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Reproductive endocrinology

B S Holst
During the last decade, analysis of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), highly conserved between mammalian species, has contributed to new information in reproductive endocrinology, due to clinically available diagnostic assays. AMH is produced solely in the gonads, in the Sertoli cells of testes and granulosa cells of the ovary, and thus offers possibilities to diagnose physiologic and pathologic conditions involving these organs. This article reviews indications for AMH analysis in cats and dogs, including diagnosing the presence of gonads, and granulosa or Sertoli cell tumours...
October 18, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Michaël R Laurent, Geoffrey L Hammond, Marco Blokland, Ferran Jardí, Leen Antonio, Vanessa Dubois, Rougin Khalil, Saskia S Sterk, Evelien Gielen, Brigitte Decallonne, Geert Carmeliet, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Tom Fiers, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi, Dirk Vanderschueren, Frank Claessens
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the high-affinity binding protein for androgens and estrogens. According to the free hormone hypothesis, SHBG modulates the bioactivity of sex steroids by limiting their diffusion into target tissues. Still, the in vivo physiological role of circulating SHBG remains unclear, especially since mice and rats lack circulating SHBG post-natally. To test the free hormone hypothesis in vivo, we examined total and free sex steroid concentrations and bioactivity on target organs in mice expressing a human SHBG transgene...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
K N Anderson, J J Connor, A F Koerner, M A Rueter
STUDY QUESTION: Compared to families with IVF singletons, what are parental depressive, parent-adolescent interaction and adolescent adjustment outcomes in families with 11-17-year-old IVF twins? SUMMARY ANSWER: No differences were detected for any measured outcome between families with 11-17-year-old IVF twins and those with IVF singletons, despite high statistical power. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: When IVF twins are younger than 5-years-old, parents tend to have more mental health difficulties and poorer parent-child interactions relative to IVF singletons...
October 15, 2016: Human Reproduction
Muren, Satoshi Kusuda, Osamu Doi, Hitomi Naito, Hisashi Hashikawa
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproductive status and clarify the reproductive physiology of captive Sichuan golden monkeys. The concentrations of urinary estradiol-3-glucuronide (E2G) and pregnanediol-glucuronide (PdG) or fecal estradiol-17β (E2) and PdG in two females, and fecal testosterone concentrations in a male, were measured continuously using enzyme immunoassays. On the basis of these hormone profiles, the follicular phase, luteal phase, and ovarian cycle were calculated to be 14.7 ± 4...
September 8, 2016: Theriogenology
Bradley D Holbrook, Stephen M Petterson, William F Rayburn
Objectives Retirement of "baby boomer" physicians is a matter of growing concern in light of the shortage of certain physician groups. The objectives of this investigation were to define what constitutes a customary retirement age range of maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) physicians and examine how that compares with other obstetrician-gynecologist (ob-gyn) specialists. Study Design This descriptive study was based on American Medical Association Masterfile survey data from 2010 to 2014. Data from the National Provider Identifier were used to correct for upward bias in reporting retirement ages...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Sarina Schrager
Infertility is common in the United States, with up to 15% of heterosexual couples experiencing difficulty in achieving conception. Family physicians often are the first physicians to evaluate couples attempting to conceive. Evaluation begins with assessment of ovulation, evaluation of anatomic abnormalities, and semen analysis. Many etiologies of anovulation can be managed by family physicians, and clinicians can offer counseling on timing of intercourse and assist patients with lifestyle changes to promote fertility...
October 2016: FP Essentials
Kunyan Zhou, Jing Zhang, Liangzhi Xu, Taixiang Wu, Chi Eung Danforn Lim
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive endocrinology abnormalities, and affects 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age. Western medicines, such as oral contraceptives, insulin sensitizers and laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD), have been used to treat PCOS. Recently, many studies have been published that consider Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an alternative treatment for women with PCOS. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of CHM for subfertile women with PCOS...
October 12, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sourav RoyChoudhury, Biswa Prasanna Mishra, Tila Khan, Ratna Chattopadhayay, Indrani Lodh, Chaitali Datta Ray, Gunja Bose, Himadri S Sarkar, Sudha Srivastava, Mamata V Joshi, Baidyanath Chakravarty, Koel Chaudhury
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most commonly occurring metabolic and endocrinological disorders affecting women of reproductive age. Metabolomics is an emerging field that holds promise in understanding disease pathophysiology. Recently, a few metabolomics based studies have been attempted in PCOS patients; however, none of them have included patients from the Indian population. The main objective of this study was to investigate the serum metabolomic profile of Indian women with PCOS and compare them with controls...
September 15, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Anahita Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Bibi Shahnaz Aali, Azam Ghanei
BACKGROUND: With the prevalence of 6-10%, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is considered the most common endocrinological disorder affecting women in their reproductive age. It has been suggested that genetic factors participate in the development of PCOS. Follicular development has been considered as one of the impaired processes in PCOS. Bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15) gene is a candidate gene in follicular development and its variants may play role in pathogenesis of PCOS...
August 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis, Olga Papalou, Eleni Kandaraki, Georgia Kassi
Nutrition can generate oxidative stress and trigger a cascade of molecular events that can disrupt oxidative and hormonal balance. Nutrient ingestion promotes a major inflammatory and oxidative response at the cellular level in the postprandial state, altering the metabolic state of tissues. A domino of unfavorable metabolic changes is orchestrated in the main metabolic organs, including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and pancreas, where subclinical inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, mitochondrial deregulation and impaired insulin response and secretion take place...
September 27, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Manisha Gandhi, Anitra Beasley, Emily Vinas, Haleh Sangi-Haghpeykar, Susan M Ramin, Charlie C Kilpatrick
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of mobile technology to facilitate resident learning, assess clinical knowledge, and guide curricular development in a busy clinical environment. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a large (N=48) urban obstetrics and gynecology residency program. Question sets were created in the following areas: office gynecology, general obstetrics, gynecologic surgery and urogynecology, maternal-fetal medicine and ultrasonography, reproductive endocrinology and pediatric gynecology, and gynecologic oncology...
October 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Bülent Haydardedeoğlu, Esra Bulgan Kılıçdağ
OBJECTIVE: Corifollitropin alfa is a good choice for assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles because fewer injections are needed than with other agents. In this retrospective cohort, we analyzed luteal injected half-dose depot gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist cycles in women who received corifollitropin alfa and those who underwent a conventional corifollitropin alfa cycle with a GnRH antagonist. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort, we analyzed luteal injected half-dose depot GnRH agonist cycles in women who received corifollitropin alfa and those who underwent a conventional corifollitropin alfa cycle with a GnRH antagonist at the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and IVF Unit, Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Başkent University School of Medicine, Adana, Turkey, from March 2014 to August 2015...
2016: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
Natalia Basile, Juan A Garcia-Velasco
The recent development of vitrification technologies and the good outcomes obtained in assisted reproduction technologies have supported new indications for freezing and segmentation of treatment. Beyond OHSS prevention and avoidance of embryo transfers in the setting of an adverse endocrinological profile or endometrial cavity, we have witnessed a trend to shift fresh embryo transfers to frozen embryo transfers in many programs. We critically review the available evidence and suggest that freeze-all is not "for all," but should be individualized...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Connie Duer, Tom Tomasi, Charles I Abramson
Even in the best situations, the artificial social constructs of captivity alter natural elephant behavior and unfortunately create distress. Asian elephants are powerful and intelligent animals that require consideration for their well-being and prudent management. The males present particular difficulties due to a temporary state of heightened aggressive behavior unique to male elephants called "musth." When he is in this state, the danger the elephant poses to other animals and the people around him is considerable...
September 12, 2016: Psychological Reports
T Pamminger, A Buttstedt, V Norman, A Schierhorn, C Botías, J C Jones, K Basley, W O H Hughes
Reproduction has been shown to be costly for survival in a wide diversity of taxa. The resulting trade-off, termed the reproduction-survival trade-off, is thought to be one of the most fundamental forces of life-history evolution. In insects the pleiotropic effect of juvenile hormone (JH), antagonistically regulating reproduction and pathogen resistance, is suggested to underlie this phenomenon. In contrast to the majority of insects, reproductive individuals in many eusocial insects defy this trade-off and live both long and prosper...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Hugo H Ortega, Pablo U Diaz, Natalia R Salvetti, Gustavo J Hein, Belkis E Marelli, Fernanda M Rodríguez, Antonela Stassi, Florencia Rey
Ovarian cystic follicles are the sign of important causes of reproductive failure in numerous species. In this review, some morphological, endocrinological and clinical aspects of cystic follicles in women, cows, mares, sows and bitches are discussed. Follicular cysts are the consequence of the failure of a mature follicle to ovulate at the appointed time of ovulation in the estrous cycle. Although the etiology of follicular cysts remains unknown, this review examines the evidence about the role of endocrine signaling systems in the specific disease or syndrome in each of the species mentioned above...
August 4, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Jurate Aleknaviciute, Joke H M Tulen, Mirjam Timmermans, Yolanda B de Rijke, Elisabeth F C van Rossum, Frank H de Jong, Steven A Kushner
STUDY QUESTION: Does adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) induce gonadotropin release in premenopausal women? SUMMARY ANSWER: Administration of ACTH stimulates gonadotropin release, most likely by stimulation of the production of cortisol, in premenopausal women. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In animal models, acute activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been shown to induce gonadotropin release in the presence of sufficiently high estrogen levels...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
R M Calisi, A C Geraghty, A Avila, D Kaufer, G E Bentley, J C Wingfield
Gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) exerts powerful inhibitory effects on various levels of the vertebrate hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (reproductive) axis, yet little is known of how it might change naturally over the course of reproduction. We characterized patterns of hypothalamic GnIH cell abundance over the reproductive period in two popular models used for the study of reproductive endocrinology: European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus). We also examined the effects on an unpredictable change in the environment on GnIH cell abundance during the reproductive period, specifically during the period of parental care, by simulating a nest predation event and removing eggs/pups...
October 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Zeina Chakhtoura, Fatima Laki, Marie Bernadet, Ibtissem Cherifi, Aurélie Chiche, Natascha Pigat, Sophie Bernichtein, Carine Courtillot, Florence Boutillon, Ivan Bièche, Sophie Vacher, Marie-Laure Tanguy, Anne Bissery, Virginie Grouthier, Philippe Camparo, Marc Foretz, Marcio Do Cruzeiro, Rémi Pierre, Fabienne Rakotozafy, Jean Tichet, Isabelle Tejedor, Jacques-Emmanuel Guidotti, Brigitte Sigal-Zafrani, Vincent Goffin, Philippe Touraine
CONTEXT: in a cohort of 95 women with multiple breast fibroadenomas (MFA), we recently identified patients harboring germline heterozygous variants of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) exhibiting constitutive activity (PRLRI146L and PRLRI176V). OBJECTIVE: to better delineate the potential role of PRLR gain-of-function variants in benign and malignant mammary tumorigenesis Design: observational study and transgenic mouse model analysis Setting: Department of Endocrinology, Reproductive Disorders and Rare Gynecologic Diseases, Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, and Inserm Unit 1151, Paris Patients or Other Participants: we generated a second MFA cohort (n=71) as well as a group of control subjects (n=496) and a cohort of women with breast cancer (BC, n=119)...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Temitope A Ajadi, Oladele S Gazal
Welfare concerns are growing regarding surgical castration (SC) in pets, necessitating the need for non-surgical alternatives. Administration of vaccines against gonadotropins releasing hormone (GnRH) have been reported as alternative to SC. This study determined the effect of surgical and immunological castrations (IC) on complete blood counts, plasma testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and ejaculate characteristics in mongrel dogs. Ten intact male dogs were randomly divided into two groups (A & B)...
2016: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
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