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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090703/differentiation-of-islet-progenitors-regulated-by-nicotinamide-into-transcriptome-verified-%C3%AE-cells-that-ameliorate-diabetes
#1
Fang-Xu Jiang, Kevin Li, Michael Archer, Munish Mehta, Emma Jamieson, Adrian Charles, Jan E Dickinson, Masahito Matsumoto, Grant Morahan
Developmental stage-specific differentiation of stem or progenitor cells into safe and functional cells is of fundamental importance in regenerative medicine, including β-cell replacement. However, the differentiation of islet progenitor cells (IPCs) into insulin-secreting β cells remains elusive. Here, we report that the multi-functional molecule nicotinamide (NIC) is a specific differentiation regulator of mouse IPCs. The differentiated cells regulated by NIC exhibited many characteristics of adult β cells, including ameliorating preclinical diabetes and a highly comparable transcriptome profile...
January 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089909/immunosuppression-via-loss-of-il2r%C3%AE-enhances-long-term-functional-integration-of-hesc-derived-photoreceptors-in-the-mouse-retina
#2
Jie Zhu, Helen Cifuentes, Joseph Reynolds, Deepak A Lamba
Loss of photoreceptors is a common endpoint in degenerative retinal diseases. Human pluripotent stem cells provide a potential source for photoreceptor replacement, but, even in mouse models, the efficiency and efficacy of transplantation-based repair remains poor. In this study, we examined the degree to which immune rejection contributes to these disappointing outcomes using an immunodeficient IL2 receptor γ (IL2rγ)-null mouse model. Our results show that prevention of cell rejection in the normal and degenerating retinal environment significantly improves long-term survival and integration of hESC-derived donor retinal cells...
December 29, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088667/cell-laden-hydrogels-for-osteochondral-and-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#3
REVIEW
Jingzhou Yang, Yu Shrike Zhang, Kan Yue, Ali Khademhosseini
: Despite tremendous advances in the field of regenerative medicine, it still remains challenging to repair the osteochondral interface and full-thickness articular cartilage defects. This inefficiency largely originates from the lack of appropriate tissue engineered artificial matrices that can replace the damaged regions and promote tissue regeneration. Hydrogels are emerging as a promising class of biomaterials for both soft and hard tissue regeneration. Many critical properties of hydrogels, such as mechanical stiffness, elasticity, water content, bioactivity, and degradation, can be rationally designed and conveniently tuned by proper selection of the material and chemistry...
January 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079995/effects-of-cell-cycle-phases-on-the-induction-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-toward-dopaminergic-like-cells
#4
Nareshwaran Gnanasegaran, Vijayendran Govindasamy, Premasangery Kathirvaloo, Sabri Musa, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by tremors and cognitive issues, and is due to the death of dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons in brain circuits that are responsible for producing neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). Currently, cell replacement therapies are underway to overcome existing therapeutic approaches such as drug treatments and electrical stimulation. Among the widely available sources, dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth (DPSC) have gained popularity due to their neural crest origin and inherent propensity toward neuronal lineage...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074903/alterations-in-the-brain-adenosine-metabolism-cause-behavioral-and-neurological-impairment-in-ada-deficient-mice-and-patients
#5
Aisha V Sauer, Raisa Jofra Hernandez, Francesca Fumagalli, Veronica Bianchi, Pietro L Poliani, Chiara Dallatomasina, Elisa Riboni, Letterio S Politi, Antonella Tabucchi, Filippo Carlucci, Miriam Casiraghi, Nicola Carriglio, Manuela Cominelli, Carlo Alberto Forcellini, Federica Barzaghi, Francesca Ferrua, Fabio Minicucci, Stefania Medaglini, Letizia Leocani, Giancarlo la Marca, Lucia D Notarangelo, Chiara Azzari, Giancarlo Comi, Cristina Baldoli, Sabrina Canale, Maria Sessa, Patrizia D'Adamo, Alessandro Aiuti
Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) deficiency is an autosomal recessive variant of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) caused by systemic accumulation of ADA substrates. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities observed in ADA-SCID patients surviving after stem cell transplantation or gene therapy represent an unresolved enigma in the field. We found significant neurological and cognitive alterations in untreated ADA-SCID patients as well as in two groups of patients after short- and long-term enzyme replacement therapy with PEG-ADA...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070859/mouse-bone-marrow-vsels-exhibit-differentiation-into-three-embryonic-germ-lineages-and-germ-hematopoietic-cells-in-culture
#6
Ambreen Shaikh, Sandhya Anand, Sona Kapoor, Ranita Ganguly, Deepa Bhartiya
Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) have been reported in various adult tissues, express pluripotent and primordial germ cells (PGCs) specific markers, are mobilized under stress/disease conditions, give rise to tissue committed progenitors and thus help regenerate and maintain homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro differentiation potential of VSELs using a quantitative approach. VSELs were collected from mouse bone marrow after 4 days of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, 150 mg/Kg) treatment, further enriched by size based filtration and cultured on a feeder support in the presence of specific differentiation media...
January 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067250/promotion-of-natural-tooth-repair-by-small-molecule-gsk3-antagonists
#7
Vitor C M Neves, Rebecca Babb, Dhivya Chandrasekaran, Paul T Sharpe
The restoration of dentine lost in deep caries lesions in teeth is a routine and common treatment that involves the use of inorganic cements based on calcium or silicon-based mineral aggregates. Such cements remain in the tooth and fail to degrade and thus normal mineral volume is never completely restored. Here we describe a novel, biological approach to dentine restoration that stimulates the natural formation of reparative dentine via the mobilisation of resident stem cells in the tooth pulp. Biodegradable, clinically-approved collagen sponges are used to deliver low doses of small molecule glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3) antagonists that promote the natural processes of reparative dentine formation to completely restore dentine...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063988/engineered-extracellular-microenvironment-with-a-tunable-mechanical-property-for-controlling-cell-behavior-and-cardiomyogenic-fate-of-cardiac-stem-cells
#8
Min-Young Choi, Jong-Tae Kim, Won-Jin Lee, Yunki Lee, Kyung Min Park, Young-Il Yang, Ki Dong Park
: Endogenous cardiac stem cells (CSCs) are known to play a certain role in the myocardial homeostasis of the adult heart. The extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding CSCs provides mechanical signals to regulate a variety of cell behaviors, yet the impact in the adult heart of these mechanical properties of ECM on CSC renewal and fate decisions is mostly unknown. To elucidate CSC mechanoresponses at the individual cell and myocardial level, we used the sol-to-gel transitional gelatin-poly(ethylene glycol)-tyramine (GPT) hydrogel with a tunable mechanical property to construct a three-dimensional (3D) matrix for culturing native myocardium and CSCs...
January 4, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060874/salmon-dna-accelerates-bone-regeneration-by-inducing-osteoblast-migration
#9
Ayako Sato, Hiroshi Kajiya, Nana Mori, Hironobu Sato, Tadao Fukushima, Hirofumi Kido, Jun Ohno
The initial step of bone regeneration requires the migration of osteogenic cells to defective sites. Our previous studies suggest that a salmon DNA-based scaffold can promote the bone regeneration of calvarial defects in rats. We speculate that the salmon DNA may possess osteoinductive properties, including the homing of migrating osteogenic cells. In the present study, we investigated the influence of the salmon DNA on osteoblastic differentiation and induction of osteoblast migration using MG63 cells (human preosteoblasts) in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056498/bone-marrow-stem-cell-therapy-partially-ameliorates-pathological-consequences-in-livers-of-mice-expressing-mutant-human-%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin
#10
Prakash Baligar, Veena Kochat, Shailendra K Arindkar, Zaffar Equbal, Snehashish Mukherjee, Swati Patel, Perumal Nagarajan, Sujata Mohanty, Jeffrey H Teckman, Asok Mukhopadhyay
: Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a genetic disease, caused by mutation of the AAT gene. Accumulation of mutated AAT protein aggregates in hepatocytes leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress resulting in impairment of liver functions and in some cases hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas decline of AAT levels in sera is responsible for pulmonary emphysema. In critical cases of liver ailments, the only option for treatment is liver transplantation, whereas AAT replacement therapy is followed in case of emphysema...
January 5, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050065/mapping-the-milestones-in-tooth-regeneration-current-trends-and-future-research
#11
REVIEW
Atanu Bhanja, D S J D'Souza
Research into finding the perfect replacement for lost dentition is an ever-evolving and rapidly advancing subject involving many scientific disciplines. The present consensus appears to be that regeneration of tooth in morphological and functional form is the ideal answer to lost tooth replacement. This article traces the milestones in this elusive search for the ultimate tooth replacement. The various research developments are highlighted that are aimed at the final goal of being able to "re-grow a natural tooth"...
December 2016: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049208/the-pathogenesis-of-alcohol-induced-airflow-limitation-in-acetaldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-deficient-mice
#12
Terufumi Shimoda, Yasushi Obase, Hiroto Matsuse, Sadahiro Asai, Tomoaki Iwanaga
BACKGROUND: In Japanese patients, alcohol-induced asthma is attributed to elevated plasma concentrations of acetaldehyde following alcohol consumption because of an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (ALDH2) polymorphism. The resulting increase in plasma histamine concentrations seems to trigger the onset of asthma symptoms. However, the specific pathogenic mechanism underlying this response remains unclear. ALDH2-deficient mice were therefore generated to investigate the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced asthma...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043116/current-opinion-on-the-role-of-neurogenesis-in-the-therapeutic-strategies-for-alzheimer-disease-parkinson-disease-and-ischemic-stroke-considering-neuronal-voiding-function
#13
REVIEW
Myung-Hoon Han, Eun-Hye Lee, Seong-Ho Koh
Neurological diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, and ischemic stroke have increased in occurrence and become important health issues throughout the world. There is currently no effective therapeutic strategy for addressing neurological deficits after the development of these major neurological disorders. In recent years, it has become accepted that adult neural stem cells located in the subventricular and subgranular zones have the ability to proliferate and differentiate in order to replace lost or damaged neural cells...
December 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040891/quantification-of-d-ala-d-lac-terminated-peptidoglycan-structure-in-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-using-a-combined-solid-state-nmr-and-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#14
James D Chang, Erin C Foster, Hao Yang, Sung Joon Kim
Induction of vancomycin resistance in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) involves replacement of the D-Ala-D-Ala terminus of peptidoglycan (PG) stems with D-Ala-D-Lac, dramatically reducing the binding affinity of vancomycin to lipid II. Effects from vancomycin resistance induction on Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 51299) were characterized using a combined solid-state NMR and LC-MS analysis. Solid-state NMR directly measured the total amounts of D-Lac and L,D-Ala metabolized from [2-13C]pyruvate, accumulated Park's nucleotide, and changes to the PG bridge-linking density during early exponential growth phase (OD660nm 0...
December 31, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038685/grafted-c-kit-ssea1-eye-wall-progenitor-cells-delay-retinal-degeneration-in-mice-by-regulating-neural-plasticity-and-forming-new-graft-to-host-synapses
#15
Xi Chen, Zehua Chen, Zhengya Li, Chen Zhao, Yuxiao Zeng, Ting Zou, Caiyun Fu, Xiaoli Liu, Haiwei Xu, Zheng Qin Yin
BACKGROUND: Despite diverse pathogenesis, the common pathological change observed in age-related macular degeneration and in most hereditary retinal degeneration (RD) diseases is photoreceptor loss. Photoreceptor replacement by cell transplantation may be a feasible treatment for RD. The major obstacles to clinical translation of stem cell-based cell therapy in RD remain the difficulty of obtaining sufficient quantities of appropriate and safe donor cells and the poor integration of grafted stem cell-derived photoreceptors into the remaining retinal circuitry...
December 30, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038682/comparison-of-a-teratogenic-transcriptome-based-predictive-test-based-on-human-embryonic-versus-inducible-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Vaibhav Shinde, Sureshkumar Perumal Srinivasan, Margit Henry, Tamara Rotshteyn, Jürgen Hescheler, Jörg Rahnenführer, Marianna Grinberg, Johannes Meisig, Nils Blüthgen, Tanja Waldmann, Marcel Leist, Jan Georg Hengstler, Agapios Sachinidis
BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) partially recapitulate early embryonic three germ layer development, allowing testing of potential teratogenic hazards. Because use of hESCs is ethically debated, we investigated the potential for human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to replace hESCs in such tests. METHODS: Three cell lines, comprising hiPSCs (foreskin and IMR90) and hESCs (H9) were differentiated for 14 days. Their transcriptome profiles were obtained on day 0 and day 14 and analyzed by comprehensive bioinformatics tools...
December 30, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029782/a-tph2-gfp-reporter-stem-cell-line-to-model-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-serotonergic-neuron-development-and-function
#17
Giulia Pacini, Attilio Marino, Sara Migliarini, Elisa Brilli, Barbara Pelosi, Giacomo Maddaloni, Marta Pratelli, Mario Pellegrino, Aldo Ferrari, Massimo Pasqualetti
Modeling biological systems in vitro has contributed to clarify complex mechanisms in simplified and controlled experimental conditions. Mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells can be successfully differentiated towards specific neuronal cell fates, thus representing an attractive tool to dissect, in vitro, mechanisms that underlie complex neuronal features. In this study, we generated and characterized a reporter mES cell line, called Tph2(GFP), in which the vital reporter GFP replaces the Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) gene...
December 28, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025935/developmental-phases-of-anticancer-screening-models
#18
Khaldoon Alsamman, Omar S El-Masry
The development of new screening models for cancer therapy is indispensable for the improvement of cancer treatment, and for the creation of alternative possibilities in the field of chemotherapy. Screening models are routinely used to reduce the cost and resources involved in anticancer drug development. The value of any screening model will ultimately be ascertained by its ability to reliably predict the clinical response. Traditional in vivo screening models have been replaced with cell-based screening assays, and these cell-based models are under constant development to better mimic in vivo conditions...
December 26, 2016: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024631/gold-nanoparticle-filled-biodegradable-photopolymer-scaffolds-induced-muscle-remodeling-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-findings
#19
Adam Zsedenyi, Balazs Farkas, Gaser N Abdelrasoul, Ilaria Romano, Edina Gyukity-Sebestyen, Katalin Nagy, Maria Harmati, Gabriella Dobra, Sandor Kormondi, Gabor Decsi, Istvan Balazs Nemeth, Alberto Diaspro, Fernando Brandi, Szabolcs Beke, Krisztina Buzas
Therapeutic stem cell transplantation bears the promise of new directions in organ and tissue replacement, but a number of its difficulties and perils are also well known. Our goal was to develop a method of transplantation by which the transplanted cells remain confined to the transplantation site and induce favorable processes. With the help of mask-projection excimer laser stereolithography, 3D hybrid nanoscaffolds were fabricated from biodegradable, photocurable PPF:DEF resin with incorporated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)...
March 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018632/the-role-of-cell-replacement-in-benthic-pelagic-coupling-by-suspension-feeders
#20
Amanda S Kahn, Sally P Leys
Benthic-pelagic coupling through suspension feeders and their detrital pathways is integral to carbon transport in oceans. In food-poor ecosystems however, a novel mechanism of carbon recycling has been proposed that involves direct uptake of dissolved carbon by suspension feeders followed by shedding of cells as particulate carbon. We studied cell replacement rates in a range of cold-water sponge species to determine how universal this mechanism might be. We show that cell replacement rates of feeding epithelia in explants vary from 30 hours up to 7 days, and change during different seasons and life-history stages...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
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