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Stem cell replacement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452233/role-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-differentiated-into-insulin-producing-cells-in-the-treatment-of-type-i-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Mona G Amer, Azza S Embaby, Rehab A Karam, Marwa G Amer
Generation of new β cells is an important approach in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM). Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) might be one of the best sources for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Therefore, this work aimed to test the possible role of transplanted insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from ADSCs in treatment of streptozotocin (STZ) induced type I DM in rats. Type 1 DM was induced by single intra peritoneal injection with STZ (50 mg/kg BW). Half of the diabetic rats were left without treatment and the other half were injected with differentiated IPCs directly into the pancreas...
February 13, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450981/nurr1-promotes-neurogenesis-of-dopaminergic-neuron-and-represses-inflammatory-factors-in-the-transwell-coculture-system-of-neural-stem-cells-and-microglia
#2
Xiaoxiang Chen, Yuan Qian, Xiangpeng Wang, Zhiwei Tang, Jiaotian Xu, Hai Lin, Zhiyong Yang, Xiaobin Song, Di Lu, Jiazhi Guo, Ligong Bian, Yu Li, Lei Zhou, Xingli Deng
INTRODUCTION: Neural stem cells (NSCs) are the most promising cells for cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, a majority of the transplanted NSCs differentiated into glial cells, thereby limiting the clinical application. Previous studies indicated that chronic neuroinflammation plays a vital role in the degeneration of midbrain DA (mDA) neurons, which suggested the developing potential of therapies for PD by targeting the inflammatory processes. Thus, Nurr1 (nuclear receptor-related factor 1), a transcription factor, has been referred to play a pivotal role in both the differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in embryonic stages and the maintenance of the dopaminergic phenotype throughout life...
February 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448017/fetal-bovine-serum-free-cryopreservation-methods-for-clinical-banking-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#3
Seah Park, Dong Ryul Lee, Ji Sun Nam, Chul Woo Ahn, Haekwon Kim
The use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a cryopreservation supplement is not suitable for the banking of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) due to the risk of transmission of disease as well as xenogeneic immune reactions in the transplanted host. Here, we investigated if human serum albumin (HSA), human serum (HS), or knockout serum replacement (KSR) can replace FBS for the cryopreservation of MSCs. In addition, we examined the characteristics of MSCs after multiple rounds of cryopreservation. Human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) cryopreserved with three FBS replacements, 9% HSA, 90% HS, or 90% KSR, in combination with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me 2 SO) maintained stem cell properties including growth, immunophenotypes, gene expression patterns, and the potential to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages, similar to ASCs frozen with FBS...
February 12, 2018: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448001/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-ipsc-derived-retinal-cells-in-disease-modeling-and-regenerative-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Reena Rathod, Harshini Surendran, Rajani Battu, Jogin Desai, Rajarshi Pal
Retinal degenerative disorders are a leading cause of the inherited, irreversible and incurable vision loss. While various rodent model systems have provided crucial information in this direction.lack of disease-relevant tissue availability and species-specific differences have proven to be a major roadblock. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) have opened up a whole new avenue of possibilities not just in understanding the disease mechanism but also potential therapeutic approaches towards a cure. In this review, we have summarized recent advances in the methods of deriving retinal cell types from iPSCs which can serve as a renewable source of disease-relevant cell population for basic as well as translational studies...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444919/tracheal-replacement
#5
REVIEW
Harry Etienne, Dominique Fabre, Abel Gomez Caro, Frederic Kolb, Sacha Mussot, Olaf Mercier, Delphine Mitilian, Francois Stephan, Elie Fadel, Philippe Dartevelle
Tracheal reconstruction is one of the greatest challenges in thoracic surgery when direct end-to-end anastomosis is impossible or after this procedure has failed. The main indications for tracheal reconstruction include malignant tumours (squamous cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma), tracheoesophageal fistula, trauma, unsuccessful surgical results for benign diseases and congenital stenosis. Tracheal substitutes can be classified into five types: 1) synthetic prosthesis; 2) allografts; 3) tracheal transplantation; 4) tissue engineering; and 5) autologous tissue composite...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443926/the-pleiotropic-effects-of-the-canonical-wnt-pathway-in-early-development-and-pluripotency
#6
REVIEW
Anchel de Jaime-Soguero, Willy Antoni Abreu de Oliveira, Frederic Lluis
The technology to derive embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells from early embryonic stages and adult somatic cells, respectively, emerged as a powerful resource to enable the establishment of new in vitro models, which recapitulate early developmental processes and disease. Additionally, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent an invaluable source of relevant differentiated cell types with immense potential for regenerative medicine and cell replacement therapies. Pluripotent stem cells support self-renewal, potency and proliferation for extensive periods of culture in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443034/subretinal-transplantation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-into-a-large-eyed-model-of-geographic-atrophy
#7
Sandra Petrus-Reurer, Hammurabi Bartuma, Monica Aronsson, Sofie Westman, Fredrik Lanner, Anders Kvanta
Geographic atrophy (GA), the late stage of dry age-related macular degeneration is characterized by loss of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) layer, which leads to subsequent degeneration of vital retinal structures (e.g., photoreceptors) causing severe vision impairment. Similarly, RPE-loss and decrease in visual acuity is seen in long-term follow up of patients with advanced wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) receiving intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment. Therefore, on the one hand, it is fundamental to efficiently derive RPE cells from an unlimited source that could serve as replacement therapy...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438440/identification-and-characterization-of-myh9-locus-for-high-efficient-gene-knock-in-and-stable-expression-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#8
Tanbin Liu, Yi Hu, Shiyin Guo, Lei Tan, Yang Zhan, Lingchen Yang, Wei Liu, Naidong Wang, Yalan Li, Yingfan Zhang, Chengyu Liu, Yi Yang, Robert S Adelstein, Aibing Wang
Targeted integration of exogenous genes into so-called safe harbors/friend sites, offers the advantages of expressing normal levels of target genes and preventing potentially adverse effects on endogenous genes. However, the ideal genomic loci for this purpose remain limited. Additionally, due to the inherent and unresolved issues with the current genome editing tools, traditional embryonic stem (ES) cell-based targeted transgenesis technology is still preferred in practical applications. Here, we report that a high and repeatable homologous recombination (HR) frequency (>95%) is achieved when an approximate 6kb DNA sequence flanking the MYH9 gene exon 2 site is used to create the homology arms for the knockout/knock-in of diverse nonmuscle myosin II (NM II) isoforms in mouse ES cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438279/recent-updates-on-treatment-of-ocular-microbial-infections-by-stem-cell-therapy-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Seoh Wei Teh, Pooi Ling Mok, Munirah Abd Rashid, Mae-Lynn Catherine Bastion, Normala Ibrahim, Akon Higuchi, Kadarkarai Murugan, Rajan Mariappan, Suresh Kumar Subbiah
Ocular microbial infection has emerged as a major public health crisis during the past two decades. A variety of causative agents can cause ocular microbial infections; which are characterized by persistent and destructive inflammation of the ocular tissue; progressive visual disturbance; and may result in loss of visual function in patients if early and effective treatments are not received. The conventional therapeutic approaches to treat vision impairment and blindness resulting from microbial infections involve antimicrobial therapy to eliminate the offending pathogens or in severe cases; by surgical methods and retinal prosthesis replacing of the infected area...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435928/mining-exosomal-micrornas-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-cardiomyocytes-for-cardiac-regeneration
#10
Sang-Ging Ong, Won Hee Lee, Yang Zhou, Joseph C Wu
Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent advances in cardiac regenerative therapy have allowed for novel modalities in replenishing the damaged myocardium. However, poor long-term engraftment and survival of transplanted cells have largely precluded effective cell replacement. As an alternative to direct cell replacement, the release of paracrine protective factors may be a more plausible effector for cardioprotection which may partially be mediated through secretion of microvesicles, or exosomes, that contribute to cell-cell communication...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427659/construction-of-emsc-islet-co-localizing-composites-for-xenogeneic-porcine-islet-transplantation
#11
Jung-Sik Kim, Hyunwoo Chung, Nari Byun, Seong-Jun Kang, Sunho Lee, Jun-Seop Shin, Chung-Gyu Park
Pancreatic islet transplantation is an ultimate solution for treating patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The pig is an ideal donor of islets for replacing scarce human islets. Besides immunological hurdles, non-immunological hurdles including fragmentation and delayed engraftment of porcine islets need solutions to succeed in porcine islet xenotransplantation. In this study, we suggest a simple but effective modality, a cell/islet co-localizing composite, to overcome these challenges. Endothelial-like mesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), differentiated from bone-marrow derived mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and MSCs evenly coated the surface of porcine islets (>85%) through optimized culture conditions...
February 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427116/stem-cell-based-therapies-for-polyglutamine-diseases
#12
Liliana S Mendonça, Isabel Onofre, Catarina Oliveira Miranda, Rita Perfeito, Clévio Nóbrega, Luís Pereira de Almeida
Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are a family of neurodegenerative disorders with very heterogeneous clinical presentations, although with common features such as progressive neuronal death. Thus, at the time of diagnosis patients might present an extensive and irreversible neuronal death demanding cell replacement or support provided by cell-based therapies. For this purpose stem cells, which include diverse populations ranging from embryonic stem cells (ESCs), to fetal stem cells, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have remarkable potential to promote extensive brain regeneration and recovery in neurodegenerative disorders...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423397/age-is-relative-impact-of-donor-age-on-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cell-functionality
#13
REVIEW
Elisabeth Tamara Strässler, Katriina Aalto-Setälä, Mostafa Kiamehr, Ulf Landmesser, Nicolle Kränkel
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) avoid many of the restrictions that hamper the application of human embryonic stem cells: limited availability of source material due to legal restrictions in some countries, immunogenic rejection and ethical concerns. Also, the donor's clinical phenotype is often known when working with iPSCs. Therefore, iPSCs seem ideal to tackle the two biggest tasks of regenerative medicine: degenerative diseases with genetic cause (e.g., Duchenne's muscular dystrophy) and organ replacement in age-related diseases (e...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423196/renal-recovery-after-severe-acute-kidney-injury-in-critically-ill-myeloma-patients-a-retrospective-study
#14
Adrien Joseph, Stephanie Harel, Marion Venot, Sandrine Valade, Eric Mariotte, Claire Pichereau, Akli Chermak, Lara Zafrani, Elie Azoulay, Emmanuel Canet
Background: Despite substantial improvements in the management of multiple myeloma, renal failure remains an important burden that tremendously impairs prognosis. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics and to establish prognostic factors of renal recovery in myeloma patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for acute kidney injury (AKI) Stage 3 treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT). Methods: A retrospective single-centre cohort study was performed, including consecutive myeloma patients admitted to one medical ICU between 1 January 2007 and 1 September 2015 and treated with RRT...
February 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420708/sex-differences-in-maturation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-beta-cells-in-mice
#15
Nelly Saber, Jennifer E Bruin, Shannon O'Dwyer, Hellen Schuster, Alireza Rezania, Timothy J Kieffer
Pancreatic progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are now in clinical trials for insulin replacement in patients with type 1 diabetes. Animal studies indicate the cells can mature into a mixed population of pancreatic endocrine cells including glucose-responsive beta cells several months after implant, but it remains unclear how conditions in the recipient may influence the maturation and ultimately the function of these cells. Here, we investigated the effects of the host sex and pregnancy on the maturation of human Stage 4 (S4) pancreatic progenitor cells and more mature Stage 7 (S7) pancreatic endocrine cells implanted under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient SCID-Beige mice...
February 5, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416637/liver-x-receptors-agonist-promotes-differentiation-of-rat-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-dopaminergic-neuron-like-cells
#16
Oumei Cheng, Xiaoyan Tian, Ying Luo, Shaoshan Mai, Yang Yang, Shengnan Kuang, Qi Chen, Jie Ma, Beibei Chen, Rong Li, Lu Yang, Huan Li, Congli Hu, Jiahua Zhang, Zhihao Chen, Yuke Li, Hui Xia, Ying Xu, Junqing Yang
Dopaminergic (DA) neurons derived from bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) maybe a valuable source for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson disease. Recent studies showed that new functions of LXR and their ligands have been proposed to prevent PD in the adult nervous system. The present study was designed to observe the effect of liver X receptors (LXR) agonist on differentiation of rat BMSCs into DA neurons. Expressions of the neuronal markers (Tuj1 and Nestin), the specific marker of DA neurons (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH), LXR α and LXR β were measured by immunocytochemical assay and TH/Tuj1 positive cells were determined by quantitative cell count analyses...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411077/regenerative-therapies-increase-survivorship-of-avascular-necrosis-of-the%C3%A2-femoral-head-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Luca Andriolo, Giulia Merli, Carlos Tobar, Sante Alessandro Altamura, Elizaveta Kon, Giuseppe Filardo
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to document the available evidence on the use of regenerative techniques for the treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis (or avascular necrosis of femoral head, AVN) and to understand their benefit compared to core decompression (CD) alone in avoiding failure and the need for total hip replacement (THR). METHODS: The search was conducted on three medical electronic databases according to PRISMA guidelines. The studies reporting number and timing of failures were included in a meta-analysis calculating cumulative survivorship with a Kaplan-Mayer curve...
February 6, 2018: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410547/thyroid-dysfunction-in-adult-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-survivors-risks-and-outcomes
#18
Nosha Farhadfar, Marius N Stan, Pankaj Shah, Vikram Sonawane, Mehrdad T Hefazi, Hemant S Murthy, Fay Zou, Xiong Sican, Shahrukh K Hashmi
The incidence and risk factors for thyroid disorders among adult survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) is not well known. This study evaluated incidence and risk factors of thyroid dysfunction in 259 adult alloHCT recipients who had survived for 2 years or more after transplant. Median follow-up was 4.6 years (range; 2.3 to 15.4 years). The 5-year cumulative incidence of thyroid dysfunction was 30.5% (79 of 259 patients). Majority of thyroid abnormalities were observed beyond 2 years after alloHCT...
February 6, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405625/digit-tip-regeneration-merging-regeneration-biology-with-regenerative-medicine
#19
Connor P Dolan, Lindsay A Dawson, Ken Muneoka
Regeneration Biology is the study of organisms with endogenous regenerative abilities, whereas Regenerative Medicine focuses on engineering solutions for human injuries that do not regenerate. While the two fields are fundamentally different in their approach, there is an obvious interface involving mammalian regeneration models. The fingertip is the only part of the human limb that is regeneration-competent and the regenerating mouse digit tip has emerged as a model to study a clinically relevant regenerative response...
February 5, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404520/liver-tissue-engineering-from-implantable-tissue-to-whole-organ-engineering
#20
REVIEW
Giuseppe Mazza, Walid Al-Akkad, Krista Rombouts, Massimo Pinzani
The term "liver tissue engineering" summarizes one of the ultimate goals of modern biotechnology: the possibility of reproducing in total or in part the functions of the liver in order to treat acute or chronic liver disorders and, ultimately, create a fully functional organ to be transplanted or used as an extracorporeal device. All the technical approaches in the area of liver tissue engineering are based on allocating adult hepatocytes or stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells within a three-dimensional structure able to ensure their survival and to maintain their functional phenotype...
February 2018: Hepatology Communications
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