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Point of care labs

Sean Robison, Gauri Rani Karur, Rachel M Wald, Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Andrew M Crean, Kate Hanneman
BACKGROUND: Calculation of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) extracellular volume (ECV) requires input of hematocrit, which may not be readily available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ECV calculated using various noninvasive measures of hematocrit compared to ECV calculated with input of laboratory hematocrit as the reference standard. METHODS: One hundred twenty three subjects (47.7 ± 14.1 years; 42% male) were prospectively recruited for CMR T1 mapping between August 2016 and April 2017...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Cuiping Ma, Hao Jing, Pansong Zhang, Lingzhi Han, Meiling Zhang, Fuxin Wang, Shuyan Niu, Chao Shi
A one-step, rapid, and visual method was developed for the detection of RNA viruses and a few copies of the Zika RNA virus were directly detected within 25 min by naked-eye observation. This method will prove to be promising for point-of-care testing in out-of-lab and inconvenient settings.
March 8, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Hoan T Ngo, Elizabeth Freedman, Ren Abelard Odion, Pietro Strobbia, Agampodi Swarnapali De Silva Indrasekara, Priya Vohra, Steve M Taylor, Tuan Vo-Dinh
Direct detection of genetic biomarkers in body fluid lysate without target amplification will revolutionize nucleic acid-based diagnostics. However, the low concentration of target sequences makes this goal challenging. We report a method for direct detection of pathogen RNA in blood lysate using a bioassay using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-based detection integrated in a "lab-in-a-stick" portable device. Two levels of signal enhancement were employed to achieve the sensitivity required for direct detection...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Geraldine Guillon, Graham Yearwood, Casey Snipes, Daniel Boschi, Michael R Reed
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and many public health jurisdictions continue to advocate for the most sensitive rapid HIV test that is available. Currently, the recommendation is to utilize tests that can detect HIV infection biomarkers within 30 days of infection, when initial immune responses are mounted. The infected patient's IgM response is often used to detect acute infection within a 20-25 days window after infection. This requirement applies to lab-based testing with automated analyzers and rapid, point of care (POC) testing used for screening in a non-clinical setting...
2018: PeerJ
Xingyu Jiang, Yunlei Xianyu, Jing Wu, Yiping Chen, Wenshu Zheng, Mengxia Xie
Multiplexed analysis of molecules with different concentrations requires assays with a tunable detection range. Herein, we outline a strategy that uses click chemistry to controllably assemble horseradish peroxidase to generate enzyme assemblies as probes for multiplexed bioassays. This controllable assembly of enzymes on detection antibodies allows for lab-on-a-chip immunoassays with a tunable detection range from pg/mL to µg/mL. Simultaneous, multiplexed bioassays of clinically relevant inflammatory biomarkers in serum are demonstrated in one lab-on-a-chip format, with a limit of detection of 0...
February 26, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Luck Tosan Ereku, Ruth E Mackay, Pascal Craw, Angel Naveenathayalan, Thomas Stead, Manorharanehru Branavan, Wamadeva Balachandran
A point of care device utilising Lab-on-a-Chip technologies that is applicable for biological pathogens was designed, fabricated and tested showing sample in to answer out capabilities. The purpose of the design was to develop a cartridge with the capability to perform nucleic acid extraction and purification from a sample using a chitosan membrane at an acidic pH. Waste was stored within the cartridge with the use of sodium polyacrylate to solidify or gelate the sample in a single chamber. Nucleic acid elution was conducted using the RPA amplification reagents (alkaline pH)...
February 12, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Di Zhang, Li Huang, Bing Liu, Haibin Ni, Liangdong Sun, Enben Su, Hongyuan Chen, Zhongze Gu, Xiangwei Zhao
Rapid and sensitive quantification of multiplex proteins in a wide concentration range is challenging in high throughput analysis. Herein, we proposed a lateral flow assay (LFA) based on core-shell surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanotags for multiplex and quantitative detection of cardiac biomarkers for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In practice, Raman dyes (RDs) were embedded into the interior-gap of silver core and gold shell nanoparticles (NPs) to form SERS nanotags as labels instead of gold colloids and three test lines were employed in the strip for the detection of three cardiac biomarkers, Myo, cTnI, and CK-MB, respectively...
February 1, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Jolien Haesen, Ward Eertmans, Cornelia Genbrugge, Ingrid Meex, Jelle Demeestere, Margot Vander Laenen, Willem Boer, Dieter Mesotten, Jo Dens, Frank Jans, Ludovic Ernon, Cathy De Deyne
AIMS: We aimed to validate retrospectively the accuracy of simplified electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring derived from the bispectral index (BIS) monitor in post-cardiac arrest (CA) patients. METHODS: Successfully resuscitated CA patients were transferred to the Catherization Lab followed by percutaneous coronary intervention when indicated. On arrival at the coronary care unit, bilateral BIS monitoring was started and continued up to 72 h. Raw simplified EEG tracings were extracted from the BIS monitor at a time point coinciding with the registration of standard EEG monitoring...
February 1, 2018: Resuscitation
Charles H Hubscher, April N Herrity, Carolyn S Williams, Lynnette R Montgomery, Andrea M Willhite, Claudia A Angeli, Susan J Harkema
OBJECTIVE: Locomotor training (LT) as a therapeutic intervention following spinal cord injury (SCI) is an effective rehabilitation strategy for improving motor outcomes, but its impact on non-locomotor functions is unknown. Given recent results of our labs' pre-clinical animal SCI LT studies and existing overlap of lumbosacral spinal circuitries controlling pelvic-visceral and locomotor functions, we addressed whether LT can improve bladder, bowel and sexual function in humans at chronic SCI time-points (> two years post-injury)...
2018: PloS One
Harald Peter, Nikitas Bistolas, Soeren Schumacher, Cecilia Laurisch, Paul C Guest, Ulrich Höller, Frank F Bier
Lab-on-a-chip assays allow rapid analysis of one or more molecular analytes on an automated user-friendly platform. Here we describe a fully automated assay and readout for measurement of vitamin D levels in less than 15 min using the Fraunhofer in vitro diagnostics platform. Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]) dilution series in buffer were successfully tested down to 2 ng/mL. This could be applied in the future as an inexpensive point-of-care analysis for patients suffering from a variety of conditions marked by vitamin D deficiencies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Paul C Guest
Many diseases result from programming effects in utero. This chapter describes recent advances in proteomic studies which have improved our understanding of the underlying pathophysiological pathways in the major psychiatric disorders, resulting in the development of potential novel biomarker tests. Such tests should be based on measurement of blood-based proteins given the ease of accessibility of this medium and the known connections between the periphery and the central nervous system. Most importantly, emerging biomarker tests should be developed on lab-on-a-chip and other handheld devices to enable point-of-care use...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Scott MacKay, Gaser N Abdelrasoul, Marcus Tamura, Donghai Lin, Zhimin Yan, Jie Chen
With the increased practice of preventative healthcare to help reduce costs worldwide, sensor technology improvement is vital to patient care. Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics can reduce time and lower labor in testing, and can effectively avoid transporting costs because of portable designs. Label-free detection allows for greater versatility in the detection of biological molecules. Here, we describe the use of an impedance-based POC biosensor that can detect changes in the surface modification of a micro-fabricated chip using impedance spectroscopy...
September 18, 2017: Sensors
Silu Feng, Changtian Chen, Wei Wang, Long Que
This paper reports an aptamer-based nanopore thin film sensor for detecting theophylline in the buffer solution and complex fluids including plant extracts and serum samples. Compared to antibody-based detection, aptamer-based detection offers many advantages such as low cost and high stability at elevated temperatures. Experiments found that this type of sensor can readily detect theophylline at a concentration as low as 0.05µM, which is much lower than the detection limit of current lab-based equipment such as liquid chromatography (LC)...
May 15, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Thomas E Winkler, Florence O Stevenson, Eunkyoung Kim, Mijeong Kang, Gregory F Payne, Deanna L Kelly, Reza Ghodssi
We present a perspective on microsystems integration aspects for concurrent cellular and molecular sensing in a lab-on-a-chip device. While of interest for a range of applications, very few - narrowly focused - examples of such devices can be found in the literature. Here, we approach the challenge from a systems level, considering sensor integration both in parallel and in series. Our study is specifically geared toward schizophrenia treatment, where concurrent blood monitoring of the antipsychotic clozapine and white blood cells could lead to improved treatment outcomes...
March 2018: IEEE Sensors Letters
I L G Law, J F C Loo, H C Kwok, H Y Yeung, C C H Leung, M Hui, S Y Wu, H S Chan, Y W Kwan, H P Ho, S K Kong
With the emergence of multi- and extensive-drug (MDR/XDR) resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), tuberculosis (TB) persists as one of the world's leading causes of death. Recently, isothermal DNA amplification methods received much attention due to their ease of translation onto portable point-of-care (POC) devices for TB diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to devise a simple yet robust detection method for M. tb. Amongst the numerous up-and-coming isothermal techniques, Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) was chosen for a real-time detection of TB with or without MDR...
January 2, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Hunter Bachman, Po-Hsun Huang, Shuaiguo Zhao, Shujie Yang, Peiran Zhang, Hai Fu, Tony Jun Huang
Acoustofluidic devices have continuously demonstrated their potential to impact medical diagnostics and lab-on-a-chip applications. To bring these technologies to real-world applications, they must be made more accessible to end users. Herein, we report on the effort to provide an easy-to-use and portable system for controlling sharp-edge-based acoustofluidic devices. With the use of a cell phone and a modified Bluetooth® speaker, on-demand and hands-free pumping and mixing are achieved. Additionally, a novel design for a sharp-edge-based acoustofluidic device is proposed that combines both pumping and mixing functions into a single device, thus removing the need for external equipment typically needed to accomplish these two tasks...
January 5, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Francesco Dal Dosso, Deborah Decrop, Elena Pérez-Ruiz, Devin Daems, Hannah Agten, Osamah Al-Ghezi, Olivier Bollen, Jolien Breukers, Florian De Rop, Maria Katsafadou, Jens Lepoudre, Linye Lyu, Pieter Piron, Robbe Saesen, Shoera Sels, Rani Soenen, Ellen Staljanssens, Jehan Taraporewalla, Tadej Kokalj, Dragana Spasic, Jeroen Lammertyn
The lab-on-a-chip (LOC) field has witnessed an excess of new technology concepts, especially for the point-of-care (POC) applications. However, only few concepts reached the POC market often because of challenging integration with pumping and detection systems as well as with complex biological assays. Recently, a new technology termed SIMPLE was introduced as a promising POC platform due to its features of being self-powered, autonomous in liquid manipulations, cost-effective and amenable to mass production...
February 13, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Sandeep Kumar Vashist
Recent years have witnessed tremendous advances in point-of-care diagnostics (POCD), which are a result of continuous developments in biosensors, microfluidic, bioanalytical platforms, assay formats, lab-on-a-chip technologies, and complementary technologies. This special issue targets the critical advances in POCD and provides guided insights and directions for future research.
December 18, 2017: Biosensors
Jeremy Veillard, Krycia Cowling, Asaf Bitton, Hannah Ratcliffe, Meredith Kimball, Shannon Barkley, Laure Mercereau, Ethan Wong, Chelsea Taylor, Lisa R Hirschhorn, Hong Wang
Policy Points: Strengthening accountability through better measurement and reporting is vital to ensure progress in improving quality primary health care (PHC) systems and achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) provides national decision makers and global stakeholders with opportunities to benchmark and accelerate performance improvement through better performance measurement. Results from the initial PHC performance assessments in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are helping guide PHC reforms and investments and improve the PHCPI's instruments and indicators...
December 2017: Milbank Quarterly
Wendy S Baker, Kathleen J Albright, Heidi Spratt, Megan Berman, Peggy A Mann, Jaime Unabia, John R Petersen
The data presented here was produced as part of an evaluation of the performance of the CoaguChek XS point-of-care coagulation analyzer, which is discussed in the research article "POCT PT INR - Is it adequate for Patient Care? A Comparison of the Roche Coaguchek XS vs. Stago Star vs. Siemens BCS in Patients Routinely Seen in an Anticoagulation Clinic" (Baker et al., in press) [1]. An effort to reconcile discrepancies in the patient INR result distributions from different central lab instruments (Stago Star and Siemens BCS) with the PT/INR line method is described (Poller et al...
February 2018: Data in Brief
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