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Dietary protein

Vanesa Bellou, Lazaros Belbasis, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Evangelos Evangelou
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global epidemic associated with increased health expenditure, and low quality of life. Many non-genetic risk factors have been suggested, but their overall epidemiological credibility has not been assessed. METHODS: We searched PubMed to capture all meta-analyses and Mendelian randomization studies for risk factors of T2DM. For each association, we estimated the summary effect size, its 95% confidence and prediction interval, and the I2 metric...
2018: PloS One
Carlos Lahoz, Elisa Castillo, Jose M Mostaza, Olaya de Dios, Miguel A Salinero-Fort, Teresa González-Alegre, Francisca García-Iglesias, Eva Estirado, Fernando Laguna, Vanesa Sanchez, Concesa Sabín, Silvia López, Victor Cornejo, Carmen de Burgos, Carmen Garcés
Background: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet seems to be inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration. A 14-point Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) has been developed to assess dietary compliance. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether each of the MEDAS questions as well as their final score were associated with the levels of CRP in general Spanish population. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 1411 subjects (mean age 61 years, 43.0% males) randomly selected from the general population...
March 20, 2018: Nutrients
Baubak Shamim, John A Hawley, Donny M Camera
Human skeletal muscle satellite cells are activated in response to both resistance and endurance exercise. It was initially proposed that satellite cell proliferation and differentiation were only required to support resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy. However, satellite cells may also play a role in muscle fibre remodelling after endurance-based exercise and extracellular matrix regulation. Given the importance of dietary protein, particularly branched chain amino acids, in supporting myofibrillar and mitochondrial adaptations to both resistance and endurance-based training, a greater understanding of how protein intake impacts satellite cell activity would provide further insight into the mechanisms governing skeletal muscle remodelling with exercise...
March 20, 2018: Sports Medicine
Zuzana Čadková, Jiřina Száková, Jana Tremlová, Oldřich Kopecký, Ondřej Žíla, Pavel Tlustoš
Se-Enriched defatted rapeseed (Se-DRS), a by-product of rapeseed oil production, is high in Se. This study aimed to detect possible changes in Se-metabolism after Se-DRS consumption and to assess its suitability as a Se supplement in monogaster feed. In this experiment, rats were fed three types of diets differing in Se-form: soybean meal, Se-salt and Se-DRS. Potential differences in Se-metabolism were evaluated based on the total Se concentrations along with non-protein Se speciation patterns in the urine and blood serum of the rats...
March 20, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Yujie Ning, Xi Wang, Pan Zhang, Amin Liu, Xin Qi, Meidan Liu, Xiong Guo
Previous studies have identified a close association between diet and the prevalence of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD); however, the mechanisms via which the diet protects against KBD-associated cartilage injury has remained elusive. Recent international research studies have revealed a therapeutic role of dietary exosome micro (mi)RNAs in repairing chondrocyte lesions by regulating genes and proteins associated with cellular apoptosis and extracellular matrix. Vital molecules affecting bio-functions of chondrocytes, including miR-23b and protein kinase cyclic AMP-activated catalytic subunit β, were preliminarily identified to be dysregulated in cells and cartilage tissue of KBD patients...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Carmen Losasso, Ester M Eckert, Eleonora Mastrorilli, Jorg Villiger, Marzia Mancin, Ilaria Patuzzi, Andrea Di Cesare, Veronica Cibin, Federica Barrucci, Jakob Pernthaler, Gianluca Corno, Antonia Ricci
Diet and lifestyle have a strong influence on gut microbiota, which in turn has important implications on a variety of health-related aspects. Despite great advances in the field, it remains unclear to which extent the composition of the gut microbiota is modulated by the intake of animal derived products, compared to a vegetable based diet. Here the specific impact of vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore feeding type on the composition of gut microbiota of 101 adults was investigated among groups homogeneous for variables known to have a role in modulating gut microbial composition such as age, anthropometric variables, ethnicity, and geographic area...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Antonio Layoun, Macha Samba-Mondonga, Gabriela Fragoso, Annie Calvé, Manuela M Santos
Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated to provide virtually all cells in the body, particularly red blood cells, with this essential element while defending against its toxicity. The peptide hormone hepcidin is central to the control of the amount of iron absorbed from the diet and iron recycling from macrophages. Previously, we have shown that hepcidin induction in macrophages following Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation depends on the presence of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). In this study, we analyzed the regulation of iron metabolism in MyD88 -/- mice to further investigate MyD88 involvement in iron sensing and hepcidin induction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Victoria Pons, Joan Riera, Xavier Capó, Miquel Martorell, Antoni Sureda, Josep A Tur, Franchek Drobnic, Antoni Pons
Background: Caloric restriction induces mitochondrial biogenesis and improves physical fitness in rodents. We aimed to provide evidence of how caloric restriction affects the body composition and physical performance of trained athletes and to evaluate the possible impact of an every-other-day feeding diet on nutritional deficiencies of micronutrients and essential fatty acids. Methods: The study was performed with 12 healthy male athletes by carrying out a 33% caloric restriction with respect to their usual diet...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Miljan Simonović, Anupama K Puppala
BACKGROUND: Selenium, an essential dietary micronutrient, is incorporated into proteins as the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) in response to in-frame UGA codons. Complex machinery ensures accurate recoding of Sec codons in higher organisms. A specialized elongation factor eEFSec is central to the process. SCOPE OF REVIEW: Selenoprotein synthesis relies on selenocysteinyl-tRNASec (Sec-tRNASec ), selenocysteine inserting sequence (SECIS) and other selenoprotein mRNA elements, an in-trans SECIS binding protein 2 (SBP2) protein factor, and eEFSec...
March 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Francesca Pistollato, Ruben Calderón Iglesias, Roberto Ruiz, Silvia Aparicio, Jorge Crespo, Luis Dzul Lopez, Piera Pia Manna, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
Ample epidemiological evidence suggests a strong correlation among diet, lifestyle factors and the onset and consolidation of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been demonstrated that AD, diabetes, obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease are strongly interconnected pathologies. Preventive strategies and nutritional interventions seem to be promising approaches to delay neurocognitive decline and reduce the risk of AD and other non-psychiatric co-morbidities. In this regard, healthy dietary patterns, characterized by high intake of plant-based foods, probiotics, antioxidants, soy beans, nuts, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a low intake of saturated fats, animal-derived proteins, and refined sugars, have been shown to decrease the risk of neurocognitive impairments and eventually the onset of AD...
March 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Ane Storch Jakobsen, Helene Speyer, Hans Christian Brix Nørgaard, Mette Karlsen, Carsten Hjorthøj, Jesper Krogh, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Ulla Toft
OBJECTIVES: People with severe mental disorders die 10-25years earlier than people in the Western background population, mainly due to lifestyle related diseases, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the most frequent cause of death. Major contributors to this excess morbidity and mortality are unhealthy lifestyle factors including tobacco smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lower levels of physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary habits and levels of physical activity in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and overweight and to compare the results with the current recommendations and with results from the general Danish population...
March 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Nevena Kardum, Maria Glibetic
Regular and optimal intake of polyphenols associates with numerous health-promoting effects. Bioavailability and activity of polyphenols depend on foods' structure and interactions with other food constituents, especially proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Polyphenols-proteins interactions can result in various biological effects, such as sense of astringency. So far, polyphenols interactions with food lipids have not been of special importance, except in case of plant oils. Polyphenols-carbohydrates interactions can influence the organoleptic properties, while interactions with dietary fibers are particularly significant...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Mayada R Farag, Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohamed M Badr, Samah R Khalil, Mohamed S El-Kholy
The present study was carried out to investigate the toxic effects of dietary inclusion of raw Jatropha cucas meal [RJM, 3.5%] on productive and reproductive performances of laying Japanese quail and the influence of physical treatment of jatropha meal by heating at [100o c] for 24 or 48 h [JH24 or JH48 respectively] on reducing these effects. The inclusion of RJM in quail diets significantly decreased the egg production, fertility and hatchability percentages and resulted in a high mortality rate. While heat-treated jatropha meal [JH24 or JH48 ] improved such undesirable effects...
March 12, 2018: Theriogenology
Nobuhisa Morimoto, Chikako Kasuga, Airi Tanaka, Keiko Kamachi, Masumi Ai, Kevin Y Urayama, Akira Tanaka
An easily understandable index that measures the quality of carbohydrate may aid people in adopting dietary habits that improve their glucose tolerance. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between a ratio of dietary fibre to carbohydrate intakes (fibre:carbohydrate ratio (F:C-R)) and glucose tolerance cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Subjects were 190 Japanese men and women without type 2 diabetes (mean age 55·4 years) who participated in a 5-month diet and exercise programme. We compared baseline anthropometric, dietary and metabolic profiles between those with higher F:C-R and those with lower ratios...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Zhaodi Zheng, Wenzhen Zhu, Bingwu Yang, Rongfei Chai, Tingting Liu, Fenglin Li, Guanghui Ren, Shuhua Ji, Shan Liu, Guorong Li
Metformin, a widely used antidiabetic drug, exhibits anticancer effects which are mediated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine/threonine kinase (AKT) signaling pathway. However, its use in anticancer therapy combined with other natural products remains unclear. Flavone as the core structure of flavonoids has been demonstrated to induce cell apoptosis without causing serious side effect. Murine double minute X (MDMX) inhibits tumor suppressor gene p53 whose function is associated with the PI3K/AKT pathway...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Camila Rubio-Patiño, Jozef P Bossowski, Gian Marco De Donatis, Laura Mondragón, Elodie Villa, Lazaro E Aira, Johanna Chiche, Rana Mhaidly, Cynthia Lebeaupin, Sandrine Marchetti, Konstantinos Voutetakis, Aristotelis Chatziioannou, Florence A Castelli, Patricia Lamourette, Emeline Chu-Van, François Fenaille, Tony Avril, Thierry Passeron, John B Patterson, Els Verhoeyen, Béatrice Bailly-Maitre, Eric Chevet, Jean-Ehrland Ricci
Dietary restriction (DR) was shown to impact on tumor growth with very variable effects depending on the cancer type. However, how DR limits cancer progression remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that feeding mice a low-protein (Low PROT) isocaloric diet but not a low-carbohydrate (Low CHO) diet reduced tumor growth in three independent mouse cancer models. Surprisingly, this effect relies on anticancer immunosurveillance, as depleting CD8+ T cells, antigen-presenting cells (APCs), or using immunodeficient mice prevented the beneficial effect of the diet...
March 1, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Monica G Ferrini, Eduardo Garcia, Andrea Abraham, Jorge N Artaza, Sabine Nguyen, Jacob Rajfer
INTRODUCTION: COMP-4 is a natural compound-based dietary supplement consisting of the combination of ginger, Paullinia cupana, muira puama and l-citrulline, which when given long-term has been shown in the aged rat to a) upregulate iNOS in the penile smooth muscle cells (SMC), b) reverse the corporal SMC apoptosis and fibrosis associated with corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction (CVOD), and c) improve resulting erectile function. To elucidate the mechanism of how COMP-4 and its individual components modulate the iNOS-cGMP pathway, an in vitro study was conducted using a rat corporal primary SMC culture to determine its effect on NOS, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), cGMP and the phosphodiesterase 5 enzyme (PDE5)...
March 15, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Ravi Prakash Pal, Veena Mani, Deepika Tripathi, Chander Datt
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of inorganic vanadium (V) supplementation on antioxidant enzymes, immune status, and haemato-biochemical attributes of growing crossbred calves. Twenty-four male Karan Fries calves (Tharparkar × Holstein Friesian) (initial body mass 72.83 ± 2.5 kg; age 3-9 month) were randomly allocated to four groups: the control (received basal diet devoid of supplemental V), the 3 ppm (received basal diet with 3 mg/kg V), the 6 ppm (received basal diet with 6 mg/kg V) and the 9 ppm group (received basal diet with 9 mg/kg V)...
March 17, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Thomas Laeger, Teresa Castaño-Martinez, Martin W Werno, Lukasz Japtok, Christian Baumeier, Wenke Jonas, Burkhard Kleuser, Annette Schürmann
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Low-protein diets are well known to improve glucose tolerance and increase energy expenditure. Increases in circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) have been implicated as a potential underlying mechanism. METHODS: We aimed to test whether low-protein diets in the context of a high-carbohydrate or high-fat regimen would also protect against type 2 diabetes in New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice used as a model of polygenetic obesity and type 2 diabetes...
March 17, 2018: Diabetologia
E A Horst, S K Kvidera, E J Mayorga, C S Shouse, M Al-Qaisi, M J Dickson, J Ydstie, H A Ramirez Ramirez, A F Keating, D J Dickson, K E Griswold, L H Baumgard
Activated immune cells are insulin sensitive and utilize copious amounts of glucose. Because chromium (Cr) increases insulin sensitivity and may be immunomodulatory, our objective was to evaluate the effect of supplemental Cr (KemTrace Cr propionate, 20 g/d; Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA) on immune system glucose utilization and immune system dynamics following an intravenous endotoxin challenge in lactating Holstein cows. Twenty cows (320 ± 18 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) pair-fed (PF) control (PF-CON; 5 mL of saline; n = 5), (2) PF and Cr supplemented (PF-Cr; 5 mL of saline; n = 5), (3) lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-euglycemic clamp and control supplemented (LPS-CON; 0...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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