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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088747/decreased-s100b-serum-levels-after-treatment-in-bipolar-patients-in-a-manic-phase
#1
Meng-Chang Tsai, Tiao-Lai Huang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that patients with bipolar disorder might have brain damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of brain injury biomarkers and S100A10 in bipolar patients in a manic phase, and evaluate the changes in S100B, neuron specific enolase (NSE), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and S100A10 after treatment. METHOD: We consecutively enrolled 17 bipolar inpatients in a manic phase and 30 healthy subjects. Serum brain injury biomarkers and S100A10 were measured with assay kits...
January 3, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088732/apelin-13-protects-rat-primary-cortical-glia-neuron-co-culture-against-pentylenetetrazole-induced-toxicity
#2
Taj Pari Kalantaripour, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Vahid Sheibani, Hamid Najafipour, Majid Asadi-Shekaari M
In spite of recent advances in the treatment of epilepsy, up to 35% of people living with the condition do not respond to accessible anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and continue to experience regular, devastating and potentially life-threatening seizures. Neuronal death is a significant feature of epilepsy in humans and experimental models. It has been reported that apelin, an endogenous ligand for the angiotensin-1-like receptor (APJ), has anticonvulsive as well as protective effects in some neurodegenerative situations...
January 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088670/fibrin-hydrogels-induce-mixed-dorsal-ventral-spinal-neuron-identities-during-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
John M Edgar, Meghan Robinson, Stephanie M Willerth
: We hypothesized that generating spinal motor neurons (sMNs) from human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neural aggregates (NAs) using a chemically-defined differentiation protocol would be more effective inside of 3D fibrin hydrogels compared to 2D poly-L-ornithine(PLO)/laminin-coated tissue culture plastic surfaces. We performed targeted RNA-Seq using next generation sequencing to determine the substrate-specific differences in gene expression that regulate cell phenotype...
January 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088609/leukemia-inhibitory-factor-impairs-structural-and-neurochemical-development-of-rat-visual-cortex-in-vivo
#4
Maren Engelhardt, Graziella di Cristo, Jochen Grabert, Silke Patz, Lamberto Maffei, Nicoletta Berardi, Petra Wahle
Minipump infusions into visual cortex in vivo at the onset of the critical period have revealed that the proinflammatory cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) delays the maturation of thalamocortical projection neurons of the lateral geniculate nucleus, and tecto-thalamic projection neurons of the superior colliculus, and cortical layer IV spiny stellates and layer VI pyramidal neurons. Here, we report that P12-20 LIF infusion inhibits somatic maturation of pyramidal neurons and of all interneuron types in vivo...
January 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088559/increased-expression-of-carbon-monoxide-producing-enzymes-in-the-mpoa-after-sexual-experience-in-male-rats
#5
Christopher L Robison, Jenna A McHenry, Elaine M Hull
The hypothalamus contains numerous nuclei involved in the regulation of reproductive, stress, circadian, and homeostatic behaviors, with many of these nuclei concentrated within the preoptic and anterior regions. The gaseous neurotransmitter, nitric oxide (NO), has already been shown to have an important regulatory role within the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of the anterior hypothalamus, where it facilitates sexual behaviors. However, little is known about the role of other gaseous neurotransmitters in this area...
January 11, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088524/possible-roles-of-the-transcription-factor-nrf1-nfe2l1-in-neural-homeostasis-by-regulating-the-gene-expression-of-deubiquitinating-enzymes
#6
Hiroaki Taniguchi, Shota Okamuro, Misaki Kohji, Tsuyoshi Waku, Kaori Kubo, Atsushi Hatanaka, Yimeng Sun, A M Masudul Azad Chowdhury, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Akira Kobayashi
The transcription factor Nrf1 (NFE2L1) maintains protein homeostasis (proteostasis) by regulating the gene expression of proteasome subunits in response to proteasome inhibition. The deletion of the Nrf1 gene in neural stem/progenitor cells causes severe neurodegeneration due to the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in Purkinje cells and motor neurons (Nrf1 NKO mice). However, the molecular mechanisms governing this neurodegenerative process remain unclear. We demonstrate herein that the loss of Nrf1 leads to the reduced gene expression of the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) but not proteasome subunits in Nrf1 NKO mice between P7 and P18...
January 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088488/average-activity-but-not-variability-is-the-dominant-factor-in-the-representation-of-object-categories-in-the-brain
#7
Hamid Karimi-Rouzbahani, Nasour Bagheri, Reza Ebrahimpour
To categorize the perceived objects, brain utilizes a broad set of its resources and encoding strategies. Yet, it remains elusive how the category information is encoded in the brain. While many classical studies have sought the category information in the across-trials-averaged activity of neurons/neural populations, several recent studies have observed category information also in the within-trial correlated variability of activities between neural populations (i.e. dependent variability). Moreover, other studies have observed that independent variability of activity, which is the variability of the measured neural activity without any influence from correlated variability with other neurons/populations, could also be modulated for improved categorization...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088482/combined-spatiotemporal-ica-stica-for-continuous-and-dynamic-lag-structure-analysis-of-mreg-data
#8
Ville Raatikainen, Niko Huotari, Vesa Korhonen, Aleksi Rasila, Janne Kananen, Lauri Raitamaa, Tuija Keinänen, Jussi Kantola, Osmo Tervonen, Vesa Kiviniemi
This study investigated lag structure in the resting-state fMRI by applying a novel independent component (ICA) method to magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG) data. Briefly, the spatial ICA (sICA) was used for defining the frontal and back nodes of the default mode network (DMN), and the temporal ICA (tICA), which is enabled by the high temporal resolution of MREG (TR=100ms), was used to separate both neuronal and physiological components of these two spatial map regions. Subsequently, lag structure was investigated between the frontal (DMNvmpf) and posterior (DMNpcc) DMN nodes using both conventional method with all-time points and a sliding-window approach...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088465/neuronal-effects-of-thyroid-hormone-metabolites
#9
Eva K Wirth, Franziska Meyer
Thyroid hormones and their metabolites are active regulators of gene expression, mitochondrial function and various other physiological actions in different organs and tissues. These actions are mediated by a spatio-temporal regulation of thyroid hormones and metabolites within a target cell. This spatio-temporal resolution as well as classical and non-classical actions of thyroid hormones and metabolites is accomplished and regulated on multiple levels as uptake, local activation and signaling of thyroid hormones...
January 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088401/pharmacological-rescue-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-a-mouse-model-of-x-linked-intellectual-disability
#10
Manuela Allegra, Cristina Spalletti, Beatrice Vignoli, Stefano Azzimondi, Irene Busti, Pierre Billuart, Marco Canossa, Matteo Caleo
Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) is a Rho GTPase activating protein whose mutations cause X-linked intellectual disability (XLID). How loss of function of Ophn1 affects neuronal development is only partly understood. Here we have exploited adult hippocampal neurogenesis to dissect the steps of neuronal differentiation that are affected by Ophn1 deletion. We found that mice lacking Ophn1 display a reduction in the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus. A significant fraction of the Ophn1-deficient newly generated neurons failed to extend an axon towards CA3, and showed an altered density of dendritic protrusions...
January 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088386/trypsin-induces-biphasic-muscle-contraction-and-relaxation-via-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-and-neurokinin-receptors-1-2-in-porcine-esophageal-body
#11
Bai Xiaopeng, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Eikichi Ihara, Katsuya Hirano, Kayoko Nakano, Mayumi Hirano, Yoshinao Oda, Kazuhiko Nakamura
Duodenal reflux of fluids containing trypsin relates to refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Esophageal peristalsis and clearance are important factors in GERD pathogenesis. However, the function of trypsin in esophageal body contractility is not fully understood. In this study, effects of trypsin on circular smooth muscle (CSM) and longitudinal smooth muscle (LSM) of the porcine esophageal body were examined. Trypsin elicited a concentration dependent biphasic response, a major contraction and a subsequent relaxation only in CSM...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088383/evaluating-the-role-of-astrocytes-on-%C3%AE-estradiol-effect-on-seizures-of-pilocarpine-epileptic-model
#12
Masoumeh Sarfi, Mahmoud Elahdadi Salmani, Iran Goudarzi, Taghi Lashkar Boluki, Kataneh Abrari
Epilepsy with periodic and unpredictable seizures is associated with hippocampal glutamate toxicity and tissue reorganization. Astrocytes play an important role in mediating the neuroprotective effects of estradiol and reducing seizure severity. Accordingly, the protective effects of low and high doses of estradiol on behavioral, astrocytic involvement and neuronal survival aspects of Pilocarpine-induced epilepsy were investigated. Lithium- Pilocarpine (30mg/kg) model was used to provoke epilepsy. Βeta-estradiol (2,40μg/ µl) was injected subcutaneously from 48 before to 48h after seizure induction...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088365/stem-cells-for-als-an-overview-of-possible-therapeutic-approaches
#13
REVIEW
Joanna Czarzasta, Aleksandra Habich, Tomasz Siwek, Adam Czapliński, Wojciech Maksymowicz, Joanna Wojtkiewicz
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an unusual, fatal, neurodegenerative disorder leading to the loss of motor neurons. After diagnosis, the average lifespan ranges from 3 to 5 years, and death usually results from respiratory failure. Although the pathogenesis of ALS remains unclear, multiple factors are thought to contribute to the progression of ALS, such as network interactions between genes, environmental exposure, impaired molecular pathways and many others. The neuroprotective properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) and the paracrine signaling of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been examined in multiple pre-clinical trials of ALS with promising results...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088342/nanoparticle-standards-for-immuno-based-quantitation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-oligomers-in-diagnostics-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-other-synucleopathies
#14
Yvonne Herrmann, Tuyen Bujnicki, Christian Zafiu, Andreas Kulawik, Katja Kühbach, Luriano Peters, Judith Fabig, Johannes Willbold, Oliver Bannach, Dieter Willbold
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by symptoms such as rigor, tremor and bradykinesia. A reliable and early diagnosis could improve the development of early therapeutic strategies before death of dopaminergic neurons leads to the first clinical symptoms. The sFIDA (surface-based fluorescence intensity distribution analysis) assay is a highly sensitive method to determine the concentration of α-synuclein (α-syn) oligomers, which are presumably the major toxic isoform of α-syn and potentially the most direct biomarker for PD...
January 11, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088287/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-3-deficiency-leads-to-behavior-impairment-with-monoaminergic-and-synaptic-dysfunction
#15
Hongmei Dai, Yu-Ichi Goto, Masayuki Itoh
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 regulates IGF bioactivity, induces apoptosis, and inhibits cell growth independent of IGFs, but the functional role of IGFBP3 in the brain is not clear. In the present study, we revealed the effect of IGFBP3 on the brain by characterizing the phenotype of Igfbp3-null mice. Compared with wild-type mice, Igfbp3-null mice had significantly decreased IGF-1 content in the brain but no change in weights of brain and body. In Igfbp3-null mice, the number of dendritic spines was significantly reduced, and the dendritic diameter was thickening...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088249/interactions-of-human-microglia-cells-with-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#16
Nils Lannes, Viviane Neuhaus, Brigitte Scolari, Solange Kharoubi-Hess, Michael Walch, Artur Summerfield, Luis Filgueira
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a neurotropic flavivirus causing mortality and morbidity in humans. Severe Japanese encephalitis cases display strong inflammatory responses in the central nervous system and an accumulation of viral particles in specific brain regions. Microglia cells are the unique brain-resident immune cell population with potent migratory functions and have been proposed to act as a viral reservoir for JEV. Animal models suggest that the targeting of microglia by JEV is partially responsible for inflammatory reactions in the brain...
January 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088231/efficacy-of-gabapentin-for-prevention-of-postherpetic-neuralgia-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#17
Manuel Rullán, Oana Bulilete, Alfonso Leiva, Aina Soler, Antonia Roca, María José González-Bals, Patricia Lorente, Joan Llobera
BACKGROUND: Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a chronic neuropathic pain that results from alterations of the peripheral nervous system in areas affected by the herpes zoster virus. The symptoms include pain, paresthesia, dysesthesia, hyperalgesia, and allodynia. Despite the availability of pharmacological treatments to control these symptoms, no treatments are available to control the underlying pathophysiology responsible for this disabling condition. METHODS/DESIGN: Patients with herpes zoster who are at least 50 years old and have a pain score of 4 or higher on a visual analogue scale (VAS) will be recruited...
January 14, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088077/rhoa-knockdown-by-cationic-amphiphilic-copolymer-sirhoa-polyplexes-enhances-axonal-regeneration-in-rat-spinal-cord-injury-model
#18
So-Jung Gwak, Christian Macks, Da Un Jeong, Mark Kindy, Michael Lynn, Ken Webb, Jeoung Soo Lee
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent loss of motor and sensory function due to developmentally-related and injured-induced changes in the extrinsic microenvironment and intrinsic neuronal biochemistry that limit plasticity and axonal regeneration. Our long term goal is to develop cationic, amphiphilic copolymers (poly (lactide-co-glycolide)-g-polyethylenimine, PgP) for combinatorial delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids (TNAs) and drugs targeting these different barriers. In this study, we evaluated the ability of PgP to deliver siRNA targeting RhoA, a critical signaling pathway activated by multiple extracellular inhibitors of axonal regeneration...
January 3, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088067/tuning-neural-circuits-by-turning-the-interneuron-knob
#19
REVIEW
Nathalie Dehorter, Nicolás Marichal, Oscar Marín, Benedikt Berninger
Interneurons play a critical role in sculpting neuronal circuit activity and their dysfunction can result in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. To temporally structure and balance neuronal activity in the adult brain interneurons display a remarkable degree of subclass-specific plasticity, of which the underlying molecular mechanisms have recently begun to be elucidated. Grafting new interneurons to pre-existing neuronal networks allows for amelioration of circuit dysfunction in rodent models of neurological disease and can reopen critical windows for circuit plasticity...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088066/activity-dependent-development-of-visual-receptive-fields
#20
REVIEW
Andrew Thompson, Alexandra Gribizis, Chinfei Chen, Michael C Crair
It is widely appreciated that neuronal activity contributes to the development of brain representations of the external world. In the visual system, in particular, it is well known that activity cooperates with molecular cues to establish the topographic organization of visual maps on a macroscopic scale [1,2] (Huberman et al., 2008; Cang and Feldheim, 2013), mapping axons in a retinotopic and eye-specific manner. In recent years, significant progress has been made in elucidating the role of activity in driving the finer-scale circuit refinement that shapes the receptive fields of individual cells...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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