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Reproductive endocrinology

Işıl Kasapoğlu, Pınar Türk, Aylin Dayan, Gürkan Uncu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare patients with endometriosis to those without endometriosis regarding performance rates, difficulties and complications associated with transvaginal oocyte retrieval (TVOR) procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at the IVF Unit of the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Department of an University Hospital. Fifty-eight patients with endometriosis and 61 patients without endometriosis underwent a TVOR procedure consecutively...
March 16, 2018: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
Shayesteh Mehdinejadiani, Fardin Amidi, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Mahmood Barati, Leili Safdarian, Reza Aflatoonian, Ashraf Alyasin, Marzieh Aghahosseini, Azar Pazhohan, Parisa Hayat, Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh Kazorgah, Aligholi Sobhani
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinologic disorder in women of reproductive age characterized by polycystic ovaries, oligo/anovulation, and hyperandrogenism. Not only anovulation but also endometrial dysfunction can reduce fertility in PCOS patients. Wnt pathway is responsible for endometrial proliferation which be strongly regulated by estradiol. To determine the effects of clomiphene citrate (CC) and letrozole, we measured the expression of some main ligands of Wnt/β-catenin signaling including Wnt7a, Wnt3, and Wnt8b in the endometrial samples taken from PCOS women on day 12 of the menses who received 100 mg CC or 5 mg letrozole as well as from women without treatment...
March 6, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
R I M Dunbar
In mammals, and especially primates, group size and social complexity are typically correlated. However, we have no general explanation why this is so. I suggest that the answer may lie in one of the costs of group living: mammalian reproductive endocrinology is extremely sensitive to stress, and forms one of the hidden costs of living in groups. Fertility declines with group size widely across the social mammals, including primates, and will ultimately place a constraint on group size. However, some species seem to have been able to mitigate this cost by forming bonded relationships that reduce the impact of experienced aggression, even if rates of aggression remain high...
February 2018: Animal Behaviour
Andrea Weidt, Lorenz Gygax, Rupert Palme, Chadi Touma, Barbara König
In group living animals, reproductive competition plays an important role in shaping social relationships and associations among female group members. In this study, we investigated the impact of male presence on the development of female-female competition and female sociality in groups of female wild house mice, using physiological and behavioral parameters. We predicted that, by eliciting intra-sexual competition, males influence social relationships among female group members and thus affect female associations to potential cooperation partners...
February 20, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Maria V Vargas, Magdy P Milad
OBJECTIVE: To describe the level of interest in the fellowship in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery (FMIGS) using data from National Residency Match Program (NRMP) over the past 4 years. DESIGN: Retrospective report (Canadian Task Force Classification II-2) SETTING: Publically reported data from the NRMP PARTICIPANTS: Applicants using the NRMP to match into fellowship training. INTERVENTIONS: Reporting matching trends for the gynecologic surgical subspecialty programs starting in 2014, when the FMIGS programs started participating in the NRMP...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Susan D Reed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Ricardo J G Pereira, Mauricio D Christofoletti, Marcel H Blank, José Mauricio B Duarte
Despite Psitaciformes (parrots) being the third largest nonpasserine order (398 species), it currently ranks second in number of threatened species (28%) according to the Internatinal Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria. Since most of the literature concerning reproductive endocrinology in avian species derives from domestic and song birds, it is puzzling that advances in reproductive science for the Psitaciformes order lags far behind, in spite of the growing threats against them. In order to expand our knowledge of Neotropical parrots (Psittacidae), we examined annual changes in urofecal sex steroid metabolites of Blue-fronted amazon pairs (Amazona aestiva) exhibiting successful (nestlings) and unsuccessful breeding (infertile or no eggs)...
February 7, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Sadikah Behbehani, Joseph Hasson, Stefano Polesello, W Y Son, Togas Tulandi, William Buckett
PURPOSE: To compare clinical pregnancy rates and live birth rates of single blastocyst transfers performed by attending physicians or fellows in reproductive endocrinology and infertility program. METHODS: Retrospective study in an academic reproductive center. We evaluated 932 fresh single blastocyst transfer cycles performed by fellows in training (389 embryo transfers) and by attending physicians (543 embryo transfers). RESULTS: There were no differences in the baseline characteristics and IVF cycle parameters between patients who had transfers performed by fellows or attending physicians...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
C J Byrne, S Fair, A M English, C Urh, H Sauerwein, M A Crowe, P Lonergan, D A Kenny
The aim of this study was (1) to examine the effect of plane of nutrition during the first and second 6 mo of life on systemic concentrations of reproductive hormones and metabolites in Holstein-Friesian dairy bulls, and (2) to establish relationships with age at puberty and postpubertal semen production potential. Holstein-Friesian bull calves (n = 83) with a mean (standard deviation) age and body weight of 17 (4.4) d and 52 (6.2) kg, respectively, were assigned to a high or low plane of nutrition for the first 6 mo of life...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Claire Greenhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Magdalena Spałkowska, Sandra Mrozińska, Anna Gałuszka-Bednarczyk, Katarzyna Gosztyła, Agnieszka Przywara, Justyna Guzik, Marek Janeczko, Tomasz Milewicz, Anna Wojas-Pelc
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 4-18% of women of reproductive age. The number of reports exploring the lipid profiles among PCOS patients and number of studied patients are limited. The aim of our study was to assess the lipid profile separately in lean and non-lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome divided according to hyperandrogenemia, defined as free androgen index (FAI)≥5. The second aim was to compare the lipid profiles among lean and non-lean PCOS patients with respect to hyperandrogenemia and regularity of menstruation cycles...
January 31, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Jayeon Kim, Seul Ki Kim, Kyung Joo Hwang, Seok Hyun Kim
While many fertility preservation (FP) options now exist for reproductive-aged cancer patients, access to these services continues to be limited. A comprehensive FP program should be organized to serve oncofertility patients effectively. Also, much effort is needed from various individuals-patients, specialists from various fields, and consultants-to facilitate FP in a timely manner. Various challenges still exist in improving access to FP programs. To improve access to FP treatment, it is important to educate oncologists and patients via electronic tools and to actively navigate patients through the system...
December 2017: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
Hossein Hatami, Seyed Ali Montazeri, Nazanin Hashemi, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani
Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is a major cardiometabolic risk factor in females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The euglycemic clamp is the gold standard method to measure IR. However, considering the time and cost that it takes, surrogate markers of IR are now widely used. The current study aimed at evaluating the cutoff points of even less invasive anthropometric and body composition variables to predict IR in females with PCOS. Methods: The current cross sectional study selected 224 females with PCOS, using Rotterdam criteria, referred to reproductive endocrinology research center; 88 of which were diagnosed with insulin resistance...
October 2017: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Rodney D Geisert, Michael F Smith, Amanda L Schmelzle, Jonathan A Green
In this teaching laboratory, the students are directed in an exercise that involves designing and performing an experiment to determine estrogen's role in regulating delayed implantation (diapause) in female rats. To encourage active participation by the students, a discussion question is provided before the laboratory exercise in which each student is asked to search the literature and provide written answers to questions and to formulate an experiment to test the role of ovarian estrogen in inducing implantation in female rats...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Jason Abbott
This is perhaps the most apt mantra of IVF (in vitro fertilisation) as a treatment in Australasia in this day and age. It is also important to note the truth in the identification of IVF being low skill-based, largely independent of the practitioner, but more importantly costly, and with few exceptions, only available in the private sector. Such revelations really require a rethink of the entire reproductive endocrinology and infertility (CREI) subspecialty. In fact, if there is only one solution to all fertility problems - that of the 'effective IVF procedure' - why not do away completely with the clinician and simply have nurse practitioners who oversee the identified issue of an individual or couple wanting a pregnancy? This in conjunction with the outstanding scientific advances that led to the initiation and promulgation of IVF really would reduce costs by cutting out the unnecessary clinician middle-person who is unimportant in the equation...
February 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Maria Yousaf, Hina Siddiqi, Nazish Waheed
BACKGROUND: Incidence of stress is on the rise in our daily life involving various neurobiological, endocrinological and behavioral changes. Hunger stress has a potent influence on mental, physical, and reproductive health by affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis. METHODS: It was a laboratory based randomized control trial. Adult female mice (BALB-c strain) weighing 25-27 grams on first day of estrous cycle were taken in two groups (ten each). Group A was kept in normal environment of animal house for one month...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Monika Chaudhari, Emilie K Johnson, Daniel DaJusta, Leena Nahata
BACKGROUND: Reduced fertility is a common potential problem among males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), with nearly half experiencing impaired sperm production. The major cause of oligo/azoospermia in CAH is testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs). Studies indicate that ultrasound screening for TARTs should begin during childhood, yet it remains unclear whether boys with CAH are routinely screened for TARTs and/or counseled about infertility risk and potential interventions such as fertility testing and/or preservation...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Po-Kai Yang, Chih-Yuan Hsu, Mei-Jou Chen, Mei-Yu Lai, Zheng-Rong Li, Chen-Hsin Chen, Shee-Uan Chen, Hong-Nerng Ho
Context: The long-term effects of metformin in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are inadequately studied. Objective: The effects of metformin on women with PCOS over 24-month with respect to menses, hormones and metabolic profiles are assessed. Design: Prospective cohort. Setting: A reproductive endocrinology clinic in a university-affiliated medical center. Patients: 119 women with PCOS, defined by the Rotterdam criteria, were enrolled...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Christopher J Leary, Hannah F Ralicki, David Laurencio, Sarah Crocker-Buta, John H Malone
Amphibians inhabiting montane riparian zones in the Neotropics are particularly vulnerable to decline, but the reasons are poorly understood. Because environmental contaminants, endocrine disruption, and pathogens often figure prominently in amphibian declines it is imperative that we understand how these factors are potentially interrelated to affect montane populations. One possibility is that increased precipitation associated with global warming promotes the deposition of contaminants in montane regions...
2018: PloS One
Anthony R Gregg, Steven R Lindheim
Genomic based technologies are firmly implanted into clinical medicine. They arrived rapidly and their uses continue to evolve in both the pre and postconception periods. These technologies migrated from the prenatal arena into the domain of the reproductive endocrinology and infertility specialists in some cases nearly simultaneously (expanded carrier screening), in others more slowly (chromosome microarrays), and for some technologies the ethical and cost concerns have resulted in a slower diffusion across the disciplines...
February 2018: Fertility and Sterility
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