-europe
#20
Fabrizio Marra, Piero Ceruleo, Luca Pandolfi, Carmelo Petronio, Mario F Rolfo, Leonardo Salari
We revise the chronostratigraphy of several sedimentary successions cropping out along a 5 km-long tract of the Aniene River Valley in Rome (Italy), which yielded six hominin remains previously attributed to proto- or archaic Neanderthal individuals, as well as a large number of lithic artefacts showing intermediate characteristics somewhere between the local Acheulean and Mousterian cultures. Through a method of correlation of aggradational successions with post-glacial sea-level rises, relying on a large set of published 40Ar/39Ar ages of interbedded volcanic deposits, we demonstrate that deposition of the sediments hosting the human remains spans the interval 295-220 ka...
2017: PloS One
keyword
keyword
22467
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"