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Coronary physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440606/pathogenesis-and-prevention-of-radiation-induced-myocardial-fibrosis
#1
Li Kun Liu, Weiwei Ouyang, Xing Zhao, Sheng Fa Su, Yan Yang, Wen Jin Ding, Da Xian Luo, Zhi Xu He, Bing Lu
Radiation therapy is one of the most important methods for the treatment of malignant tumors. However, in radiotherapy for thoracic tumors such as breast cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, and mediastinal lymphoma, the heart, located in the mediastinum, is inevitably affected by the irradiation, leading to pericardial disease, myocardial fibrosis, coronary artery disease, valvular lesions, and cardiac conduction system injury, which are considered radiation-induced heart diseases. Delayed cardiac injury especially myocardial fibrosis is more prominent, and its incidence is as high as 20–80%...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434061/the-sources-of-calcium-for-noradrenaline-induced-contraction-in-the-human-thoracic-internal-artery
#2
Leszek Buzun, Beata Modzelewska, Anna Kostrzewska, Ewa Kleszczewska, Tomasz Kleszczewski
The aim of the present study was to examine the contribution of intracellular and extracellular calcium sources in contraction caused by noradrenaline (NA) of the human internal thoracic artery (ITA) in vitro. Distal segments of ITA were obtained from 20 patients (aged 38-73, at the time of routine coronary artery surgical revascularization (CABG)). Contractile responses to 10(-6) mol/L NA in the physiological salt solution and in Ca(2+)-free solution without and after incubation with 10(-6) mol/L thapsigargin (TSG) were recorded under isometric conditions...
April 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432820/the-impact-of-small-motion-on-the-visualization-of-coronary-vessels-and-lesions-in-cardiac-ct-a-simulation-study
#3
Francisco Contijoch, J Webster Stayman, Elliot R McVeigh
PURPOSE: Coronary x-ray computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is used to non-invasively assess coronary artery geometry and has, combined with computational modeling, demonstrated the potential to identify physiologically significant lesions. These measurements require robust and accurate coronary imaging and delineation of vessels in the presence of small motion. This simulation study characterizes the impact of small, uncorrected vessel drifts during data acquisition on the assessment of vessel intensity, diameter, and shape...
April 22, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425011/pregnancy-related-myocardial-infarction
#4
H Lameijer, M C Lont, H Buter, A J van Boven, P W Boonstra, P G Pieper
INTRODUCTION: The risk of acute myocardial infarction in young women is low, but increases during pregnancy due to the physiological changes in pregnancy, including hypercoagulability. Ischaemic heart disease during pregnancy is not only associated with increased maternal morbidity and mortality, but also with high neonatal complications. Advancing maternal age and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases may further increase the risk of ischaemic heart disease in young women. METHODS: We searched the coronary angiography database of a Dutch teaching hospital to identify women with acute myocardial infarction who presented during pregnancy or postpartum between 2011 and 2013...
April 19, 2017: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422851/relation-between-serum-myokines-and-phase-ii-cardiac-rehabilitation
#5
Der-Sheng Han, Ming-Yen Hsiao, Tyng-Guey Wang, Ssu-Yuan Chen, Wei-Shiung Yang
Patients with coronary heart disease or acute myocardial infarction after cardiac catheterization with stenting referred for phase II cardiac rehabilitation (CR) were grouped according to their preference. Cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was used to determine oxygen uptake ((Equation is included in full-text article.)) at peak exercise and anaerobic threshold (AT). The control patients received counseling only while the experiment group received 36 sessions of CR in 3 to 6 months. Exercise physiology parameters and serum myokines (myostatin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured pre- and postrehabilitation...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421467/coronary-physiology-revisited
#6
EDITORIAL
J J Piek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419280/fractional-flow-reserve-and-pressure-bounded-coronary-flow-reserve-to-predict-outcomes-in-coronary-artery-disease
#7
Jung-Min Ahn, Frederik M Zimmermann, Nils P Johnson, Eun-Seok Shin, Bon-Kwon Koo, Pil Hyung Lee, Duk-Woo Park, Soo-Jin Kang, Seung-Whan Lee, Young-Hak Kim, Cheol Whan Lee, Seong-Wook Park, Nico H J Pijls, Seung-Jung Park
Aims: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) has proven to its prognostic and therapeutic value. However, the additive prognostic value of coronary flow reserve (CFR) remains unclear. This study sought to investigate the clinical utility of combined FFR and CFR measurements to predict outcomes. Methods and results: Using the prospective, multicentre Interventional Cardiology Research Incooperation Society-FFR registry, a total of 2088 lesions from 1837 patients were included in this substudy...
April 17, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413578/epicardial-fat-in-the-maintenance-of-cardiovascular-health
#8
Yang Wu, Aijun Zhang, Dale J Hamilton, Tuo Deng
Epicardial fat is a unique adipose tissue located between the myocardium and the visceral layer of pericardium. This tissue is characterized by highly active fatty acid metabolism and highly expressed thermogenic genes. Epicardial fat and the underlying myocardium share the same microcirculation, suggesting a close and strong interaction between these two structures. Under physiological conditions, epicardial fat protects and supports the heart to exert its normal function. Many clinical studies have shown significant associations between increased amounts of epicardial fat and coronary artery disease (CAD)...
January 2017: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413187/noninvasive-fractional-flow-reserve-derived-from-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography%C3%A3-is-this-just-another-new-diagnostic-test-or-the-long-awaited-game-changer
#9
Hiromasa Otake, Charles A Taylor, Hitoshi Matsuo, Nobuhiro Tanaka, Takashi Akasaka
Despite the clinical importance of ischemia evaluation, obtaining fractional flow reserve (FFR) value has, heretofore, only been available during invasive cardiac catheterization. Although there is a clear linkage between morphology and physiology, a significant gap still exists. FFR derived from coronary computed tomography angiography (FFRCT) is a novel method of quantifying the hemodynamic significance of coronary artery stenoses by translating morphological information into hemodynamic data. Improved diagnostic performance of FFRCThas been repeatedly demonstrated in comparison with coronary computed tomography angiography alone with an invasive FFR reference standard...
April 11, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403118/validation-of-intensive-care-and-mechanical-ventilation-codes-in-medicare-data
#10
Hannah Wunsch, Andrew Kramer, Hayley B Gershengorn
OBJECTIVES: To assess the reliability of codes relevant to critically ill patients in administrative data. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study linking data from Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Outcomes, a clinical database of ICU patients with data from Medicare Provider Analysis and Review. We linked data based on matching for sex, date of birth, hospital, and date of admission to hospital. SETTING: Forty-six hospitals in the United States participating in Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Outcomes...
April 11, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400315/permanent-his-bundle-pacing-for-cardiac-resychronization-therapy-initial-feasibility-study-in-lieu-of-left-ventricular-lead
#11
Olujimi A Ajijola, Gaurav Upadhyay, Carlos Macias, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Roderick Tung
BACKGROUND: Permanent His bundle pacing (HBP) has the potential to physiologically normalize wide QRS duration in patients with bundle branch block and cardiomyopathy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of incorporating a His bundle lead for cardiac resychronization therapy (CRT) in lieu of a coronary sinus lead. METHODS: Patients with an indication for CRT (n=21) underwent attempted implantation of a HBP placed into the left ventricular (LV) lead port...
April 8, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394783/cardiac-computed-tomography-for-planning-revascularization-procedures
#12
Maksymilian P Opolski
Coronary computed tomography angiography (coronary CTA) is being increasingly used to detect and rule out coronary artery stenoses. Beyond stenosis detection, the abundance of anatomic, morphologic, and physiological information incorporated from a single one-stop-shop CT study has generated considerable interest in the context of preprocedural planning for coronary revascularization. Specifically, preprocedural CTA data sets can assist interventional cardiologists with selective catheter placement, appropriate guidewire choice, accurate stent size selection, and, most importantly, development of a stepwise revascularization strategy plan...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392102/creatine-phosphate-administration-in-cell-energy-impairment-conditions-a-summary-of-past-and-present-research
#13
REVIEW
A V Gaddi, P Galuppo, J Yang
BACKGROUND: Creatine phosphate (CrP) plays a fundamental physiological role by providing chemical energy for cell viability and activity, especially in muscle tissue. Numerous pathological conditions, caused by acute or chronic ischaemic situations, are related to its deficiency. For these reasons, it has been used as a cardioprotective agent in heart surgery and medical cardiology for many years. OBJECTIVE: This article gives a brief overview of the main characteristics of exogenous CrP...
March 14, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365268/diagnostic-performance-of-resting-and-hyperemic-invasive-physiological-indices-to-define-myocardial-ischemia-validation-with-13-n-ammonia-positron-emission-tomography
#14
Doyeon Hwang, Ki-Hyun Jeon, Joo Myung Lee, Jonghanne Park, Chee Hae Kim, Yaliang Tong, Jinlong Zhang, Ji-In Bang, Minseok Suh, Jin Chul Paeng, Sang-Hoon Na, Gi Jeong Cheon, Christopher M Cook, Justin E Davies, Bon-Kwon Koo
OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to compare the diagnostic performance of fractional flow reserve (FFR), instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR), and resting distal coronary artery pressure/aortic pressure (Pd/Pa) using (13)N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET). BACKGROUND: The diagnostic performance of invasive physiological indices was reported to be different according to the reference to define the presence of myocardial ischemia. METHODS: A total of 115 consecutive patients with left anterior descending artery stenosis who underwent both (13)N-ammonia PET and invasive physiological measurement were included...
March 24, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365181/sudden-death-in-ischemic-heart-disease-2017
#15
Alfred E Buxton
At this time, we find ourselves with an abundance of guidelines for management of patients with manifest ventricular tachyarrhythmias, or at risk for such arrhythmias, in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). The guidelines are focused primarily on the "appropriate use" of the implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD). Unfortunately, the bulk of the guidelines have very little basis in the underlying pathophysiology responsible for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with CHD. Rather, they are based primarily on the results of randomized clinical trials that merely sought to take broad populations at elevated total mortality risk and determining whether the ICD can reduce overall mortality...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364978/associations-of-vegf-gene-polymorphisms-with-erectile-dysfunction-and-related-risk-factors
#16
Yung-Chin Lee, Shu-Pin Huang, Chia-Chun Tsai, Kai-Hung Cheng, Yung-Shun Juan, Wen-Jeng Wu, Bo-Ying Bao, Chun-Nung Huang, Chii-Jye Wang, Chia-Chu Liu
BACKGROUND: Repeated evidence from animal models suggests a strong link between vascular endothelial growth factor (VGEF) and penile vasculature and erectile function because VEGF can alter the physiologic pathways involved in the regulation of penile vasomotor tone. AIM: To investigate three VEGF polymorphisms and their link to erectile dysfunction (ED). METHODS: We enrolled 688 Taiwanese men with a mean age of 55.6 years (SD = 4.5) during a free health screening...
April 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364376/incidental-spade-shaped-fdg-uptake-in-the-left-ventricular-apex-suggests-apical-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#17
Mari Katagiri, Tadaki Nakahara, Mitsushige Murata, Yuji Ogata, Yohji Matsusaka, Yu Iwabuchi, Yoshitake Yamada, Keiichi Fukuda, Masahiro Jinzaki
PURPOSE: Apical wall thickening with an "ace-of-spades" configuration is a unique sign of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM). We investigated spade-shaped FDG uptake around the left ventricular apex (SSUA) incidentally found in routine oncological FDG PET. METHODS: Cases showing SSUA were selected based on retrospective review. The pattern or intensity of SSUA was compared with the results of electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, and stress myocardial perfusion SPECT...
March 31, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357726/validation-of-the-smart-minimum-ffr-algorithm-in-an-unselected-all-comer-population-of-patients-with-intermediate-coronary-stenoses
#18
Barry Hennigan, Nils Johnson, John McClure, David Corcoran, Stuart Watkins, Colin Berry, Keith G Oldroyd
Using data from a commercial pressure wire system (St. Jude Medical) we previously developed an automated "smart" algorithm to determine a reproducible value for minimum FFR (smFFR) and confirmed that it correlated very closely with measurements made off-line by experienced coronary physiology core laboratories. In this study we used the same "smart" minimum algorithm to analyze data derived from a different, commercial pressure wire system (Philips Volcano) and compared the values obtained to both operator-defined steady state FFR and the online automated minimum FFR reported by the pressure wire analyser...
March 29, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356163/a-novel-system-for-continuous-real-time-monitoring-of-heart-motion-signals
#19
Guy Dori, Jorge E Schliamser, Oscar Lichtenstein, Ilia Anshelevich, Moshe Y Flugelman
BACKGROUND: Understanding cardiac mechanics is important for developing cardiac therapies. Current modalities for assessing cardiac mechanics sample patient's heart at specific heart rate, contractility, preload, and afterload. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a novel system composed of intra-cardiac leads equipped with an inertial module chip (3D accelerometers and 3D gyroscopes) in monitoring continuous heart motion. METHODS: In this descriptive study, four healthy pigs were anesthetized and instrumented with motion-sensitive intra-cardiac leads; the temporal correlation between signals from motion sensors and tissue Doppler from the chest wall were studied; changes in real-time heart accelerations (ACC) and angular velocity (ANGV) were reported as percentages of change from baseline...
March 29, 2017: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353034/coronary-flow-capacity-concept-promises-and-challenges
#20
Tim P van de Hoef, Mauro Echavarría-Pinto, Javier Escaned, Jan J Piek
The vasodilator capacity of the coronary circulation is an important diagnostic and prognostic characteristic, and its accurate assessment is therefore an important frontier. The coronary flow capacity (CFC) concept was introduced to overcome the limitations associated with the use of coronary flow reserve (CFR) for this purpose, which are related to the sensitivity of CFR to physiological alterations in systemic and coronary hemodynamics. CFC was developed from positron emission tomography, and was subsequently extrapolated to invasive coronary physiology...
March 28, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
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