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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323156/ischemia-induced-neuronal-cell-death-is-mediated-by-chemokine-receptor-cx3cr1
#1
Jinkun Wang, Yan Gan, Pengcheng Han, Junxiang Yin, Qingwei Liu, Soha Ghanian, Feng Gao, Guanghui Gong, Zhiwei Tang
The chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor CX3CR1 play a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of stroke. Previous studies have focused on a paracrine interaction between neurons that produce fractalkine and microglia that express CX3CR1 receptors in the central nervous system. Recent findings have demonstrated the functional expression of CX3CR1 receptors by hippocampal neurons, suggesting their involvement in neuroprotective and neurodegenerative actions. To elucidate the roles of neuronal CX3CR1 in neurodegeneration induced by ischemic stroke, a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was employed...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322931/differential-responses-of-innate-immunity-triggered-by-different-subtypes-of-influenza-a-viruses-in-human-and-avian-hosts
#2
Yingying Cao, Yaowei Huang, Ke Xu, Yuanhua Liu, Xuan Li, Ye Xu, Wu Zhong, Pei Hao
BACKGROUND: Innate immunity provides first line of defense against viral infections. The interactions between hosts and influenza A virus and the response of host innate immunity to viral infection are critical determinants for the pathogenicity or virulence of influenza A viruses. This study was designed to investigate global changes of gene expression and detailed responses of innate immune systems in human and avian hosts during the course of infection with various subtypes of influenza A viruses, using collected and self-generated transcriptome sequencing data from human bronchial epithelial (HBE), human tracheobronchial epithelial (HTBE), and A549 cells infected with influenza A virus subtypes, namely H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 HALo mutant, and H7N9, and from ileum and lung of chicken and quail infected with H5N1, or H5N2...
December 21, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313211/up-regulation-of-cx3cl1-via-stat3-contributes-to-smir-induced-chronic-postsurgical-pain
#3
Yijia Shen, Dai Li, Bo Li, Peng Xi, Yun Zhang, Youshui Jiang, Yehao Xu, Hui Chen, Yuanchang Xiong
Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) often occurs after surgery and has a strong impact on patients' daily lives. However, the underlying mechanism of CPSP remains unknown. Here, we used a skin/muscle incision and retraction (SMIR) model to investigate the role of CX3CL1 in SMIR-induced pain and its underlying mechanism. We found that up-regulation of CX3CL1 in the spinal dorsal horn contributed to SMIR-induced mechanical allodynia. The use of a CX3CL1-neutralizing antibody to block CX3CL1 attenuated mechanical allodynia induced by SMIR surgery...
January 8, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274778/inhibition-of-cx3cr1-reduces-cell-motility-and-viability-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-epithelial-cells
#4
Matthew C Stout, Shilpa Narayan, Emily S Pillet, Joseph M Salvino, Paul M Campbell
Increased expression of the chemokine CX3CL1 and its sole receptor, CX3CR1 have been correlated with poor pancreatic cancer patient survival and time to recurrence, as well as with pancreatic perineural invasion. We have previously shown that metastasis of prostate and breast cancer is in part driven by CX3CL1, and have developed small molecule inhibitors against the CX3CR1 receptor that diminish metastatic burden. Here we ask if inhibition of this chemokine receptor affects the phenotype of PDAC tumor cells...
December 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248573/bisphenol-a-exposure-induces-increased-microglia-and-microglial-related-factors-in-the-murine-embryonic-dorsal-telencephalon-and-hypothalamus
#5
Mifumi Takahashi, Munekazu Komada, Ken Miyazawa, Shigemi Goto, Yayoi Ikeda
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used compound in the food packaging industry. Prenatal exposure to BPA induces histological abnormalities in the neocortex and hypothalamus in association with abnormal behaviors. Yet, the molecular and cellular neurodevelopmental toxicological mechanisms of BPA are incompletely characterized on neuroinflammatory-related endopoints. To evaluate the neurodevelopmental effects of BPA exposure in mouse embryos, we examined microglial numbers as well as the expression of microglial-related factors in the E15...
December 14, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247713/role-of-microglia-neuron-interactions-in-diabetic-encephalopathy
#6
REVIEW
Yuan Liu, Mingchao Li, Zuo Zhang, Yun Ye, Jiyin Zhou
In the central nervous system, the primary immune cells, the microglia, prevent pathogenic invasion as the first line of defense. Microglial energy consumption is dependent on their degree of activity. Microglia express transporters for the three primary energy substrates (glucose, fatty acids, glutamine) and regulate diabetic encephalopathy via microglia-neuron interactions. Microglia may play a sentry role for rapid protection or even ablation of impaired neurons. Neurons exhibit hyperactivity in response to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and neurotoxic factors and release potential microglial activators...
December 13, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234059/p16ink4a-and-p21cip1-waf1-promote-tumour-growth-by-enhancing-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-chemotaxis
#7
Atsushi Okuma, Aki Hanyu, Sugiko Watanabe, Eiji Hara
p16Ink4a and p21Cip1/Waf1 act as tumour suppressors through induction of cellular senescence. However, senescence-independent roles of these CDK inhibitors are not well understood. Here, we report an unexpected function of p16Ink4 and p21Cip1/Waf1, namely, tumour promotion through chemotaxis. In monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Mo-MDSCs), p16Ink4 and p21Cip1/Waf1 are highly expressed and stimulate CX3CR1 chemokine receptor expression by preventing CDK-mediated phosphorylation and inactivation of SMAD3...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230166/the-therapeutic-potential-of-monocyte-macrophage-manipulation-in-the-treatment-of-chemotherapy-induced-painful-neuropathy
#8
REVIEW
Karli Montague, Marzia Malcangio
In cancer treatments a dose-limiting side-effect of chemotherapeutic agents is the development of neuropathic pain, which is poorly managed by clinically available drugs at present. Chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy (CIPN) is a major cause of premature cessation of treatment and so a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms and the development of novel, more effective therapies, is greatly needed. In some cases, only a weak correlation between chemotherapy-induced pain and neuronal damage is observed both clinically and preclinically...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229785/the-chemokine-receptor-cx3cr1-coordinates-monocyte-recruitment-and-endothelial-regeneration-after-arterial-injury
#9
Tobias Getzin, Kashyap Krishnasamy, Jaba Gamrekelashvili, Tamar Kapanadze, Anne Limbourg, Christine Häger, L Christian Napp, Johann Bauersachs, Hermann Haller, Florian P Limbourg
Regeneration of arterial endothelium after injury is critical for the maintenance of normal blood flow, cell trafficking, and vascular function. Using mouse models of carotid injury, we show that the transition from a static to a dynamic phase of endothelial regeneration is marked by a strong increase in endothelial proliferation, which is accompanied by induction of the chemokine CX3CL1 in endothelial cells near the wound edge, leading to progressive recruitment of Ly6Clo monocytes expressing high levels of the cognate CX3CR1 chemokine receptor...
December 11, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203799/essential-involvement-of-the-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-axis-in-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-regulation-of-fibrocyte-and-m2-macrophage-migration
#10
Yuko Ishida, Akihiko Kimura, Mizuho Nosaka, Yumi Kuninaka, Hiroaki Hemmi, Izumi Sasaki, Tsuneyasu Kaisho, Naofumi Mukaida, Toshikazu Kondo
The potential role of macrophages in pulmonary fibrosis (PF) prompted us to evaluate the roles of CX3CR1, a chemokine receptor abundantly expressed in macrophages during bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF. Intratracheal BLM injection induced infiltration of leukocytes such as macrophages into the lungs, which eventually resulted in fibrosis. CX3CR1 expression was mainly detected in the majority of macrophages and in a small portion of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in the lungs, while CX3CL1 was expressed in macrophages...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194444/behavioral-stress-alters-corticolimbic-microglia-in-a-sex-and-brain-region-specific-manner
#11
Justin L Bollinger, Kaitlyn E Collins, Rushi Patel, Cara L Wellman
Women are more susceptible to numerous stress-linked psychological disorders (e.g., depression) characterized by dysfunction of corticolimbic brain regions critical for emotion regulation and cognitive function. Although sparsely investigated, a number of studies indicate sex differences in stress effects on neuronal structure, function, and behaviors associated with these regions. We recently demonstrated a basal sex difference in- and differential effects of stress on- microglial activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190740/correlation-of-serum-cytokines-chemokines-growth-factors-and-enzymes-with-periodontal-disease-parameters
#12
Jeneen Panezai, Ambereen Ghaffar, Mohammad Altamash, Karl-Gösta Sundqvist, Per-Erik Engström, Anders Larsson
BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease (PD) is characterized by inflammatory tissue destruction in tooth supporting apparatus. Many studies indicate that the underlying pathogenesis is in concordance with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) sharing immune-inflammatory events affect both diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate serum cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, enzymes and costimulatory proteins in association with periodontal conditions in PD and RA subjects. MATERIALS & METHODS: Periodontal examination was performed in RA (n = 38), PD (n = 38) and healthy subjects (n = 14)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182510/high-dengue-virus-load-differentially-modulates-human-microvascular-endothelial-barrier-function-during-early-infection
#13
Hui Jen Soe, Asif M Khan, Rishya Manikam, Chandramathi Samudi Raju, Paul Vanhoutte, Shamala Devi Sekaran
Plasma leakage is the main pathophysiological feature in severe dengue, resulting from altered vascular barrier function associated with an inappropriate immune response triggered upon infection. The present study investigated functional changes using an electric cell-substrate impedance sensing system in four (brain, dermal, pulmonary and retinal) human microvascular endothelial cell (MEC) lines infected with purified dengue virus, followed by assessment of cytokine profiles and the expression of inter-endothelial junctional proteins...
November 24, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170451/chemokines-protect-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-from-cell-death-induced-by-cyclic-mechanical-stretch
#14
Jing Zhao, Yuhei Nishimura, Akihiko Kimura, Kentaro Ozawa, Toshikazu Kondo, Toshio Tanaka, Masanori Yoshizumi
The pulsatile nature of blood flow exposes vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the vessel wall to cyclic mechanical stretch (CMS), which evokes VSMC proliferation, cell death, phenotypic switching, and migration, leading to vascular remodeling. These responses have been observed in many cardiovascular diseases; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We have revealed that CMS of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) causes JNK- and p38-dependent cell death and that a calcium channel blocker and angiotensin II receptor antagonist decreased the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 and subsequently decreased cell death by CMS...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163165/the-modulatory-properties-of-chronic-antidepressant-drugs-treatment-on-the-brain-chemokine-chemokine-receptor-network-a-molecular-study-in-an-animal-model-of-depression
#15
Ewa Trojan, Joanna Ślusarczyk, Katarzyna Chamera, Katarzyna Kotarska, Katarzyna Głombik, Marta Kubera, Agnieszka Basta-Kaim
An increasing number of studies indicate that the chemokine system may be the third major communication system of the brain. Therefore, the role of the chemokine system in the development of brain disorders, including depression, has been recently proposed. However, little is known about the impact of the administration of various antidepressant drugs on the brain chemokine - chemokine receptor axis. In the present study, we used an animal model of depression based on the prenatal stress procedure. We determined whether chronic treatment with tianeptine, venlafaxine, or fluoxetine influenced the evoked by prenatal stress procedure changes in the mRNA and protein levels of the homeostatic chemokines, CXCL12 (SDF-1α), CX3CL1 (fractalkine) and their receptors, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163038/electroacupuncture-suppresses-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-by-upregulating-cylindromatosis-to-alleviate-inflammatory-injury-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-rats
#16
Jin Jiang, Yong Luo, Wenyi Qin, Hongmei Ma, Qiongli Li, Jian Zhan, Ying Zhang
Electroacupuncture (EA) may reduce inflammatory injury by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway activation after ischemic stroke. Thus, we explored temporal and spatial expression of cylindromatosis (CYLD), a negative feedback inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway, to learn whether CYLD is essential for EA and reduction of inflammatory injury after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. A middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) model was established in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and CYLD gene interference was used to investigate a potential role of neuroprotection...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148410/th17-gene-expression-in-psoriatic-arthritis-synovial-fluid-and-peripheral-blood-compared-to-osteoarthritis-and-cutaneous-psoriasis
#17
Fatima Abji, Remy A Pollock, Kun Liang, Vinod Chandran, Dafna D Gladman
OBJECTIVES: The IL-23/IL-17 axis is central to the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). We aimed to identify Th17 signalling genes that are dysregulated in synovial fluid of PsA compared to osteoarthritis (OA) patients and to determine if differences in peripheral blood can distinguish PsA from psoriasis patients and controls. METHODS: Synovial fluid cells (SFCs) from 14 PsA and 9 OA patients were obtained and stored in TRIzol reagent. RNA was isolated by phenol-chloroform extraction and purified with RNeasy miniprep kits...
November 9, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128220/identification-of-potential-embryokines-in-the-bovine-reproductive-tract
#18
P Tríbulo, L G B Siqueira, L J Oliveira, T Scheffler, P J Hansen
Knowledge of the molecules used by the maternal reproductive tract to regulate development of the preimplantation embryo is largely incomplete. The goal of the present experiment was to identify candidates for this function. The approach was to assess expression patterns in the endometrium and oviduct of 93 genes encoding for hormones, growth factors, chemokines, cytokines, and WNT-related molecules. Results show that all of the genes were expressed in the reproductive tract. Expression in oviduct was affected by day of the estrous cycle for 21 genes with 11 genes having highest expression at estrus (CCL21, CTGF, CXCL10, CXCL16, DKK3, FGF10, IL18, IL33, IL34, PGF, and SFRP2), one gene at d 3 (WNT4), 8 at d 5 (BMP7, HGF, IL6, SFRP1, TGFB1, WIF1, WNT2, and WNT5A), and one at d 7 (IK)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034104/fibroblasts-the-unknown-sentinels-eliciting-immune-responses-against-microorganisms
#19
REVIEW
Luis Antonio Bautista-Hernández, José Luis Gómez-Olivares, Beatriz Buentello-Volante, Victor Manuel Bautista-de Lucio
Fibroblasts are present in all tissues but predominantly in connective tissues. Some of their functions include contractility, locomotion, collagen and elastin fiber production, and the regulation and degradation of the extracellular matrix. Also, fibroblasts act as sentinels to produce inflammatory mediators in response to several microorganisms. There is evidence that fibroblasts can synthesize toll-like receptors (TLRs), antimicrobial peptides, proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, which are important molecules involved in innate immune response against microorganisms...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022831/nuclear-magnetic-resonance-assisted-metabolic-analysis-of-plasma-for-mild-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#20
Bai Jin, Liping Liu, Shuxuan Zhang, Xiaohui Cao, Yuhong Xu, Junsong Wang, Lizhou Sun
AIMS: This study aimed at detecting the difference of metabolic profile in mild gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients, and at identifying the correlation between the disturbed metabolites and insulin resistance pathway induced by the inflammation factors secreted by the placenta and adipocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 36 pregnant women diagnosed with mild GDM and 36 normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) pregnant women. Metabolic profiles were acquired by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy, and the data were analyzed by multivariate statistical data analysis...
November 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
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