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Stem cell replacement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433882/hypothyroidism-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#1
Michael Medinger, Deborah Zeiter, Dominik Heim, Jörg Halter, Sabine Gerull, André Tichelli, Jakob Passweg, Nicole Nigro
BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism may complicate allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT); we therefore analyzed risk factors in this study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 229 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who underwent an allo-HSCT between 2003 and 2013 with different conditioning regimens (myeloablative, reduced-intensity, chemotherapy-based, or total body irradiation-based). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine levels (fT4) were available in 104 patients before and after allo-HSCT...
April 13, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432571/cell-therapy-for-type-1-diabetes-current-and-future-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Yasaman Aghazadeh, Maria Cristina Nostro
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is defined by an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing β-cells located in the endocrine part of the pancreas, the islets of Langerhans. As exogenous insulin administration fails at preventing severe complications associated with this disease, cell replacement therapies are being considered as a means to treat T1D. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the challenges associated with current strategies and discuss the potential of stem cell therapy for the treatment of T1D...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430167/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-modeling-of-gaucher-s-disease-what-have-we-learned
#3
REVIEW
Dino Matias Santos, Gustavo Tiscornia
Gaucher's disease (GD) is the most frequently inherited lysosomal storage disease, presenting both visceral and neurologic symptoms. Mutations in acid β-glucocerebrosidase disrupt the sphingolipid catabolic pathway promoting glucosylceramide (GlcCer) accumulation in lysosomes. Current treatment options are enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and substrate reduction therapy (SRT). However, neither of these approaches is effective in treating the neurological aspect of the disease. The use of small pharmacological compounds that act as molecular chaperones is a promising approach that is still experimental...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424564/new-developments-in-the-management-of-narcolepsy
#4
REVIEW
Vivien C Abad, Christian Guilleminault
Narcolepsy is a life-long, underrecognized sleep disorder that affects 0.02%-0.18% of the US and Western European populations. Genetic predisposition is suspected because of narcolepsy's strong association with HLA DQB1*06-02, and genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in T-cell receptor loci. Narcolepsy pathophysiology is linked to loss of signaling by hypocretin-producing neurons; an autoimmune etiology possibly triggered by some environmental agent may precipitate hypocretin neuronal loss...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424168/mir-9-5p-promotes-msc-migration-by-activating-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#5
Xianyang Li, Lihong He, Qing Yue, Junhou Lu, Naixin Kang, Xiaojing Xu, Huihui Wang, Huanxiang Zhang
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to treat various tissue damages, but the very limited number of cells that migrate to the damaged region strongly restricts their therapeutic applications. Full understanding of mechanisms regulating MSC migration will help to improve their migration ability and therapeutic effects. Increasing evidence shows that microRNAs play important roles in the regulation of MSC migration. In the present study, we reported that miR-9-5p was upregulated in HGF-treated MSCs and in MSCs with high migration ability...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423639/m2-microglia-promotes-neurogenesis-and-oligodendrogenesis-from-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-via-the-ppar%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#6
Jichao Yuan, Hongfei Ge, Wei Liu, Haitao Zhu, Yaxing Chen, Xuan Zhang, Yang Yang, Yi Yin, Weixiang Chen, Wanjiang Wu, Yunfeng Yang, Jiangkai Lin
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) are an important source of cells for cell replacement therapy after nerve injury. How to induce NSPCs differentiation towards neurons and oligodendrocytes is a challenging issue in neuroscience research. In the present study, we polarized microglia into M1 and M2 phenotype, used their supernatants to induce NSPCs differentiation, and investigated the effects of different microglia phenotypes on NSPCs differentiation and their mechanisms. We discovered that, after exposure to M1 phenotype supernatant, NSPCs differentiated into fewer Tuj-1+ and Olig2+ cells, but more GFAP+ cells...
March 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421538/roles-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-isoforms-in-neurogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Cheong-Meng Chong, Nana Ai, Minjing Ke, Yuan Tan, Zhijian Huang, Yong Li, Jia-Hong Lu, Wei Ge, Huanxing Su
Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical gas, acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the central nervous system (CNS). It has been widely explored as a mediator of neuroinflammation, neuronal damages, and neurodegeneration at its pathological levels. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that NO plays key roles in mediating adult neurogenesis, the process of neural stem cells (NSCs) to generate newborn neurons for replacing damaged neurons or maintaining the function of the brain. NO synthase (NOS) is a major enzyme catalyzing the generation of NO in the brain...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421182/tgf-%C3%AE-1-pretreatment-improves-the-function-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-wound-bed
#8
Deepraj Ghosh, Daniel J McGrail, Michelle R Dawson
The wound healing process initiates after injury to a tissue and involves a series of orchestrated events to minimize the invasion of foreign matters such as bacteria and efficiently regenerate the damaged tissue. A variety of cells must be recruited to the tissue during wound healing. However, this process is severely disrupted in patients suffering from chronic illness, including diabetes, leading to impaired healing or non-healing wounds. Current avenues of treatment include negative-pressure therapy, wound debridement, growth factor replacement, and cell-based therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416692/immunomodulation-accelerated-neuronal-regeneration-following-selective-rod-photoreceptor-cell-ablation-in-the-zebrafish-retina
#9
David T White, Sumitra Sengupta, Meera T Saxena, Qingguo Xu, Justin Hanes, Ding Ding, Hongkai Ji, Jeff S Mumm
Müller glia (MG) function as inducible retinal stem cells in zebrafish, completely repairing the eye after damage. The innate immune system has recently been shown to promote tissue regeneration in which classic wound-healing responses predominate. However, regulatory roles for leukocytes during cellular regeneration-i.e., selective cell-loss paradigms akin to degenerative disease-are less well defined. To investigate possible roles innate immune cells play during retinal cell regeneration, we used intravital microscopy to visualize neutrophil, macrophage, and retinal microglia responses to induced rod photoreceptor apoptosis...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415397/surface-modified-bioresorbable-electrospun-scaffolds-for-improving-hemocompatibility-of-vascular-grafts
#10
Pablo C Caracciolo, María Isabel Rial-Hermida, Florencia Montini-Ballarin, Gustavo A Abraham, Angel Concheiro, Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo
The replacement of small-diameter vessels is one of the main challenges in tissue engineering. Moreover, the surface modification of small-diameter vascular grafts (SDVG) is a key factor in the success of the therapy due to their increased thrombogenicity and infection susceptibility caused by the lack of a functional endothelium. In this work, electrospun scaffolds were prepared from blends of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and segmented polyurethane (PHD) with a composition designed to perform as SDVG inner layer...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411944/differentiation-of-amniotic-epithelial-cells-into-various-liver-cell-types-and-potential-therapeutic-applications
#11
Maura Fanti, Roberto Gramignoli, Monica Serra, Erika Cadoni, Stephen C Strom, Fabio Marongiu
The aim of Regenerative Medicine is to replace or regenerate human cells, tissues or organs in order to restore normal function. Among all organs, the liver is endowed with remarkable regenerative capacity. Nonetheless, there are conditions in which this ability is impaired, and the use of isolated cells, including stem cells, is being considered as a possible therapeutic tool for the management of chronic hepatic disease. Placenta holds great promise for the field of regenerative medicine. It has long been used for the treatment of skin lesions and in ophthalmology, due to its ability to modulate inflammation and promote healing...
March 30, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411269/novel-regulatory-mechanisms-for-the-soxc-transcriptional-network-required-for-visual-pathway-development
#12
Kun-Che Chang, Jonathan Hertz, Xiong Zhang, Xiao-Lu Jin, Peter Shaw, Brooke A Derosa, Janet Y Li, Praseeda Venugopalan, Daniel A Valenzuela, Roshni D Patel, Kristina R Russano, Shomoukh A Alshamekh, Catalina Sun, Kevin Tenerelli, Chenyi Li, Dmitri Velmeshev, Yuyan Cheng, Timothy M Boyce, Alexandra Dreyfuss, Mohammed S Uddin, Kenneth J Muller, Derek M Dykxhoorn, Jeffrey L Goldberg
What pathways specify retinal ganglion cell (RGC) fate in the developing retina? Here we report on mechanisms by which a molecular pathway involving Sox4/Sox11 is required for RGC differentiation and for optic nerve formation in mice in vivo, and is sufficient to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells into electrophysiologically active RGCs. These data place Sox4 downstream of RE1 silencing transcription factor (REST) in regulating RGC fate, and further describe a newly identified, Sox4-regulated SUMOylation site in Sox11, which suppresses Sox11's nuclear localization and its ability to promote RGC differentiation, providing a mechanism for the SoxC familial compensation observed here and elsewhere in the nervous system...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410601/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-nk-t-cell-lymphomas
#13
REVIEW
Eric Tse, Yok-Lam Kwong
Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma is an aggressive malignancy of putative NK-cell origin, with a minority deriving from the T-cell lineage. Pathologically, the malignancy occurs in two forms, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type; and aggressive NK-cell leukaemia. Lymphoma occur most commonly (80%) in the nose and upper aerodigestive tract, less commonly (20%) in non-nasal areas (skin, gastrointestinal tract, testis, salivary gland), and rarely as disseminated disease with a leukemic phase...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408455/cell-therapy-trials-in-congenital-heart-disease
#14
REVIEW
Hidemasa Oh
Dramatic evolution in medical and catheter interventions and complex surgeries to treat children with congenital heart disease (CHD) has led to a growing number of patients with a multitude of long-term complications associated with morbidity and mortality. Heart failure in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome predicated by functional single ventricle lesions is associated with an increase in CHD prevalence and remains a significant challenge. Pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the progression of CHD, including single ventricle lesions and dilated cardiomyopathy, and adult heart disease may inevitably differ...
April 14, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406502/self-regulatory-factors-of-embryonic-stem-cells-in-co-culture-with-stromal-cells-enhance-neural-differentiation
#15
R Joshi, J C Buchanan, H Tavana
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), due to their intrinsic capability to generate somatic cells of all three germ layers, are potential sources of neural cells for cell replacement therapies. However, the empirical differentiation protocols and the lack of mechanistic understanding of the neural differentiation of ESCs have limited the utility of ESCs as a developmental model or as a cell source for neural cell populations for replacement therapies. Co-culturing ESCs with stromal cells is one of the extensively used methods to induce neural differentiation...
April 13, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406232/peptidoglycan-o-acetylation-increases-in-response-to-vancomycin-treatment-in-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis
#16
James D Chang, Erin E Foster, Ashley G Wallace, Sung Joon Kim
Vancomycin resistance is conferred upon vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) through the replacement of peptidoglycan (PG) stem terminal d-Ala-d-Ala with d-Ala-d-Lac. The d-Ala-d-Lac incorporation can affect both the fitness and virulence of VRE. Here we comprehensively investigate the changes to PG composition in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis following the growth in presence of vancomycin using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, 104 unique muropeptides fragments were identified and the relative abundance of each fragment was accurately quantified by integrating the ion current of a selected ion using extracted-ion chromatogram...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401100/generation-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-using-a-defined-stepwise-serum-free-and-serum-replacement-free-monolayer-culture-method
#17
So-Jung Kim, Ji-Won Jung, Hye-Yeong Ha, Soo Kyung Koo, Eung-Gook Kim, Jung-Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be expanded infinitely in vitro and have the potential to differentiate into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); thus, they are considered a useful source of cells for HSC production. Although several technical in vitro methods for engineering HSCs from pluripotent stem cells have been developed, clinical application of HSCs engineered from pluripotent stem cells is restricted because of the possibility of xenogeneic contamination resulting from the use of murine materials...
March 2017: Blood Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400433/stem-cell-therapies-for-retinal-diseases-recapitulating-development-to-replace-degenerated-cells
#18
REVIEW
Cuiping Zhao, Qingjie Wang, Sally Temple
Retinal degenerative diseases are the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Replacing lost retinal cells via stem cell-based therapies is an exciting, rapidly advancing area of translational research that has already entered the clinic. Here, we review the status of these clinical efforts for several significant retinal diseases, describe the challenges involved and discuss how basic developmental studies have contributed to and are needed to advance clinical goals.
April 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397112/cell-therapy-for-multiple-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Pamela Sarkar, Claire M Rice, Neil J Scolding
Cell therapy is considered a promising potential treatment for multiple sclerosis, perhaps particularly for the progressive form of the disease for which there are currently no useful treatments. Over the past two decades or more, much progress has been made in understanding the biology of MS and in the experimental development of cell therapy for this disease. Three quite distinct forms of cell therapy are currently being pursued. The first seeks to use stem cells to replace damaged myelin-forming oligodendrocytes within the CNS; the second aims, in effect, to replace the individual's misfunctioning immune system, making use of haematopoietic stem cells; and the third seeks to utilise endogenous stem cell populations by mobilisation with or without in vitro expansion, exploiting their various reparative and neuroprotective properties...
April 10, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395742/reporting-on-methods-to-generate-and-purify-rodent-and-human-oligodendrocytes-from-different-sources
#20
Mehdi Djelloul, Carla Azevedo, Yuriy Pomeshchik, Anna Hammarberg, Laurent Roybon
Oligodendrocytes are part of the glial cells located in the central nervous system, capable of providing trophic support to neurons and ensheathing their axons. These cells can become dysfunctional under pathologic condition. Rodent and human pluripotent stem cells are inexhaustible sources for producing oligodendrocytes that can be used for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy studies. They also offer many opportunities to model the contribution of oligodendrocytes in non-genetic disorders such as multiple system atrophy...
April 2017: Stem Cell Research
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