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Stem cell therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343216/susceptibility-weighted-imaging-identifies-iron-oxide-labeled-human-neural-stem-cells-automated-computational-detection
#1
Mohsen Baghchechi, Amy Plaia, Mary Hamer, Nirmalya Ghosh, Stephen Ashwal, Andre Obenaus
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HII) can lead to devastating neurological outcomes such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and mental retardation. Human neural stem cell (hNSC) therapy provides new hope for the treatment of neonatal HII. These multipotent cells can aid in HII recovery by activating multiple reparative mechanisms including secretion of neurotrophic factors that enhance brain repair and plasticity. For clinical use of implanted hNSCs, methods are required to identify, quantify, track, and visualize migration and replication in an automated and reproducible fashion...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343075/an-update-on-application-of-nanotechnology-and-stem-cells-in-spinal-cord-injury-regeneration
#2
REVIEW
Kazem Nejati-Koshki, Yousef Mortazavi, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Sumit Sheoran, Nosratollah Zarghami
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that leads to sudden loss of motor and autonomic function and sensory under the level of the injury. The pathophysiological advancement of SCI is divided into two categories: primary injury and secondary injury. Due to the loss of motor, sensory, or cognitive function, a patient's quality of life is likely reduced and places a great burden on society in order to supply health care costs. Therefore, it is important to develop suitable therapeutic strategies for SCI therapy...
March 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342984/hdac4-and-hdac6-sustain-dna-double-strand-break-repair-and-stem-like-phenotype-by-promoting-radioresistance-in-glioblastoma-cells
#3
Francesco Marampon, Francesca Megiorni, Simona Camero, Clara Crescioli, Heather P McDowell, Roberta Sferra, Antonella Vetuschi, Simona Pompili, Luca Ventura, Francesca De Felice, Vincenzo Tombolini, Carlo Dominici, Roberto Maggio, Claudio Festuccia, Giovanni Luca Gravina
The role of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 4 and 6 in glioblastoma (GBM) radioresistance was investigated. We found that tumor samples from 31 GBM patients, who underwent temozolomide and radiotherapy combined treatment, showed HDAC4 and HDAC6 expression in 93.5% and 96.7% of cases, respectively. Retrospective clinical data analysis demonstrated that high-intensity HDAC4 and/or HDAC6 immunostaining was predictive of poor clinical outcome. In vitro experiments revealed that short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of HDAC4 or HDAC6 radiosensitized U87MG and U251MG GBM cell lines by promoting DNA double-strand break (DSBs) accumulation and by affecting DSBs repair molecular machinery...
March 22, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342811/myeloid-sarcoma-presentation-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
REVIEW
L Max Almond, Maria Charalampakis, Samuel J Ford, David Gourevitch, Anant Desai
Myeloid sarcoma is an extramedullary tumor of immature granulocytic cells. It is a rare condition, most often associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), although in some rare cases it may present in nonleukemic patients. It should therefore be considered as a differential diagnosis of any atypical cellular infiltrate. It may occur at any site, leading to very varied clinical presentations. Diagnosis is challenging and relies on a high index of suspicion as well as radiology, histology, immunophenotyping, and molecular analyses, which also are essential for risk stratification and treatment planning...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342377/live-cell-biosensing-platforms-using-graphene-based-hybrid-nanomaterials
#5
REVIEW
Tae-Hyung Kim, Donghyun Lee, Jeong-Woo Choi
A novel strategy to precisely detect or monitor various biomaterials in living cells poses paramount importance in understanding cellular processes. Graphene, a newly emerged two-dimensional carbon material, has been widely utilized for biosensors owing to its multifarious characteristics including mechanical, electrical, and optical properties (e.g. stability, conductivity, fluorescence quenching and photoluminescence). In addition, graphene derivatives and their innate characteristics, such as biocompatibility low cytotoxicity and water solubility have facilitated the use of graphene-based materials for live cell biosensing, wherein graphene is utilized as a core material by itself or in combination with other functional nanomaterials to load target-specific probes, fluorescent dyes, and other signaling molecules...
March 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340506/neuromedin-u-alters-bioenergetics-and-expands-the-cancer-stem-cell-phenotype-in-her2-positive-breast-cancer
#6
Vanesa G Martinez, John Crown, Richard K Porter, Lorraine O'Driscoll
Neuromedin U (NmU) is a neuropeptide belonging to the neuromedin family. Recently, we reported a significant association between NmU and breast cancer, particularly correlating with increased aggressiveness, resistance to HER2-targeted therapies and overall significantly poorer outcome for patients, although the mechanism through which it exerts this effect remained unexplained. Investigating this, here we found that ectopic over-expression of NmU in HER2-positive breast cancer cells induced aberrant metabolism, with increased glycolysis, likely due to enhanced pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340172/repositioning-disulfiram-as-a-radiosensitizer-against-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor
#7
Young Eun Lee, Seung Ah Choi, Pil Ae Kwack, Hak Jae Kim, Il Han Kim, Kyu-Chang Wang, Ji Hoon Phi, Ji Yeoun Lee, Sangjoon Chong, Sung-Hye Park, Kyung Duk Park, Do Won Hwang, Kyeung Min Joo, Seung-Ki Kim
Background.: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is one of the most common malignant brain tumors in infants. Although cancer stem cells of AT/RT express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), effective chemotherapies against AT/RT have not been established. Here, we examined radiosensitizing effects of disulfiram (DSF), an irreversible inhibitor of ALDH against AT/RT for a novel therapeutic method. Methods.: Patient-derived primary cultured AT/RT cells (SNU.AT/RT-5 and SNU...
March 17, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340154/irradiation-strongly-reduces-tumorigenesis-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Shoki Inui, Kazumasa Minami, Emiko Ito, Hiromasa Imaizumi, Seiji Mori, Masahiko Koizumi, Satsuki Fukushima, Shigeru Miyagawa, Yoshiki Sawa, Nariaki Matsuura
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have demonstrated they can undergo self-renewal, attain pluripotency, and differentiate into various types of functional cells. In clinical transplantation of iPS cells, however, a major problem is the prevention of tumorigenesis. We speculated that tumor formation could be inhibited by means of irradiation. Since the main purpose of this study was to explore the prevention of tumor formation in human iPS (hiPS) cells, we tested the effects of irradiation on tumor-associated factors such as radiosensitivity, pluripotency and cell death in hiPS cells...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339833/vdac1-is-a-molecular-target-in-glioblastoma-with-its-depletion-leading-to-reprogrammed-metabolism-and-reversed-oncogenic-properties
#9
Tasleem Arif, Yakov Kerlin, Itay Nakdimon, Daniel Benharroch, Avijit Paul, Daniela Dadon-Klein, Varda Shoshan-Barmatz
Background.: Glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor with frequent relapses and a high mortality, still awaits an effective treatment. Like many cancers, GBM cells acquire oncogenic properties, including metabolic reprogramming, vital for growth. As such, tumor metabolism is an emerging avenue for cancer therapy. One relevant target is the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), a mitochondrial protein controlling cell energy and metabolic homeostasis. Methods...
February 28, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339768/the-transcription-factor-olig2-is-important-for-the-biology-of-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-gliomas
#10
Jane L Anderson, Ranjithmenon Muraleedharan, Nicole Oatman, Amanda Klotter, Satarupa Sengupta, Ronald R Waclaw, Jianqiang Wu, Rachid Drissi, Lili Miles, Eric H Raabe, Matthew L Weirauch, Maryam Fouladi, Lionel M Chow, Lindsey Hoffman, Mariko DeWire, Biplab Dasgupta
Background.: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a high-grade brainstem glioma of children with dismal prognosis. There is no single unifying model about the cell of origin of DIPGs. Proliferating cells in the developing human and mouse pons, the site of DIPGs, express neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC) markers, including Sox2, nestin, vimentin, Olig2, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, in an overlapping and non-overlapping manner, suggesting progenitor cell heterogeneity in the pons...
February 23, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339582/hypoxia-in-the-glioblastoma-microenvironment-shaping-the-phenotype-of-cancer-stem-like-cells
#11
Nicole Colwell, Mioara Larion, Amber J Giles, Ashlee N Seldomridge, Saman Sizdahkhani, Mark R Gilbert, Deric M Park
Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumor. Cellular heterogeneity is a characteristic feature of the disease and contributes to the difficulty in formulating effective therapies. Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) have been identified as a subpopulation of tumor cells that are thought to be largely responsible for resistance to treatment. Intratumoral hypoxia contributes to maintenance of the GSCs by supporting the critical stem cell traits of multipotency, self-renewal, and tumorigenicity...
January 19, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339498/enhancement-of-osteogenic-differentiation-of-rat-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-zinc-sulphate-under-electromagnetic-field-via-the-pka-erk1-2-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathways
#12
Ezzatollah Fathi, Raheleh Farahzadi
Zinc ion as an essential trace element and electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has been reported to be involved in the regulation of bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in the presence of EMF as a strategy in osteoporosis therapy. Alkaline phophatase (ALP) activity measurement, calcium assay and expression of several osteoblastic marker genes were examined to assess the effect of ZnSO4 on the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs under EMF...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338909/therapeutic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-acute-kidney-injury-is-affected-by-administration-timing
#13
Xiaoyan Liu, Jieru Cai, Xiaoyan Jiao, Xiaofang Yu, Xiaoqiang Ding
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a promising therapy for acute kidney injury; however, the efficacy is limited due to poor survival after transplantation. In this study, we investigated how MSC transplantation timing affected the survival and therapeutic potential of MSCs in the kidney ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury model. After kidney I/R injury, the inflammatory process and tissue damage were characterized over 1 week post-I/R, we found that inflammation peaked at 12-24 h post-I/R (h.p.i...
March 10, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338672/posttransplant-maintenance-therapy-in-multiple-myeloma-the-changing-landscape
#14
REVIEW
S Sengsayadeth, F Malard, B N Savani, L Garderet, M Mohty
Transplant-eligible patients with multiple myeloma (MM) now have extended survival after diagnosis owing to effective modern treatment strategies that include new agents in induction therapy, autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT), consolidation therapy and posttransplant maintenance therapy. Standard of care for newly diagnosed, fit patients includes ASCT and, often nowadays, posttransplant maintenance. Several large studies have shown the efficacy of maintenance with thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib in the treatment scheme of MM with regards to prolonging progression-free survival and, to a lesser degree, overall survival...
March 24, 2017: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338421/harnessing-the-osteogenicity-of-in-vitro-stem-cell-derived-mineralized-extracellular-matrix-as-3d-biotemplate-to-guide-bone-regeneration
#15
Yoke Chin Chai, Johanna Bolander, Ioannis Papantoniou, Jennifer Patterson, Jef Vleugels, Jan Schrooten, Frank P Luyten
Advanced biomaterials that are capable of guiding robust bone regeneration are highly demanded for translational therapy of bone defects or bone augmentation in clinics. One of the strategic approaches is to produce tissue engineering (TE) constructs that mediate bone regeneration by recapitulating the natural bone formation or healing process. In this study, we aimed at producing devitalized mineralized carriers with augmented bone forming capacity via a modified culture protocol (i.e., culture conditions with high calcium and/or phosphate concentrations) that first promotes cell growth and, subsequently, mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition by human periosteum-derived osteoprogenitor cells (hPDCs) on additive manufactured three-dimensional (3D) porous titanium (Ti)-based scaffolds...
March 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338290/identification-of-natural-inhibitors-of-bcr-abl-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#16
Phani Krishna, Sailu Sarvagalla, Bindu Madhuri, Sankar Pajaniradje, Vinitha Baskaran, Mohane Selvaraj Coumar, R Baskaran
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of the hematopoietic stem cells, characterized at the molecular level by the bcr/abl gene rearrangement. Even though targeting the fusion gene product Bcr-Abl protein is a successful strategy, development of drug resistance and drug intolerance are currently the limitations for Bcr-Abl targeted CML therapy. With an aim to develop natural Bcr-Abl inhibitors, we performed virtual screening (VS) of ZINC natural compound database by docking with Abl kinase using Glide software...
March 24, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337852/turning-potential-into-action-using-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-understand-heart-development-and-function-in-health-and-disease
#17
Hananeh Fonoudi, Alexis Bosman
Pluripotent stem cells hold enormous potential for regenerative therapies, however their ability to provide insight into early human development and the origins of disease could arguably provide an even greater outcome. This is primarily due to their contribution to the establishment of a powerful knowledge base of human development, something which all researchers and clinicians can potentially benefit from. Modeling human heart development and disease using pluripotent stem cells has already provided many important insights into cardiogenesis and cardiovascular disease mechanisms however, it is important to be aware of the complexities of this model system...
March 24, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337797/standardized-sophora-pachycarpa-root-extract-enhances-osteogenic-differentiation-in-adipose-derived-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Samaneh Mollazadeh, Vajiheh Neshati, Bibi Sedigheh Fazly Bazzaz, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Majid Mojarrad, Hojjat Naderi-Meshkin, Mohammad Amin Kerachian
Bone defect is an important topic in public health. Novel therapies are based on osteogenic induction by natural antiosteoporotic compounds including plant-derived estrogens. In the current study, the osteogenic potential of Sophora pachycarpa root extract (SPRE) was explored on human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Herein, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were osteoinducted in the presence of increased concentrations of the extract for 21 days. Then, cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay, and the differentiated cells were stained by Alizarin Red S for calcium deposition and subjected to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay for enzymatic activity...
March 24, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337463/skin-tissue-engineering-application-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#19
REVIEW
Agnes S Klar, Jakub Zimoch, Thomas Biedermann
Perception of the adipose tissue has changed dramatically over the last few decades. Identification of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) ultimately transformed paradigm of this tissue from a passive energy depot into a promising stem cell source with properties of self-renewal and multipotential differentiation. As compared to bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), ASCs are more easily accessible and their isolation yields higher amount of stem cells. Therefore, the ASCs are of high interest for stem cell-based therapies and skin tissue engineering...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337375/hmga2-regulates-cd44-expression-to-promote-gastric-cancer-cell-motility-and-sphere-formation
#20
Junying Sun, Baocun Sun, Dongwang Zhu, Xiulan Zhao, Yanhui Zhang, Xueyi Dong, Na Che, Jing Li, Fang Liu, Nan Zhao, Danfang Zhang, Tieju Liu, Xian Lin
High mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) is a transcriptional modulator that mediates motility and self-renewal in cancer stem cells. Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. GC contains a population of stem-like cells that promote tumor invasion and resistance to therapy. In the current study, we investigated the expression of HMGA2 and the cancer stem cell marker CD44 in 200 GC samples and found that HMGA2 and CD44 were significantly associated with distant metastasis, histological differentiation and poor prognosis in GC patients...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
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