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Amtiga Muangwong, Thanawat Boontip, Jittakan Pachimsawat, Suchada Chanprateep Napathorn
BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to search for novel bacteria capable of producing polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) using crude glycerol residue obtained from biodiesel production in which used cooking oils were the substrates. RESULTS: Newly isolated bacteria from soils in Thailand were screened for the efficient production of PHAs from crude glycerol. The bacterial strains were cultivated on glucose, refined glycerol, crude glycerol, or various cooking oils (canola oil, palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, grape seed oil, olive oil, rice bran oil, camellia seed oil) for growth and PHA production...
March 17, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Gail M Timmerman-Vaughan, Leire Moya, Tonya J Frew, Sarah R Murray, Ross Crowhurst
Advances have been made in our understanding of Ascochyta blight resistance genetics through mapping candidate genes associated with QTL regions and demonstrating the importance of epistatic interactions in determining resistance. Ascochyta blight disease of pea (Pisum sativum L.) is economically significant with worldwide distribution. The causal pathogens are Didymella pinodes, Phoma medicaginis var pinodella and, in South Australia, P. koolunga. This study aimed to identify candidate genes that map to quantitative trait loci (QTL) for Ascochyta blight field disease resistance and to explore the role of epistatic interactions...
May 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Clarissa Eibl, Simina Grigoriu, Manuel Hessenberger, Julia Wenger, Sandra Puehringer, Anderson S Pinheiro, Roland N Wagner, Martina Proell, John C Reed, Rebecca Page, Kay Diederichs, Wolfgang Peti
NLRP4 is a member of the nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat receptor (NLR) family of cytosolic receptors and a member of an inflammation signaling cascade. Here, we present the crystal structure of the NLRP4 pyrin domain (PYD) at 2.3 Å resolution. The NLRP4 PYD is a member of the death domain (DD) superfamily and adopts a DD fold consisting of six α-helices tightly packed around a hydrophobic core, with a highly charged surface that is typical of PYDs. Importantly, however, we identified several differences between the NLRP4 PYD crystal structure and other PYD structures that are significant enough to affect NLRP4 function and its interactions with binding partners...
September 18, 2012: Biochemistry
Yun Li, Nina Bögershausen, Yasemin Alanay, Pelin Ozlem Simsek Kiper, Nadine Plume, Katharina Keupp, Esther Pohl, Barbara Pawlik, Martin Rachwalski, Esther Milz, Michaela Thoenes, Beate Albrecht, Eva-Christina Prott, Margret Lehmkühler, Stephanie Demuth, Gülen Eda Utine, Koray Boduroglu, Katja Frankenbusch, Guntram Borck, Gabriele Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gökhan Yigit, Dagmar Wieczorek, Bernd Wollnik
Kabuki syndrome (KS) is one of the classical, clinically well-known multiple anomalies/mental retardation syndromes, mainly characterized by a very distinctive facial appearance in combination with additional clinical signs such as developmental delay, short stature, persistent fingerpads, and urogenital tract anomalies. In our study, we sequenced all 54 coding exons of the recently identified MLL2 gene in 34 patients with Kabuki syndrome. We identified 18 distinct mutations in 19 patients, 11 of 12 tested de novo...
December 2011: Human Genetics
Kyeongjin Kim, Kook Hwan Kim, Hyeong Hoe Kim, Jaehun Cheong
HBV (hepatitis B virus) is a primary cause of chronic liver disease, which frequently results in hepatitis, cirrhosis and ultimately HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma). Recently, we showed that HBx (HBV protein X) expression induces lipid accumulation in hepatic cells mediated by the induction of SREBP1 (sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein 1), a key regulator of lipogenic genes in the liver. However, the molecular mechanisms by which HBx increases SREBP1 expression and transactivation remain to be clearly elucidated...
December 1, 2008: Biochemical Journal
Seunghee Lee, Dong-Kee Lee, Yali Dou, Jeongkyung Lee, Bora Lee, Eunyee Kwak, Young-Yun Kong, Soo-Kyung Lee, Robert G Roeder, Jae W Lee
Activating signal cointegrator-2 (ASC-2), a coactivator of multiple transcription factors that include retinoic acid receptor (RAR), associates with histone H3-K4 methyltranferases (H3K4MTs) MLL3 and MLL4 in mixed-lineage leukemia. Here, we show that mice expressing a SET domain mutant of MLL3 share phenotypes with isogenic ASC2+/- mice and that expression and H3-K4 trimethylation of RAR target gene RAR-beta2 are impaired in ASC-2-null mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) or in MEFs expressing siRNAs against both MLL3 and MLL4...
October 17, 2006: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Aswin Natarajan, Ranajeet Ghose, Justine M Hill
Pyrin domain (PYD)-containing proteins are key components of pathways that regulate inflammation, apoptosis, and cytokine processing. Their importance is further evidenced by the consequences of mutations in these proteins that give rise to autoimmune and hyperinflammatory syndromes. PYDs, like other members of the death domain (DD) superfamily, are postulated to mediate homotypic interactions that assemble and regulate the activity of signaling complexes. However, PYDs are presently the least well characterized of all four DD subfamilies...
October 20, 2006: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Fabiola Espejo, Manuel E Patarroyo
ASC2 structure has been well defined by 1141 NOE experimental restraints. The model consists of five alpha helices. alpha-Helices are connected by short random structure loops. The sole exception is the loop connecting helices 2 and 3, which has a 20-residue length. Folding generally agrees with the folding of recently published death domain structures in which alpha-helix structures have been reported. In spite of structural similarity, amino acid sequence homology with the most similar protein (ASC1) is just 64%...
February 17, 2006: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Keiji Furukawa, Tasuku Yamada, Haruhiko Mizoguchi, Shodo Hara
Sake mash was prepared using rice with polishing ratios of 70%, 80%, 90% and 98%. At a polishing ratio of 70%, the highest amounts of ethyl caproate were produced in sake mash, and supplementation of inositol caused a decrease in ethyl caproate production. However, at a polishing ratio of over 90%, supplementation of inositol had no effect on ethyl caproate production. These results suggest that the use of rice with a polishing ratio of 70% results in increased ethyl caproate content in sake when limiting the inositol available to yeast...
2003: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Edvards Liepinsh, Raitis Barbals, Edgar Dahl, Anatoly Sharipo, Eike Staub, Gottfried Otting
The PYRIN domain is a conserved sequence motif identified in more than 20 human proteins with putative functions in apoptotic and inflammatory signalling pathways. The three-dimensional structure of the PYRIN domain from human ASC was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The structure determination reveals close structural similarity to death domains, death effector domains, and caspase activation and recruitment domains, although the structural alignment with these other members of the death-domain superfamily differs from previously predicted amino acid sequence alignments...
October 3, 2003: Journal of Molecular Biology
Christian Stehlik, Maryla Krajewska, Kate Welsh, Stanislaw Krajewski, Adam Godzik, John C Reed
Proteins containing PAAD [pyrin, AIM (absent-in-melanoma), ASC [apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (caspase-recruitment domain)] and DD (death domain)-like] (PYRIN, DAPIN) domains are involved in innate immunity, regulating pathways leading to nuclear-factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) and pro-caspase-1 activation. Many PAAD-family proteins have structures reminiscent of Nod-1, a putative intracellular sensor of lipopolysaccharide. Hereditary mutations in some of the PAAD-family genes are associated with auto-inflammatory diseases...
July 1, 2003: Biochemical Journal
Y Zhu, C Qi, W Q Cao, A V Yeldandi, M S Rao, J K Reddy
The nuclear receptor coactivators participate in the transcriptional activation of specific genes by nuclear receptors. In this study, we report the isolation of a nuclear receptor coactivator-interacting protein from a human liver cDNA library by using the coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-interacting protein (PRIP) (ASC2/AIB3/RAP250/NRC/TRBP) as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Human PRIP-interacting protein cDNA has an ORF of 2,556 nucleotides, encodes a protein with 852 amino acids, and contains a 9-aa VVDAFCGVG methyltransferase motif I and an invariant GXXGXXI segment found in K-homology motifs of many RNA-binding proteins...
August 28, 2001: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
J Tózsér, M Mézes
This study was conducted to compare three different methods for calculating scrotal circumference (ASC1, ASC2, ASC3) adjusted to 365 days of age in Charolais, Limousin and Hungarian Fleckvieh young bulls at the end of the self-performance test. Young breeding bulls from three Charolais, Limousin and Hungarian Fleckvieh breeding farms (farm A: n = 40; farm B: n = 9; farm C: n = 11) were used. The young bulls were kept in loose housing system, in small groups, and fed a diet based on maize silage and concentrate...
1999: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
J L Albi, P Canals, M A Gallardo, J Sánchez
The Na(+)-independent uptake of L-alanine has been studied in trout red blood cells, isolated hepatocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes. The present study shows the existence of two functionally different Na(+)-independent systems for short chain neutral amino acids in these cells. They are designated as asc systems because of their resemblance to systems described in other cell types. Besides their independence of sodium and a rough similarity in substrate preference, the most important property shared by the two carriers is a lack of trans-stimulation, allowing further differentiation from system L...
June 1994: Journal of Membrane Biology
D A Fincham, D K Mason, J Y Paterson, J D Young
1. Thoroughbred horses were divisible into five distinct amino acid transport subgroups on the basis of their erythrocyte permeability to L-alanine, measured uptake rates ranging from 5 to 625 mumol l cells-1 h-1 (0.2 mM-extracellular L-alanine, 37 degrees C). 2. Erythrocytes from animals belonging to the lowest L-alanine permeability subgroup (5-15 mumol l cells-1 h-1) (transport-deficient type) exhibited slow nonsaturable transport of this amino acid. In contrast, cells from horses of the four transport-positive subgroups possessed additional high-affinity (apparent L-alanine Km (Michaelis constant) congruent to 0...
August 1987: Journal of Physiology
D A Fincham, D K Mason, J D Young
Amino acid transport in horse erythrocytes is regulated by three co-dominant allelomorphic genes coding for high-affinity transport activity (system asc1), low-affinity transport activity (system asc2) and transport-deficiency, respectively. The asc systems are selective for neutral amino acids of intermediate size, but unlike conventional system ASC, do not require Na+ for activity. In the present series of experiments we have used a combined kinetic and genetic approach to establish that dibasic amino acids are also asc substrates, systems asc1 and asc2 representing the only mediated routes of cationic amino acid transport in horse erythrocytes...
January 13, 1988: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
J D Young, D K Mason, D A Fincham
Na+-dependent system ASC and Na+-independent system asc are characterized by a common selectivity for neutral amino acids of intermediate size such as L-alanine and by their interactions with dibasic amino acids. For system ASC, the positive charge on the dibasic amino acid side chain is considered to occupy the Na+-binding site on the transporter. We report here the use of harmaline (a Na+-site inhibitor in some systems) as a probe of possible structural homology between these two classes of amino acid transporter...
January 5, 1988: Journal of Biological Chemistry
R P Linke, C Voigt, F S Störkel, M Eulitz
Isolated atrial amyloid, the most frequent senile cardiac amyloid type, was chemically analysed. Amyloid fibrils obtained from a patient (NIP) were extracted and the predominant low-molecular-weight polypeptide (approximately 3.5 kDa, designated ASc2 NIP) was isolated by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography in 60% formic acid. N-Terminal amino acid sequence analysis of this polypeptide was identical to that of the atrial natriuretic peptide alpha-hANP for the first 12 residues determined.
1988: Virchows Archiv. B, Cell Pathology Including Molecular Pathology
D A Fincham, J C Ellory, J D Young
In thoroughbred horses, red blood cell amino acid transport activity is Na(+)-independent and controlled by three codominant genetic alleles (h, l, s), coding for high-affinity system asc1 (L-alanine apparent Km for influx at 37 degrees C congruent to 0.35 mM), low-affinity system asc2 (L-alanine Km congruent to 14 mM), and transport deficiency, respectively. The present study investigated amino acid transport mechanisms in red cells from four wild species: Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii), Hartmann's zebra (Zebra hartmannae), Grevy's zebra (Zebra grevyi), and onager (Equus hemonius)...
August 1992: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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