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Pediatric brain cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808787/malignant-transformation-of-a-conservatively-managed-incidental-childhood-cerebral-mass-lesion-controversy-regarding-management-paradigm
#1
Jehuda Soleman, Jonathan Roth, Zvi Ram, Michal Yalon, Shlomi Constantini
BACKGROUND: Incidental findings on neuroimaging in the pediatric population are an emerging treatment challenge. Treatment options for these incidental childhood brain mass lesions, which radiologically may be assumed to be low-grade gliomas (LGG), vary, ranging from careful conservative "wait and scan" treatment to surgical biopsy, gross total resection, and upfront radiation and/or chemotherapy. As malignant transformation of LGG in children is extremely rare, some series advocate careful conservative management of these lesions; however, universal treatment protocols are not totally agreed upon...
August 14, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800318/mir-513c-suppresses-neuroblastoma-cell-migration-invasion-and-proliferation-through-direct-targeting-glutaminase-gls
#2
Hong-Liang Xia, Yao Lv, Chun-Wei Xu, Ming-Cui Fu, Ting Zhang, Xiang-Ming Yan, Shu Dai, Qian-Wei Xiong, Yun Zhou, Jian Wang, Xu Cao
Neuroblastoma is a brain malignancy of childhood and accounts for 7-10% of childhood cancers, leading to approximately 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short (about 18-25 nucleotides), noncoding and single stranded endogenous RNAs, which complementarily bind to the 3' untranslated regions of their target genes. Recently, glutamine metabolism has been recognized as an important nutrition source for tumor cells, and hence targeting glutamine metabolism could benefit to development of anti-cancer agents...
July 2, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780387/evaluation-of-the-response-of-intracranial-xenografts-to-vegf-signaling-inhibition-using-multiparametric-mri
#3
Jessica K R Boult, Gary Box, Maria Vinci, Lara Perryman, Suzanne A Eccles, Chris Jones, Simon P Robinson
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is considered one of the most important factors in tumor angiogenesis, and consequently, a number of therapeutics have been developed to inhibit VEGF signaling. Therapeutic strategies to target brain malignancies, both primary brain tumors, particularly in pediatric patients, and metastases, are lacking, but targeting angiogenesis may be a promising approach. Multiparametric MRI was used to investigate the response of orthotopic SF188(luc) pediatric glioblastoma xenografts to small molecule pan-VEGFR inhibitor cediranib and the effects of both cediranib and cross-reactive human/mouse anti-VEGF-A antibody B20-4...
August 3, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777701/a-pet-mr-imaging-approach-for-the-integrated-assessment-of-chemotherapy-induced-brain-heart-and-bone-injuries-in-pediatric-cancer-survivors-a-pilot-study
#4
Ashok J Theruvath, Anat Ilivitzki, Anne Muehe, Johanna Theruvath, Praveen Gulaka, Christine Kim, Sandra Luna-Fineman, Kathleen M Sakamoto, Kristen W Yeom, Phillip Yang, Michael Moseley, Frandics Chan, Heike E Daldrup-Link
Purpose To develop a positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol for evaluation of the brain, heart, and joints of pediatric cancer survivors for chemotherapy-induced injuries in one session. Materials and Methods Three teams of experts in neuroimaging, cardiac imaging, and bone imaging were tasked to develop a 20-30-minute PET/MR imaging protocol for detection of chemotherapy-induced tissue injuries of the brain, heart, and bone. In an institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant, prospective study from April to July 2016, 10 pediatric cancer survivors who completed chemotherapy underwent imaging of the brain, heart, and bone with a 3-T PET/MR imager...
August 4, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764925/profile-of-european-proton-and-carbon-ion-therapy-centers-assessed-by-the-eortc-facility-questionnaire
#5
Damien C Weber, André Abrunhosa-Branquinho, Alessandra Bolsi, Andrzej Kacperek, Rémi Dendale, Dirk Geismar, Barbara Bachtiary, Annika Hall, Jens Heufelder, Klaus Herfarth, Jürgen Debus, Maurizio Amichetti, Mechthild Krause, Roberto Orecchia, Vladimir Vondracek, Juliette Thariat, Tomasz Kajdrowicz, Kristina Nilsson, Cai Grau
BACKGROUND: We performed a survey using the modified EORTC Facility questionnaire (pFQ) to evaluate the human, technical and organizational resources of particle centers in Europe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The modified pFQ consisted of 235 questions distributed in 11 sections accessible on line on an EORTC server. Fifteen centers from 8 countries completed the pFQ between May 2015 and December 2015. RESULTS: The average number of patients treated per year and per particle center was 221 (range, 40-557)...
July 29, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757413/restoration-of-mir-30a-expression-inhibits-growth-tumorigenicity-of-medulloblastoma-cells-accompanied-by-autophagy-inhibition
#6
Satishkumar Vishram Singh, Aditi Nigam Dakhole, Akash Deogharkar, Sadaf Kazi, Rohan Kshirsagar, Atul Goel, Aliasgar Moiyadi, Rakesh Jalali, Epari Sridhar, Tejpal Gupta, Prakash Shetty, Nikhil Gadewal, Neelam Vishwanath Shirsat
Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant pediatric brain tumor. About 30% patients have metastasis at diagnosis and respond poorly to treatment. Those that survive, suffer long term neurocognitive, endocrine and developmental defects due to the cytotoxic treatment to developing child brain. It is therefore necessary to develop targeted treatment strategies based on underlying biology for effective treatment of medulloblastoma with minimal side effects. Medulloblastomas are believed to be the result of deregulated nervous system development as evident from the role of WNT and SHH developmental signaling pathways in pathogenesis of medulloblastomas...
July 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733870/rethinking-childhood-ependymoma-a-retrospective-multi-center-analysis-reveals-poor-long-term-overall-survival
#7
Amanda E Marinoff, Clement Ma, Dongjing Guo, Matija Snuderl, Karen D Wright, Peter E Manley, Hasan Al-Sayegh, Claire E Sinai, Nicole J Ullrich, Karen Marcus, Daphne Haas-Kogan, Liliana Goumnerova, Wendy B London, Mark W Kieran, Susan N Chi, Jason Fangusaro, Pratiti Bandopadhayay
Ependymoma is the third most common brain tumor in children, but there is a paucity of large studies with more than 10 years of follow-up examining the long-term survival and recurrence patterns of this disease. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 103 pediatric patients with WHO Grades II/III intracranial ependymoma, who were treated at Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center and Chicago's Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital between 1985 and 2008, and an additional 360 ependymoma patients identified from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733441/molecular-screening-for-cancer-treatment-optimization-moscato-01-in-pediatric-patients-a-single-institutional-prospective-molecular-stratification-trial
#8
Anne Catherine Harttrampf, Ludovic Lacroix, Marc Deloger, Frederic Deschamps, Stéphanie Puget, Nathalie Auger, Philippe Vielh, Pascale Varlet, Zsofia Balogh, Samuel Abbou, Adrien Allorant, Dominique Valteau-Couanet, Sabine Sarnacki, Louise Galmiche, Guillaume Meurice, Véronique Minard-Colin, Jacques Grill, Laurence Brugières, Christelle Dufour, Nathalie Gaspar, Stefan Michiels, Gilles Vassal, Jean-Charles Soria, Birgit Geoerger
This single institutional feasibility study prospectively characterized genomic alterations in recurrent or refractory solid tumors of pediatric patients in order to select a targeted therapy.<br /><br />Experimental Design: Following treatment failure patients with signed consent and aged above 6 months, underwent tumor biopsy or surgical resection of primary or metastatic tumor site.  These newly acquired samples were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization array, next generation sequencing for 75 target genes, whole exome and RNA sequencing...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717727/childhood-cancer-mortality-in-india-direct-estimates-from-a-nationally-representative-survey-of-childhood-deaths
#9
Sumit Gupta, Shaun K Morris, Wilson Suraweera, Lukasz Aleksandrowicz, Rajesh Dikshit, Prabhat Jha
PURPOSE: Although most children with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries, measurements of childhood cancer burden in such countries have been restricted to incidence rates from a few subnational cancer registries and mortality rates from vital statistics. We aimed to provide alternative burden estimates by using nationally representative longitudinal survey-derived mortality rates. METHODS: We examined cancer deaths in childhood (1 month to 14 years of age) in the Million Death Study, a cohort of > 27,000 pediatric deaths in India on the basis of enhanced verbal autopsies...
December 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716813/inhibition-of-heparanase-in-pediatric-brain-tumor-cells-attenuates-their-proliferation-invasive-capacity-and-in-vivo-tumor-growth
#10
Argyris Spyrou, Soumi Kundu, Lulu Haseeb, Di Yu, Tommie Olofsson, Keith Dredge, Edward Hammond, Uri Barash, Israel Vlodavsky, Karin Forsberg-Nilsson
Curative therapy for medulloblastoma and other pediatric embryonal brain tumors has improved, but the outcome still remains poor and current treatment causes long-term complications. Malignant brain tumors infiltrate the healthy brain tissue and, thus despite resection, cells that have already migrated cause rapid tumor regrowth. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), major components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), modulate the activities of a variety of proteins. The major enzyme that degrades HS, heparanase (HPSE), is an important regulator of the ECM...
August 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675683/pediatric-cancer-pathology-review-from-a-single-institution-neuropathology-expert-opinion-is-essential-for-accurate-diagnosis-of-pediatric-brain-tumors
#11
Zeina Merabi, Fouad Boulos, Teresa Santiago, Jesse Jenkins, Miguel Abboud, Samar Muwakkit, Nidale Tarek, Ghazi Zaatari, Sima Jeha, Hassan El-Solh, Raya Saab
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Second pathology review has been reported to improve accuracy in oncologic diagnoses, including pediatric malignancies. We assessed the impact of second review on the diagnosis of pediatric malignancies at a tertiary care referral center in Beirut, Lebanon. METHODS: Pathology reports of patients treated at the Children's Cancer Institute in Lebanon were retrospectively reviewed for the period 2008-2016 and compared with same samples' diagnoses at St...
July 4, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670142/prevalence-of-hypercalcemia-of-malignancy-among-pediatric-cancer-patients-in-the-uk-clinical-practice-research-datalink-database
#12
Susan Jick, Lin Li, Victor M Gastanaga, Alexander Liede, Rohini K Hernandez
BACKGROUND: The reported proportion of cancer patients who experience hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) is low, particularly in the pediatric population, ranging between <1% and 5%. HCM can be observed with any type of tumor in children and occurs most commonly with leukemia. While HCM is a potentially fatal condition, the prevalence of HCM is not well understood in pediatric cancer patients. METHODS: Using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified pediatric cancer patients with recorded corrected serum calcium (CSC) from 2003 through 2014...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667671/smaller-hippocampal-subfield-volumes-predict-verbal-associative-memory-in-pediatric-brain-tumor-survivors
#13
Alexandra L Decker, Kamila U Szulc, Eric Bouffet, Suzanne Laughlin, M Mallar Chakravarty, Jovanka Skocic, Cynthia B de Medeiros, Donald J Mabbott
The developing hippocampus is highly sensitive to chemotherapy and cranial radiation treatments for pediatric cancers, yet little is known about the effects that cancer treatments have on specific hippocampal subfields. Here, we examined hippocampal subfield volumes in twenty-nine pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with cranial radiation and chemotherapy, and thirty healthy developing children and adolescents. We also examined associations between hippocampal subfield volumes and short-term verbal memory...
July 1, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640705/genomic-analysis-of-childhood-brain-tumors-methods-for-genome-wide-discovery-and-precision-medicine-become-mainstream
#14
Stephen C Mack, Paul A Northcott
Recent breakthroughs in next-generation sequencing technology and complementary genomic platforms have transformed our capacity to interrogate the molecular landscapes of human cancers, including childhood brain tumors. Numerous high-throughput genomic studies have been reported for the major histologic brain tumor entities diagnosed in children, including interrogations at the level of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, many of which have yielded essential new insights into disease biology. The nature of these discoveries has been largely platform dependent, exemplifying the usefulness of applying different genomic and computational strategies, or integrative approaches, to address specific biologic and/or clinical questions...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620009/recommendations-for-cancer-surveillance-in-individuals-with-rasopathies-and-other-rare-genetic-conditions-with-increased-cancer-risk
#15
REVIEW
Anita Villani, Mary-Louise C Greer, Jennifer M Kalish, Akira Nakagawara, Katherine L Nathanson, Kristian W Pajtler, Stefan M Pfister, Michael F Walsh, Jonathan D Wasserman, Kristin Zelley, Christian P Kratz
In October 2016, the American Association for Cancer Research held a meeting of international childhood cancer predisposition syndrome experts to evaluate the current knowledge of these syndromes and to propose consensus surveillance recommendations. Herein, we summarize clinical and genetic aspects of RASopathies and Sotos, Weaver, Rubinstein-Taybi, Schinzel-Giedion, and NKX2-1 syndromes as well as specific metabolic disorders known to be associated with increased childhood cancer risk. In addition, the expert panel reviewed whether sufficient data exist to make a recommendation that all patients with these disorders be offered cancer surveillance...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620008/pten-dicer1-fh-and-their-associated-tumor-susceptibility-syndromes-clinical-features-genetics-and-surveillance-recommendations-in-childhood
#16
REVIEW
Kris Ann P Schultz, Surya P Rednam, Junne Kamihara, Leslie Doros, Maria Isabel Achatz, Jonathan D Wasserman, Lisa R Diller, Laurence Brugières, Harriet Druker, Katherine A Schneider, Rose B McGee, William D Foulkes
PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS), DICER1 syndrome, and hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) syndrome are pleiotropic tumor predisposition syndromes that include benign and malignant neoplasms affecting adults and children. PHTS includes several disorders with shared and distinct clinical features. These are associated with elevated lifetime risk of breast, thyroid, endometrial, colorectal, and renal cancers as well as melanoma. Thyroid cancer represents the predominant cancer risk under age 20 years...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620006/cancer-surveillance-in-gorlin-syndrome-and-rhabdoid-tumor-predisposition-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
William D Foulkes, Junne Kamihara, D Gareth R Evans, Laurence Brugières, Franck Bourdeaut, Jan J Molenaar, Michael F Walsh, Garrett M Brodeur, Lisa Diller
Gorlin syndrome and rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome (RTPS) are autosomal dominant syndromes associated with an increased risk of childhood-onset brain tumors. Individuals with Gorlin syndrome can manifest a wide range of phenotypic abnormalities, with about 5% of family members developing medulloblastoma, usually occurring in the first 3 years of life. Gorlin syndrome is associated with germline mutations in components of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway, including Patched1 (PTCH1) and Suppressor of fused (SUFU)SUFU mutation carriers appear to have an especially high risk of early-onset medulloblastoma...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620005/cancer-and-central-nervous-system-tumor-surveillance-in-pediatric-neurofibromatosis-2-and-related-disorders
#18
REVIEW
D Gareth R Evans, Hector Salvador, Vivian Y Chang, Ayelet Erez, Stephan D Voss, Harriet Druker, Hamish S Scott, Uri Tabori
The neurofibromatoses consist of at least three autosomal-dominant inherited disorders: neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and schwannomatosis. For over 80 years, these conditions were inextricably tied together under generalized neurofibromatosis. In 1987, the localization of NF1 to chromosome 17q and NF2 (bilateral vestibular schwannoma) to 22q led to a consensus conference at Bethesda, Maryland. The two main neurofibromatoses, NF1 and NF2, were formally separated. More recently, the SMARCB1 and LZTR1 genes on 22q have been confirmed as causing a subset of schwannomatosis...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616573/yap-and-the-hippo-pathway-in-pediatric-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Atif A Ahmed, Abdalla D Mohamed, Melissa Gener, Weijie Li, Eugenio Taboada
The Hippo pathway is an important signaling pathway that controls cell proliferation and apoptosis. It is evolutionarily conserved in mammals and is stimulated by cell-cell contact, inhibiting cell proliferation in response to increased cell density. During early embryonic development, the Hippo signaling pathway regulates organ development and size, and its functions result in the coordinated balance between proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Its principal effectors, YAP and TAZ, regulate signaling by the embryonic stem cells and determine cell fate and histogenesis...
2017: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603776/actionable-molecular-biomarkers-in-primary-brain-tumors
#20
Verena Staedtke, Omar Dildar A Dzaye, Matthias Holdhoff
Recent genome-wide studies of malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS) have revolutionized our understanding of the biology of these tumors. This newly gained knowledge provides a wealth of opportunity for biomarker driven clinical research. To date, however, only few of the available molecular markers truly influence clinical decision-making and treatment. The most widely validated markers in neuro-oncology presently are: 1) MGMT promoter methylation as a prognostic and predictive marker in glioblastoma, 2) co-deletion of 1p and 19q differentiating oligodendrogliomas from astrocytomas, 3) IDH1/2 mutations, and 4) select pathway-associated mutations...
July 2016: Trends in Cancer
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