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Stem cell therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786763/mir-124-promotes-proliferation-and-neural-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-through-targeting-dact1-and-activating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathways
#1
Shujie Jiao, Yaling Liu, Yaobing Yao, Junfang Teng
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent and undifferentiated cells with the potential to differentiate into neuronal lineages and gliocytes. NSCs have the ability to generate and regenerate the brain, indicating the possibility of cell-based therapies for neurological disorders. miR-124 has been demonstrated as a modulator in the survival, expansion, and differentiation of NSCs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-124 in NSC development are still far from being understood. The expressions of miR-124, dishevelled binding antagonist of beta-catenin 1 (DACT1), ki-67, Nestin, β-tubulin III, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), β-catenin, cyclinD1, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) were examined by qRT-PCR or western blot...
May 21, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786755/cardiac-progenitor-cell%C3%A2-derived-exosomes-promote-h9c2-cell-growth-via-akt-mtor-activation
#2
Shentang Li, Jie Jiang, Zuocheng Yang, Zhuoying Li, Xing Ma, Xin Li
Exosomes are cell‑derived vesicles released from a variety of mammalian cells that are involved in cell‑to‑cell signalling. It has been reported that cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) derived from an adult heart are one of the most promising stem cell types for cardioprotection and repair. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway is a pivotal regulator in CPCs, therefore, CPC‑derived exosomes were used in the present study to investigate whether it can promote H9C2 cell growth through the protein kinase B (PKB, or Akt)/mTOR signalling pathway...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786564/developing-defined-substrates-for-stem-cell-culture-and-differentiation
#3
REVIEW
Louise Hagbard, Katherine Cameron, Paul August, Christopher Penton, Malin Parmar, David C Hay, Therése Kallur
Over the past few decades, a variety of different reagents for stem cell maintenance and differentiation have been commercialized. These reagents share a common goal in facilitating the manufacture of products suitable for cell therapy while reducing the amount of non-defined components. Lessons from developmental biology have identified signalling molecules that can guide the differentiation process in vitro , but less attention has been paid to the extracellular matrix used. With the introduction of more biologically relevant and defined matrices, that better mimic specific cell niches, researchers now have powerful resources to fine-tune their in vitro differentiation systems, which may allow the manufacture of therapeutically relevant cell types...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786563/cell-based-liver-therapies-past-present-and-future
#4
REVIEW
Valeria Iansante, Anil Chandrashekran, Anil Dhawan
Liver transplantation represents the standard treatment for people with an end-stage liver disease and some liver-based metabolic disorders; however, shortage of liver donor tissues limits its availability. Furthermore, whole liver replacement eliminates the possibility of using native liver as a possible target for future gene therapy in case of liver-based metabolic defects. Cell therapy has emerged as a potential alternative, as cells can provide the hepatic functions and engraft in the liver parenchyma...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786561/impedance-based-cellular-assays-for-regenerative-medicine
#5
REVIEW
W Gamal, H Wu, I Underwood, J Jia, S Smith, P O Bagnaninchi
Therapies based on regenerative techniques have the potential to radically improve healthcare in the coming years. As a result, there is an emerging need for non-destructive and label-free technologies to assess the quality of engineered tissues and cell-based products prior to their use in the clinic. In parallel, the emerging regenerative medicine industry that aims to produce stem cells and their progeny on a large scale will benefit from moving away from existing destructive biochemical assays towards data-driven automation and control at the industrial scale...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786552/intestinal-organoids-for-modelling-intestinal-development-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Kathryn L Fair, Jennifer Colquhoun, Nicholas R F Hannan
Gastrointestinal diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent in developed countries. Immortalized cells and animal models have delivered important but limited insight into the mechanisms that initiate and propagate these diseases. Human-specific models of intestinal development and disease are desperately needed that can recapitulate structure and function of the gut in vitro Advances in pluripotent stem cells and primary tissue culture techniques have made it possible to culture intestinal epithelial cells in three dimensions that self-assemble to form 'intestinal organoids'...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786549/pluripotent-stem-cells-induction-and-self-renewal
#7
REVIEW
R Abu-Dawud, N Graffmann, S Ferber, W Wruck, J Adjaye
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) lie at the heart of modern regenerative medicine due to their properties of unlimited self-renewal in vitro and their ability to differentiate into cell types representative of the three embryonic germ layers-mesoderm, ectoderm and endoderm. The derivation of induced PSCs bypasses ethical concerns associated with the use of human embryonic stem cells and also enables personalized cell-based therapies. To exploit their regenerative potential, it is essential to have a firm understanding of the molecular processes associated with their induction from somatic cells...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786548/designer-human-tissue-coming-to-a-lab-near-you
#8
David C Hay, Cliona O'Farrelly
Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) offer a scalable alternative to primary and transformed human tissue. PSCs include human embryonic stem cells, derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts unsuitable for human implantation; and induced PSCs, generated by the reprogramming of somatic cells. Both cell types display the ability to self-renew and retain pluripotency, promising an unlimited supply of human somatic cells for biomedical application. A distinct advantage of using PSCs is the ability to select for genetic background, promising personalized modelling of human biology 'in a dish' or immune-matched cell-based therapies for the clinic...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786481/rat-cranial-bone-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-promotes-functional-recovery-in-ischemic-stroke-model-rats
#9
Masaru Abiko, Takafumi Mitsuhara, Takahito Okazaki, Takeshi Imura, Kei Nakagawa, Takashi Otsuka, Jumpei Oshita, Masaaki Takeda, Yumi Kawahara, Louis Yuge, Kaoru Kurisu
The functional disorders caused by central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as ischemic stroke, are clinically incurable and current treatments have limited effects. Previous studies suggested that cell-based therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exerts therapeutic effects for ischemic stroke. In addition, the characteristics of MSCs may depend on their sources. Among the derived tissues of MSCs, we have focused on cranial bones originating from the neural crest. We previously demonstrated that the neurogenic potential of human cranial bone-derived MSCs (cMSCs) was higher than that of human iliac bone-derived MSCs...
May 22, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785506/venetoclax-and-low-dose-cytarabine-induced-complete-remission-in-a-patient-with-high-risk-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-case-report
#10
Bingshan Liu, Roshni Narurkar, Madhura Hanmantgad, Wahib Zafar, Yongping Song, Delong Liu
Conventional combination therapies have not resulted in considerable progress in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Elderly patients with AML and poor risk factors have grave prognosis. Midostaurin has been recently approved for the treatment of FLT-3-mutated AML. Venetoclax, a BCL-2 inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of relapsed and/or refractory chronic lymphoid leukemia. Clinical trials on applying venetoclax in combination with cytarabine and other agents to treat various hematological malignancies are currently underway...
May 21, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785446/digital-droplet-pcr-based-absolute-quantification-of-pre-transplant-npm1-mutation-burden-predicts-relapse-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients
#11
Marius Bill, Juliane Grimm, Madlen Jentzsch, Laura Kloss, Karoline Goldmann, Julia Schulz, Stefanie Beinicke, Janine Häntschel, Michael Cross, Vladan Vucinic, Wolfram Pönisch, Gerhard Behre, Georg-Nikolaus Franke, Thoralf Lange, Dietger Niederwieser, Sebastian Schwind
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an established consolidation therapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia. However, relapse after transplantation remains a major clinical problem resulting in poor prognosis. Thus, detection of measurable ("minimal") residual disease to identify patients at high risk of relapse is essential. A feasible method to determine measurable residual disease may be digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) that allows absolute quantification with high sensitivity and specificity without the necessity of standard curves...
May 22, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785311/acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-following-lenalidomide-maintenance-for-multiple-myeloma-two-cases-with-unexpected-presentation-and-good-prognostic-features
#12
Abdullah M Khan, Jameel Muzaffar, Hermant Murthy, John R Wingard, Jan S Moreb
Lenalidomide maintenance following autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is considered the standard of care for eligible patients with multiple myeloma (MM). A recent meta-analysis has provided additional evidence that lenalidomide maintenance is associated with a higher incidence of second primary malignancies, including both hematologic and solid malignancies. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) as a second primary malignancy is rarely described in the literature. Herein, we describe two patients with MM treated with induction therapy, ASCT, and lenalidomide maintenance that experienced cytopenias while on maintenance...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785130/human-herpesvirus-6-pneumonitis-in-a-patient-with-follicular-lymphoma-following-immunochemotherapy-with-rituximab
#13
Saeko Kuwahara-Ota, Yoshiaki Chinen, Yoshimi Mizuno, Tomoko Takimoto-Shimomura, Yayoi Matsumura-Kimoto, Kazuna Tanba, Taku Tsukamoto, Shinsuke Mizutani, Yuji Shimura, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Shigeo Horiike, Junya Kuroda
Primary infection with human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) commonly occurs at an early age in children, most often at 3 years of age, and is associated with childhood diseases, such as exanthema subitum, hepatitis, febrile convulsions, or encephalitis. However, the virus occasionally reactivates from its latent state in immunosuppressed adults, especially post-transplant, resulting in serious disseminated, sometimes life-threatening end-organ complications. Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old man with relapsed follicular lymphoma who developed HHV-6 pneumonitis...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785117/mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-as-an-effective-treatment-strategy-for-ischemic-stroke-in-asia-a-meta-analysis-of-controlled-trials
#14
Ping Xue, Min Wang, Guanhua Yan
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in patients with ischemic stroke (IS). Materials and methods: Clinical trials involved in this research were searched from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, Wanfang and CNKI database. Therapeutic effects of MSC therapy were assessed according to National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Barthel index (BI), Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and its safety was evaluated based on adverse events...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784741/management-of-multiple-myeloma
#15
Shaji K Kumar
The most recent NCCN Guidelines for Multiple Myeloma include a ranking of the many treatment options for various settings as "preferred," "other," and "useful in certain circumstances." For patients eligible for autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT), the preferred regimen remains bortezomib/lenalidomide/dexamethasone (category 1) or bortezomib/cyclophosphamide/dexamethasone. Upfront ASCT also remains a preferred strategy for patients who are transplant-eligible, despite highly effective newer agents such as induction therapy...
May 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784639/tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-induced-defects-in-dna-repair-sensitize-flt3-itd-positive-leukemia-cells-to-parp1-inhibitors
#16
Silvia Maifrede, Margaret Nieborowska-Skorska, Katherine Sullivan, Yashodhara Dasgupta, Paulina Podszywalow-Bartnicka, Bac Viet Le, Martyna Solecka, Zhaorui Lian, Elizaveta A Belyaeva, Alina Nersesyan, Marcin M Machnicki, Monika Toma, Nicolas Chatain, Malgorzata Rydzanicz, Huaqing Zhao, Jaroslav Jelinek, Katarzyna Piwocka, Tomasz Sliwinski, Tomasz Stoklosa, Rafal Ploski, Thomas Fischer, Stephen M Sykes, Steffen Koschmieder, Lars Bullinger, Peter Valent, Mariusz Wasik, Jian Huang, Tomasz Skorski
Mutations in the FMS-like tyrosine-kinase 3 (FLT3) such as internal tandem duplications (ITD) can be found in up to 23% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and confer a poor prognosis. Current treatment options for FLT3(ITD)-positive AMLs include genotoxic therapy and FLT3 inhibitors (FLT3i), which are rarely curative. PARP1 inhibitors (PARP1i) have been successfully applied to induce synthetic lethality in tumors harboring BRCA1/2 mutations and displaying homologous recombination (HR) deficiency...
May 21, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#17
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784011/extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-promote-mesenchymal-stem-cell-migration-by-increasing-intracellular-ca-2-and-activating-the-fak-rho-gtpases-signaling-pathways-in-vitro
#18
Yingchi Zhang, Jiyuan Yan, Haoran Xu, Yong Yang, Wenkai Li, Hua Wu, Chaoxu Liu
BACKGROUND: The ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to migrate to the desired tissues or lesions is crucial for stem cell-based regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Optimal therapeutics for promoting MSC migration are expected to become an effective means for tissue regeneration. Electromagnetic fields (EMF), as a noninvasive therapy, can cause a lot of biological changes in MSCs. However, whether EMF can promote MSC migration has not yet been reported. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of EMF on cell migration in human bone marrow-derived MSCs...
May 21, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783100/cd133-cells-derived-from-skeletal-muscles-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-patients-have-a-compromised-myogenic-and-muscle-regenerative-capability
#19
Jinhong Meng, Francesco Muntoni, Jennifer Morgan
Cell-mediated gene therapy is a possible means to treat muscular dystrophies like Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Autologous patient stem cells can be genetically-corrected and transplanted back into the patient, without causing immunorejection problems. Regenerated muscle fibres derived from these cells will express the missing dystrophin protein, thus improving muscle function. CD133+ cells derived from normal human skeletal muscle contribute to regenerated muscle fibres and form muscle stem cells after their intra-muscular transplantation into an immunodeficient mouse model...
May 12, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783023/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-infections-in-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-epidemiology-and-molecular-characterization
#20
Molka Kharrat, Yosra Chebbi, Farah Ben Tanfous, Amel Lakhal, Saloua Ladeb, Tarek Ben Othmen, Wafa Achour
BACKGROUND: Extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are feared because they generate therapeutic difficulties and have high potential for dissemination. The purpose of our study was to investigate the epidemiology of these infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients and to determine the genes encoding ESBL. MATERIAL/METHODS: Our retrospective study concerned adult patients hospitalized at the National Bone Marrow Transplant Center and infected with ESBL-E post HSCT between january 2006 and december 2016...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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