Read by QxMD icon Read


Hiroko Kubo, Masahito Nakataki, Satsuki Sumitani, Jun-Ichi Iga, Shusuke Numata, Naomi Kameoka, Shin-Ya Watanabe, Hidehiro Umehara, Makoto Kinoshita, Masatoshi Inoshita, Mai Tamaru, Masashi Ohta, Chiaki Nakayama-Yamauchi, Yasuhiro Funakoshi, Masafumi Harada, Tetsuro Ohmori
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have shown neurophysiological abnormalities related to the glutamate (Glu)-glutamine (Gln) cycle, membrane turnover, and neuronal integrity, although the results were neither consistent nor conclusive. Recently it has been reported the Gln/Glu ratio is the most useful index, quantifying neuronal-glial interactions and the balance of glutamatergic metabolites In this MRS study, we elucidated the abnormalities of metabolites in a larger sample of patients with BD with a high-field MRI system...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Francesca Rocchi, Margit E Dylla, Peter A Bohlen, Ramnarayan Ramachandran
Detection thresholds for auditory stimuli (signals) increase in the presence of maskers. Natural environments contain maskers/distractors that can have a wide range of spatiotemporal properties relative to the signal. While these parameters have been well explored psychophysically in humans, they have not been well explored in animal models, and their neuronal underpinnings are not well understood. As a precursor to the neuronal measurements, we report the effects of systematically varying the spatial and temporal relationship between signals and noise in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta and Macaca radiata)...
October 19, 2016: Hearing Research
Shigeto Sato, Masato Koike, Manabu Funayama, Junji Ezaki, Takahiro Fukuda, Takashi Ueno, Yasuo Uchiyama, Nobutaka Hattori
Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS) is an autosomal recessive form of early-onset parkinsonism linked to the PARK9 locus. The causative gene for KRS is Atp13a2, which encodes a lysosomal type 5 P-type ATPase. We recently showed that KRS/PARK9-linked mutations lead to several lysosomal alterations, including reduced proteolytic processing of cathepsin D in vitro. However, it remains unknown how deficiency of Atp13a2 is connected to lysosomal impairments. To address this issue, we analyzed brain tissues of Atp13a2 conditional-knockout mice, which exhibited characteristic features of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, including accumulation of lipofuscin positive for subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase, suggesting that a common pathogenic mechanism underlies both neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and Parkinson disease...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Birol Ay, Erdal Karaoz, Cumhur C Kesemenli, Halime Kenar
The reconstruction of skeletal muscle tissue is currently performed by transplanting a muscle tissue graft from local or distant sites of the patient`s body, but this practice leads to donor site morbidity in case of large defects. With the aim of providing an alternative treatment approach, skeletal muscle tissue formation potential of human myoblasts and human menstrual blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMB-MSCs) on synthetic (poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone), 70:30) scaffolds with oriented microfibers, human muscle extracellular matrix (ECM), and their hybrids was investigated in this study...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Sylvia Neumann, Romain Chassefeyre, George E Campbell, Sandra E Encalada
In axons, proper localization of proteins, vesicles, organelles, and other cargoes is accomplished by the highly regulated coordination of kinesins and dyneins, molecular motors that bind to cargoes and translocate them along microtubule (MT) tracks. Impairment of axonal transport is implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases. To understand how MT-based cargo motility is regulated and to delineate its role in neurodegeneration, it is critical to analyze the detailed dynamics of moving cargoes inside axons...
October 22, 2016: Traffic
Simone A A Romariz, Daisyléa S Paiva, Layla T Galindo, Gabriela F Barnabé, Vivian A Guedes, Cesario V Borlongan, Beatriz M Longo
AIMS: Medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) progenitors give rise to inhibitory interneurons and may serve as an alternative cell source for large-scale cell transplantation for epilepsy after in vitro expansion. We investigated whether modifications in the culture medium of MGE neurospheres affect neuronal differentiation and expression of MGE-specific genes. In vivo, we compared anticonvulsant effects and cell differentiation pattern among neurospheres grown in different culture media and compared them with freshly harvested MGE cells...
October 21, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Zhen Lei, Abdul Sami Shaikh, Wenshuai Zheng, Xiao Yu, Jingui Yu, Jingxin Li
Itch, the unpleasant sensation that evokes a desire to scratch, accompanies numerous skin and nervous system disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of itch are unclear. Acid sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensor of acidic and primary inflammatory pain. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the effect of Chloroquine (CQ)on ASICs currents in primary sensory neurons or the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with rat-ASIC1a or- ASIC3. Site-directed mutagenesis of plasmid was performed...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
M G Jones, A P Andreou, S B McMahon, D Spanswick
BACKGROUND: Migraineurs are highly sensitive to the nitric oxide donor glyceryl trinitrate which triggers attacks in many sufferers. In animal studies, glyceryl trinitrate increases neuronal activity in the trigeminovascular pathway and elevates neurotransmitter levels in the brainstem. Many migraineurs also display alterations in blink reflexes, known to involve brainstem circuits. We investigated the effect of GTN on evoked blinks in the anaesthetised rat to determine whether such reflexes may prove useful as the basis for a novel animal model to evaluate potential anti-migraine therapeutic agents...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Sangmi Oh, Ichiro Kawasaki, Jae-Hyung Park, Yhong-Hee Shim
Cell division cycle 25 (cdc25) is an evolutionarily conserved phosphatase that promotes cell cycle progression. Among the four cdc25 orthologs in Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that cdc-25.4 mutant males failed to produce outcrossed progeny. This was not caused by defects in sperm development, but by defects in male mating behavior. The cdc-25.4 mutant males showed various defects during male mating, including contact response, backing, turning, and vulva location. Aberrant turning behavior was the most prominent defect in the cdc-25...
October 21, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
A R Fetoni, R Rolesi, F Paciello, S L M Eramo, C Grassi, D Troiani, G Paludetti
Experimental and human investigations have raised the level of concern about the potential ototoxicity of organic solvents and their interaction with noise. The main objective of this study was to characterize the effects of the combined noise and styrene exposure on hearing focusing on the mechanism of damage on the sensorineural cells and supporting cells of the organ of Corti and neurons of the ganglion of Corti. The impact of single and combined exposures on hearing was evaluated by auditory functional testing and histological analyses of cochlear specimens...
October 18, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Ruinan Gu, Fali Zhang, Gang Chen, Chaojun Han, Jay Liu, Zhaoxiang Ren, Yi Zhu, John L Waddington, Long Tai Zheng, Xuechu Zhen
Clock (Clk)1/COQ7 is a mitochondrial hydroxylase that is necessary for the biosynthesis of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q or UQ). Here, we investigate the role of Clk1 in neuroinflammation and consequentially dopaminergic (DA) neuron survival. Reduced expression of Clk1 in microglia enhanced the LPS-induced proinflammatory response and promoted aerobic glycolysis. Inhibition of glycolysis abolished Clk1 deficiency-induced hypersensitivity to the inflammatory stimulation. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that mTOR/HIF-1α and ROS/HIF-1α signaling pathways were involved in Clk1 deficiency-induced aerobic glycolysis...
October 18, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Lars Peter Engeset Austdal, Gro H Mathisen, Else Marit Løberg, Ragnhild E Paulsen
Immediate early gene nerve growth factor-induced clone B (NGFI-B), a nuclear receptor important for differentiation and apoptosis, is expressed in mice and rat cerebellum from an early stage of postnatal development. Following apoptotic stimuli NGFI-B translocates to mitochondria to initiate cell death processes. Controlled cell death is critical for correct cerebellar development. Immunohistochemical analysis of NGFI-B in sections of mice cerebella showed NGFI-B to be expressed in granule neurons in vivo at a time (P8-11) when apoptosis is known to occur...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Julie Grandbois, Sandhya Khurana, Kelly Graff, Phong Nguyen, Leah Meltz, T C Tai
Epinephrine is synthesized by the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), primarily in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and secondarily in brainstem adrenergic neurons of the medulla oblongata. Epinephrine is an important neurotransmitter/neurohormone involved in cardiovascular regulation; however, overproduction is detrimental with negative outcomes such as cellular damage, cardiovascular dysfunction, and hypertension. Genetic mapping studies have linked elevated expression of PNMT to hypertension...
October 18, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Moslem Mohammadi, Zohreh Zare, Esmaeil Allah-Moradi, Narges Vaezi, Reza Valadan, Mohsen Tehrani
Organophosphates affect brain function through a variety of mechanisms beyond their shared role as cholinesterase inhibitors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the changes in the expression of glial (GLAST and GLT-1) and neuronal (EAAC1) glutamate transporters at mRNA and protein levels in paraoxon-treated rat hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally treated with either vehicle (corn oil) or one of three dosages of paraoxon (0.3, 0.7 or 1mg/kg). After 4 or 18h, both hippocampi of each rat were collected to detect mRNA and protein expression of glutamate transporters using the quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting, respectively...
October 18, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Tianfang Jiang, Qian Sun, Shengdi Chen
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the overproduction and incorporation of free radicals and the dynamic ability of a biosystem to detoxify reactive intermediates. Free radicals produced by oxidative stress are one of the common features in several experimental models of diseases. Free radicals affect both the structure and function of neural cells, and contribute to a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Although the precise mechanisms that result in the degeneration of neurons and the relevant pathological changes remain unclear, the crucial role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is associated with several proteins (such as α-synuclein, DJ-1, Amyloid β and tau protein) and some signaling pathways (such as extracellular regulated protein kinases, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Protein Kinase B pathway and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2) that are tightly associated with the neural damage...
October 18, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
Long-Xing Xue, Zhong-Hang Xu, Jiao-Qi Wang, Cui Yang, Hong-Yu Liu, Wen-Zhao Liang, Qiu-Ye Ji, Jin-Ting He, Yan-Kun Shao, Jing Mang, Zhong-Xin Xu
Activin A (Act A), a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), reduces neuronal apoptosis during cerebral ischemia through Act A/Smads signaling pathway. However, little is known about the effect of Act A/Smads pathway on autophagy in neurons. Here, we found that oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced autophagy was suppressed by exogenous Act A in a concentration-dependent manner and enhanced by Act A/Smads pathway inhibitor (ActRIIA-Ab) in neuronal PC12 cells. These results indicate that Act A/Smads pathway negatively regulates autophagy in OGD-treated PC12 cells...
October 18, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Dongdong Chai, Hong Jiang, Qifang Li
OBJECTIVE: Previously, we found that the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane up-regulated the transcriptional factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein levels during induction of neurodegeneration in the brain of neonatal rats. Here, we investigated the role of HIF-1α and the underlying signaling pathway in the neurodegenration induced by isoflurane in rodent developing brain. METHODS: Primary hippocampal neurons were exposed to isoflurane (0.4mM) for 12h. Neuron injury was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethyithiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetra-zolium bromide (MTT) test and quantification of lactate dehydrogenaserelease...
October 18, 2016: Brain Research
Dan Li, Nan Liu, Liang Zhao, Lei Tong, Hitoshi Kawano, Hong-Jing Yan, Hong-Peng Li
Nigrostriatal pathway injury is one of the traumatic brain injury models that usually lead to neurological dysfunction or neuron necrosis. Resveratrol-induced benefits have recently been demonstrated in several models of neuronal degeneration diseases. However, the protective properties of resveratrol against neurodegeneration have not been explored definitely. Thus, we employ the nigrostriatal pathway injury model to mimic the insults on the brain. Resveratrol decreased the p-ERK expression and increased the p-JNK expression compared to the DMSO group, but not alter the p38 MAPK proteins around the lesion site by Western blot...
October 18, 2016: Brain Research
Da-Shi Qi, Jin-Hao Tao, Lian-Qin Zhang, Mei Wang, Rui Qu, Lian-Qin Zhang, Pei Liu, Jian-Cheng Miu, Jing-Yi Ma, Xin-Yu Mei
Cilostazol(CTL) is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which has been widely used as anti-platelet agent. It also has preventive effects on various central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including ischemic stroke, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer disease. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effects of CTL is still unclear, and whether CTL can prevent I/R induced cognitive deficit has not been reported. Transient global brain ischemia was induced by 4-vessel occlusion in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
October 18, 2016: Brain Research
Andrea Locci, Patrizia Porcu, Giuseppe Talani, Francesca Santoru, Roberta Berretti, Elisa Giunti, Valentina Licheri, Enrico Sanna, Alessandra Concas
Exposure of female rats to estradiol during the perinatal period has profound effects on GABAergic neurotransmission that are crucial to establish sexually dimorphic brain characteristics. We previously showed that neonatal β-estradiol 3-benzoate (EB) treatment decreases brain concentrations of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone, a potent positive modulator of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAAR). We thus evaluated whether neonatal EB treatment affects GABAAR expression and function in the hippocampus of adult female rats...
October 18, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"