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Cohn fractionation

Kazim H Narsinh, Mark Van Buskirk, Andrew S Kennedy, Mohammed Suhail, Naif Alsaikhan, Carl K Hoh, Kenneth Thurston, Jeet Minocha, David S Ball, Steven J Cohen, Michael Cohn, Douglas M Coldwell, Alain Drooz, Eduardo Ehrenwald, Samir Kanani, Charles W Nutting, Fred M Moeslein, Michael A Savin, Sabine Schirm, Samuel G Putnam, Navesh K Sharma, Eric A Wang, Steven C Rose
: Purpose To determine if high lung shunt fraction (LSF) is an independent prognostic indicator of poor survival in patients who undergo yttrium 90 radioembolization for unresectable liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods Retrospective data were analyzed from 606 patients (62% men; mean age, 62 years) who underwent radioembolization to treat liver metastases from colorectal adenocarcinoma between July 2002 and December 2011 at 11 U.S. CENTERS: Institutional review board exemptions were granted prior to the collection of data at each site...
July 19, 2016: Radiology
Viorel G Florea, Thomas S Rector, Inder S Anand, Jay N Cohn
BACKGROUND: Heart failure with recovered or improved ejection fraction (HFiEF) has been proposed as a new category of HF. Whether HFiEF is clinically distinct from HF with persistently reduced ejection fraction remains to be validated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of the 5010 subjects enrolled in the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (Val-HeFT), 3519 had a baseline left ventricular EF of <35% and a follow-up echocardiographic assessment of EF at 12 months. Of these, 321 (9...
July 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
Chaoji Huangfu, Xiong Zhao, Maomin Lv, Junting Jia, Fengxuan Zhu, Rui Wang, Yuyuan Ma, Jingang Zhang
BACKGROUND: α2-Macroglobulin (α2-M) has a curative effect on radiation injury. Virus transmission through plasma derivatives is still not risk-free. Effect of dry heat on α2-M activity and virus inactivation by dry heat in a new manufacturing process of α2-M were studied. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Effects of 100°C for 30 minutes, 80°C for 72 hours, and lyophilization on α2-M activity were detected, and stabilizing agents were optimized. Effect of a treatment at 100°C for 30 minutes has been tested on a range of viruses and characteristics change of α2-M was investigated...
September 2016: Transfusion
Chaoji Huangfu, Yuyuan Ma, Maomin Lv, Junting Jia, Xiong Zhao, Jingang Zhang
As an abundant plasma protein, α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) participates widely in physiological and pathological activities including coagulation regulation, antitumor activities, and regulation of cytokines. It also presents a therapeutic potential for radiation injury. A two-step isolation method for the purification of α2-M from Cohn Fraction IV is described. This process includes a salting-out method and immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis and a comparison of the amino acid composition demonstrated that the final product was α2-M...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Tsuyoshi Kaneko, Julius I Ejiofor, Robert C Neely, Siobhan McGurk, Vladimir Ivkovic, Lynne W Stevenson, Marzia Leacche, Lawrence H Cohn
BACKGROUND: The current study assesses outcomes and risk factors for aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic regurgitation (AR) in the setting of markedly reduced left ventricular (LV) function compared with moderately reduced LV function and preserved LV function. METHODS: Between January 2002 and June 2013, 485 consecutive patients underwent AVR for severe AR. Overall, 37 of 485 patients (8%) had an LV ejection fraction (EF) less than or equal to 35% (low EF) with median of 30%; 141 of 485 patients (27%) had an LVEF of 36% to 50% (moderate) with median of 45%, and 307 of 485 patients (65%) had an LVEF greater than 50% (preserved) with median of 60%...
July 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
G de Izarra, C Jammes, B Geslot, J Di Salvo, C Destouches
This paper is dedicated to the presentation and validation of SPECTRON, a novel neutron noise measurement system developed at CEA Cadarache. The device is designed for the measurement of the β(eff) parameter (effective fraction of delayed neutrons) of experimental nuclear reactors using the Cohn-α method. An integrated electronic system is used to record the current from fission chambers. Spectra computed from measurement data are processed by a dedicated software in order to estimate the reactor transfer function and then the effective fraction of delayed neutrons as well as the prompt neutron generation time...
November 2015: Review of Scientific Instruments
Paul J Goodfellow, Caroline C Billingsley, Heather A Lankes, Shamshad Ali, David E Cohn, Russell J Broaddus, Nilsa Ramirez, Colin C Pritchard, Heather Hampel, Alexis S Chassen, Luke V Simmons, Amy P Schmidt, Feng Gao, Louise A Brinton, Floor Backes, Lisa M Landrum, Melissa A Geller, Paul A DiSilvestro, Michael L Pearl, Shashikant B Lele, Matthew A Powell, Richard J Zaino, David Mutch
PURPOSE: The best screening practice for Lynch syndrome (LS) in endometrial cancer (EC) remains unknown. We sought to determine whether tumor microsatellite instability (MSI) typing along with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and MLH1 methylation analysis can help identify women with LS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ECs from GOG210 patients were assessed for MSI, MLH1 methylation, and mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression. Each tumor was classified as having normal MMR, defective MMR associated with MLH1 methylation, or probable MMR mutation (ie, defective MMR but no methylation)...
December 20, 2015: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Louise E Pape, Moran D Cohn, Matthan W A Caan, Guido van Wingen, Wim van den Brink, Dick J Veltman, Arne Popma
Altered structural connectivity has been reported in antisocial juveniles, but findings have been inconsistent. Given the phenotypical heterogeneity among individuals showing antisocial behavior, specification of the association between structural connectivity and the dimensions of psychopathic traits (i.e., callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible traits) may aid in more reliably elucidating the neural mechanisms underlying antisocial behavior during adolescence. In this study, a sample of 145 adolescents (mean age 17...
September 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Alfonso Salvatore, Semih Esin, Giovanna Batoni, Ester Ascione, Claudio Farina, Claudia Nardini
BACKGROUND: Polyvalent immunoglobulin G (IgG) products obtained by fractionation of human plasma are widely used to treat a broad range of conditions, including immunodeficiency syndromes and autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. For high-quality products and to minimize adverse events related to the use of intravenous IgG (IVIG) it is very important to perform detailed analyses of their components. One of these components, that in rare cases can cause severe hemolytic conditions, is the amount of hemagglutinins, natural antibodies that bind A and/or B (anti-A or -B) antigens present in red blood cells (RBCs)...
July 2015: Transfusion
Val Romberg, Liane Hoefferer, Ibrahim El Menyawi
BACKGROUND: The first intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) preparations for clinical use were produced from human plasma by Cohn-like fractionation processes. To achieve higher purity and yield, chromatography-based processes were developed. Using two products as examples, we compare the capacity of these two manufacturing processes to reduce the levels of anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinins in IVIG, which are believed to be responsible for rare hemolytic adverse events. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The isoagglutinin levels of Sandoglobulin (lyophilized, sucrose-stabilized IVIG produced by Cohn-like fractionation) and Privigen (10% l-proline-stabilized IVIG produced by a chromatography-based process) were measured by the indirect agglutination test (IAT)...
July 2015: Transfusion
Lawrence M Schopfer, Oksana Lockridge, Stephen Brimijoin
The ghrelin hormone is a 28 amino acid peptide esterified on serine 3 with octanoic acid. Ghrelin is inactivated by hydrolysis of the ester bond. Previous studies have relied on inhibitors to identify human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) as the hydrolase in human plasma that converts ghrelin to desacyl ghrelin. The reaction of BChE with ghrelin is unusual because the rate of hydrolysis is very slow and the substrate is ten times larger than standard BChE substrates. These unusual features prompted us to re-examine the reaction, using human BChE preparations that were more than 98% pure...
December 1, 2015: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Duha Fahham, Emmanuelle Merquiol, Tamar Gilon, Gerard Marx, Galia Blum
Fibrinogen has the potential of being used as a material to harvest and grow normal mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts, endothelial cells) or to trap cancer cells from a suspension with blood as a potential circulatory trap.Insoluble fibrinogen particles (iFP) were prepared from commercial Cohn fraction I paste (source: Kedrion). The sized iFP (~60-180 µm) were not soluble in physiologic buffers, exhibited a density of 1.2 ± 0.02, and did not aggregate or clump when mixed with whole blood or thrombin, but were degraded in lytic solutions...
April 2015: Biomedical Materials
Z K Wang, X Du, Y M Wang, C Q Li, F Z Lin, H J Cao, S L Ye, J J Hu, J Yuan
Cohn fraction IV (CFIV) is a byproduct of a plasma fractionation process known as the Cohn process. It is an inexpensive source of protein C, retaining about 90% of protein C (PC) in human plasma. We investigated whether PC is affected during the Cohn process and evaluated correlations among coagulant activity, amidolytic activity and PC antigen during the Cohn process. CFIV was redissolved with citrate-buffered saline for 5 h at 4°C, and then centrifuged at 3500 g for 40 min at 4°C. Functional anticoagulant activity was measured with a one-stage coagulation method based on activated partial thromboplastin time...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Nina Brestrich, Adrian Sanden, Axel Kraft, Karl McCann, Joseph Bertolini, Jürgen Hubbuch
Pooling decisions in preparative liquid chromatography for protein purification are usually based on univariate UV absorption measurements that are not able to differentiate between product and co-eluting contaminants. This can result in inconsistent pool purities or yields, if there is a batch-to-batch variability of the feedstock. To overcome this analytical bottleneck, a tool for selective inline quantification of co-eluting model proteins using mid-UV absorption spectra and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) was presented in a previous study and applied for real-time pooling decisions...
July 2015: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Thierry Burnouf, Jerard Seghatchian
In the late 1980s, following the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and transfusion-transmitted infections from plasma-derived coagulation factor concentrates to hemophiliacs, many “advanced thinkers” claimed that plasma-derived products would be completely replaced by the year 2000 by safe recombinant products in most developed countries. However, things have not turned out that way, due to both the continual progress witnessed in plasma fractionation and viral-reduction technologies and technical difficulties still being encountered in developing more cost-effective non-immunogenic, fully active recombinant therapeutic proteins...
October 2014: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
O H Frazier, Andrew C W Baldwin, Zumrut T Demirozu, Ana Maria Segura, Ruben Hernandez, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Hari Mallidi, William E Cohn
BACKGROUND: The potential for myocardial reconditioning and device explantation after long-term continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support presents an opportunity to delay or avoid transplantation in select patients. METHODS: Thirty of 657 patients with end-stage heart failure supported with continuous-flow LVADs were assessed for device explantation. Each patient underwent an individualized process of weaning focused on principles of ventricular unloading, gradual reconditioning, and transition to medical therapy...
June 2015: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Lara Hathout, Jamie Cohn, Laszlo Voros, Sae Hee Kim, Todd Heaton, Suzanne L Wolden
PURPOSE: To report the technical aspects of customized high-dose-rate brachytherapy for vaginal rhabdomyosarcoma using MRI- and CT-based planning in a 20-month-old girl. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An impression of the vaginal cavity at the resection site was taken after adequate lubrication of the vagina with lidocaine jelly. The impression was processed in the dental laboratory to obtain an MRI-compatible device with three imbedded catheters 0.4 mm apart, assuring tumor coverage...
January 2015: Brachytherapy
Karl B McCann, Yvonne Vucica, John Wu, Joseph Bertolini
The manufacture of human serum albumin by chromatographic procedures involves gel filtration chromatography as a final polishing step. Despite this step being essential to remove high molecular weight impurity proteins and thus ensure a stable and safe final product, it is relatively inefficient. This paper explores the use of hydrophobic charge induction chromatographic media, MEP HyperCel as an alternative to Sephacryl S200HR gel filtration for the polishing of human serum albumin derived by ion exchange chromatographic purification of Cohn Supernatant I...
October 15, 2014: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Xiaoming Fan, Benjamin C King, James Loomis, Eva M Campo, John Hegseth, Robert W Cohn, Eugene Terentjev, Balaji Panchapakesan
Elastomeric composites based on nanotube liquid crystals (LCs) that preserve the internal orientation of nanotubes could lead to anisotropic physical properties and flexible energy conversion. Using a simple vacuum filtration technique of fabricating nanotube LC films and utilizing a transfer process to poly (dimethyl) siloxane wherein the LC arrangement is preserved, here we demonstrate unique and reversible photomechanical response of this layered composite to excitation by near infra-red (NIR) light at ultra-low nanotube mass fractions...
September 5, 2014: Nanotechnology
Marta Kotasinska, Verena Richter, Marcel Kwiatkowski, Hartmut Schlüter
In downstream processing large scale chromatography plays an important role. For its development screening experiments followed by pilot plant chromatography are mandatory steps. Here we describe fast, simple, and inexpensive methods for establishing a preparative chromatography for the separation of complex protein mixtures, based on sample displacement batch chromatography. The methods are demonstrated by anion-exchange chromatography of a human plasma protein fraction (Cohn IV-4), including the screening step and scaling up of the chromatography by a factor of 100...
2014: Methods in Molecular Biology
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