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Pediatric brain cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152094/xenotransplantation-of-pediatric-low-grade-gliomas-confirms-the-enrichment-of-braf-v600e-mutation-and-preservation-of-cdkn2a-deletion-in-a-novel-orthotopic-xenograft-mouse-model-of-progressive-pleomorphic-xanthoastrocytoma
#1
Mari Kogiso, Lin Qi, Holly Lindsay, Yulun Huang, Xiumei Zhao, Zhigang Liu, Frank K Braun, Yuchen Du, Huiyuan Zhang, Goeun Bae, Sibo Zhao, Sarah G Injac, Mary Sobieski, David Brunell, Vidya Mehta, Diep Tran, Jeffrey Murray, Patricia A Baxter, Xiao-Jun Yuan, Jack M Su, Adekunle Adesina, Laszlo Perlaky, Murali Chintagumpala, D Williams Parsons, Ching C Lau, Clifford C Stephan, Xinyan Lu, Xiao-Nan Li
To identify cellular and molecular changes that driver pediatric low grade glioma (PLGG) progression, we analyzed putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) and evaluated key biological changes in a novel and progressive patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of 22 PLGGs detected CD133(+) (<1.5%) and CD15(+) (20.7 ± 28.9%) cells, and direct intra-cranial implantation of 25 PLGGs led to the development of 1 PDOX model from a grade II pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA). While CSC levels did not correlate with patient tumor progression, neurosphere formation and in vivo tumorigenicity, the PDOX model, IC-3635PXA, reproduced key histological features of the original tumor...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143958/intraspinal-mesenchymal-chondrosarcoma-report-of-a-pediatric-case-and-literature-review
#2
Angela Di Giannatale, Marta Colletti, Ida Russo, Valentina Ferruzzi, Vito Andrea Dell' Anna, Raffaele Cozza, Giovanna Stefania Colafati, Raffaella Messina, Angela Mastronuzzi, Rita De Vito, Giuseppe Maria Milano
PURPOSE: Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (MCS) is an aggressive variant of chondrosarcoma and is a rare tumor, particularly within the pediatric population. Commonly, MCS originates in the bone, but it can also arise in extraskeletal sites, such as the brain and the intraspinal area. Due to the rarity of this tumor, there are no guidelines for its optimal treatment. METHODS: We report a case of intradural extramedullary MCS, located at the T11-T12 level, in a 14-year-old male...
November 15, 2017: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135901/clinical-factors-associated-with-pediatric-brain-neoplasms-versus-primary-headache-a-case-control-analysis
#3
David C Sheridan, Bethany Waites, Bradley Lezak, Robert J Coryell, Kellie J Nazemi, Amber L Lin, Rongwei Fu, Matthew L Hansen
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric headaches are a common presentation to emergency departments accounting for almost half a million annual visits. Providers are left with the difficult task of deciding who has a secondary headache etiology that warrants neuroimaging. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study. Patients from a pediatric neuro-oncology clinic database with brain cancer and a headache at presentation were identified as cases. Controls were patients from 2 local pediatric tertiary care emergency departments with a final diagnosis of headache after negative neuroimaging...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135108/addressing-the-post-irradiation-hypothalamic-pituitary-endocrine-abnormalities-of-brain-tumors-in-pediatric-patients
#4
Louloudenia Velentza, Maria Tolia, Charikleia Christakou, Michail Nikolaou, Ioannis Zerdes, Nikolaos Tsoukalas, Jiannis Hajiioannou, Konstantinos Tsanadis, Georgios Rigas, Michail Mitsis, Kyriaki Theodorou, Kyriaki Pistevou-Gombaki, Periklis Tsekeris, George Kyrgias
PURPOSE: Hypothalamic-pituitary axis is susceptible to radiotherapy, causing endocrine disorders to childhood cancer survivors. We conducted a systematic review in order to assess the radiation-induced toxicity that leads to hormone secretion abnormalities and their severity in children with brain tumors. METHODS: The data were collected by relevant studies on PubMed and EMBASE. Articles up to December 2016 were included. We selected studies which focused on children patients (<18 yr old) with brain tumors treated with radiotherapy and the consequences for their endocrine system...
September 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124086/the-pediatric-ependymoma-protein-database-pepd
#5
George Th Tsangaris, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos
Proteomics, through application of modern high-end mass spectrometric (MS) approaches, offers the advantage of in-depth analysis of cancer tissues regarding their protein composition. Pediatric brain tumor malignancies are scarcely approached by modern holistic technologies (e.g. genomics, proteomics) due to rarity of samples and most importantly difficulty in their collection. Ependymoma, is the third most common tumor in children and is thought to arise from ependymal cells in the wall of the cerebral ventricles or the spinal canal...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106752/subclinical-anthracycline-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-long-term-follow-up-of-asymptomatic-childhood-cancer-survivors-assessment-by-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#6
Süha Çetin, Kadir Babaoğlu, Eviç Z Başar, Murat Deveci, Funda Çorapçıoğlu
OBJECTIVE: Survivors of childhood cancer treated with anthracyclines carry the risk for developing late-onset cardiotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate left ventricular (LV) function in this patient group and compare it with healthy controls by means of conventional and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) after exposure to chemotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Conventional and STE were performed in 45 childhood cancer survivors (mean age 11 ± 4...
November 6, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099739/4sc-202-as-a-potential-treatment-for-the-pediatric-brain-tumor-medulloblastoma
#7
Shanta M Messerli, Mariah M Hoffman, Etienne Z Gnimpieba, Hella Kohlhof, Ratan D Bhardwaj
This project involves an examination of the effect of the small molecule inhibitor 4SC-202 on the growth of the pediatric brain cancer medulloblastoma. The small molecule inhibitor 4SC-202 significantly inhibits the viability of the pediatric desmoplastic cerebellar human medulloblastoma cell line DAOY, with an IC50 = 58.1 nM, but does not affect the viability of noncancerous neural stem cells (NSC). 4SC-202 exposure inhibits hedgehog expression in the DAOY cell line. Furthermore, microarray analysis of human medulloblastoma patient tumors indicate significant upregulation of key targets in the Hedgehog signaling pathway and Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK7)...
November 3, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099727/supplemental-computational-phantoms-to-estimate-out-of-field-absorbed-dose-in-photon-radiotherapy
#8
Kyle Joseph Gallagher, Jaad Tannous, Racile Nabha, Joelle Ann Feghali, Zeina Ayoub, Wassim T Jalbout, Bassem Youssef, Phillip J Taddei
The purpose of this study was to develop a straightforward method of supplementing patient anatomy and estimating out-of-field absorbed dose for a cohort of pediatric radiotherapy patients with limited recorded anatomy. A cohort of nine children, aged 2 to 14 years, who received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for low grade localized brain tumors (LBTs), were randomly selected for this study. The extents of these patients' computed tomography simulation image sets were cranial only. To approximate their missing anatomy, we supplemented the LBT patients' image sets with computed tomography images of patients in a previous study with larger extents of matched sex, height, and mass and for whom contours of organs at risk for radiogenic cancer had already been delineated...
November 3, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077256/screening-with-whole-body-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-pediatric-subjects-with-li-fraumeni-syndrome-a-single-institution-pilot-study
#9
Allison F O'Neill, Stephan D Voss, Jyothi P Jagannathan, Junne Kamihara, Callie Nibecker, Elena Itriago-Araujo, Serena Masciari, Erin Parker, Mauricio Barreto, Wendy B London, Judy E Garber, Lisa Diller
BACKGROUND: Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome associated with germline mutations in the TP53 gene and a high risk of childhood-onset malignancies. Cancer surveillance is challenging in pediatric mutation carriers given the anatomic spectrum of malignancies and young age of onset. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) may provide an acceptable method for early cancer detection. PROCEDURE: We conducted a prospective feasibility pilot study of pediatric subjects (age < 18 years) with LFS to determine return rates for annual WB-MRI scan...
October 27, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071526/the-ubiquitin-proteasome-pathway-in-adult-and-pediatric-brain-tumors-biological-insights-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#10
Wafik Zaky, Christa Manton, Claudia P Miller, Soumen Khatua, Vidya Gopalakrishnan, Joya Chandra
Nearly 20 years ago, the concept of targeting the proteasome for cancer therapy began gaining momentum. This concept was driven by increased understanding of the biology/structure and function of the 26S proteasome, insight into the role of the proteasome in transformed cells, and the synthesis of pharmacological inhibitors with clinically favorable features. Subsequent in vitro, in vivo, and clinical testing culminated in the FDA approval of three proteasome inhibitors-bortezomib, carfilzomib, and ixazomib -for specific hematological malignancies...
October 25, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065490/immunotherapy-for-pediatric-brain-tumors
#11
REVIEW
Elias J Sayour, Duane A Mitchell
Malignant brain tumors are the most common cause of solid cancer death in children. New targeted therapies are vital to improve treatment outcomes, but must be developed to enable trafficking across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Since activated T cells cross the BBB, cancer immunotherapy can be harnessed to unlock the cytotoxic potential of the immune system. However, standard of care treatments (i.e., chemotherapy and radiation) applied concomitant to pediatric brain tumor immunotherapy may abrogate induction of immunotherapeutic responses...
October 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028221/quality-of-life-and-patient-reported-outcomes-following-proton-radiation-therapy-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Vivek Verma, Charles B Simone, Mark V Mishra
Background: As costs of cancer care rise, the importance of documenting value in oncology increases. Proton beam radiotherapy (PBT) has the potential to reduce toxicities in cancer patients, but is relatively expensive and unproven. Evaluating quality of life (QOL) and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is essential to establishing PBT's "value" in oncologic therapy. The goal of this systematic review was to assess QOL and PROs in patients treated with PBT. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)-guided systematic searches were conducted...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025599/constitutional-mosaicism-of-a-de-novo-tp53-mutation-in-a-patient-with-bilateral-choroid-plexus-carcinoma
#13
Joanna Trubicka, Iwona Filipek, Iwanowski Piotr, Małgorzata Rydzanicz, Wiesława Grajkowska, Dorota Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Krystyna Chrzanowska, Agnieszka Karkucińska-Więckowska, Katarzyna Iwanicka-Pronicka, Maciej Pronicki, Maria Łastowska, Rafał Płoski, Bożenna Dembowska-Bagińska
Choroid plexus tumors (CPT) constitute 2%-5% of all pediatric brain tumors and include high grade choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC). About 40% of CPC patients harbor germline TP53 mutations, associated with diminished survival rates. However, the number of TP53 carriers might be underestimated due to suboptimal ability of Sanger sequencing to identify mosaicism. We describe an 18-month-old boy with ultra-rare, bilateral disseminated CPC and negative family history of cancer. Next generation sequencing (NGS) revealed constitutional mosaicism of de novo TP53 mutation, which was barely detectable by Sanger sequencing...
October 2017: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988289/whole-body-magnetic-resonance-imaging-wb-mri-and-brain-mri-baseline-surveillance-in-tp53-germline-mutation-carriers-experience-from-the-li-fraumeni-syndrome-education-and-early-detection-lead-clinic
#14
Jasmina Bojadzieva, Behrang Amini, Suzanne F Day, Tiffiny L Jackson, Parijatham S Thomas, Brandy J Willis, Whitney R Throckmorton, Najat C Daw, Therese B Bevers, Louise C Strong
Individuals with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) have a significantly increased lifetime cancer risk affecting multiple organ sites. Therefore, novel comprehensive screening approaches are necessary to improve cancer detection and survival in this population. The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of whole body MRI (WB-MRI) and dedicated brain MRI screening as part of a comprehensive screening clinic called Li-Fraumeni Education and Early Detection (LEAD) at MD Anderson Cancer Center...
October 7, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982757/another-case-for-diet-restriction-tap73-expressing-medulloblastomas-are-stunted-by-glutamine-withdrawal
#15
REVIEW
Marco Napoli, Elsa R Flores
Medulloblastomas are among the most common malignant brain cancers in the pediatric population and consist of at least four distinct subgroups with unique molecular and genetic features and clinical outcomes. In this issue of Genes & Development, Niklison-Chirou and colleagues (pp. 1738-1753) identify the p53 family member and p73 isoform TAp73 as a crucial factor causing glutamine addiction in aggressive medulloblastomas. Their findings pave the way for the use of glutamine restriction as an adjuvant treatment for TAp73-expressing medulloblastomas...
September 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970241/does-the-addition-of-a-black-bone-sequence-to-a-fast-multisequence-trauma-mr-protocol-allow-mri-to-replace-ct-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-children
#16
M H G Dremmen, M W Wagner, T Bosemani, A Tekes, D Agostino, E Day, B P Soares, T A G M Huisman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Head CT is the current neuroimaging tool of choice in acute evaluation of pediatric head trauma. The potential cancer risks of CT-related ionizing radiation should limit its use in children. We evaluated the role of MR imaging, including a "black bone" sequence, compared with CT in detecting skull fractures and intracranial hemorrhages in children with acute head trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective evaluation of 2D head CT and brain MR imaging studies including the black bone sequence of children with head trauma...
September 28, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968963/bmi-1-is-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma
#17
Shiva Senthil Kumar, Satarupa Sengupta, Kyungwoo Lee, Nanki Hura, Christine Fuller, Mariko DeWire, Charles B Stevenson, Maryam Fouladi, Rachid Drissi
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a poor-prognosis pediatric brain tumor. No effective curative therapy is currently available and no therapeutic advances have been made in several decades. BMI-1 is a member of the multimeric protein complex Polycomb repressor complex 1. It is highly expressed in a number of diseases and malignancies and has been implicated in self-renewal of normal and cancer cells, and in DNA damage signaling. The role of BMI-1 in DIPG is largely unknown. Here, we show that BMI-1 is highly expressed in tumor tissue samples of DIPG patients and in patient-derived cancer stem-like cells...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968170/broadening-eligibility-criteria-to-make-clinical-trials-more-representative-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-and-friends-of-cancer-research-joint-research-statement
#18
Edward S Kim, Suanna S Bruinooge, Samantha Roberts, Gwynn Ison, Nancy U Lin, Lia Gore, Thomas S Uldrick, Stuart M Lichtman, Nancy Roach, Julia A Beaver, Rajeshwari Sridhara, Paul J Hesketh, Andrea M Denicoff, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Eric Rubin, Pratik Multani, Tatiana M Prowell, Caroline Schenkel, Marina Kozak, Jeff Allen, Ellen Sigal, Richard L Schilsky
Purpose The primary purposes of eligibility criteria are to protect the safety of trial participants and define the trial population. Excessive or overly restrictive eligibility criteria can slow trial accrual, jeopardize the generalizability of results, and limit understanding of the intervention's benefit-risk profile. Methods ASCO, Friends of Cancer Research, and the US Food and Drug Administration examined specific eligibility criteria (ie, brain metastases, minimum age, HIV infection, and organ dysfunction and prior and concurrent malignancies) to determine whether to modify definitions to extend trials to a broader population...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960700/predictors-of-treatment-abandonment-for-patients-with-pediatric-cancer-at-indus-children-cancer-hospital-karachi-pakistan
#19
Durr-E-Fatima Siddiqui, Muhammad Shamvil Ashraf, Sundus Iftikhar, Asim F Belgaumi
BACKGROUND: Abandonment of treatment is one of the toughest challenges to deal with in pediatric oncology. It leads to unnecessary mortality and morbidity in patients from low- and middle-income countries. PROCEDURE: The objective of our retrospective study was to determine the prevalence and predictors for abandonment among children with cancer at our hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. We analyzed data on patients younger than 18 years, diagnosed with any malignancy between November 2014 and May 2016...
September 27, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940515/migration-from-mexico-to-the-united-states-a-high-speed-cancer-transition
#20
Paulo S Pinheiro, Karen E Callahan, Mariana C Stern, Esther de Vries
Differences and similarities in cancer patterns between the country of Mexico and the United States' Mexican population, 11% of the entire US population, have not been studied. Mortality data from 2008 to 2012 in Mexico and California were analyzed and compared for causes of cancer death among adult and pediatric populations, using standard techniques and negative binomial regression. A total of 380,227 cancer deaths from Mexico and California were included. Mexican Americans had 49% and 13% higher mortality than their counterparts in Mexico among males and females, respectively...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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