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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340047/inhibition-of-polo-like-kinase-4-plk4-a-new-therapeutic-option-for-rhabdoid-tumors-and-pediatric-medulloblastoma
#1
Simone Treiger Sredni, Anders W Bailey, Amreena Suri, Rintaro Hashizume, Xingyao He, Nundia Louis, Tufan Gokirmak, David R Piper, Daniel M Watterson, Tadanori Tomita
Rhabdoid tumors (RT) are highly aggressive and vastly unresponsive embryonal tumors. They are the most common malignant CNS tumors in infants below 6 months of age. Medulloblastomas (MB) are embryonal tumors that arise in the cerebellum and are the most frequent pediatric malignant brain tumors. Despite the advances in recent years, especially for the most favorable molecular subtypes of MB, the prognosis of patients with embryonal tumors remains modest with treatment related toxicity dreadfully high. Therefore, new targeted therapies are needed...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335077/-burden-of-pediatric-cancer-in-jiangxi-china-in-2010-and-2015
#2
Gang Xu, Ying Chen, Jie Liu, Shi-Wei Liu, Ping Wang, Jing Yang, Jiu-Ling Huang
OBJECTIVE: To study the burden of pediatric cancer in Jiangxi, China, in 2010 and 2015 and its changes from 2010 to 2015. METHODS: The data of pediatric cancer in Jiangxi in 2010 and 2015 were collected from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 in China, including number of cases, number of deaths, years of life lost (YLL), years lived with disability (YLD), and disability-adjusted life years (DALY). The standardized incidence rate, mortality rate, and DALY rate were calculated with the national census data in 2010 as the standard population, in order to evaluate the changes in incidence, mortality, and disease burden of pediatric cancer in Jiangxi...
January 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322843/immunotherapy-for-brain-tumors-understanding-early-successes-and-limitations
#3
Nicole A P Lieberman, Nicholas A Vitanza, Courtney A Crane
Adverse effects and toxicities related to standard treatments for brain tumors significantly reduce patients' quality of life. Although most immunotherapy approaches for solid tumors have not been successful, several early-phase clinical trials are beginning to reveal a potential role for immunotherapy in the treatment of brain tumors. In particular, methods that activate the innate immune system and induce a polyclonal anti-cancer response have demonstrated that brain tumors are susceptible to immune-mediated tumor destruction...
January 11, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315108/review-of-molecular-classification-and-treatment-implications-of-pediatric-brain-tumors
#4
Ana S Guerreiro Stucklin, Vijay Ramaswamy, Craig Daniels, Michael D Taylor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors and leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The advent of large-scale genomics has resulted in a plethora of profiling studies that have mapped the genetic and epigenetic landscapes of pediatric brain tumors, ringing in a new era of precision diagnostics and targeted therapies. In this review, we highlight the most recent findings, focusing on studies published after 2015, and discuss how new evidence is changing the care of children with brain tumors...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298678/the-brainfit-study-efficacy-of-cognitive-training-and-exergaming-in-pediatric-cancer-survivors-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Valentin Benzing, Noëmi Eggenberger, Janine Spitzhüttl, Valerie Siegwart, Manuela Pastore-Wapp, Claus Kiefer, Nedelina Slavova, Michael Grotzer, Theda Heinks, Mirko Schmidt, Achim Conzelmann, Maja Steinlin, Regula Everts, Kurt Leibundgut
BACKGROUND: Cancer survival comes at a price: pediatric cancer survivors bear a high risk for a wide range of cognitive difficulties. Therefore, interventions targeting these difficulties are required. The aim of the present clinical trial is to extend empirical evidence about efficacy of cognitive and physical training in pediatric cancer survivors. It is hypothesized that early cognitive and physical interventions affect the remediation of pediatric cancer survivors in terms of improved executive functions (primary outcome)...
January 3, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295876/rapid-clinical-and-radiographic-response-with-combined-dabrafenib-and-trametinib-in-adults-with-braf-mutated-high-grade-glioma
#6
Tanner M Johanns, Cole J Ferguson, Patrick M Grierson, Sonika Dahiya, George Ansstas
BRAF V600E mutations have been successfully treated with targeted therapy in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and thyroid cancer. Interestingly, these mutations have also been identified in a subset of pediatric and adult brain tumors, with several cases reportedly responding to targeted therapy. However, these reports have been limited to single-agent BRAF inhibitor therapy and recurrent disease. Herein, we report dramatic clinical and radiographic responses to combination dabrafenib (BRAF inhibitor) and trametinib (MEK inhibitor) in 2 adults with high-grade gliomas (HGGs), with 1 patient treated in the first-line setting...
January 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280516/suppression-of-stat3-nh2-terminal-domain-chemosensitizes-medulloblastoma-cells-by-activation-of-protein-inhibitor-of-activated-stat3-via-de-repression-by-microrna-21
#7
Sutapa Ray, Don W Coulter, Shawn D Gray, Jason A Sughroue, Shrabasti Roychoudhury, Erin M McIntyre, Nagendra K Chaturvedi, Kishor K Bhakat, Shantaram S Joshi, Timothy R McGuire, John G Sharp
Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant pediatric brain tumor with poor prognosis. Signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in MB where it functions as an oncoprotein, mediating cancer progression and metastasis. Here, we have delineated the functional role of activated STAT3 in MB, by using a cell permeable STAT3-NH2 terminal domain inhibitor (S3-NTDi) that specifically perturbs the structure/function of STAT3. We have implemented several biochemical experiments using human MB tumor microarray (TMA) and pediatric MB cell lines, derived from high-risk SHH-TP53-mutated and MYC-amplified Non-WNT/SHH tumors...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260390/parent-perspectives-and-preferences-for-strategies-regarding-nonsedated-mri-scans-in-a-pediatric-oncology-population
#8
Breya Walker, Heather M Conklin, Doralina L Anghelescu, Lacey P Hall, Wilburn E Reddick, Robert Ogg, Lisa M Jacola
PURPOSE: Children with cancer frequently require MRI scans for clinical purposes. Sedation with general anesthesia (GA) is often used to promote compliance, reduce motion, and alleviate anxiety. The use of GA for MRI scans is costly in terms of time, personnel, and medications. In addition, prominent risks are associated with anesthesia exposure in patients with complex medical conditions. Successful behavioral interventions have been implemented in clinical research settings to promote scan success and compliance...
December 19, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241176/surgery-of-intracranial-gliomas-in-children
#9
James A Balogun, James T Rutka
Gliomas are the most common type of brain cancer in the pediatric patients, constituting about 50% of all childhood intracranial tumors. This is a highly heterogeneous group, varying from the benign WHO histopathological grades I and II to malignant WHO grades III and IV. The histology and location are significant prognostic factors, which influence the decision for surgical intervention, as well as the extent of possible tumor removal. In low-grade gliomas, surgery remains the initial option and should be directed at gross total resection in favorable locations, such as the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238940/seasonality-in-pediatric-cancer
#10
Rubayed Nurullah, Stefan Kuhle, Bryan Maguire, Ketan Kulkarni
Although seasonal trends in incidence and diagnosis of pediatric cancers have been widely investigated, the results have been inconclusive. A consistent seasonal trend may possibly provide etiological insights into pediatric cancers. This study aims to determine if there is a seasonal variation in cancer diagnoses in the pediatric population at the IWK Health Centre, a tertiary care center serving three Canadian provinces: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. All pediatric cancer patients aged 0-20 y diagnosed from 1995 to 2015 at the center were included in this study...
December 14, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237968/atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-of-the-central-nervous-system-case-series-from-a-regional-tertiary-care-cancer-centre-in-south-india
#11
L Appaji, B S Aruna Kumari, K Govind Babu, C S Premalata, K P R Pramod, Gita R Bhat, Chinchu Prem
BACKGROUND: Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) constitute a rare group of pediatric brain tumors. AIM: To study the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical (IHC) profile, management and outcome of children with AT/RT of the central nervous system who presented between the years 2007 and 2015 in a regional tertiary care center in South India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the clinical case files...
October 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228610/targeting-polo-like-kinase-1-in-smarcb1-deleted-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor
#12
Irina Alimova, Angela M Pierce, Peter Harris, Andrew Donson, Diane K Birks, Eric Prince, Ilango Balakrishnan, Nicholas K Foreman, Marcel Kool, Lindsey Hoffman, Sujatha Venkataraman, Rajeev Vibhakar
Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is an aggressive and malignant pediatric brain tumor. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is highly expressed in many cancers and essential for mitosis. Overexpression of PLK1 promotes chromosome instability and aneuploidy by overriding the G2-M DNA damage and spindle checkpoints. Recent studies suggest that targeting PLK1 by small molecule inhibitors is a promising approach to tumor therapy. We investigated the effect of PLK1 inhibition in ATRT. Gene expression analysis showed that PLK1 was overexpressed in ATRT patient samples and tumor cell lines...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204526/outcomes-and-patterns-of-care-in-a-nationwide-cohort-of-pediatric-medulloblastoma-factors-affecting-proton-therapy-utilization
#13
Andrew S Kopecky, Atif J Khan, Wilbur Pan, Richard Drachtman, Rahul R Parikh
Purpose: We examined national outcomes and patterns of care for pediatric patients with medulloblastoma (MB) in a large observational cohort. Methods and materials: Using the National Cancer Database, we evaluated the clinical features and survival outcomes of patients diagnosed with MB. The association between intervention, covariables, and outcome was assessed in a multivariable Cox analysis and through logistic regression analysis. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method...
October 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204198/profile-and-outcome-of-pediatric-brain-tumors-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-pediatric-oncology-unit-in-south-india
#14
Supriya Gujjar Suresh, Arathi Srinivasan, Julius Xavier Scott, Santosh Mohan Rao, Balasubramaniam Chidambaram, Sanjay Chandrasekar
Context: Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) constitute the second most common pediatric cancers. Unlike leukemia, management of CNS tumors requires a good multidisciplinary team. Higher rates of treatment abandonment are documented in view of complexity of the treatment with long duration, involving neurosurgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and high cost of treatment. Morbidity associated with CNS tumors may be significant in terms of physical deficits as well as neuropsychological and neuroendocrine sequelae...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202464/hedgehog-signaling-drives-medulloblastoma-growth-via-cdk6
#15
David R Raleigh, Pervinder K Choksi, Alexis Leigh Krup, Wasima Mayer, Nicole Santos, Jeremy F Reiter
Medulloblastoma, an aggressive cancer of the cerebellum, is among the most common pediatric brain tumors. Approximately one-third of medulloblastomas are associated with misactivation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway. GLI family zinc finger 2 (GLI2) coordinates the Hh transcriptional program; however, the GLI2 targets that promote cancer cell proliferation are unknown. Here, we incorporated a Gli2-EGFP allele into 2 different genetic mouse models of Hh-associated medulloblastoma. Hh signaling induced GLI2 binding to the Cdk6 promoter and activated Cdk6 expression, thereby promoting uncontrolled cell proliferation...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183026/late-effects-and-long-term-follow-up-after-cancer-in-childhood
#16
Thorsten Langer, Desiree Grabow, Diana Steinmann, Bernhard Wörmann, Gabriele Calaminus
Today, 80% of children and adolescents with cancer survive their disease. From the results of aftercare research arises the question: Are the survivors also healthy? Many late effects depend on the type of cancer and its treatment. Patients with brain tumors and with malignant sarcomas are very often affected by secondary diseases. Data from the USA report that around 2/3 of all patients still living 30 years after their cancer treatment in childhood suffer from late complications. Equivalent figures for Germany were previously unavailable...
2017: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178021/epigenetic-drivers-in-pediatric-medulloblastoma
#17
REVIEW
Martine F Roussel, Jennifer L Stripay
Epigenetics is the process by which gene expression is regulated by events other than alterations of the genome. This includes DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, microRNAs, and long non-coding RNAs. Methylation of DNA, chromatin remodeling, and histone modifications regulate the chromatin and access of transcription factors to DNA and in turn gene transcription. Alteration of chromatin is now recognized to be deregulated in many cancers. Medulloblastoma is an embryonal tumor of the cerebellum and the most common malignant brain tumor in children, that occurs only rarely in adults...
November 25, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177595/practice-patterns-and-survival-outcomes-of-intracranial-germinoma-an-analysis-of-the-national-cancer-database
#18
Wei Gang Wang, Hong Ye, Prakash Chinnaiyan
The goal of the study is to examine the practice pattern and survival outcome of adult and pediatric patients with intracranial germinoma. Patients from the National Cancer Database (NCDB) brain tumor registry between the years 2004-2014 with intracranial germinoma were extracted for analysis. Patients who had distant metastasis, received no treatments, or only surgery/chemotherapy alone were excluded. An age cutoff of > 21 years old was used to define the pediatric population. Patients were stratified by the treatments radiation therapy alone (RT) and chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy (C + RT)...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173309/delirium-in-hospitalized-children-with-cancer-incidence-and-associated-risk-factors
#19
Chani Traube, Sydney Ariagno, Francesca Thau, Lynne Rosenberg, Elizabeth A Mauer, Linda M Gerber, David Pritchard, Julia Kearney, Bruce M Greenwald, Gabrielle Silver
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of delirium and its risk factors in hospitalized children with cancer. STUDY DESIGN: In this cohort study, all consecutive admissions to a pediatric cancer service over a 3-month period were prospectively screened for delirium twice daily throughout their hospitalization. Demographic and treatment-related data were collected from the medical record after discharge. RESULTS: A total of 319 consecutive admissions, including 186 patients and 2731 hospital days, were included...
December 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173061/targeted-sequencing-of-malignant-supratentorial-pediatric-brain-tumors-demonstrates-a-high-frequency-of-clinically-relevant-mutations
#20
Bonnie L Cole, Colin C Pritchard, Maia Anderson, Sarah Es Leary
Pediatric brain tumors cause more deaths than any other childhood malignancy, and the identification of potentially actionable genomic alterations in this rare heterogeneous group of tumors may improve treatment and outcome. The genetic landscape of common posterior fossa tumors has been described in the past several years, yet the classification of malignant pediatric supratentorial tumors remains controversial. Next-generation sequencing is a promising tool to evaluate multiple genes concurrently. The clinical utility of next-generation sequencing has not been proven in pediatric brain tumors...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
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