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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163477/genes-critical-for-developing-periodontitis-lessons-from-mouse-models
#1
REVIEW
Teun J de Vries, Stefano Andreotta, Bruno G Loos, Elena A Nicu
Since the etiology of periodontitis in humans is not fully understood, genetic mouse models may pinpoint indispensable genes for optimal immunological protection of the periodontium against tissue destruction. This review describes the current knowledge of genes that are involved for a proper maintenance of a healthy periodontium in mice. Null mutations of genes required for leukocyte cell-cell recognition and extravasation (e.g., Icam-1, P-selectin, Beta2-integrin/Cd18), for pathogen recognition and killing (e...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160519/ex-vivo-t-lymphocyte-chemokine-receptor-phenotypes-in-patients-with-chronic-chagas-disease
#2
Matheus Barbosa de Miranda, Adriene Siqueira de Melo, Mariana Silva Almeida, Silvia Martins Marinho, Wilson Oliveira, Yara de Miranda Gomes
INTRODUCTION: Elucidating the molecules involved in the inflammatory process of chronic Chagas disease may allow identification of treatment targets. METHODS: The ex vivo phenotypic expression of chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CXCR2, CXCR3, CXCR4, and CXCR5 on the CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells of patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy of varying severity was evaluated using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Differential expression of CD4+CCR3+ and CD8+CCR4+ T-cells was observed in patients with mild cardiac involvement compared, respectively, with patients with severe cardiac and asymptomatic forms of Chagas disease...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146966/revisiting-the-role-of-interleukin-8-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#3
Denise Risnik, Enrique Podaza, María B Almejún, Ana Colado, Esteban E Elías, Raimundo F Bezares, Horacio Fernández-Grecco, Santiago Cranco, Julio C Sánchez-Ávalos, Mercedes Borge, Romina Gamberale, Mirta Giordano
The proliferation and survival of malignant B cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) depend on signals from the microenvironment in lymphoid tissues. Among a plethora of soluble factors, IL-8 has been considered one of the most relevant to support CLL B cell progression in an autocrine fashion, even though the expression of IL-8 receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, on leukemic B cells has not been reported. Here we show that circulating CLL B cells neither express CXCR1 or CXCR2 nor they respond to exogenous IL-8 when cultured in vitro alone or in the presence of monocytes/nurse-like cells...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136508/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-neutralize-the-anti-tumor-effect-of-csf1-receptor-blockade-by-inducing-pmn-mdsc-infiltration-of-tumors
#4
Vinit Kumar, Laxminarasimha Donthireddy, Douglas Marvel, Thomas Condamine, Fang Wang, Sergio Lavilla-Alonso, Ayumi Hashimoto, Prashanthi Vonteddu, Reeti Behera, Marlee A Goins, Charles Mulligan, Brian Nam, Neil Hockstein, Fred Denstman, Shanti Shakamuri, David W Speicher, Ashani T Weeraratna, Timothy Chao, Robert H Vonderheide, Lucia R Languino, Peter Ordentlich, Qin Liu, Xiaowei Xu, Albert Lo, Ellen Puré, Chunsheng Zhang, Andrey Loboda, Manuel A Sepulveda, Linda A Snyder, Dmitry I Gabrilovich
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) contribute to all aspects of tumor progression. Use of CSF1R inhibitors to target TAM is therapeutically appealing, but has had very limited anti-tumor effects. Here, we have identified the mechanism that limited the effect of CSF1R targeted therapy. We demonstrated that carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are major sources of chemokines that recruit granulocytes to tumors. CSF1 produced by tumor cells caused HDAC2-mediated downregulation of granulocyte-specific chemokine expression in CAF, which limited migration of these cells to tumors...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120053/tumor-conditions-induce-bone-marrow-expansion-of-granulocytic-but-not-monocytic-immunosuppressive-leukocytes-with-increased-cxcr2-expression-in-mice
#5
Zhen Bian, Lei Shi, Mahathi Venkataramani, Ahmed Mansour Abdelaal, Courtney Culpepper, Koby Kidder, Hongwei Liang, Ke Zen, Yuan Liu
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) promote tumor growth through, in part, inhibiting T cell immunity. However, mechanisms underlying MDSC expansion and guidance of MDSCs toward the tumor microenvironment remain unclear. Employing Percoll density gradients, we separate bone marrow (BM) leukocytes from tumor-bearing mice into four density-increasing bands with myeloid leukocytes enriched in bands III and IV. Band III comprises monocytes and low-density granulocytes, both confirmed to be M-MDSCs and G-MDSCs, respectively, by displaying potent inhibition of T cell proliferation...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118271/heparin-bound-chemokine-cxcl8-monomer-and-dimer-are-impaired-for-cxcr1-and-cxcr2-activation-implications-for-gradients-and-neutrophil-trafficking
#6
Prem Raj B Joseph, Kirti V Sawant, Krishna Rajarathnam
Chemokine CXCL8 plays a pivotal role in host immune response by recruiting neutrophils to the infection site. CXCL8 exists as monomers and dimers, and mediates recruitment by interacting with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and activating CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors. How CXCL8 monomer and dimer interactions with both receptors and GAGs mediate trafficking is poorly understood. In particular, both haptotactic (mediated by GAG-bound chemokine) and chemotactic (mediated by soluble chemokine) gradients have been implicated, and whether it is the free or the GAG-bound CXCL8 monomer and/or dimer that activates the receptor remains unknown...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117499/preclinical-chorioamnionitis-dysregulates-cxcl1-cxcr2-signaling-throughout-the-placental-fetal-brain-axis
#7
REVIEW
Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Shahani Noor, Jessie R Maxwell, Christopher V Anstine, Akosua Y Oppong, Shenandoah Robinson, Erin D Milligan, Lauren L Jantzie
In the United States, perinatal brain injury (PBI) is a major cause of infant mortality and childhood disability. For a large proportion of infants with PBI, central nervous system (CNS) injury begins in utero with inflammation (chorioamnionitis/CHORIO) and/or hypoxia-ischemia. While studies show CHORIO contributes to preterm CNS injury and is also a common independent risk factor for brain injury in term infants, the molecular mechanisms mediating inflammation in the placental-fetal-brain axis that result in PBI remain a gap in knowledge...
November 5, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115434/n-butanol-extract-from-folium%C3%A2-isatidis-inhibits-the-lipopolysaccharide-induced-downregulation-of-cxcr1-and-cxcr2-on-human-neutrophils
#8
Beibei Wu, Liyin Wang, Lili Jiang, Lili Dong, Fengli Xu, Yili Lu, Jiahui Jin, Zhanyue Wang, Guang Liang, Xiaoou Shan
Neutrophils, immune cells crucial for protecting against invading pathogens, are important in sepsis. Neutrophil migration is regulated by chemokine receptors and their cognate ligands. Our previous study investigated the effect of n‑butanol extract from Folium isatidis on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced septic shock. The present study stimulated neutrophils with LPS to explore the influence of LPS on cell. Neutrophils were then pretreated with n‑butanol extract from Folium isatidis followed by LPS to examine the effect of this extract on neutrophil chemotaxis...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113298/il-8-gro-and-mcp-1-produced-by-hepatocellular-carcinoma-microenvironment-determine-the-migratory-capacity-of-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-without-affecting-tumor-aggressiveness
#9
Juan Bayo, Alejandrina Real, Esteban J Fiore, Mariana Malvicini, Leonardo Sganga, Marcela Bolontrade, Oscar Andriani, Carolina Bizama, Cristóbal Fresno, Osvaldo Podhajcer, Elmer Fernandez, Manuel Gidekel, Guillermo D Mazzolini, Mariana G García
New therapies are needed for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) carrying therapeutic genes is a promising strategy. HCC produce cytokines recruiting MSCs to the tumor milieu and modifying its biological properties. Our aim was to study changes generated on human MSCs exposed to conditioned media (CM) derived from human HCC fresh samples and xenografts. All CM shared similar cytokines expression pattern including CXCL1-2-3/GRO, CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL8/IL-8 being the latter with the highest concentration...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110706/correction-to-genetic-engineering-of-human-nk-cells-to-express-cxcr2-improves-migration-to-renal-cell-carcinoma
#10
Veronika Kremer, Maarten A Ligtenberg, Rosa Zendehdel, Christina Seitz, Annet Duivenvoorden, Erik Wennerberg, Eugenia Colón, Ann-Helén Scherman-Plogell, Andreas Lundqvist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081734/different-effects-of-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-glioblastoma-stem-cells-by-direct-cell-interaction-or-via-released-soluble-factors
#11
Adriana Bajetto, Alessandra Pattarozzi, Alessandro Corsaro, Federica Barbieri, Antonio Daga, Alessia Bosio, Monica Gatti, Valerio Pisaturo, Rodolfo Sirito, Tullio Florio
Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is an aggressive, fast-growing and highly vascularized tumor, characterized by extensive invasiveness and local recurrence. In GBM and other malignancies, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to drive invasive tumor growth and recurrence, being responsible for radio- and chemo-therapy resistance. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors that exhibit tropism for tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines, chemokines and growth factors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073104/human-papillomavirus-oncogenes-reprogram-the-cervical-cancer-microenvironment-independently-of-and-synergistically-with-estrogen
#12
Megan E Spurgeon, Johan A den Boon, Mark Horswill, Sonalee Barthakur, Omid Forouzan, Janet S Rader, David J Beebe, Avtar Roopra, Paul Ahlquist, Paul F Lambert
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect epithelial cells and are causally associated with cervical cancer, but HPV infection is not sufficient for carcinogenesis. Previously, we reported that estrogen signaling in the stromal tumor microenvironment is associated with cervical cancer maintenance and progression. We have now determined how HPV oncogenes and estrogen treatment affect genome-wide host gene expression in laser-captured regions of the cervical epithelium and stroma of untreated or estrogen-treated nontransgenic and HPV-transgenic mice...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038657/platelet-derived-chemokine-cxcl7-dimer-preferentially-exists-in-the-glycosaminoglycan-bound-form-implications-for-neutrophil-platelet-crosstalk
#13
Aaron J Brown, Krishna Mohan Sepuru, Kirti V Sawant, Krishna Rajarathnam
Platelet-derived chemokine CXCL7 (also known as NAP-2) plays a crucial role in orchestrating neutrophil recruitment in response to vascular injury. CXCL7 exerts its function by activating the CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) receptor and binding sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that regulate receptor activity. CXCL7 exists as monomers, dimers, and tetramers, and previous studies have shown that the monomer dominates at lower and the tetramer at higher concentrations. These observations then raise the question: what, if any, is the role of the dimer? In this study, we make a compelling observation that the dimer is actually the favored form in the GAG-bound state...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036438/a-selective-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-agonist-sew-2871-aggravates-gastric-cancer-by-recruiting-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells
#14
Yujing Zhou, Feng Guo
The immune status of tumor microenvironment in gastric cancer is poorly understood, which limits the development of novel strategies in this field. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) acts as an immune modulator, but the role of S1P in gastric cancer is elusive. Here, we aim to investigate S1P receptor 1 (S1P1)-mediated effect of S1P in gastric cancer. We generated a xenograft mouse model and used SEW-2871, a S1P1 specific agonist to activate S1P1 signaling. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were isolated and analyzed using flow cytometry...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021819/hiv-1-matrix-protein-p17-and-its-variants-promote-human-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cell-aggressiveness
#15
Francesca Caccuri, Francesca Giordano, Ines Barone, Pietro Mazzuca, Cinzia Giagulli, Sebastiano Andò, Arnaldo Caruso, Stefania Marsico
BACKGROUND: The introduction of cART has changed the morbidity and mortality patterns affecting HIV-infected (HIV(+)) individuals. The risk of breast cancer in HIV(+) patients has now approached the general population risk. However, breast cancer has a more aggressive clinical course and poorer outcome in HIV(+) patients than in general population, without correlation with the CD4 or virus particles count. These findings suggest a likely influence of HIV-1 proteins on breast cancer aggressiveness and progression...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020983/cxcr2-inhibition-a-novel-approach-to-treating-coronary-heart-disease-cicada-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Jubin P Joseph, Eliana Reyes, Josephine Guzman, Jim O'Doherty, Hannah McConkey, Satpal Arri, Rahul Kakkar, Nicholas Beckley, Abdel Douiri, Sally F Barrington, Simon R Redwood, Albert Ferro
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence of the central role of neutrophils in both atherosclerotic plaque formation and rupture. Patients with lower neutrophil counts following acute coronary syndromes tend to have a greater coronary flow reserve, which is a strong predictor of long-term cardiovascular health. But so far, no data are available regarding the impact of neutrophil inhibition on cardiovascular clinical or surrogate endpoints. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of AZD5069, a cysteine-X-cysteine chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) inhibitor, on coronary flow reserve and coronary structure and function in patients with coronary artery disease...
October 11, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018439/neutrophils-from-patients-with-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-display-reduced-chemotaxis-to-cxcr2-ligands
#17
Maaike Cockx, Mieke Gouwy, Véronique Godding, Kris De Boeck, Jo Van Damme, Mieke Boon, Sofie Struyf
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), cystic fibrosis (CF), and chronic obstructive airway disease are characterized by neutrophilic inflammation in the lungs. In CF and chronic obstructive airway disease, improper functioning of neutrophils has been demonstrated. We hypothesized that the pulmonary damage in PCD might be aggravated by abnormal functioning neutrophils either as a primary consequence of the PCD mutation or secondary to chronic inflammation. We analyzed chemotactic responses and chemoattractant receptor expression profiles of peripheral blood neutrophils from 36 patients with PCD, 21 healthy children and 19 healthy adults...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986277/upregulation-of-peripheral-cxc-and-cc-chemokine-receptor-expression-on-cd4-t-cells-is-associated-with-immune-dysregulation-in-children-with-autism
#18
Sheikh F Ahmad, Mushtaq A Ansari, Ahmed Nadeem, Saleh A Bakheet, Laila Yousef Al-Ayadhi, Sabry M Attia
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by disturbances in social interactions and communication, restricted repetitive interests, and stereotyped behavior. Cumulative evidence recommends that there are immune alterations in ASD. Chemokine receptors are known to play an important role in the central nervous system (CNS) and in many neuro inflammatory disorders. The main objective of this study was to explore the role of CXC and CC chemokine receptors signaling in children with autism. We examined chemokine receptor production of CXCR2, CXCR3, CXCR5, and CXCR7 in all peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in CD4(+) T cells of typically developing control children (TD) and autistic children (AU)...
October 3, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970523/cxcl6-is-an-important-paracrine-factor-in-the-pro-angiogenic-human-cardiac-progenitor-like-cell-secretome
#19
José Luis Torán, Susana Aguilar, Juan Antonio López, Carlos Torroja, Juan Antonio Quintana, Cesar Santiago, José Luis Abad, Patricia Gomes-Alves, Andrés Gonzalez, Juan Antonio Bernal, Luis Jesús Jiménez-Borreguero, Paula Marques Alves, Luis R-Borlado, Jesús Vázquez, Antonio Bernad
Studies in recent years have established that the principal effects in cardiac cell therapy are associated with paracrine/autocrine factors. We combined several complementary techniques to define human cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) secretome constituted by 914 proteins/genes; 51% of these are associated with the exosomal compartment. To define the set of proteins specifically or highly differentially secreted by CPC, we compared human mesenchymal stem cells and dermal fibroblasts; the study defined a group of growth factors, cytokines and chemokines expressed at high to medium levels by CPC...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966134/cxcl1-activates-trpv1-via-gi-o-protein-and-actin-filaments
#20
Alexandru Florian Deftu, Alexandru Filippi, Roxana Olimpia Gheorghe, Violeta Ristoiu
AIMS: CXCL1 is a chemokine with pleiotropic effects, including pain and itch. Itch, an unpleasant sensation that elicits the desire or reflex to scratch, it is evoked mainly from the skin and implicates activation of a specific subset of IB4+, C-type primary afferents. In previous studies we showed that acute application of CXCL1 induced a Ca(2+) influx of low amplitude and slow kinetics in a subpopulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1)+/isolectin B4 (IB4)+dorsal root ganglia neurons which also responded to other itch-inducing agents...
September 28, 2017: Life Sciences
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