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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772234/effects-of-n-3pufas-on-autophagy-and-inflammation-of-hypothalamus-and-body-weight-in-mice
#1
Xin Fang, Keli Ge, Chao Song, Yin Lin-Ge, Jin Yu-Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Fat-1 transgenic mice were used as a model to study the effect of endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) on the body weight, inflammatory factors and autophagy proteins in hypothalamus to explore the mechanism of n-3PUFAs inhibiting obesity. METHOD: The mice were divided into two groups after genotype identification: fat-1 transgenic mice and wild-type mice. The body weight and body length of mice were measured at 14th week, and calculated the Lee 's index...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750189/repopulating-retinal-microglia-restore-endogenous-organization-and-function-under-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-regulation
#2
Yikui Zhang, Lian Zhao, Xu Wang, Wenxin Ma, Adam Lazere, Hao-Hua Qian, Jun Zhang, Mones Abu-Asab, Robert N Fariss, Jerome E Roger, Wai T Wong
Microglia have been discovered to undergo repopulation following ablation. However, the functionality of repopulated microglia and the mechanisms regulating microglia repopulation are unknown. We examined microglial homeostasis in the adult mouse retina, a specialized neural compartment containing regular arrays of microglia in discrete synaptic laminae that can be directly visualized. Using in vivo imaging and cell-fate mapping techniques, we discovered that repopulation originated from residual microglia proliferating in the central inner retina that subsequently spread by centrifugal migration to fully recapitulate pre-existing microglial distributions and morphologies...
March 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742907/new-interfaces-of-thyroid-hormone-actions-with-blood-coagulation-and-thrombosis
#3
Paul J Davis, Shaker A Mousa, Geraldine P Schechter
Substantial clinical evidence indicates hyperthyroidism enhances coagulation and increases the risk of thrombosis. In vitro and clinical evidence implicate multiple mechanisms for this risk. Genomic actions of thyroid hormone as 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 ) via a nuclear thyroid hormone receptor have been implicated, but recent evidence shows that nongenomic mechanisms initiated at the receptor for L-thyroxine (T4 ) on platelet integrin αvβ3 are prothrombotic. The T4 -initiated mechanisms involve platelet activation and, in addition, cellular production of cytokines and chemokines such as CX3CL1 with procoagulatory activities...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729150/cd200-cx3cl1-and-trem2-mediated-neuron-microglia-interactions-and-their-involvements-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Lihang Zhang, Juan Xu, Jinchao Gao, Yuncheng Wu, Ming Yin, Wenjuan Zhao
Neurons and microglia are two major components in the central nervous system (CNS). The interactions between them play important roles in maintaining homeostasis of the brain. In recent years, substantial studies have focused on the interactions between neurons and microglia, revealing that microglia become reactive when the interactions are pathophysiologically interfered, usually accompanying neuronal injury, which is a common feature for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many molecules and factors participate in these physiological and pathological processes, either in a contact-dependent or a contact-independent manner...
May 5, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715366/differential-cxc-and-cx3c-chemokine-expression-profiles-in-aqueous-humor-of-patients-with-specific-endogenous-uveitic-entities
#5
Ahmed M Abu El-Asrar, Nele Berghmans, Saleh A Al-Obeidan, Priscilla W Gikandi, Ghislain Opdenakker, Jo Van Damme, Sofie Struyf
Purpose: To determine the levels of the neutrophil chemoattractants CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL5, CXCL6, and CXCL8, the T helper 1 chemoattractants CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11, the lymphoid chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL13 and the soluble form of the transmembrane chemokines CXCL16 and CX3CL1, in aqueous humor samples from patients with specific uveitic entities. Methods: Aqueous humor samples from patients with active uveitis associated with Behçet's disease (n = 13), sarcoidosis (n = 8), HLA-B27-related inflammation (n = 12), Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease (n = 12), and healthy controls (n = 9) were assayed with the use of a multiplex assay...
May 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650776/lymphatic-exosomes-promote-dendritic-cell-migration-along-guidance-cues
#6
Markus Brown, Louise A Johnson, Dario A Leone, Peter Majek, Kari Vaahtomeri, Daniel Senfter, Nora Bukosza, Helga Schachner, Gabriele Asfour, Brigitte Langer, Robert Hauschild, Katja Parapatics, Young-Kwon Hong, Keiryn L Bennett, Renate Kain, Michael Detmar, Michael Sixt, David G Jackson, Dontscho Kerjaschki
Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) release extracellular chemokines to guide the migration of dendritic cells. In this study, we report that LECs also release basolateral exosome-rich endothelial vesicles (EEVs) that are secreted in greater numbers in the presence of inflammatory cytokines and accumulate in the perivascular stroma of small lymphatic vessels in human chronic inflammatory diseases. Proteomic analyses of EEV fractions identified >1,700 cargo proteins and revealed a dominant motility-promoting protein signature...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628463/-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-response-to-cyclic-mechanical-stretch-and-aortic-dissection
#7
Masanori Yoshizumi, Jing Zhao, Yoji Kyotani
Acute aortic dissection is the most common life-threatening vascular disease, with sudden onset of severe pain and a high fatality rate. The pulsatile nature of blood flow exposes vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the vessel wall to cyclic mechanical stretch (CMS), which evokes VSMC death, phenotypic switching, and migration, leading to aortic dissection. We have revealed that CMS of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) caused JNK- and p38-dependent cell death and that a calcium channel blocker, azelnidipine and an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, olmesartan decreased the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 and, subsequently, decreased cell death by CMS...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624735/cx3cr1-deficiency-exacerbates-alpha-synuclein-a53t-induced-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Sara Castro-Sánchez, Ángel J García-Yagüe, Tresa López-Royo, Maria Casarejos, José Luis Lanciego, Isabel Lastres-Becker
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and the accumulation of protein aggregates, called Lewy bodies, where the most abundant is alpha-synuclein (α-SYN). Mutations of the gene that codes for α-SYN (SNCA), such as the A53T mutation, and duplications of the gene generate cases of PD with autosomal dominant inheritance. As a result of the association of inflammation with the neurodegeneration of PD, we analyzed whether overexpression of wild-type α-SYN (α-SYNWT ) or mutated α-SYN (α-SYNA53T ) are involved in the neuronal dopaminergic loss and inflammation process, along with the role of the chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor (CX3CR1)...
April 6, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615815/cardiac-myo-fibroblasts-modulate-the-migration-of-monocyte-subsets
#9
Kathleen Pappritz, Konstantinos Savvatis, Annika Koschel, Kapka Miteva, Carsten Tschöpe, Sophie Van Linthout
Cardiac fibroblasts play an important role in the regulation of the extracellular matrix and are newly recognized as inflammatory supporter cells. Interferon (IFN)-γ is known to counteract transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1-induced myofibroblast differentiation. This study aims at investigating in vitro how IFN-γ affects TGF-ß1-induced monocyte attraction. Therefore, C4 fibroblasts and fibroblasts obtained by outgrowth culture from the left ventricle (LV) of male C57BL6/j mice were stimulated with TGF-β1, IFN-γ and TGF-β1 + IFN-γ...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590257/renovascular-hypertension-increases-serum-tnf-and-cx3cl1-in-experimental-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection
#10
M C Silva, M A Azevedo, V P Figueiredo, M R Moura Junior, D Coelho Junior, P M Martinelli, R P Machado, A C Alzamora, A Talvani
Trypanosoma cruzi triggers a progressive inflammatory response affecting cardiovascular functions in humans and experimental models. Angiotensin II, a key effector of the renin-angiotensin system, plays roles in mediating hypertension, heart failure, and inflammatory responses. T. cruzi and AngII can induce inflammatory responses by releasing inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study was to evaluate systemic AngII, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and CX3CL1 mediators in a two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertension model using Wistar rats infected with T...
March 26, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577370/dynamic-expression-analysis-of-chemokine-and-cytokine-genes-response-to-h5n1-and-h9n2-avian-influenza-viruses-in-df-1-cells
#11
Chang Luo, Jianxin Liu, Wenbao Qi, Xujiao Ren, Rong Lu, Ming Liao, Zhangyong Ning
H5N1 and H9N2 are the most important causes of avian influenza in China. Chemokines and cytokines play an important role in inflammatory response which is clearly different between H5N1 and H9N2 infection. To investigate whether chemokines and cytokines differentially regulated following H5N1 and H9N2 AIVs infection, dynamic expression of chemokines and cytokines including IL8L1, IL8L2, CX3CL1, CCL5, CCL20, K203, SCYA4, XLC1, CCLi10, CCL19, IFN-α, IFN-β, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, were analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in DF-1 cells...
March 25, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568915/aspirin-modulates-the-inflammatory-response-in-a-thrombus%C3%A2-stimulated-lmvec-model
#12
Lingcong Wang, Rongbiao Ying, Huifang Jiang, Qun Jin, Jing Kuang, Zhirong Zhang, Ying Shi, Danli Cai, Ruhui Yang
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether aspirin interferes with the inflammatory response in a thrombus‑stimulated lung microvascular endothelial cell (LMVEC) model. The LMVECs were randomly divided into eight groups: Normal group (group N), model group (group M), model + ASP group (group M+A), model+CX3CL1‑short hairpin (sh)RNA group (group M+SH), model + CX3CL1‑overexpression vector group (group M+CX3), model + ASP + shRNA group (group M+A+SH), model + ASP + CX3CL1‑overexpression vector group (group M+A+CX3), and normal + virus control group (group N+V)...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568873/the-deficiency-of-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-system-ameliorates-high-fructose-diet-induced-kidney-injury-by-regulating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-in-cx3cr1-knock-out-mice
#13
Yong-Wu Yu, Ming-Xu Li, Zhi-Yong Zhang, Hai Yu
Fructose, the most important functional food additive from the last century, has been widely used in industry, agriculture, light industry, food and medicine. With the improvement of people's living standard and economic level, excess intake of fructose results in metabolic symptoms, including hyperleptinemia, insulin resistance and neuroinflammation is causing high risk of chronic kidney disease development in humans and animals. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of renal injury is still not fully understood, and the development of effective drugs and treatments are delayed...
June 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555502/ameliorating-effect-of-ti-1-162-a-hydroxyindenone-derivative-against-tnbs-induced-rat-colitis-is-mediated-through-suppression-of-rip-ask-1-mapk-signaling
#14
Pallavi Gurung, Suhrid Banskota, Nikita Katila, Jaya Gautam, Tara Man Kadayat, Dong-Young Choi, Eung Seok Lee, Tae Cheon Jeong, Jung-Ae Kim
The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with production of immense pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α. Once generated, TNF-α stimulates production of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and disrupts mucosal barrier by inducing inflamed mucosal epithelial cell death. In the present study, we investigated inhibitory effects of TI-1-162, a hydroxyindenone derivative, against TNF-α-induced and TNBS-induced colon inflammation. TI-1-162 showed inhibitory effect on the TNF-α-induced adhesion of U937 monocytic cells to HT-29 colonic epithelial cells (IC50 = 0...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520864/complex-association-patterns-for-inflammatory-mediators-in-induced-sputum-from-subjects-with-asthma
#15
A T Hastie, C Steele, C W Dunaway, W C Moore, B M Rector, E Ampleford, H Li, L C Denlinger, N Jarjour, D A Meyers, E R Bleecker
BACKGROUND: The release of various inflammatory mediators into the bronchial lumen is thought to reflect both the type and degree of airway inflammation, eosinophilic Th2, and Th9, or neutrophilic Th1, and Th17, in patients with asthma. AIMS: We investigated whether cytokines and chemokines differed in sputum from subjects with more severe compared with milder asthma and whether unbiased factor analysis of cytokine and chemokine groupings indicates specific inflammatory pathways...
March 9, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509814/structural-basis-for-recognition-of-the-central-conserved-region-of-rsv-g-by-neutralizing-human-antibodies
#16
Harrison G Jones, Tina Ritschel, Gabriel Pascual, Just P J Brakenhoff, Elissa Keogh, Polina Furmanova-Hollenstein, Ellen Lanckacker, Jehangir S Wadia, Morgan S A Gilman, R Anthony Williamson, Dirk Roymans, Angélique B van 't Wout, Johannes P Langedijk, Jason S McLellan
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants and the elderly, and yet there remains no effective treatment or vaccine. The surface of the virion is decorated with the fusion glycoprotein (RSV F) and the attachment glycoprotein (RSV G), which binds to CX3CR1 on human airway epithelial cells to mediate viral attachment and subsequent infection. RSV G is a major target of the humoral immune response, and antibodies that target the central conserved region of G have been shown to neutralize both subtypes of RSV and to protect against severe RSV disease in animal models...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501084/the-inhibition-of-cb-1-receptor-accelerates-the-onset-and-development-of-eae-possibly-by-regulating-microglia-macrophages-polarization
#17
Zhi-Yin Lou, Jie Cheng, Xiao-Rong Wang, Yong-Fei Zhao, Jing Gan, Guo-Yu Zhou, Zhen-Guo Liu, Bao-Guo Xiao
Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1 R) regulates the neuro-inflammatory and neurodegenerative damages of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and of multiple sclerosis (MS). The mechanism by which CB1 R inhibition exerts inflammatory effects is still unclear. Here, we explored the cellular and molecular mechanisms of CB1 R in the treatment of EAE by using a specific and selective CB1 R antagonist SR141716A. Our study demonstrated that SR141716A accelerated the clinical onset and development of EAE, accompanied by body weight loss...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487809/monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-and-fractalkine-play-opposite-roles-in-angiogenesis-via-recruitment-of-different-macrophage-subtypes
#18
Lei Chen, Gao-Qin Liu, Hong-Ya Wu, Ji Jin, Xue Yin, Dan Li, Pei-Rong Lu
AIM: To explore the interaction between macrophages and chemokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and fractalkine/CX3CL1] and the effects of their interaction on neovascularization. METHODS: Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, donated by healthy volunteers, were separated and cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, then induced into macrophages by stimulation with 30 µg/L granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487598/macrophages-in-the-human-cochlea-saviors-or-predators-a-study-using-super-resolution-immunohistochemistry
#19
Wei Liu, Matyas Molnar, Carolyn Garnham, Heval Benav, Helge Rask-Andersen
The human inner ear, which is segregated by a blood/labyrinth barrier, contains resident macrophages [CD163, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA1)-, and CD68-positive cells] within the connective tissue, neurons, and supporting cells. In the lateral wall of the cochlea, these cells frequently lie close to blood vessels as perivascular macrophages. Macrophages are also shown to be recruited from blood-borne monocytes to damaged and dying hair cells induced by noise, ototoxic drugs, aging, and diphtheria toxin-induced hair cell degeneration...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461240/the-role-of-fractalkine-and-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-in-the-progression-of-asthma
#20
G Yeryomenko
To improve the effectiveness of diagnosis and prediction of adverse asthma comorbid conditions based on research of clinical manifestations features, functional disorders of the airways and endothelial dysfunction. 79 patients were selected for the study. All the patients were divided into 3 groups: group 1 - patients with asthma (n-22); group II (n-24) - patients with asthma + diabetes mellitus type 2; group III (n-33) - patients with asthma + obesity + arterial hypertension (AH) and control group (n-17) - healthy people...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
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