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Reproductive endocrinology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760678/controversial-role-of-kisspeptins-kiss-1r-signaling-system-in-tumor-development
#1
REVIEW
Federica Fratangelo, Maria Vincenza Carriero, Maria Letizia Motti
KiSS-1 was first described as a metastasis suppressor gene in malignant melanoma. KiSS-1 encodes a 145 amino-acid residue peptide that is further processed, producing the 54 amino acid metastin and shorter peptides collectively named kisspeptins (KPs). KPs bind and activate KiSS-1R (GPR54). Although the KPs system has been extensively studied for its role in endocrinology of reproductive axis in mammals, its role in cancer is still controversial. Experimental evidences show that KP system exerts an anti-metastatic effect by the regulation of cellular migration and invasion in several cancer types...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757997/tetragonia-tetragonioides-pall-kuntze-regulates-androgen-production-in-a-letrozole-induced-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-model
#2
Bo-Jeong Pyun, Hyun Yang, Eunjin Sohn, Song Yi Yu, Dongoh Lee, Dong Ho Jung, Byoung Seob Ko, Hye Won Lee
Tetragonia tetragonioides (Pall.) Kuntze (TTK) is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as diabetic, inflammatory, and female-related disorders. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinological disorder in women of reproductive age, and hyperandrogenism is a prominent feature of PCOS resulting in anovulation and infertility. In this study, we investigated the effects of a TTK extract on androgen generation and regulation of steroidogenic enzymes in vitro and in vivo...
May 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730040/physiological-mechanisms-mediating-patterns-of-reproductive-suppression-and-alloparental-care-in-cooperatively-breeding-carnivores
#3
Tracy M Montgomery, Erika L Pendleton, Jennifer E Smith
Although cooperation represents a long-standing evolutionary puzzle, field studies on social carnivores have contributed greatly to our understanding of the selective forces favoring cooperative breeding. Despite these insights, our grasp of the proximate mechanisms facilitating cooperation in carnivores remains surprisingly limited. Here we provide an overview of our current knowledge of the endocrine mechanisms mediating cooperative breeding in terrestrial species belonging to the mammalian order Carnivora...
May 2, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684811/behavioral-semiochemical-and-androgen-responses-by-male-giant-pandas-to-the-olfactory-sexual-receptivity-cues-of-females
#4
Abbey E Wilson, Darrell L Sparks, Katrina K Knott, Andrew J Kouba, Scott Willard, Ashli Brown
Male giant pandas identify female sexual receptivity through the detection of olfactory cues in estrous urine. However, it is yet unknown which specific days of the female estrous cycle may provoke male sexual-social responses and a physiological readiness to mate. We hypothesized that female urine from specific days of the estrous cycle will be positively associated with specific changes in male behaviors, urinary semiochemical production, and steroidogenic activity. Experimental simultaneous choice trials were conducted in captivity with four male giant pandas during the spring breeding season and during fall...
April 11, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681710/possible-link-between-stress-related-factors-and-altered-body-composition-in-women-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#5
Barnali Ray Basu, Olivia Chowdhury, Sudip Kumar Saha
Background: Stress is an invisible factor affecting modern day living and is strongly associated with many disease pathogenesis including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in women. PCOS is the most frequent endocrinological disorder that affects women of reproductive age, leading to metabolic dysfunction and body composition alterations. Salivary amylase and cortisol are major stress mediators that have been implicated in PCOS. However, their role in altering body composition in PCOS is yet to be deciphered...
January 2018: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679181/essential-learning-tools-for-continuing-medical-education-for-physicians-geneticists-nurses-allied-health-professionals-mental-health-professionals-business-administration-professionals-and-reproductive-endocrinology-and-infertility-rei-fellows-the-midwest
#6
REVIEW
Gretchen G Collins, Roohi Jeelani, Angeline Beltsos, William G Kearns
Essential learning tools for continuing medical education are a challenge in today's rapidly evolving field of reproductive medicine. The Midwest Reproductive Symposium International (MRSi) is a yearly conference held in Chicago, IL. The conference is targeted toward physicians, geneticists, nurses, allied health professionals, mental health professionals, business administration professionals, and reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellows engaged in the practice of reproductive medicine. In addition to the scientific conference agenda, there are specific sessions for nurses, mental health professionals, and REI fellows...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670580/the-roles-of-kisspeptin-system-in-the-reproductive-physiology-of-fish-with-special-reference-to-chub-mackerel-studies-as-main-axis
#7
REVIEW
Hirofumi Ohga, Sethu Selvaraj, Michiya Matsuyama
Kisspeptin, a novel neuropeptide product of the Kiss1 gene, activates the G protein-coupled membrane receptor G protein-coupled receptor 54 (now termed Kiss1r). Over the last 15 years, the importance of the kisspeptin system has been the subject of much debate in the mammalian research field. At the heart of the debate is whether kisspeptin is an absolute upstream regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion, as it has been proposed to be the master molecule in reproductive events and plays a special role not only during puberty but also in adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670181/regulation-of-masculinization-androgen-signalling-for-external-genitalia-development
#8
REVIEW
Shoko Matsushita, Kentaro Suzuki, Aki Murashima, Daiki Kajioka, Alvin Resultay Acebedo, Shinichi Miyagawa, Ryuma Haraguchi, Yukiko Ogino, Gen Yamada
The biology of masculinization is fundamentally important for understanding the embryonic developmental processes that are involved in the development of the male reproductive tract, external genitalia, and also the tumorigenesis of prostate cancer. The molecular mechanisms of masculinization are of interest to many researchers and clinicians involved in varied fields, including molecular developmental biology, cancer research, endocrinology, and urology. Androgen signalling is mediated by the nuclear androgen receptor, which has fundamental roles in masculinization during development...
April 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601844/in-memorium-clara-m-szego-1916-2017
#9
Richard J Pietras
Dr. Clara M. Szego passed away recently at the age of 101. She was a pioneer in the study of steroid hormone action, particularly the role of estrogens in target tissues. She was first to report on steroid hormone binding with proteins in the circulation in 1946. This observation led to a Ciba Foundation Award of the Endocrine Society in 1953. Claire then followed the steroid hormone and reported on interactions with membrane-associated and nuclear proteins in target cells of the reproductive tract and breast...
March 28, 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577898/reproductive-endocrinology-of-environmental-nitrate
#10
REVIEW
Thea M Edwards, Heather J Hamlin
Nitrate is a widespread contaminant of aquatic ecosystems and drinking water. It is also broadly active in organismal physiology, and as such, has the potential to both enhance and disrupt normal physiological function. In animals, nitrate is a proposed endocrine disrupter that is converted in vivo to nitrite and nitric oxide. Nitric oxide, in particular, is a potent cell signaling molecule that participates in diverse biological pathways and events. Here, we review in vivo nitrate cycling and downstream mechanistic physiology, with an emphasis on reproductive outcomes...
March 22, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563662/understanding-immune-function-as-a-pace-of-life-trait-requires-environmental-context
#11
REVIEW
B Irene Tieleman
This article provides a brief historical perspective on the integration of physiology into the concept of the pace of life of birds, evaluates the fit of immune function into this framework, and asks what it will take to fruitfully understand immune functioning of birds in pace of life studies in the future. In the late 1970s, physiology started to seriously enter avian life history ecology, with energy as the main currency of interest, inspired by David Lack's work in the preceding decades emphasizing how food availability explained life history variation...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561193/estrogen-levels-do-not-rise-with-testosterone-treatment-for-transgender-men
#12
Kelly J Chan, Divya Jolly, Jennifer J Liang, Jamie D Weinand, Joshua D Safer
OBJECTIVE: Existing transgender treatment guidelines suggest that for transmasculine treatment, there is a possible need for estrogen-lowering strategies adjunct to testosterone therapy. Further, guidelines advocate consideration of prophylactic female reproductive tissue surgeries for transgender men to avoid the possibility of estrogen-related health risks. Despite the paucity of objective data, some transgender men seek conversion inhibitors. We sought to determine estradiol levels in transgender men treated with testosterone therapy and the change in those levels with treatment, if any...
March 21, 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555118/estradiol-and-reproduction-in-the-south-american-toad-rhinella-arenarum-amphibian-anura
#13
REVIEW
María Florencia Scaia, María Clara Volonteri, Silvia Cristina Czuchlej, Nora Raquel Ceballos
Rhinella arenarum is a South American toad with wide geographic distribution. Testes of this toad produce high amount of androgens during the non reproductive season and shift steroid synthesis from androgens to 5α-pregnanedione during the breeding. In addition, plasma estradiol (E2 ) in males of this species shows seasonal variations but, since testes of R. arenarum do not express aromatase, the source of plasma E2 remained unknown for several years. However, the Bidder's organ (BO), a structure located at one pole of each testis, is proposed to be the main source of E2 in male's toads since it expresses several steroidogenic enzymes and is able to produce E2 from endogenous substrates throughout the year...
March 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551096/review-ontology-and-endocrinology-of-the-reproductive-system-of-bulls-from-fetus-to-maturity
#14
M McGowan, M K Holland, G Boe-Hansen
This review focuses on current understanding of prenatal, prepubertal and post-pubertal development of the male reproductive system of cattle. The critical developmental events occur during the first 3 to 4 months of gestation and the first ~6 to 9 months after birth. The Wilms Tumor-1 and SRY proteins play critical roles in early development and differentiation of the fetal testis, which in turn drives gestational development of the entire male reproductive system. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis matures earlier in the bovine fetus than other domestic species with descent of the testes into the scrotum occurring around the 4th month of gestation...
March 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545228/does-the-presence-of-endometriosis-cause-a-challenge-for-transvaginal-oocyte-retrieval-procedure-a-comparison-between-patients-with-endometriosis-and-without-endometriosis
#15
Işıl Kasapoğlu, Pınar Türk, Aylin Dayan, Gürkan Uncu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare patients with endometriosis to those without endometriosis regarding performance rates, difficulties and complications associated with transvaginal oocyte retrieval (TVOR) procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at the IVF Unit of the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Department of an University Hospital. Fifty-eight patients with endometriosis and 61 patients without endometriosis underwent a TVOR procedure consecutively...
March 16, 2018: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510649/the-effects-of-letrozole-and-clomiphene-citrate-on-ligands-expression-of-wnt3-wnt7a-and-wnt8b-in-proliferative-endometrium-of-women-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#16
Shayesteh Mehdinejadiani, Fardin Amidi, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Mahmood Barati, Leili Safdarian, Reza Aflatoonian, Ashraf Alyasin, Marzieh Aghahosseini, Azar Pazhohan, Parisa Hayat, Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh Kazorgah, Aligholi Sobhani
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinologic disorder in women of reproductive age characterized by polycystic ovaries, oligo/anovulation, and hyperandrogenism. Not only anovulation but also endometrial dysfunction can reduce fertility in PCOS patients. Wnt pathway is responsible for endometrial proliferation which be strongly regulated by estradiol. To determine the effects of clomiphene citrate (CC) and letrozole, we measured the expression of some main ligands of Wnt/β-catenin signaling including Wnt7a, Wnt3, and Wnt8b in the endometrial samples taken from PCOS women on day 12 of the menses who received 100 mg CC or 5 mg letrozole as well as from women without treatment...
March 6, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497179/social-structure-as-a-strategy-to-mitigate-the-costs-of-group-living-a-comparison-of-gelada-and-guereza-monkeys
#17
R I M Dunbar
In mammals, and especially primates, group size and social complexity are typically correlated. However, we have no general explanation why this is so. I suggest that the answer may lie in one of the costs of group living: mammalian reproductive endocrinology is extremely sensitive to stress, and forms one of the hidden costs of living in groups. Fertility declines with group size widely across the social mammals, including primates, and will ultimately place a constraint on group size. However, some species seem to have been able to mitigate this cost by forming bonded relationships that reduce the impact of experienced aggression, even if rates of aggression remain high...
February 2018: Animal Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474839/impact-of-male-presence-on-female-sociality-and-stress-endocrinology-in-wild-house-mice-mus-musculus-domesticus
#18
Andrea Weidt, Lorenz Gygax, Rupert Palme, Chadi Touma, Barbara König
In group living animals, reproductive competition plays an important role in shaping social relationships and associations among female group members. In this study, we investigated the impact of male presence on the development of female-female competition and female sociality in groups of female wild house mice, using physiological and behavioral parameters. We predicted that, by eliciting intra-sexual competition, males influence social relationships among female group members and thus affect female associations to potential cooperation partners...
May 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454146/matching-trends-for-the-fellowship-in-minimally-invasive-gynecologic-surgery-fmigs-since-participation-in-the-national-residency-match-program-nrmp
#19
Maria V Vargas, Magdy P Milad
OBJECTIVE: To describe the level of interest in the fellowship in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery (FMIGS) using data from National Residency Match Program (NRMP) over the past 4 years. DESIGN: Retrospective report (Canadian Task Force Classification II-2) SETTING: Publically reported data from the NRMP PARTICIPANTS: Applicants using the NRMP to match into fellowship training. INTERVENTIONS: Reporting matching trends for the gynecologic surgical subspecialty programs starting in 2014, when the FMIGS programs started participating in the NRMP...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449687/reproductive-endocrinology-postmenopausal-hormone-therapy-to-prevent-chronic-conditions
#20
Susan D Reed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
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