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Dietary protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934589/low-dietary-protein-and-high-carbohydrate-infant-formula-affects-the-microbial-ecology-of-the-large-intestine-in-neonatal-rats
#1
Wenguang Fan, Haiwei Ren, Yingying Cao, Yonggang Wang, Guicheng Huo
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a low dietary protein and high carbohydrate infant formula on the large intestine of neonatal rats. A total of 24 neonatal SD rats (14d old) were randomly assigned to the low-protein, high-carbohydrate infant formula-fed group (IF group) and a human breast milk-fed group (HF group). After 7 days, we selected 6 rats at random from each group to study. No significantly different microbial colonization patterns were observed in the two groups at the phylum level...
September 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934294/immunopathology-of-childhood-celiac-disease-key-role-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#2
Grzegorz Pietz, Rituparna De, Maria Hedberg, Veronika Sjöberg, Olof Sandström, Olle Hernell, Sten Hammarström, Marie-Louise Hammarström
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Celiac disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the small intestine mucosa due to permanent intolerance to dietary gluten. The aim was to elucidate the role of small intestinal epithelial cells in the immunopathology of celiac disease in particular the influence of celiac disease-associated bacteria. METHODS: Duodenal biopsies were collected from children with active celiac disease, treated celiac disease, and clinical controls. Intestinal epithelial cells were purified and analyzed for gene expression changes at the mRNA and protein levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933366/the-role-of-the-mapk-signaling-topoisomerase-and-dietary-bioactives-in-controlling-cancer-incidence
#3
REVIEW
Khaled A Selim, Hend Abdelrasoul, Mohamed Aboelmagd, Ahmed M Tawila
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, xenobiotics metabolism and are generated in response to several environmental stress conditions. Some of them play important biochemical roles in cellular signal transduction and gene transcription. On the other hand, ROS are known to be involved in a wide range of human diseases, including cancer. The excessive production of such ROS together with disruption of homeostasis detoxifying mechanisms can mediate a series of cellular oxidative stresses...
April 26, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933306/diet-bioactive-compounds-implications-for-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-the-vascular-system
#4
Morena Gabriele, Laura Pucci
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence has demonstrated that dietary products and their active components are independently or jointly responsible for the apparent reduction of the cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk. DISCUSSION: Nowadays, there is a growing attention in the use of nutraceuticals as a new approach for the prevention and management of many diseases, as well as for controlling rising of chronic illnesses with minimal side effects. Food-derived peptides, as well as peptide-rich protein hydrolysates, represent new and valuable tools for the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, acting as modulators of oxidative stress, inflammation, and overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS)...
September 21, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932602/serum-transthyretin-level-as-a-plausible-marker-for-diagnosis-of-child-acute-malnutrition
#5
Behailu Tsegaye, Amha Mekasha, Solomon Genet
Malnutrition is a major underlying condition for mortality in children under five years of age in developing countries, particularly in Ethiopia. The most important forms of malnutrition in Ethiopia are protein and energy deficiencies. There is no reliable laboratory method at present to assess acute malnutrition. Transthyretin is a homotetrameric serum protein with half-life of two days. The main objective of this study was to assess the estimation of serum transthyretin level as a useful diagnostic method to evaluate nutritional status of children...
2017: Biochemistry Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932254/branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-restores-reduced-insulinotropic-activity-of-a-low-protein-diet-through-the-vagus-nerve-in-rats
#6
Mami Horiuchi, Tomoya Takeda, Hiroyuki Takanashi, Yori Ozaki-Masuzawa, Yusuke Taguchi, Yuka Toyoshima, Lila Otani, Hisanori Kato, Meri Sone-Yonezawa, Fumihiko Hakuno, Shin-Ichiro Takahashi, Asako Takenaka
BACKGROUND: Previously, we reported that a low-protein diet significantly reduced insulin secretion in response to feeding within 1 h in rats, suggesting that the insulinotropic effect of dietary protein plays an important role in maintaining normal insulin release. The current study aimed to elucidate whether deficiency of certain amino acids could diminish the insulinotropic activity and to investigate whether reduced insulin secretion in response to a low-protein diet is restored by supplementation with certain amino acids...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932231/addition-of-aegilops-u-and-m-chromosomes-affects-protein-and-dietary-fiber-content-of-wholemeal-wheat-flour
#7
Marianna Rakszegi, István Molnár, Alison Lovegrove, Éva Darkó, András Farkas, László Láng, Zoltán Bedő, Jaroslav Doležel, Márta Molnár-Láng, Peter Shewry
Cereal grain fiber is an important health-promoting component in the human diet. One option to improve dietary fiber content and composition in wheat is to introduce genes from its wild relatives Aegilops biuncialis and Aegilops geniculata. This study showed that the addition of chromosomes 2U(g), 4U(g), 5U(g), 7U(g), 2M(g), 5M(g), and 7M(g) of Ae. geniculata and 3U(b), 2M(b), 3M(b), and 7M(b) of Ae. biuncialis into bread wheat increased the seed protein content. Chromosomes 1U(g) and 1M(g) increased the proportion of polymeric glutenin proteins, while the addition of chromosomes 1U(b) and 6U(b) led to its decrease...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931586/urinary-excretion-of-sodium-nitrogen-and-sugar-amounts-are-valid-biomarkers-of-dietary-sodium-protein-and-high-sugar-intake-in-nonobese-adolescents
#8
Lori B Moore, Sarah V Liu, Tanya M Halliday, Andrew P Neilson, Valisa E Hedrick, Brenda M Davy
Background: Objective indicators of dietary intake (e.g., biomarkers) are needed to overcome the limitations of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods in adolescents. To our knowledge, no controlled feeding studies to date have evaluated the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, or sugar excretion as dietary biomarkers in adolescents.Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, and total sugars (TS) excretion as biomarkers for sodium, protein, and added sugars (AS) intake in nonobese adolescents...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931545/regulation-of-genes-related-to-cholesterol-metabolism-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-fed-plant-based-diet
#9
Tengfei Zhu, Genevieve Corraze, Elisabeth Plagnes-Juan, Edwige Quillet, Mathilde Dupont-Nivet, Sandrine Skiba-Cassy
Compared to fishmeal and fish oil, plant ingredients differ not only in the protein content, amino acid and fatty acid profiles but are also devoid of cholesterol, the major component of cell membrane and precursor of several bioactive compounds. Based on these nutritional characteristics, plant-based diets can affect fish physiology and cholesterol metabolism. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying cholesterol homeostasis, rainbow trout were fed from 1g body weight during six months with a totally plant-based diet (V), a marine diet (M) and a marine restricted diet (MR) with feed intake adjusted to that of the V group...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931442/employment-status-and-temporal-patterns-of-energy-intake-nutrition-and-health-survey-in-taiwan-2005-2008
#10
Chun-An Chau, Wen-Harn Pan, Hsin-Jen Chen
OBJECTIVE: To (i) identify the major temporal patterns of energy intake among adults; (ii) examine the association between employment status and the patterns; and (iii) examine the association between dietary quality and the patterns. DESIGN: Secondary analysis based on the cross-sectional population-based nutrition survey in Taiwan, 2005-2008. Based on energy intake levels at six time intervals of a day derived from 24 h recall data, we applied cluster analysis to identify major temporal patterns of energy intake...
September 21, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930566/homeostatic-regulation-of-plasma-amino-acid-concentrations
#11
Shengfa F Liao, Naresh Regmi, Guoyao Wu
One major goal of nutrition is to maximize the rate of muscle protein gain via provision of amino acids (AAs) through blood plasma. Comparing the plasma AA concentrations with the growth performance data can help to elucidate the metabolic mechanisms regulating plasma AA homeostasis, nutrient utilization, and intracellular protein turnover. Knowledge about the homeostatic regulation of plasma AA profile can aid in predicting dietary AA availabilities, the order of limiting AAs, and the whole body protein metabolism...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930193/different-effects-of-maternal-low-isoflavone-soy-protein-and-genistein-consumption-on-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-of-21-day-old-male-rat-offspring
#12
Anna Han, Sae Bom Won, Young Hye Kwon
Amino acid composition and isoflavone are alleged contributors to the beneficial effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) on lipid metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the contributing component(s) of SPI in a maternal diet to the regulation of lipid metabolism in offspring. We also determined serum parameters in dams to investigate specific maternal cues that might be responsible for this regulation. Female rats were fed either a casein (CAS), a low-isoflavone SPI, or a casein plus genistein (GEN, 250 mg/kg) diet for two weeks before mating, as well as during pregnancy and lactation...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929948/moderately-high-protein-enteral-formula-improved-retinol-binding-protein-in-tube-fed-patients-a-multicentre-open-study
#13
Veeradej Pisprasert, Prapimporn Chattranukulchai Shantavasinkul, Sornwichate Rattanachaiwong, Tanarat Lepananon, Surat Komindr
BACKGROUND: Long-term inadequate dietary consumption may increase the possibility of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Enteral nutrition (EN) is a beneficial support that could help to maintain nutritional status and gut function. AIM: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of moderately high-protein enteral formula containing fibre on nutritional status, and its safety. METHOD: A total of 23 tube-feeding-dependent adult patients were included in this multicentre, open-label study...
September 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929384/roles-of-dietary-glycine-proline-and-hydroxyproline-in-collagen-synthesis-and-animal-growth
#14
REVIEW
Peng Li, Guoyao Wu
Glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline (Hyp) contribute to 57% of total amino acids (AAs) in collagen, which accounts for one-third of proteins in animals. As the most abundant protein in the body, collagen is essential to maintain the normal structure and strength of connective tissue, such as bones, skin, cartilage, and blood vessels. Mammals, birds, and fish can synthesize: (1) glycine from threonine, serine, choline, and Hyp; (2) proline from arginine; and (3) Hyp from proline residues in collagen, in a cell- and tissue-specific manner...
September 20, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929337/escherichia-coli-aggravates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-triggers-chop-dependent-apoptosis-in-weaned-pigs
#15
Qian Jiang, Shuai Chen, Wenkai Ren, Gang Liu, Kang Yao, Guoyao Wu, Yulong Yin
Intestinal cells can sense the presence of pathogens and trigger many important signaling pathways to maintain tissue homeostasis and normal function. Escherichia coli and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are the main pathogenic factors of intestinal disease in pigs. However, the roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and its mediated apoptosis in intestinal malfunction induced by E. coli or LPS remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether ERS could be activated by E. coli fed to piglets and whether the underlying mechanisms of this disease process could be exploited...
September 19, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927897/does-nutrition-play-a-role-in-the-prevention-and-management-of-sarcopenia
#16
REVIEW
S M Robinson, J Y Reginster, R Rizzoli, S C Shaw, J A Kanis, I Bautmans, H Bischoff-Ferrari, O Bruyère, M Cesari, B Dawson-Hughes, R A Fielding, J M Kaufman, F Landi, V Malafarina, Y Rolland, L J van Loon, B Vellas, M Visser, C Cooper
There is a growing body of evidence that links nutrition to muscle mass, strength and function in older adults, suggesting that it has an important role to play both in the prevention and management of sarcopenia. This review summarises the discussions of a working group [ESCEO working group meeting 8th September 2016] that met to review current evidence and to consider its implications for preventive and treatment strategies. The review points to the importance of 'healthier' dietary patterns that are adequate in quality in older age, to ensure sufficient intakes of protein, vitamin D, antioxidant nutrients and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids...
August 24, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927688/effects-of-dietary-hawthorn-extract-on-growth-performance-immune-responses-growth-and-immune-related-genes-expression-of-juvenile-golden-pompano-trachinotus-ovatus-and-its-susceptibility-to-vibrio-harveyi-infection
#17
Xiaohong Tan, Zhenzhu Sun, Zhong Huang, Chuanpeng Zhou, Heizhao Lin, Lianjie Tan, Pengwei Xun, Qian Huang
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary hawthorn extract (HTE) supplementation on growth performance, immune responses, hepatic antioxidant abilities, growth- and immune-related and heat shock protein genes expression and resistance to the pathogen Vibrio harveyi in Trachinotus ovatus. A basal diet supplemented with HTE at 0 (Diet 1), 0.50 (Diet 2), 1.00 (Diet 3), 2.00 (Diet 4), 4.00 (Diet 5) and 10.00 (Diet 6) g kg(-1) were fed to golden pompano for 8 weeks. The highest final body weight, weight gain rate, specific growth rate, feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency rate were observed in fish fed Diet 2 (P < 0...
September 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927467/associations-among-dietary-non-fiber-carbohydrate-ruminal-microbiota-and-epithelium-g-protein-coupled-receptor-and-histone-deacetylase-regulations-in-goats
#18
Hong Shen, Zhongyan Lu, Zhihui Xu, Zhan Chen, Zanming Shen
BACKGROUND: Diet-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the rumen have broad effects on the health and growth of ruminants. The microbe-G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) and microbe-histone deacetylase (HDAC) axes might be the major pathway mediating these effects. Here, an integrated approach of transcriptome sequencing and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to investigate the synergetic responses of rumen epithelium and rumen microbiota to the increased intake of dietary non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) from 15 to 30% in the goat model...
September 19, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927111/luteolin-reduces-migration-of-human-glioblastoma-cell-lines-via-inhibition-of-the-p-igf-1r-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#19
Qiang Wang, Handong Wang, Yue Jia, Hui Ding, Li Zhang, Hao Pan
Luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a common dietary flavonoid, which has been demonstrated to exert anticancer effects in multiple cancer models. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of luteolin on glioblastoma cell metastasis remain poorly understood. The present study assessed the effects of luteolin in the U251MG and U87MG human glioblastoma cell lines. Luteolin treatment significantly inhibited glioblastoma cell migration, and this effect was associated with downregulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and upregulated tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926931/comparison-of-sociodemographic-and-nutritional-characteristics-between-self-reported-vegetarians-vegans-and-meat-eaters-from-the-nutrinet-sant%C3%A3-study
#20
Benjamin Allès, Julia Baudry, Caroline Méjean, Mathilde Touvier, Sandrine Péneau, Serge Hercberg, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot
BACKGROUND: There is a growing trend for vegetarian and vegan diets in many Western countries. Epidemiological evidence suggesting that such diets may help in maintaining good health is rising. However, dietary and sociodemographic characteristics of vegetarians and vegans are not well known. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe sociodemographic and nutritional characteristics of self-reported, adult vegetarians and vegans, compared to meat-eaters, from the French NutriNet-Santé study...
September 15, 2017: Nutrients
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