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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239312/endogenous-retinal-neural-stem-cell-reprogramming-for-neuronal-regeneration
#1
REVIEW
Romain Madelaine, Philippe Mourrain
In humans, optic nerve injuries and associated neurodegenerative diseases are often followed by permanent vision loss. Consequently, an important challenge is to develop safe and effective methods to replace retinal neurons and thereby restore neuronal functions and vision. Identifying cellular and molecular mechanisms allowing to replace damaged neurons is a major goal for basic and translational research in regenerative medicine. Contrary to mammals, the zebrafish has the capacity to fully regenerate entire parts of the nervous system, including retina...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238978/use-of-autologous-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-creation-of-laryngeal-cartilage
#2
Hongji Zhang, Sherry Voytik-Harbin, Sarah Brookes, Lujuan Zhang, Joseph Wallace, Noah Parker, Stacey Halum
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are an exciting potential cell source for tissue engineering because cells can be derived from the simple excision of autologous fat. This study introduces a novel approach for tissue-engineering cartilage from ASCs and a customized collagen oligomer solution, and demonstrates that the resultant cartilage can be used for laryngeal cartilage reconstruction in an animal model. STUDY DESIGN: Basic science experimental design...
December 14, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236765/chondrocytes-and-stem-cells-in-3d-bioprinted-structures-create-human-cartilage-in-vivo
#3
Peter Apelgren, Matteo Amoroso, Anders Lindahl, Camilla Brantsing, Nicole Rotter, Paul Gatenholm, Lars Kölby
Cartilage repair and replacement is a major challenge in plastic reconstructive surgery. The development of a process capable of creating a patient-specific cartilage framework would be a major breakthrough. Here, we described methods for creating human cartilage in vivo and quantitatively assessing the proliferative capacity and cartilage-formation ability in mono- and co-cultures of human chondrocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells in a three-dimensional (3D)-bioprinted hydrogel scaffold. The 3D-bioprinted constructs (5 × 5 × 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234895/intestinal-stem-cells-to-advance-drug-development-precision-and-regenerative-medicine-a-paradigm-shift-in-translational-research
#4
Jonathan P Mochel, Albert E Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G Martín, Karin Allenspach
Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and metabolism. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to study the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of oral medications. In addition, organoids have the potential to serve as a robust preclinical model for demonstrating the effectiveness of new drugs more rapidly, with more certainty, and at lower costs compared with live animal studies...
December 12, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228630/transplantation-of-ips-cell-derived-neural-progenitors-overexpressing-sdf-1%C3%AE-increases-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-ischemic-stroke
#5
Monica Chau, Todd C Deveau, Mingke Song, Zheng Z Wei, Xiaohuan Gu, Shan Ping Yu, Ling Wei
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of human death and disability while clinical treatments are limited. The adult brain possesses endogenous regenerative activities that may benefit tissue repair after stroke. Trophic factors such as stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α) are upregulated in the ischemic brain, which promote endogenous regeneration. The regenerative response, however, is normally insufficient. Transplantation of exogenous cells has been explored as regenerative therapies. One promising cell type for transplantation is induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells which are cells genetically reprogrammed from adult somatic cells...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223595/modulation-of-cartilage-s-response-to-injury-can-chondrocyte-apoptosis-be-reversed
#6
REVIEW
Ippokratis Pountos, Peter V Giannoudis
Osteoarthritis is characterized by a chronic, progressive and irreversible degradation of the articular cartilage associated with joint inflammation and a reparative bone response. More than 100 million people are affected by this condition worldwide with significant health and welfare costs. Our available treatment options in osteoarthritis are extremely limited. Chondral or osteochondral grafts have shown some promising results but joint replacement surgery is by far the most common therapeutic approach. The difficulty lies on the limited regeneration capacity of the articular cartilage, poor blood supply and the paucity of resident progenitor stem cells...
December 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221689/tissue-regeneration-the-crosstalk-between-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-immune-response
#7
Kai Qi, Na Li, Zhenyu Zhang, Gerry Melino
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exist in almost all tissues with the capability to differentiate into several different cell types and hold great promise in tissue repairs in a cell replacement manner. The study of the bidirectional regulation between MSCs and immune response has ushered an age of rethinking of tissue regeneration in the process of stem cell-based tissue repairs. By sensing damaged signals, both endogenous and exogenous MSCs migrate to the damaged site where they involve in the reconstitution of the immune microenvironment and empower tissue stem/progenitor cells and other resident cells, whereby facilitate tissue repairs...
December 2, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214694/myelodysplastic-syndromes-2018-update-on-diagnosis-risk-stratification-and-management
#8
Guillermo Montalban-Bravo, Guillermo Garcia-Manero
DISEASE OVERVIEW: The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a very heterogeneous group of myeloid disorders characterized by peripheral blood cytopenias and increased risk of transformation to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). MDS occurs more frequently in older males and in individuals with prior exposure to cytotoxic therapy. DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis of MDS is based on morphological evidence of dysplasia upon visual examination of a bone marrow aspirate and biopsy. Information obtained from additional studies such as karyotype, flow cytometry or molecular genetics is usually complementary and may help refine diagnosis...
January 2018: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214585/microphysiological-systems-tissue-chips-and-their-utility-for-rare-disease-research
#9
Lucie A Low, Danilo A Tagle
The scientific and technological development of microphysiological systems (MPS) modeling organs-on-chips, or "tissue chips" (TCs), has progressed rapidly over the past decade. Stem cell research and microfluidic concepts have combined to lead to the development of microphysiological platforms representing an ever-expanding list of different human organ systems. In the context of rare diseases, these bioengineered microfluidics platforms hold promise for modeling of disorders and could prove useful in the screening and efficacy testing of existing therapeutics...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214379/dual-contribution-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-employed-for-tissue-engineering-of-peripheral-nerves-trophic-activity-and-differentiation-into-connective-tissue-cells
#10
F Evaristo-Mendonça, A Carrier-Ruiz, R de Siqueira-Santos, R M P Campos, B Rangel, T H Kasai-Brunswick, V T Ribeiro-Resende
Adult peripheral nerves in vertebrates can regrow their axons and re-establish function after crush lesion. However, when there is extensive loss of a nerve segment, due to an accident or compressive damage caused by tumors, regeneration is strongly impaired. In order to overcome this problem, bioengineering strategies have been employed, using biomaterials formed by key cell types combined with biodegradable polymers. Many of these strategies are successful, and regenerated nerve tissue can be observed 12 weeks after the implantation...
December 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212733/successful-ovarian-stimulation-for-fertility-preservation-in-a-patient-with-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-switch-from-nilotinib-to-interferon-%C3%AE
#11
Smaranda Gazdaru, Lucien Perey, Anne Rosselet, Patrice Mathevet, Yves Chalandon, Nicolas Vulliemoz
The development of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has improved survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Some patients may become resistant to TKIs and require hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) that is highly gonadotoxic. Fertility preservation with ovarian stimulation might be indicated but is challenging if patients need to remain on TKIs until HSCT because TKIs may compromise follicular development and response to ovarian stimulation. We report the case of a patient with CML resistant to TKI and planned for an HSCT, in which treatment by TKI was replaced by interferon-α before and during ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation...
December 6, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212384/articular-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissues-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-represent-equal-sources-of-immunoregulatory-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Urszula Skalska, Ewa Kuca-Warnawin, Anna Kornatka, Iwona Janicka, Urszula Musiałowicz, Tomasz Burakowski, Ewa Kontny
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have immunoregulatory properties, but their activity is dependent on signals provided by the local microenvironment. It is likely that highly inflammatory milieu of rheumatoid joint affects ASCs activity. To test this hypothesis, the function of rheumatoid ASCs derived from articular adipose tissue (AT-ASCs) and ASCs derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue (Sc-ASCs) has been analysed. Articular adipose tissue (infrapatellar fat pad) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (from the site of skin closure with sutures) were obtained from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients undergoing total knee joint replacement surgery...
December 6, 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209158/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-stem-cell-transplantations-reduced-behavioral-deficits-and-ameliorated-neuropathological-changes-in-yac128-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#13
Abeer Al-Gharaibeh, Rebecca Culver, Andrew N Stewart, Bhairavi Srinageshwar, Kristin Spelde, Laura Frollo, Nivya Kolli, Darren Story, Leela Paladugu, Sarah Anwar, Andrew Crane, Robert Wyse, Panchanan Maiti, Gary L Dunbar, Julien Rossignol
Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuronal loss and motor dysfunction. Although there is no effective treatment, stem cell transplantation offers a promising therapeutic strategy, but the safety and efficacy of this approach needs to be optimized. The purpose of this study was to test the potential of intra-striatal transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells (iPS-NSCs) for treating HD. For this purpose, we developed mouse adenovirus-generated iPSCs, differentiated them into neural stem cells in vitro, labeled them with Hoechst, and transplanted them bilaterally into striata of 10-month old wild type (WT) and HD YAC128 mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207952/economic-burden-of-preemptive-treatment-of-cmv-infection-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-retrospective-study-of-208-consecutive-patients
#14
Christine Robin, François Hémery, Christel Dindorf, Julien Thillard, Ludovic Cabanne, Rabah Redjoul, Florence Beckerich, Christophe Rodriguez, Cécile Pautas, Andrea Toma, Sébastien Maury, Isabelle Durand-Zaleski, Catherine Cordonnier
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease (CMV episodes) are global concerns after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). They affect survival, both by direct and indirect effects. Due to safety issues of current anti-CMV antivirals, long-term CMV prophylaxis is poorly tolerated and the most common strategy to decrease the incidence of CMV disease is preemptive. New, less toxic, molecules are currently being assessed for CMV prophylaxis which should replace or considerably decrease the preemptive approach...
December 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207913/generation-of-dopamine-secreting-cells-from-human-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-in-vitro
#15
Mohammad Hasan Soheilifar, Arash Javeri, Hossein Amini, Masoumeh Fakhr Taha
Several studies have demonstrated the differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSCs) to neuronal and glial phenotypes, but directing the fate of these cells toward dopaminergic neurons has not been frequently reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate dopaminergic specification of hADSCs in vitro. ADSCs were isolated from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and were characterized. For dopaminergic differentiation, a cocktail of sonic hedgehog, fibroblast growth factor 8, basic fibroblast growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were used under a low serum condition...
December 5, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204836/fetal-membranes-derived-stem-cells-microenvironment
#16
Phelipe Oliveira Favaron, Maria Angelica Miglino
Recently, the regenerative medicine has been trying to congregate different areas such as tissue engineering and cellular therapy, in order to offer effective treatments to overcome several human and veterinary medical problems. In this regard, fetal membranes have been proposed as a powerful source for obtainment of multipotent stem cells with low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties and nontumorigenicity properties for the treatment of several diseases, including replacing cells lost due to tissue injuries or degenerative diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203658/molecular-and-functional-resemblance-of-differentiated-cells-derived-from-isogenic-human-ipscs-and-scnt-derived-escs
#17
Ming-Tao Zhao, Haodong Chen, Qing Liu, Ning-Yi Shao, Nazish Sayed, Hung-Ta Wo, Joe Z Zhang, Sang-Ging Ong, Chun Liu, Youngkyun Kim, Huaxiao Yang, Tony Chour, Hong Ma, Nuria Marti Gutierrez, Ioannis Karakikes, Shoukhrat Mitalipov, Michael P Snyder, Joseph C Wu
Patient-specific pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) can be generated via nuclear reprogramming by transcription factors (i.e., induced pluripotent stem cells, iPSCs) or by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, abnormalities and preclinical application of differentiated cells generated by different reprogramming mechanisms have yet to be evaluated. Here we investigated the molecular and functional features, and drug response of cardiomyocytes (PSC-CMs) and endothelial cells (PSC-ECs) derived from genetically relevant sets of human iPSCs, SCNT-derived embryonic stem cells (nt-ESCs), as well as in vitro fertilization embryo-derived ESCs (IVF-ESCs)...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203538/high-mobility-group-box-1-orchestrates-tissue-regeneration-via-cxcr4
#18
Mario Tirone, Ngoc Lan Tran, Chiara Ceriotti, Andrea Gorzanelli, Monica Canepari, Roberto Bottinelli, Angela Raucci, Stefania Di Maggio, César Santiago, Mario Mellado, Marielle Saclier, Stéphanie François, Giorgia Careccia, Mingzhu He, Francesco De Marchis, Valentina Conti, Sabrina Ben Larbi, Sylvain Cuvellier, Maura Casalgrandi, Alessandro Preti, Bénédicte Chazaud, Yousef Al-Abed, Graziella Messina, Giovanni Sitia, Silvia Brunelli, Marco Emilio Bianchi, Emilie Vénéreau
Inflammation and tissue regeneration follow tissue damage, but little is known about how these processes are coordinated. High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that, when released on injury, triggers inflammation. We previously showed that HMGB1 with reduced cysteines is a chemoattractant, whereas a disulfide bond makes it a proinflammatory cytokine. Here we report that fully reduced HMGB1 orchestrates muscle and liver regeneration via CXCR4, whereas disulfide HMGB1 and its receptors TLR4/MD-2 and RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) are not involved...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202871/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-for-kidney-repair-current-status-and-looming-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Arash Aghajani Nargesi, Lilach O Lerman, Alfonso Eirin
Novel therapies are urgently needed to address the rising incidence and prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have shown promising results in experimental AKI and CKD, and have been used in the clinic for more than a decade with an excellent safety profile. The regenerative effects of MSCs do not rely on their differentiation and ability to replace damaged tissues, but are primarily mediated by the paracrine release of factors, including extracellular vesicles (EVs), composed of microvesicles and exosomes...
December 4, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201205/bone-engineering-by-cell-sheet-technology-to-repair-mandibular-defects
#20
Xiuli Shan, Deshan Hu
Effectiveness of bone engineering by cell sheet technology to repair canine mandibular injuries was investigated. Cell sheets were produced from canine stem cells cultured by density gradient centrifugation and osteoblast induction. A scaffold surface of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) copolymer was wrapped with cell sheets. Mandibular injuries were created in 12 healthy dogs followed by implantation of PLGA with (experimental group; n, 6) and without (control group; n, 6) cell sheets. The progression of the implants was examined at 3, 9, and 12 weeks postoperative...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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