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Cohn fractionation

Chaoji Huangfu, Jinchao Zhang, Yuyuan Ma, Junting Jia, Jingxuan Li, Maomin Lv, Xiaowei Ma, Xiong Zhao, Jingang Zhang
α1-antitrypsin (AAT) is widely used to treat patients with congenital AAT deficiency. Cohn Fraction IV (Cohn F IV) is normally discarded during the manufacturing process of albumin but contains approximately 33% of plasma AAT. We established a new process for large-scale purification of AAT from it. LC-ESI-MS/MS and HPLC were applied for qualitative identification and composition analysis, respectively. Stabilizers were optimized for AAT activity protection during lyophilization and dry-heat. Virus inactivation by dry-heat and solvent/detergent (S/D) was validated on a range of viruses...
October 26, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Jay N Cohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2017: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Neal M Rao, Joseph Capri, Whitaker Cohn, Maram Abdaljaleel, Lucas Restrepo, Jeffrey A Gornbein, William H Yong, David S Liebeskind, Julian P Whitelegge
INTRODUCTION: The specific protein composition of stroke-causing emboli is unknown. Because ischemic stroke has a varied etiology, it is possible that the composition of the thrombus from which an embolus originated will have distinctive molecular characteristics reflective of the underlying pathophysiology. We used mass spectrometry to evaluate the protein composition of retrieved emboli from patients with differing stroke etiologies and correlated the protein levels to serum predictors of atherosclerosis...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Kay-Won Chang, Neil Beri, Nghia H Nguyen, Boris Arbit, Sutton Fox, Sean Mojaver, Paul Clopton, S William Tam, Anne L Taylor, Jay N Cohn, Alan S Maisel, Inder S Anand
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have described the entity of heart failure with recovered ejection fraction (HFrecEF), but population-specific studies remain lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize patients enrolled in the African-American Heart Failure Trial (A-HeFT) who had significant improvement in their ejection fraction (EF) during the 1st 6 months of follow-up. METHODS AND RESULTS: Subjects with HFrecEF (improvement in EF from <35% to >40% in 6 months; n = 59) were compared with 259 subjects with heart failure and persistently reduced EF (HFrEF), defined as EF ≤40% at 6-month follow-up...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Andrew Kennedy, Michael Cohn, Douglas M Coldwell, Alain Drooz, Eduardo Ehrenwald, Adeel Kaiser, Charles W Nutting, Steven C Rose, Eric A Wang, Michael A Savin
BACKGROUND: The Metastatic colorectal cancer liver metastases Outcomes after RadioEmbolization (MORE) study was a retrospective analysis of 606 patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases treated with radioembolization (RE) using (90)Y-labeled resin microspheres. The first analysis of this study was completed with a last patient follow-up of 77.7 months. We now provide an updated survival analysis through September 15, 2016, with a last patient follow-up of 125 months. METHODS: (90)Y-RE was considered for patients with advanced liver-only or liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer which was deemed not suitable for surgery, ablation, or systemic therapy, and which had progressed or become refractory to at least one line of systemic therapy...
August 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Sebastijan Peljhan, Tina Jakop, Dunja Šček, Vid Skvarča, Blaž Goričar, Romina Žabar, Nina Mencin
The plasma-derived IgG used either for diagnostic purpose or intravenous application (in form of IVIG) in various medical therapies is certainly gaining more and more attention on annual basis. Different manufacturing processes are used to isolate immunoglobulins from human plasma. However, a quest for alternative paths in IgG isolation not only requires development of the most efficient isolation process, but also a rapid and reliable analytics to track the purification. Fast and reliable fingerprint-based method for characterization of IgG prepared from Cohn I+II+III paste is presented in this paper...
July 20, 2017: Electrophoresis
Chaoji Huangfu, Yuyuan Ma, Junting Jia, Maomin Lv, Fengxuan Zhu, Xiaowei Ma, Xiong Zhao, Jingang Zhang
Pasteurization is regularly used to inactivate viruses for the safety of plasma derivatives. Influence of pasteurization at 60 °C for 10 h on α2-Macroglobulin activity and virus inactivation were studied. With 40% sugar as stabilizers more than 70% α2-Macroglobulin activity was reserved after pasteurization compared with 20% in control. Glucose presented a better activity protection effect than sucrose and maltose. By pasteurization without stabilizer the virus titers of pseudorabies virus, Sindbis virus, porcine parvovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus were reduced more than 5...
March 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Chaoji Huangfu, Jinchao Zhang, Yuyuan Ma, Junting Jia, Maomin Lv, Xiong Zhao, Jingang Zhang
α1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a 52kDa serine protease inhibitor that is abundant in plasma. It is synthesized mainly by hepatic cells, and widely used to treat patients with emphysema due to congenital deficiency of AAT. A new isolation method for the purification of AAT from Cohn Fraction IV (Cohn F IV) is described. Cohn F IV is usually discarded as a byproduct from Cohn process. Using Cohn F IV as starting material does not interfere with the production of other plasma proteins and the cost of purification could be reduced greatly...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Kazim H Narsinh, Mark Van Buskirk, Andrew S Kennedy, Mohammed Suhail, Naif Alsaikhan, Carl K Hoh, Kenneth Thurston, Jeet Minocha, David S Ball, Steven J Cohen, Michael Cohn, Douglas M Coldwell, Alain Drooz, Eduardo Ehrenwald, Samir Kanani, Charles W Nutting, Fred M Moeslein, Michael A Savin, Sabine Schirm, Samuel G Putnam, Navesh K Sharma, Eric A Wang, Steven C Rose
Purpose To determine if high lung shunt fraction (LSF) is an independent prognostic indicator of poor survival in patients who undergo yttrium 90 radioembolization for unresectable liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods Retrospective data were analyzed from 606 patients (62% men; mean age, 62 years) who underwent radioembolization to treat liver metastases from colorectal adenocarcinoma between July 2002 and December 2011 at 11 U.S. centers. Institutional review board exemptions were granted prior to the collection of data at each site...
January 2017: Radiology
Viorel G Florea, Thomas S Rector, Inder S Anand, Jay N Cohn
BACKGROUND: Heart failure with recovered or improved ejection fraction (HFiEF) has been proposed as a new category of HF. Whether HFiEF is clinically distinct from HF with persistently reduced ejection fraction remains to be validated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of the 5010 subjects enrolled in the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (Val-HeFT), 3519 had a baseline left ventricular EF of <35% and a follow-up echocardiographic assessment of EF at 12 months. Of these, 321 (9...
July 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
Chaoji Huangfu, Xiong Zhao, Maomin Lv, Junting Jia, Fengxuan Zhu, Rui Wang, Yuyuan Ma, Jingang Zhang
BACKGROUND: α2-Macroglobulin (α2-M) has a curative effect on radiation injury. Virus transmission through plasma derivatives is still not risk-free. Effect of dry heat on α2-M activity and virus inactivation by dry heat in a new manufacturing process of α2-M were studied. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Effects of 100°C for 30 minutes, 80°C for 72 hours, and lyophilization on α2-M activity were detected, and stabilizing agents were optimized. Effect of a treatment at 100°C for 30 minutes has been tested on a range of viruses and characteristics change of α2-M was investigated...
September 2016: Transfusion
Chaoji Huangfu, Yuyuan Ma, Maomin Lv, Junting Jia, Xiong Zhao, Jingang Zhang
As an abundant plasma protein, α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) participates widely in physiological and pathological activities including coagulation regulation, antitumor activities, and regulation of cytokines. It also presents a therapeutic potential for radiation injury. A two-step isolation method for the purification of α2-M from Cohn Fraction IV is described. This process includes a salting-out method and immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis and a comparison of the amino acid composition demonstrated that the final product was α2-M...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Tsuyoshi Kaneko, Julius I Ejiofor, Robert C Neely, Siobhan McGurk, Vladimir Ivkovic, Lynne W Stevenson, Marzia Leacche, Lawrence H Cohn
BACKGROUND: The current study assesses outcomes and risk factors for aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic regurgitation (AR) in the setting of markedly reduced left ventricular (LV) function compared with moderately reduced LV function and preserved LV function. METHODS: Between January 2002 and June 2013, 485 consecutive patients underwent AVR for severe AR. Overall, 37 of 485 patients (8%) had an LV ejection fraction (EF) less than or equal to 35% (low EF) with median of 30%; 141 of 485 patients (27%) had an LVEF of 36% to 50% (moderate) with median of 45%, and 307 of 485 patients (65%) had an LVEF greater than 50% (preserved) with median of 60%...
July 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
G de Izarra, C Jammes, B Geslot, J Di Salvo, C Destouches
This paper is dedicated to the presentation and validation of SPECTRON, a novel neutron noise measurement system developed at CEA Cadarache. The device is designed for the measurement of the β(eff) parameter (effective fraction of delayed neutrons) of experimental nuclear reactors using the Cohn-α method. An integrated electronic system is used to record the current from fission chambers. Spectra computed from measurement data are processed by a dedicated software in order to estimate the reactor transfer function and then the effective fraction of delayed neutrons as well as the prompt neutron generation time...
November 2015: Review of Scientific Instruments
Paul J Goodfellow, Caroline C Billingsley, Heather A Lankes, Shamshad Ali, David E Cohn, Russell J Broaddus, Nilsa Ramirez, Colin C Pritchard, Heather Hampel, Alexis S Chassen, Luke V Simmons, Amy P Schmidt, Feng Gao, Louise A Brinton, Floor Backes, Lisa M Landrum, Melissa A Geller, Paul A DiSilvestro, Michael L Pearl, Shashikant B Lele, Matthew A Powell, Richard J Zaino, David Mutch
PURPOSE: The best screening practice for Lynch syndrome (LS) in endometrial cancer (EC) remains unknown. We sought to determine whether tumor microsatellite instability (MSI) typing along with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and MLH1 methylation analysis can help identify women with LS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ECs from GOG210 patients were assessed for MSI, MLH1 methylation, and mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression. Each tumor was classified as having normal MMR, defective MMR associated with MLH1 methylation, or probable MMR mutation (ie, defective MMR but no methylation)...
December 20, 2015: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Louise E Pape, Moran D Cohn, Matthan W A Caan, Guido van Wingen, Wim van den Brink, Dick J Veltman, Arne Popma
Altered structural connectivity has been reported in antisocial juveniles, but findings have been inconsistent. Given the phenotypical heterogeneity among individuals showing antisocial behavior, specification of the association between structural connectivity and the dimensions of psychopathic traits (i.e., callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible traits) may aid in more reliably elucidating the neural mechanisms underlying antisocial behavior during adolescence. In this study, a sample of 145 adolescents (mean age 17...
September 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Alfonso Salvatore, Semih Esin, Giovanna Batoni, Ester Ascione, Claudio Farina, Claudia Nardini
BACKGROUND: Polyvalent immunoglobulin G (IgG) products obtained by fractionation of human plasma are widely used to treat a broad range of conditions, including immunodeficiency syndromes and autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. For high-quality products and to minimize adverse events related to the use of intravenous IgG (IVIG) it is very important to perform detailed analyses of their components. One of these components, that in rare cases can cause severe hemolytic conditions, is the amount of hemagglutinins, natural antibodies that bind A and/or B (anti-A or -B) antigens present in red blood cells (RBCs)...
July 2015: Transfusion
Val Romberg, Liane Hoefferer, Ibrahim El Menyawi
BACKGROUND: The first intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) preparations for clinical use were produced from human plasma by Cohn-like fractionation processes. To achieve higher purity and yield, chromatography-based processes were developed. Using two products as examples, we compare the capacity of these two manufacturing processes to reduce the levels of anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinins in IVIG, which are believed to be responsible for rare hemolytic adverse events. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The isoagglutinin levels of Sandoglobulin (lyophilized, sucrose-stabilized IVIG produced by Cohn-like fractionation) and Privigen (10% l-proline-stabilized IVIG produced by a chromatography-based process) were measured by the indirect agglutination test (IAT)...
July 2015: Transfusion
Lawrence M Schopfer, Oksana Lockridge, Stephen Brimijoin
The ghrelin hormone is a 28 amino acid peptide esterified on serine 3 with octanoic acid. Ghrelin is inactivated by hydrolysis of the ester bond. Previous studies have relied on inhibitors to identify human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) as the hydrolase in human plasma that converts ghrelin to desacyl ghrelin. The reaction of BChE with ghrelin is unusual because the rate of hydrolysis is very slow and the substrate is ten times larger than standard BChE substrates. These unusual features prompted us to re-examine the reaction, using human BChE preparations that were more than 98% pure...
December 1, 2015: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Duha Fahham, Emmanuelle Merquiol, Tamar Gilon, Gerard Marx, Galia Blum
Fibrinogen has the potential of being used as a material to harvest and grow normal mesenchymal cells (fibroblasts, endothelial cells) or to trap cancer cells from a suspension with blood as a potential circulatory trap.Insoluble fibrinogen particles (iFP) were prepared from commercial Cohn fraction I paste (source: Kedrion). The sized iFP (~60-180 µm) were not soluble in physiologic buffers, exhibited a density of 1.2 ± 0.02, and did not aggregate or clump when mixed with whole blood or thrombin, but were degraded in lytic solutions...
April 2015: Biomedical Materials
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