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Stem cell replacement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029025/insulin-deficient-mouse-%C3%AE-cells-do-not-fully-mature-but-can-be-remedied-through-insulin-replacement-by-islet-transplantation
#1
Adam Ramzy, Majid Mojibian, Timothy J Kieffer
Insulin receptor insufficiency in β-cells leads to impaired insulin secretion and reduced β-cell hyperplasia in response to hyperglycemia. Selective insulin receptor deficiency in β-cells in later embryological development may lead to compensatory β-cell hyperplasia. Though these findings suggest insulin signaling on the β-cell is important for β-cell function, they are confounded by loss of signaling by the IGFs through the insulin receptor. To determine if insulin itself is necessary for β-cell development and maturation, we performed a characterization of pancreatic islets in mice with deletions of both non-allelic insulin genes (Ins1-/-Ins2-/-)...
September 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028220/pediatric-brain-repair-from-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-of-the-subventricular-zone
#2
REVIEW
Yusuke Niimi, Steven W Levison
There is great interest in the regenerative potential of the neural stem cells and progenitors that populate the germinal zones of the immature brain. Studies using animal models of pediatric brain injuries have provided a clearer understanding of the responses of these progenitors to injury. In this review we have compared and contrasted the responses of the endogenous neural stem cells and progenitors of the subventricular zone in animal models of neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, neonatal stroke, congenital cardiac disease and pediatric traumatic brain injury...
October 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027123/pluripotent-stem-cells-secrete-activin-a-to-improve-their%C3%A2-epiblast-competency-after-injection-into-recipient-embryos
#3
Jinzhu Xiang, Suying Cao, Liang Zhong, Hanning Wang, Yangli Pei, Qingqing Wei, Bingqiang Wen, Haiyuan Mu, Shaopeng Zhang, Liang Yue, Genhua Yue, Bing Lim, Jianyong Han
It is not fully clear why there is a higher contribution of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to the chimera produced by injection of PSCs into 4-cell or 8-cell stage embryos compared with blastocyst injection. Here, we show that not only embryonic stem cells (ESCs) but also induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can generate F0 nearly 100% donor cell-derived mice by 4-cell stage embryo injection, and the approach has a "dose effect". Through an analysis of the PSC-secreted proteins, Activin A was found to impede epiblast (EPI) lineage development while promoting trophectoderm (TE) differentiation, resulting in replacement of the EPI lineage of host embryos with PSCs...
October 12, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022899/transplanted-human-p75-positive-stem-leydig-cells-replace-disrupted-leydig-cells-for-testosterone-production
#4
Min Zhang, Jiancheng Wang, Chunhua Deng, Mei Hua Jiang, Xin Feng, Kai Xia, Weiqiang Li, Xingqiang Lai, Haipeng Xiao, Ren-Shan Ge, Yong Gao, Andy Peng Xiang
Previous studies have demonstrated that rodent stem Leydig cell (SLC) transplantation can partially restore testosterone production in Leydig cell (LC)-disrupted or senescent animal models, which provides a promising approach for the treatment of hypogonadism. Here, we isolated human SLCs prospectively and explored the potential therapeutic benefits of human SLC transplantation for hypogonadism treatment. In adult human testes, p75 neurotrophin receptor positive (p75(+)) cells expressed the known SLC marker nestin, but not the LC lineage marker hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3β (HSD3β)...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017167/hopes-and-difficulties-for-blastocyst-complementation
#5
Benjamin S Freedman
The clinical need for organ replacement therapies has inspired the idea of growing human organs in animal hosts. The injection of human pluripotent stem cells into animal blastocysts provides a possible strategy to accomplish this goal. Subject of Review: A recent study [Wu et al. Cell 2017;168:473-486.e415] tests the feasibility of this approach by creating chimeric embryos between humans and large domestic animals, including pigs and cattle. The study further examines the potential of combining CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing with blastocyst complementation to grow fully foreign organs in chimeric hosts...
October 10, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016925/divergent-evolution-of-temozolomide-resistance-in-glioblastoma-stem-cells-is-reflected-in-extracellular-vesicles-and-coupled-with-radiosensitization
#6
Delphine Garnier, Brian Meehan, Thomas Kislinger, Paul Daniel, Ankit Sinha, Bassam Abdulkarim, Ichiro Nakano, Janusz Rak
Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is almost invariably fatal due to failure of standard therapy. The relapse of GBM following surgery, radiation and systemic temozolomide (TMZ) is attributed to the ability of glioma stem cells (GSCs) to survive, evolve and repopulate the tumor mass, events on which therapy exerts a poorly understood influence. Methods: Here we explore the molecular and cellular evolution of TMZ resistance as it emerges in vivo (xenograft models) in a series of human GSCs with either proneural (PN) or mesenchymal (MES) molecular characteristics...
July 28, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987284/lentivirus-carrying-the-neurod1-gene-promotes-the-conversion-from-glial-cells-into-neurons-in-a-spinal-cord-injury-model
#7
Wenhao Chen, Baoquan Zhang, Shuxia Xu, Ren Lin, Wei Wang
In this study, we aimed to reprogram reactive glial cells into neural stem cells and neurons in vivo, by up-regulating NeuroD1. 60 rats were randomly divided into three groups with equal numbers. All rats received a spinal cord injury. Group A received only normal saline injection. Group B received unloaded lentivirus injection. Group C received NeuroD1 recombinant lentivirus injection. The BBB scores of the animals were documented at 3, 7, 14, 21days after SCI. 5 random rats of each group were removed at those timings after SCI and sacrificed...
October 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986875/gene-targeted-mice-with-conditional-knock-in-out-of-nmdar-mutations
#8
Rolf Sprengel, Ahmed Eltokhi, Frank N Single
For the genetic alterations of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) properties like Ca(2+)-permeability or voltage-dependent gating in mice and for the experimental analysis of nonsense or missense mutations that were identified in human patients, single nucleotide mutations have to be introduced into the germ line of mice (Burnashev and Szepetowski, Curr Opin Pharmacol 20:73-82, 2015; Endele et al., Nat Genet 42:1021-1026, 2010). This can be done with very high precision by the well-established method of gene replacement, which makes use of homologous recombination in pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells of mice...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985203/cell-therapy-for-diverse-central-nervous-system-disorders-inherited-metabolic-diseases-and-autism
#9
REVIEW
Jessica M Sun, Joanne Kurtzberg
The concept of utilizing human cells for the treatment of medical conditions is not new. In its simplest form, blood product transfusion as treatment of severe hemorrhage has been practiced since the 1800s. The advent of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) began with the development of bone marrow transplantation for hematologic malignancies in the mid-1900s and is now standard of care for many hematologic disorders. In the past few decades, HSCT has expanded to additional sources of donor cells, a wider range of indications, and the development of novel cell products...
October 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985201/-good-things-come-in-small-packages-application-of-exosome-based-therapeutics-in-neonatal-lung-injury
#10
REVIEW
Gareth R Willis, S Alex Mitsialis, Stella Kourembanas
Infants born at very low gestational age contribute disproportionately to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Advancements in antenatal steroid therapies and surfactant replacement have favored the survival of infants with ever-more immature lungs. Despite such advances in medical care, cardiopulmonary and neurological impairment prevail in constituting the major adverse outcomes for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) survivors. With no single effective therapy for either the prevention or treatment of such neonatal disorders, the need for new tools to treat and reduce risk of further complications associated with extreme preterm birth is urgent...
October 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985200/cellular-therapy-for-traumatic-neurological-injury
#11
REVIEW
Charles S Cox
Neurological injury is the primary lethal mechanism of injury in children, and the primary etiology of long-term disability after trauma. Laboratories and clinical/translational teams have sought to develop stem/progenitor cell therapies to improve recovery in a clinical setting in which there is no significant reparative option. While none of these treatments are currently standard therapeutics, Phase 2b clinical trials are underway in both adults and children in severe traumatic brain injury and Phase 1/2a trials in spinal cord injury...
October 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985194/current-status-of-blood-pharming-megakaryoctye-transfusions-as-a-source-of-platelets
#12
Kandace Gollomp, Michele P Lambert, Mortimer Poncz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Donor-derived platelets have proven to be of hemostatic value in many clinical settings. There is a fear that the need for platelets may outgrow the donor pool in first-world countries. Moreover, there are other challenges with donor platelets that add to the impetus to find an alternative platelet source, especially after the megakaryocyte cytokine thrombopoietin was identified. Megakaryocytes have since been differentiated from numerous cell sources and the observed released platelet-like particles (PLPs) have led to calls to develop such products for clinical use...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984038/beta-cell-replacement-strategies-for-diabetes
#13
Timothy J Kieffer, Knut Woltjen, Kenji Osafune, Daisuke Yabe, Nobuya Inagaki
Diabetes is characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose as a result of insufficient production of insulin from loss or dysfunction of pancreatic islet beta cells. Here we review several approaches to replace beta cells that were recently discussed at a symposium held in Kyoto, Japan. Transplant of donor human islets can effectively treat diabetes and eliminate the need for insulin injections, supporting research aimed at identifying abundant supplies of cells. Studies demonstrating the feasibility of producing mouse islets in rats support the concept of generating pigs with human pancreas that can serve as donors of human islets, although scientific and ethical challenges remain...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983775/deficiency-of-adenosine-deaminase-2-dada2-an-inherited-cause-of-polyarteritis-nodosa-and-a-mimic-of-other-systemic-rheumatologic-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Hasan Hashem, Susan J Kelly, Nancy J Ganson, Michael S Hershfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A new autoinflammatory disease, deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2), caused by mutations in the CECR1 gene, was first reported in 2014. This review aims to update progress in defining, treating, and understanding this multi-faceted disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: DADA2 was first described in patients with systemic inflammation, mild immune deficiency, and vasculopathy manifested as recurrent stroke or polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). More than 125 patients have now been reported, and the phenotype has expanded to include children and adults presenting primarily with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), or with antibody deficiency...
October 5, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983455/long-term-cognitive-and-somatic-outcomes-of-enzyme-replacement-therapy-in-untransplanted-hurler-syndrome
#15
Julie B Eisengart, Jeanine Jarnes, Alia Ahmed, Igor Nestrasil, Richard Ziegler, Kathleen Delaney, Elsa Shapiro, Chester Whitley
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) was added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel for newborn screening in 2016, highlighting recognition that early treatment of MPS I is critical to stem progressive, irreversible disease manifestations. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is an approved treatment for all MPS I phenotypes, but because the severe form (MPS IH, Hurler syndrome) involves rapid neurocognitive decline, the impermeable blood-brain-barrier is considered an obstacle for ERT. Instead, hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has long been recommended, as it is believed to be the only therapy that arrests neurocognitive decline...
December 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981488/from-cord-to-caudate-characterizing-umbilical-cord-blood-stem-cells-and-their-paracrine-interactions-with-the-injured-brain
#16
REVIEW
Priya F Maillacheruvu, Lauren M Engel, Isaiah T Crum, Devendra K Agrawal, Eric S Peeples
Stem cells are proving to be a promising therapy for a wide range of pediatric disorders, from neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy to pediatric leukemia. Due to their low immunogenicity and ease of availability, umbilical cord blood (UCB) progenitor cells are increasingly replacing fetal and adult-derived cells in therapeutic settings. Multiple environmental and demographic factors affect the number and type of stem cells extracted from UCB, and these differences have been associated with disparities in outcomes after transplantation...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980312/neural-stem-progenitor-cells-are-activated-during-tail-regeneration-in-the-leopard-gecko-eublepharis-macularius
#17
Eab Gilbert, M K Vickaryous
As for many lizards, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) can self-detach its tail to avoid predation and then regenerate a replacement. The replacement tail includes a regenerated spinal cord with a simple morphology: an ependymal layer surrounded by nerve tracts. We hypothesized that cells within the ependymal layer of the original spinal cord include populations of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) that contribute to the regenerated spinal cord. Prior to tail loss, we performed a bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiment and found that a subset of ependymal layer cells (ELCs) were label-retaining after a 140-day chase period...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978275/low-immunogenic-endothelial-cells-maintain-morphofunctional-properties-needed-for-tissue-engineering
#18
Skadi Lau, Dorothee Eicke, Marco Carvalho Oliveira, Bettina Wiegmann, Claudia Schrimpf, Axel Haverich, Rainer Blasczyk, Mathias Wilhelmi, Constanςa Figueiredo, Ulrike Böer
The limited availability of native vessels suitable for the application as hemodialysis shunts or bypass material demands new strategies in cardiovascular surgery. Tissue engineered vascular grafts containing autologous cells are considered as ideal vessel replacements due to the low risk of rejection. However, endothelial cells (EC), which are central components of natural blood vessels, are difficult to obtain from elderly patients of poor health. Umbilical cord blood represents a promising alternative source for EC but their allogeneic origin corresponds with the risk of rejection after allotransplantation...
October 5, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978269/human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-pre-treated-with-il-1%C3%AE-and-stimulated-with-bmp-3-enhance-chondrogenesis
#19
Daphne Hingert, Helena Barreto Henriksson, Helena Brisby
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is one of the most common ailments in western countries afflicting more than 80% of the population and the main cause is considered to be degeneration of intervertebral discs (IVDs). IL-1β is a vital inflammatory cytokine found in abundance in degenerated disc environment whereas BMP-3 is believed to promote chondrogenesis through TGF-β pathway. AIM: The aim was to study the effects of BMP-3, IL-1β and combination (pre-treatment with IL-1β) on hMSCs encapsulated in PuraMatrix™ hydrogel (Phg) especially in the absence of TGF-β in order to investigate the proliferation, and differentiation ability of hMSCs over 28 days period...
October 5, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974767/the-neurotrophic-effects-of-different-human-dental-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#20
Mallappa K Kolar, Vinay N Itte, Paul J Kingham, Lev N Novikov, Mikael Wiberg, Peyman Kelk
The current gold standard treatment for peripheral nerve injury is nerve grafting but this has disadvantages such as donor site morbidity. New techniques focus on replacing these grafts with nerve conduits enhanced with growth factors and/or various cell types such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Dental-MSCs (D-MSCs) including stem cells obtained from apical papilla (SCAP), dental pulp stem cells (DPSC), and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) are potential sources of MSCs for nerve repair. Here we present the characterization of various D-MSCs from the same human donors for peripheral nerve regeneration...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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