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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679645/sequencing-of-pt5282-ctxm-p13190-kpc-and-p30860-nr-and-comparative-genomics-analysis-of-incx8-plasmids
#1
Haihong Fang, Jiao Feng, Yuanhong Xu, Ying Zhang, Zhe Zhan, Zhe Yin, Xiongbo Duan, Bo Gao, Yigang Tong, Jinglin Wang, Yanping Luo, Erhei Dai, Dongsheng Zhou
This study proposed a replicon-based scheme for typing IncX into nine separately clustering subgroups, including IncX1α, IncX1β and IncX2-8. The complete nucleotide sequences of three IncX8 plasmids, namely pT5282-CTXM and p30860-NR from Enterobacter cloacae and p13190-KPC from Klebsiella pneumoniae, were determined and compared with all the other two previously sequenced IncX8 plasmids pCAV1043-58 and pCAV1741-16. These five plasmids possessed conserved IncX8 backbones with limited genetic variations with respect to gene content and organization, and each of them carried one or three accessory modules that harbored resistance markers and metabolic gene clusters as well as transposons, insertion sequence (IS)-based transposition units and miniature inverted repeat transposable elements, indicating that the relatively small IncX8 backbones were able to integrate various foreign genetic contents...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659148/hydrogen-sulphide-increases-pulmonary-veins-and-atrial-arrhythmogenesis-with-activation-of-protein-kinase-c
#2
Chao-Shun Chan, Yung-Kuo Lin, Yu-Hsun Kao, Yao-Chang Chen, Shih-Ann Chen, Yi-Jen Chen
Hydrogen sulphide (H2 S), one of the most common toxic air pollutants, is an important aetiology of atrial fibrillation (AF). Pulmonary veins (PVs) and left atrium (LA) are the most important AF trigger and substrate. We investigated whether H2 S may modulate the arrhythmogenesis of PVs and atria. Conventional microelectrodes and whole-cell patch clamp were performed in rabbit PV, sinoatrial node (SAN) or atrial cardiomyocytes before and after the perfusion of NaHS with or without chelerythrine (a selective PKC inhibitor), rottlerin (a specific PKC δ inhibitor) or KB-R7943 (a NCX inhibitor)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609544/detection-of-ctx-m-15-harboring-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-wild-birds-in-tunisia
#3
Houssem Ben Yahia, Rym Ben Sallem, Ghassan Tayh, Naouel Klibi, Insaf Ben Amor, Haythem Gharsa, Abdellatif Boudabbous, Karim Ben Slama
BACKGROUND: The spreading of antibiotic resistant bacteria is becoming nowadays an alarming threat to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence showing that wild birds could significantly contribute to the transmission and spreading of drug-resistant bacteria. However, data for antimicrobial resistance in wild birds remain scarce, especially throughout Africa. The aims of this investigation were to analyze the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in faecal samples of wild birds in Tunisia and to characterize the recovered isolates...
April 2, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566126/electrical-dysfunctions-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-from-a-patient-with-an-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-cardiomyopathy
#4
Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Zhihan Zhao, Huan Lan, Lukas Cyganek, Christoph Tombers, Xin Li, Fanis Buljubasic, Siegfried Lang, Malte Tiburcy, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Jochen Utikal, Thomas Wieland, Martin Borggrefe, Xiao-Bo Zhou, Ibrahim Akin
Aims: Our aim is to investigate the arrhythmogenic mechanism in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC)-patients by using human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). Methods and results: Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were generated from human skin fibroblasts of two healthy donors and an ARVC-patient with a desmoglein-2 (DSG2) mutation. Patch clamp, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and calcium imaging techniques were employed for the study...
March 16, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535773/ion-channel-expression-and-characterization-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#5
Zhihan Zhao, Huan Lan, Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Xin Li, Fanis Buljubasic, Katherine Sattler, Gökhan Yücel, Siegfried Lang, Malte Tiburcy, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Lukas Cyganek, Jochen Utikal, Thomas Wieland, Martin Borggrefe, Xiao-Bo Zhou, Ibrahim Akin
Background: Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are providing new possibilities for the biological study, cell therapies, and drug discovery. However, the ion channel expression and functions as well as regulations in hiPSC-CMs still need to be fully characterized. Methods: Cardiomyocytes were derived from hiPS cells that were generated from two healthy donors. qPCR and patch clamp techniques were used for the study. Results: In addition to the reported ion channels, INa , ICa-L , ICa-T , If , INCX , IK1 , Ito , IKr , IKs IKATP , IK-pH , ISK1-3 , and ISK4 , we detected both the expression and currents of ACh-activated (KACh) and Na+ -activated (KNa) K+ , volume-regulated and calcium-activated (Cl-Ca) Cl- , and TRPV channels...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174767/sorcin-ablation-plus-%C3%AE-adrenergic-stimulation-generate-an-arrhythmogenic-substrate-in-mouse-ventricular-myocytes
#6
Xi Chen, Craig Weber, Emily T Farrell, Francisco J Alvarado, Yan-Ting Zhao, Ana M Gómez, Héctor H Valdivia
Sorcin, a penta-EF hand Ca2+ -binding protein expressed in cardiomyocytes, is known to interact with ryanodine receptors and other Ca2+ regulatory proteins. To investigate sorcin's influence on cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and its role in the development of cardiac malfunctions, we generated a sorcin knockout (KO) mouse model. Sorcin KO mice presented ventricular arrhythmia and sudden death when challenged by acute stress induced by isoproterenol plus caffeine. Chronic stress, which was induced by transverse aortic constriction, significantly decreased the survival rate of sorcin KO mice...
January 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972668/wenxin-keli-diminishes-ca-2-overload-induced-by-hypoxia-reoxygenation-in-cardiomyocytes-through-inhibiting-i-nal-and-i-cal
#7
Antao Luo, Zhipei Liu, Zhenzhen Cao, Jie Hao, Lin Wu, Chen Fu, Mengliu Zeng, Wanzhen Jiang, Peihua Zhang, Buchang Zhao, Tao Zhao, Jing Zhao, Jihua Ma
BACKGROUND: An increase in the late sodium current (INaL ) causes intracellular Na+ overload and subsequently intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ]i ) overload via the stimulated reverse Na+ -Ca2+ exchange (NCX). Wenxin Keli (WXKL) is an effective antiarrhythmic Chinese herb extract, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The INaL , NCX current (INCX ), L-type Ca2+ current (ICaL ), and action potentials were recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in rabbit ventricular myocytes...
December 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956012/flecainide-ameliorates-arrhythmogenicity-through-ncx-flux-in-andersen-tawil-syndrome-ips-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#8
Yusuke Kuroda, Shinsuke Yuasa, Yasuhide Watanabe, Shogo Ito, Toru Egashira, Tomohisa Seki, Tetsuhisa Hattori, Seiko Ohno, Masaki Kodaira, Tomoyuki Suzuki, Hisayuki Hashimoto, Shinichiro Okata, Atsushi Tanaka, Yoshiyasu Aizawa, Mitsushige Murata, Takeshi Aiba, Naomasa Makita, Tetsushi Furukawa, Wataru Shimizu, Itsuo Kodama, Satoshi Ogawa, Norito Kokubun, Hitoshi Horigome, Minoru Horie, Kaichiro Kamiya, Keiichi Fukuda
Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is a rare inherited channelopathy. The cardiac phenotype in ATS is typified by a prominent U wave and ventricular arrhythmia. An effective treatment for this disease remains to be established. We reprogrammed somatic cells from three ATS patients to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) were used to record extracellular electrograms of iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes, revealing strong arrhythmic events in the ATS-iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815011/genomic-upregulation-of-cardiac-cav1-2%C3%AE-and-ncx1-by-estrogen-in-women
#9
Rita Papp, Glenna C L Bett, Agnieszka Lis, Randall L Rasmusson, István Baczkó, András Varró, Guy Salama
BACKGROUND: Women have a higher risk of lethal arrhythmias than men in long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2), but the mechanisms remain uncertain due to the limited availability of healthy control human tissue. We have previously reported that in female rabbits, estrogen increases arrhythmia risk in drug-induced LQTS2 by upregulating L-type Ca(2+) (ICa,L) and sodium-calcium exchange (INCX) currents at the base of the epicardium by a genomic mechanism. This study investigates if the effects of estrogen on rabbit ICa,L and INCX apply to human hearts...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807400/incx3-plasmid-harboring-a-non-tn4401-genetic-element-ntekpc-in-a-hospital-associated-clone-of-kpc-2-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st340-cg258
#10
Louise T Cerdeira, Marcos P V Cunha, Gabriela R Francisco, Maria Fernanda C Bueno, Bruna F Araujo, Rosineide M Ribas, Paulo P Gontijo-Filho, Terezinha Knöbl, Doroti de Oliveira Garcia, Nilton Lincopan
IncX-type plasmids have achieved clinical significance for their contribution in the dissemination of genes confering resistance to carbapenems (most blaKPC- and blaNDM-type genes) and polymyxins (mcr-type genes), both antibiotics considered last resort for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections. In this study, we report the identification and complete sequence analysis of an IncX3 plasmid (designated pKP1194a) carrying a non-Tn4401 genetic element (NTEKPC) of tnpR-tnpA (partial)-blaKPC-2-ΔISKpn6/traN, originating from a hospital-associated lineage of K...
July 1, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807015/genomic-upregulation-of-cardiac-cav1-2%C3%AE-and-ncx1-by-estrogen-in-women
#11
Rita Papp, Glenna C L Bett, Agnieszka Lis, Randall L Rasmusson, István Baczkó, András Varró, Guy Salama
BACKGROUND: Women have a higher risk of lethal arrhythmias than men in long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2), but the mechanisms remain uncertain due to the limited availability of healthy control human tissue. We have previously reported that in female rabbits, estrogen increases arrhythmia risk in drug-induced LQTS2 by upregulating L-type Ca(2+) (ICa,L) and sodium-calcium exchange (INCX) currents at the base of the epicardium by a genomic mechanism. This study investigates if the effects of estrogen on rabbit ICa,L and INCX apply to human hearts...
August 14, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800884/ionic-mechanisms-of-the-action-of-anaesthetics-on-sinoatrial-node-automaticity
#12
REVIEW
Akiko Kojima, Hiroshi Matsuura
Although various general anaesthetics affect the heart rate in clinical settings, their precise mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Because the heart rate is determined by automaticity of the cardiac pacemaker sinoatrial node and its regulation by autonomic nervous system, it is important to clarify the effect of anaesthetics on sinoatrial node automaticity. The spontaneous electrical activity of sinoatrial node is generated by a complex but coordinated interaction of multiple ionic currents, such as the hyperpolarisation-activated cation current (If), T-type and L-type Ca(2+) currents (ICa,T and ICa,L), Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current (INCX), and rapidly and slowly activating delayed rectifier K(+) currents (IKr and IKs)...
November 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650275/first-description-of-blandm-7-carried-on-an-incx4-plasmid-in-escherichia-coli-st679-isolated-in-spain
#13
Paula Espinal, Elisenda Miró, Concepción Segura, Laura Gómez, Virginia Plasencia, Pere Coll, Ferran Navarro
This study describes the molecular characterization of an NDM-7 carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli strain Ec188, recovered from a rectal swab of a male patient who had travelled to Pakistan before his hospitalization at the Hospital del Mar in Barcelona, Spain. The Ec188 isolate, assigned to a new multilocus sequence type ST679, was resistant to all beta-lactams, aminoglycosides (gentamicin, tobramycin, and with reduced susceptibility to amikacin), and ciprofloxacin. The blaNDM-7 gene was located on a 50 kb IncX4 plasmid (pEc188-NDM7), both in the original and transconjugant strains...
June 26, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476922/sarcolemmal-distribution-of-i-ca-and-i-ncx-and-ca-2-autoregulation-in-mouse-ventricular-myocytes
#14
Hanne C Gadeberg, Cherrie H T Kong, Simon M Bryant, Andrew F James, Clive H Orchard
The balance of Ca2+ influx and efflux regulates the Ca2+ load of cardiac myocytes, a process known as autoregulation. Previous work has shown that Ca2+ influx, via L-type Ca2+ current ( I Ca ), and efflux, via the Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), occur predominantly at t-tubules; however, the role of t-tubules in autoregulation is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the sarcolemmal distribution of I Ca and NCX current ( I NCX ), and autoregulation, in mouse ventricular myocytes using whole cell voltage-clamp and simultaneous Ca2+ measurements in intact and detubulated (DT) cells...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438937/incx2-and-incx1-x2-hybrid-plasmids-coexisting-in-a-fosa6-producing-escherichia-coli-strain
#15
Qinglan Guo, Jiachun Su, Christi Lee McElheny, Nicole Stoesser, Yohei Doi, Minggui Wang
IncX plasmids are receiving much attention as vehicles of carbapenem and colistin resistance genes, such as bla NDM , bla KPC , and mcr-1 Among them, IncX2 subgroup plasmids remain rare. Here, we characterized IncX2 and IncX1-X2 hybrid plasmids coexisting in a FosA6-producing Escherichia coli strain that were possibly generated as a consequence of recombination events between an R6K-like IncX2 plasmid and a pLN126_33-like IncX1 plasmid. Variable multidrug resistance mosaic regions were observed in these plasmids, indicating their potential to serve as flexible carriers of resistance genes...
July 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436159/modulation-of-late-sodium-current-by-ca-2-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-protein-kinase-c-and-ca-2-during-hypoxia-in-rabbit-ventricular-myocytes
#16
Chen Fu, Jie Hao, Mengliu Zeng, Yejia Song, Wanzhen Jiang, Peihua Zhang, Antao Luo, Zhenzhen Cao, Luiz Belardinelli, Jihua Ma
What is the central question of this study? Hypoxia-induced increase in late sodium current (INa,L ) is associated with conditions causing cellular Ca(2+) overload and contributes to arrhythmogenesis in the ventricular myocardium. The INa,L is an important drug target. We investigated intracellular signal transduction pathways involved in modulation of INa,L during hypoxia. What is the main finding and its importance? Hypoxia caused increases in INa,L , reverse Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchange current and diastolic [Ca(2+) ], which were attenuated by inhibitors of Ca(2+) -calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and protein kinase C and by a Ca(2+) chelator...
July 1, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267580/carriage-of-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-systems-by-the-growing-group-of-incx-plasmids
#17
Paula Bustamante, Jonathan R Iredell
The stable maintenance of certain plasmids in bacterial populations has contributed significantly to the current worldwide antibiotic resistance (AbR) emergency. IncX plasmids, long underestimated in this regard, have achieved recent notoriety for their roles in transmission of resistance to carbapenem and colistin, the last-line antibiotics for Gram-negative infections. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems contribute to stable maintenance of many AbR plasmids, and a few TA systems have been previously described in the IncX plasmids...
March 3, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926853/a-dynamical-threshold-for-cardiac-delayed-afterdepolarization-mediated-triggered-activity
#18
Michael B Liu, Christopher Y Ko, Zhen Song, Alan Garfinkel, James N Weiss, Zhilin Qu
Ventricular myocytes are excitable cells whose voltage threshold for action potential (AP) excitation is ∼-60 mV at which INa is activated to give rise to a fast upstroke. Therefore, for a short stimulus pulse to elicit an AP, a stronger stimulus is needed if the resting potential lies further away from the INa threshold, such as in hypokalemia. However, for an AP elicited by a long duration stimulus or a diastolic spontaneous calcium release, we observed that the stimulus needed was lower in hypokalemia than in normokalemia in both computer simulations and experiments of rabbit ventricular myocytes...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836893/dynamical-mechanisms-of-phase-2-early-afterdepolarizations-in-human-ventricular-myocytes-insights-from-bifurcation-analyses-of-two-mathematical-models
#19
Yasutaka Kurata, Kunichika Tsumoto, Kenshi Hayashi, Ichiro Hisatome, Mamoru Tanida, Yuhichi Kuda, Toshishige Shibamoto
Early afterdepolarization (EAD) is known as a cause of ventricular arrhythmias in long QT syndromes. We theoretically investigated how the rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) components of delayed-rectifier K(+) channel currents, L-type Ca(2+) channel current (ICaL), Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger current (INCX), Na(+)-K(+) pump current (INaK), intracellular Ca(2+) (Cai) handling via sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), and intracellular Na(+) concentration (Nai) contribute to initiation, termination, and modulation of phase-2 EADs, using two human ventricular myocyte models...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673688/suppressive-effect-of-carvedilol-on-na-ca2-exchange-current-in-isolated-guinea-pig-cardiac-ventricular-myocytes
#20
Miyuki Tashiro, Yasuhide Watanabe, Tomomi Yamakawa, Kanna Yamashita, Satomi Kita, Takahiro Iwamoto, Junko Kimura
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Carvedilol ((+/-)-1-(carbazol-4-yloxy)-3-[[2-(o-methoxyphenoxy)ethyl]amino]-2-propanol), a β-adrenoceptor-blocker, has multi-channel blocking and vasodilator properties. This agent dose-dependently improves left ventricular function and reduces mortality in patients with arrhythmia and chronic heart failure. However, the effect of carvedilol on the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) has not been investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol, 2 β-blockers, on Na+/Ca2+ exchange current (INCX) in guinea-pig cardiac ventricular cells and fibroblasts expressing dog cardiac NCX1...
2017: Pharmacology
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