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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343377/protein-kinase-c-mediates-the-corticosterone-induced-sensitization-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-innervating-the-rat-stomach
#1
Meng Li, Lu Xue, Hong-Yan Zhu, Hongjun Wang, Xue Xu, Geping Wu, Guang-Yin Xu
Background/Aims: Gastric hypersensitivity contributes to abdominal pain in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). Recent studies showed that hormones induced by stress are correlated with visceral hypersensitivity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying gastric hypersensitivity remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was designed to investigate the roles of corticosterone (CORT) on excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the stomach. Methods: DRG neurons innervating the stomach were labeled by DiI injection into the stomach wall...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343307/modular-organization-of-muscle-activity-patterns-in-the-leading-and-trailing-limbs-during-obstacle-clearance-in-healthy-adults
#2
Michael J MacLellan
Human locomotor patterns require precise adjustments to successfully navigate complex environments. Studies suggest that the central nervous system may control such adjustments through supraspinal signals modifying a basic locomotor pattern at the spinal level. To explore this proposed control mechanism in the leading and trailing limbs during obstructed walking, healthy young adults stepped over obstacles measuring 0.1 and 0.2 m in height. Unobstructed walking with no obstacle present was also performed as a baseline...
March 25, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343297/association-of-the-cx3cr1-v249i-variant-with-neurofibrillary-pathology-progression-in-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Alan López-López, Ellen Gelpi, Diana Maria Lopategui, Jose M Vidal-Taboada
Neuroinflammation and microglial dysfunction have a prominent role in the pathogenesis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). CX3CR1 is a microglia-specific gene involved in microglia-neuron crosstalk and neuroinflammation. Numerous evidence show the involvement of CX3CR1 in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate if some functional genetic variants of this gene could influence on LOAD's outcome, in a neuropathologically confirmed Spanish cohort. We designed an open, pragmatic, case-control retrospective study including a total of 475 subjects (205 pathologically confirmed AD cases and 270 controls)...
March 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343294/neuroprotective-role-of-exogenous-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-hypoxia-hypoglycemia-induced-hippocampal-neuron-injury-via-regulating-trkb-mir134-signaling
#4
Weidong Huang, Facai Meng, Jie Cao, Xiaobin Liu, Jie Zhang, Min Li
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is an important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported to play a neuroprotective role in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury; however, the specific effects and mechanism of BDNF on hypoxic-hypoglycemic hippocampal neuron injury remains unknown. The current study investigated the action of BDNF in regulating cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury by simulating hippocampal neuron ischemia and hypoxia. We found that BDNF, p-Trkb, and miR-134 expression levels decreased, and that exogenous BDNF increased survival and reduced apoptosis in hypoxic-hypoglycemic hippocampal neurons...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343248/uncovering-specific-changes-in-network-wiring-underlying-the-primate-cerebrotype
#5
Salah Hamodeh, Ayse Bozkurt, Haian Mao, Fahad Sultan
Regular scaling of brain networks during evolution has been proposed to be the major process leading to enlarged brains. Alternative views, however, suggest that deviations from regular scaling were crucial to the evolution of the primate brain and the emergence of different cerebrotypes. Here, we examined the scaling within the major link between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex by studying the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). We compared the major axonal and dendritic wiring in the DCN of rodents and monkeys in search of regular scaling...
March 25, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343228/focal-brain-injury-associated-with-a-model-of-severe-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-nonhuman-primates
#6
Ryan M McAdams, Ronald J McPherson, Raj P Kapur, Sandra E Juul
Worldwide, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. To better understand the mechanisms contributing to brain injury and improve outcomes in neonates with HIE, better preclinical animal models that mimic the clinical situation following birth asphyxia in term newborns are needed. In an effort to achieve this goal, we modified our nonhuman primate model of HIE induced by in utero umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) to include postnatal hypoxic episodes, in order to simulate apneic events in human neonates with HIE...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343223/sildenafil-enhances-quantity-of-immature-neurons-and-promotes-functional-recovery-in-the-developing-ischemic-mouse-brain
#7
Jonas Engels, Natalie Elting, Lisa Braun, Ivo Bendix, Josephine Herz, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Mark Dzietko
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury to the developing brain occurs in 1 out of 1,000 live births and remains a major cause of significant morbidity and mortality. A large number of survivors suffer from long-term sequelae including seizures and neurological deficits. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of recovery after HI insult are not clearly understood, and preventive measures or clinical treatments are nonexistent or not sufficiently effective in the clinical setting...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343214/moderate-grade-germinal-matrix-haemorrhage-activates-cell-division-in-the-neonatal-mouse-subventricular-zone
#8
William J Dawes, Xinyu Zhang, Stephen P J Fancy, David Rowitch, Silvia Marino
Precise temporal and spatial control of the neural stem/progenitor cells within the subventricular zone (SVZ) germinal matrix of the brain is important for normal development in the third trimester and the early postnatal period. The high metabolic demands of proliferating germinal matrix precursors, coupled with the flimsy structure of the germinal matrix cerebral vasculature, are thought to account for the high rates of haemorrhage in extremely- and very-low-birth-weight preterm infants. Germinal matrix haemorrhage can commonly extend to intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343168/potential-skin-involvement-in-als-revisiting-charcot-s-observation-a-review-of-skin-abnormalities-in-als
#9
Bastien Paré, François Gros-Louis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive paralysis and death. Interestingly, many skin changes have been reported in ALS patients, but never as yet fully explained. These observations could be due to the common embryonic origin of the skin and neural tissue known as the ectodermal germ layer. Following the first observation in ALS patients' skin by Dr Charcot in the 19th century, in the absence of bedsores unlike other bedridden patients, other morphological and molecular changes have been observed...
March 25, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343167/the-unappreciated-roles-of-the-cholecystokinin-receptor-cck-1-in-brain-functioning
#10
Santiago Ballaz
The CCK(1) receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by the sulfated forms of cholecystokinin (CCK), a gastrin-like peptide released in the gastrointestinal tract and mammal brain. A substantial body of research supports the hypothesis that CCK(1)r stimulates gallbladder contraction and pancreatic secretion in the gut, as well as satiety in brain. However, this receptor may also fulfill relevant roles in behavior, thanks to its widespread distribution in the brain. The strategic location of CCK(1)r in mesolimbic structures and specific hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei lead to complex interactions with neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate, as well as hypothalamic hormones and neuropeptides...
March 25, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343142/circuit-mechanisms-of-sleepiness-and-cataplexy-in-narcolepsy
#11
REVIEW
Sara Pintwala, John Peever
Narcolepsy is a debilitating sleep disorder caused by loss of orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy are the major complaints in narcolepsy, and are associated with impaired quality of life. Although it is unclear how orexin loss causes sleepiness and cataplexy, animal models have been instrumental in identifying the neurobiological underpinnings of narcolepsy because they reliably recapitulate disease symptoms. Current evidence indicates that orexin cell loss causes sleepiness and cataplexy by destabilizing the ability of the circuits that initiate and sustain normal levels of arousal and motor activity...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343073/breviscapine-confers-a-neuroprotective-efficacy-against-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-by-attenuating-neuronal-and-astrocytic-autophagy-in-the-penumbra
#12
Zhang Pengyue, Guo Tao, He Hongyun, Yang Liqiang, Deng Yihao
Breviscapine is a flavonoid derived from a traditional Chinese herb Erigerin breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz, and has been extensively used in clinical treatment for cerebral stroke in China, but the underlying pharmacological mechanisms are still unclear. In present study, we investigated whether breviscapine could confer a neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia injury by targeting autophagy mechanisms. A cerebral stroke model in Sprague-Dawley rats was prepared by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), rats were then randomly divided into 5 groups: MCAO+Bre group, rats were treated with breviscapine; MCAO+Tat-Beclin-1 group, animals were administrated with specific autophagy inducer Tat-Beclin-1; MCAO+Bre+Tat-Beclin-1 group, rats were treated with both breviscapine and Tat-Beclin-1, MCAO+saline group, rats received the same volume of physiological saline, and Sham surgery group...
March 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343071/analgesia-effect-of-baicalein-against-ntg-induced-migraine-in-rats
#13
Xiao-Fan Zhang, Wen-Jun Zhang, Cui-Lan Dong, Wan-Li Hu, Yu-Yao Sun, Yarigui Bao, Chun-Feng Zhang, Chang-Run Guo, Chong-Zhi Wang, Chun-Su Yuan
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a complex nervous system disease characterized by typical throbbing and unilateral headache, which causes severe healthy and social issues worldwide. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of baicalein (BAI) on the treatment of migraine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four rats were randomly divided equally into four groups, including a blank group, model group, positive group (ibuprofen tablets 82mg/kg), and BAI group (60mg/kg)...
March 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343068/the-role-of-trail-in-fatigue-induced-by-repeated-stress-from-radiotherapy
#14
Li Rebekah Feng, Simeng Suy, Sean P Collins, Leorey N Saligan
Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating side effects of cancer and cancer treatment, and yet its etiology remains elusive. The goal of this study is to understand the role of chronic inflammation in fatigue following repeated stress from radiotherapy. Fatigue and non-fatigue categories were assessed using ≥ 3-point change in Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue questionnaire (FACT-F) administered to participants at baseline/before radiotherapy and one year post-radiotherapy. Whole genome microarray and cytokine multiplex panel were used to examine fatigue-related transcriptome and serum cytokine changes, respectively...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343066/calcium-triggers-reversal-of-calmodulin-on-nested-anti-parallel-sites-in-the-iq-motif-of-the-neuronal-voltage-dependent-sodium-channel-nav1-2
#15
Liam Hovey, C Andrew Fowler, Ryan Mahling, Zesen Lin, Mark Stephen Miller, Dagan C Marx, Jesse B Yoder, Elaine H Kim, Kristin M Tefft, Brett C Waite, Michael D Feldkamp, Liping Yu, Madeline A Shea
Several members of the voltage-gated sodium channel family are regulated by calmodulin (CaM) and ionic calcium. The neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.2 contains binding sites for both apo (calcium-depleted) and calcium-saturated CaM. We have determined equilibrium dissociation constants for rat NaV1.2 IQ motif [IQRAYRRYLLK] binding to apo CaM (~3nM) and (Ca(2+))4-CaM (~85nM), showing that apo CaM binding is favored by 30-fold. For both apo and (Ca(2+))4-CaM, NMR demonstrated that NaV1.2 IQ motif peptide (NaV1...
March 9, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343004/actively-controlled-release-of-dexamethasone-from-neural-microelectrodes-in-a-chronic-in%C3%A2-vivo-study
#16
C Boehler, C Kleber, N Martini, Y Xie, I Dryg, T Stieglitz, U G Hofmann, M Asplund
Stable interconnection to neurons in vivo over long time-periods is critical for the success of future advanced neuroelectronic applications. The inevitable foreign body reaction towards implanted materials challenges the stability and an active intervention strategy would be desirable to treat inflammation locally. Here, we investigate whether controlled release of the anti-inflammatory drug Dexamethasone from flexible neural microelectrodes in the rat hippocampus has an impact on probe-tissue integration over 12 weeks of implantation...
March 13, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343000/evidence-for-similar-patterns-of-neural-activity-elicted-by-picture-and-word-based-representations-of-natural-scenes
#17
Manoj Kumar, Kara D Federmeier, Li Fei-Fei, Diane M Beck
A long-standing core question in cognitive science is whether different modalities and representation types (pictures, words, sounds, etc.) access a common store of semantic information. Although different input types have been shown to activate a shared network of brain regions, this does not necessitate that there is a common representation, as the neurons in these regions could still differentially process the different modalities. However, multi-voxel pattern analysis can be used to assess whether, e.g...
March 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342966/time-courses-of-post-injury-mitochondrial-oxidative-damage-and-respiratory-dysfunction-and-neuronal-cytoskeletal-degradation-in-a-rat-model-of-focal-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Rachel L Hill, Indrapal N Singh, Juan A Wang, Edward D Hall
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in rapid reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative damage to essential brain cellular components leading to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. It is increasingly appreciated that a major player in TBI-induced oxidative damage is the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) peroxynitrite (PN) which is produced in large part in injured brain mitochondria. Once formed, PN decomposes into highly reactive free radicals that trigger membrane lipid peroxidation (LP) of polyunsaturated fatty acids (e...
March 23, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342896/neuroprotective-and-axonal-outgrowth-promoting-effects-of-tetramethylpyrazine-nitrone-in-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-rats-and-primary-hippocampal-neurons-exposed-to-hypoxia
#19
Tao Zhang, Jianbo Gu, Liangmiao Wu, Ning Li, Yewei Sun, Pei Yu, Yuqiang Wang, Gaoxiao Zhang, Zaijun Zhang
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is an important risk factor for vascular dementia and other brain dysfunctions, for which there are currently no effective medications available. We investigated the neuroprotective and axonal outgrowth promoting effects of tetramethylpyrazine nitrone (TBN) in a permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO) rat model and in primary hippocampal neurons exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). At 6th week after 2VO, TBN increased the time spent in novel arms in the Y-maze test and improved the discrimination ratio in object reorganization task...
March 22, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342892/comparison-of-three-cell-based-drug-screening-platforms-for-hsv-1-infection
#20
Leonardo D'Aiuto, Kelly Williamson, Peter Dimitrion, James McNulty, Carla E Brown, Chanti Babu Dokuburra, Alexander J Nielsen, Wen Jing Lin, Paolo Piazza, Mark E Schurdak, Joel Wood, Robert H Yolken, Paul R Kinchington, David C Bloom, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar
Acyclovir (ACV) and its derivatives have been highly effective for treating recurrent, lytic infections with Herpes Simplex Virus, type 1 (HSV-1), but searches for additional antiviral drugs are motivated by recent reports of resistance to ACV, particularly among immunocompromised patients. In addition, the relative neurotoxicity of ACV and its inability to prevent neurological sequelae among HSV-1 encephalitis survivors compel searches for new drugs to treat HSV-1 infections of the central nervous system (CNS)...
March 22, 2017: Antiviral Research
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