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Host-pathogen interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457297/the-impact-of-bacteriophages-on-phyllosphere-bacterial-abundance-and-composition
#1
Norma M Morella, Annika L Gomez, Grant Wang, Michelle S Leung, Britt Koskella
Interactions between bacteria and bacteriophage viruses (phages) are known to influence pathogen growth and virulence, microbial diversity, and even biogeochemical cycling. Lytic phages in particular infect and lyse their host cells, and can therefore have significant effects on cell densities as well as competitive dynamics within microbial communities. Despite the known impacts of lytic phages on the ecology and evolution of bacteria in free-living communities, little is known about the role of lytic phages in host-associated microbiomes...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455848/caveolin-1-the-unnoticed-player-in-tcr-and-bcr-signaling
#2
Gina J Fiala, Susana Minguet
T and B lymphocytes are key players of the adaptive immune system. They recognize pathogenic cues via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) to get activated and execute their protective function. TCR and BCR signaling are initiated at the plasma membrane and subsequently propagated into the cell, ultimately leading to cell activation and a protective immune response. However, inappropriate activation of T and B cells can be detrimental to the host resulting in autoimmune disorders, immunodeficiencies, and cancer...
2018: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455142/cereal-powdery-mildew-effectors-a-complex-toolbox-for-an-obligate-pathogen
#3
REVIEW
Salim Bourras, Coraline R Praz, Pietro D Spanu, Beat Keller
Cereal powdery mildews are major pathogens of cultivated monocot crops, and all are obligate biotrophic fungi that can only grow and reproduce on living hosts. This lifestyle is combined with extreme host specialization where every mildew subspecies (referred to as forma specialis) can only infect one plant species. Recently there has been much progress in our understanding of the possible roles effectors play in this complex host-pathogen interaction. Here, we review current knowledge on the origin, evolution, and mode of action of cereal mildew effectors, with a particular focus on recent advances in the identification of bona fide effectors and avirulence effector proteins from wheat and barley powdery mildews...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454879/application-of-genetically-encoded-redox-biosensors-to-measure-dynamic-changes-in-the-glutathione-bacillithiol-and-mycothiol-redox-potentials-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#4
REVIEW
Quach Ngoc Tung, Nico Linzner, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann
Gram-negative bacteria utilize glutathione (GSH) as their major LMW thiol. However, most Gram-positive bacteria do not encode enzymes for GSH biosynthesis and produce instead alternative LMW thiols, such as bacillithiol (BSH) and mycothiol (MSH). BSH is utilized by Firmicutes and MSH is the major LMW thiol of Actinomycetes. LMW thiols are required to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm, but are also involved in virulence mechanisms in human pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica subsp...
February 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454637/tools-to-study-pathogen-host-interactions-in-bats
#5
REVIEW
Arinjay Banerjee, Vikram Misra, Tony Schountz, Michelle L Baker
Bats are natural reservoirs for a variety of emerging viruses that cause significant disease in humans and domestic animals yet rarely cause clinical disease in bats. The co-evolutionary history of bats with viruses has been hypothesized to have shaped the bat-virus relationship, allowing both to exist in equilibrium. Progress in understanding bat-virus interactions and the isolation of bat-borne viruses has been accelerated in recent years by the development of susceptible bat cell lines. Viral sequences similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) have been detected in bats, and filoviruses such as Marburg virus have been isolated from bats, providing definitive evidence for the role of bats as the natural host reservoir...
February 15, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454192/phytophthora-sojae-effectors-orchestrate-warfare-with-host-immunity
#6
REVIEW
Yan Wang, Yuanchao Wang
Phytophthora sojae is one of the most damaging plant pathogens of soybean. To aid establishment of a compatible interaction with its host, P. sojae deploys many secreted effectors. These effectors act either in the apoplastic space to cope with hostile conditions or inside of host cells to reprogram host physiology favoring pathogen growth. Effectors have been used as molecular probes, which revealed in Phytophthora that effectors execute their virulence function via manipulating host targets. In addition, recent studies have discovered 'pseudo-effectors' in Phytophthora that act as decoys to shield virulence effectors from host defense, a new paradigm in plant-pathogen interactions...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454065/impact-of-food-additives-on-the-gut-brain-axis
#7
Mary K Holder, Benoit Chassaing
The mammalian intestinal tract is heavily colonized with a complex community of micro-organisms, present at a very high density, and containing an estimated amount of 10 14 bacteria. The microbiota generally benefits the host, as it plays a central role in maturing the immune system, protecting against infection by entero-pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, and favoring nutrient digestion/energy extraction in our intestine. An altered microbiota, however, can become detrimental and lead to inflammation, metabolic disorders, and even altered behavior/neuroinflammation...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453255/endophyte-mediated-modulation-of-defense-responsive-genes-and-systemic-resistance-in-withania-somnifera-l-dunal-under-alternaria-alternata-stress
#8
Aradhana Mishra, Satyendra Pratap Singh, Sahil Mahfooz, Surendra Pratap Singh, Arpita Bhattacharya, Nishtha Mishra, C S Nautiyal
Endophytes have been explored to perform an important role in plant health. However, their effects on the host physiological function and disease management remains elusive. The present study was aimed to assess the potential of endophytes singly as well as in combination on various physiological parameters and systemic defense mechanism against Alternaria alternata in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. Seed priming with endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Pseudomonas fluorescens individually and in combination demonstrated enhanced vigor index and germination rate...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453056/biological-properties-of-beet-soil-borne-mosaic-virus-and-beet-necrotic-yellow-vein-virus-cdna-clones-produced-by-isothermal-in-vitro-recombination-insights-for-reassortant-appearance
#9
Marlene Laufer, Hamza Mohammad, Edgar Maiss, Katja Richert-Pöggeler, Mattia Dall'Ara, Claudio Ratti, David Gilmer, Sebastian Liebe, Mark Varrelmann
Two members of the Benyviridae family and genus Benyvirus, Beet soil-borne mosaic virus (BSBMV) and Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), possess identical genome organization, host range and high sequence similarity; they infect Beta vulgaris with variable symptom expression. In the US, mixed infections are described with limited information about viral interactions. Vectors suitable for agroinoculation of all genome components of both viruses were constructed by isothermal in vitro recombination. All 35S promoter-driven cDNA clones allowed production of recombinant viruses competent for Nicotiana benthamiana and Beta macrocarpa systemic infection and Polymyxa betae transmission and were compared to available BNYVV B-type clone...
February 13, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452845/just-the-surface-advances-in-the-discovery-and-characterization-of-necrotrophic-wheat-effectors
#10
REVIEW
Megan C McDonald, Peter S Solomon
For many years pathogens of wheat have remained poorly understood. Hindered by an inaccessible host and the obligate nature of many of the pathogens, our understanding of these interactions has been limited compared to other more amenable pathosystems. However, breakthroughs over recent years have shed new light on diseases of wheat, particularly those caused by the genetically tractable necrotrophic pathogens. We now understand that many of the necrotrophic fungal pathogens do interact with wheat in a strict gene-for-gene relationship, and that pathogen and host partners in these interactions have now been identified...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452844/fungal-effectors-at-the-crossroads-of-phytohormone-signaling
#11
REVIEW
Qing Shen, Yingyao Liu, Naweed I Naqvi
Phytohormone networks are crucial for maintaining the delicate balance between growth and biotic stress responses in plants. Jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, ethylene, and the associated signaling crosstalk are important for pathogen defense; whereas gibberellin and cytokinin function in growth and development in plants. Plant pathogenic fungi have evolved remarkable strategies to manipulate and/or hijack such phytohormone signaling cascades for their own benefit, thus leading to susceptibility and disease in host plants...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452163/screening-of-binding-proteins-that-interact-with-chinese-sacbrood-virus-vp-3-capsid-protein-in-apis-cerana-larvae-cdna-library-by-the-yeast-two-hybrid-method
#12
Dongliang Fei, Dong Wei, Xiaolei Yu, Jinjin Yue, Ming Li, Li Sun, Lili Jiang, Yijing Li, Qingyun Diao, Mingxiao Ma
Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV) causes larval death and apiary collapse of Apis cerana. VP3 is a capsid protein of CSBV but its function is poorly understood. To determine the function of VP3 and screen for novel binding proteins that interact with VP3, we conducted yeast two-hybrid screening, glutathione S-transferase pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Galectin (GAL) is a protein involved in immune regulation and host-pathogen interactions. The yeast two-hybrid screen implicated GAL as a major VP3-binding candidate...
February 13, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450146/novel-proteins-from-proteomic-analysis-of-the-trunk-disease-fungus-lasiodiplodia-theobromae-botryosphaeriaceae
#13
Carla C Uranga, Majid Ghassemian, Rufina Hernández-Martínez
Many basic science questions remain regarding protein functions in the pathogen: host interaction, especially in the trunk disease fungi family, the Botryosphaeriaceae, which are a global problem for economically important plants, especially fruiting trees. Proteomics is a highly useful technology for studying protein expression and for discovering novel proteins in unsequenced and poorly annotated organisms. Current fungal proteomics approaches involve 2D SDS-PAGE and extensive, complex, protein extraction methodologies...
June 2017: Biochimie Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449414/pathogen-trojan-horse-delivers-bioactive-host-protein-to-alter-maize-zea-mays-anther-cell-behavior-in-situ
#14
Karina Van Der Linde, Ljudmilla Timofejeva, Rachel L Egger, Birger Ilau, Reza Hammond, Chong Teng, Blake C Meyers, Gunther Doehlemann, Virginia Walbot
Small proteins are crucial signals during development, host defense, and physiology. Spatiotemporal restricted functions of signaling proteins remain challenging to study in planta. The several month span required to assess transgene expression, particularly in flowers, combined with the uncertainties from transgene position effects and ubiquitous or overexpression, makes monitoring of spatiotemporally restricted signaling proteins lengthy and difficult. This situation could be rectified with a transient assay in which protein deployment is controlled spatially and temporally in planta to assess protein functions, timing, and cellular targets as well as to facilitate rapid mutagenesis to define functional protein domains...
February 15, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448174/extracellular-vesicles-new-players-in-cell-cell-communication-in-aquatic-environments
#15
REVIEW
Daniella Schatz, Assaf Vardi
Communication between microorganisms in aquatic environments can influence ecosystem function and determine the structure and composition of microbial populations. This microbial cross talk can be mediated by excretion of specialized metabolites or extracellular vesicles (EVs). Recently it has become apparent that cells across all domains of life produce EVs that may convey specific targeted signals that can modulate cell fate, morphology and susceptibility to viruses. The vast majority of knowledge about EVs is derived from studies of mammalian tissues, parasitic host-pathogen interactions and model bacterial systems...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447976/identification-of-a-novel-host-protein-sinal10-interacting-with-gp64-and-its-role-in-bombyx-mori-nucleopolyhedrovirus-infection
#16
Min Feng, Xiangshuo Kong, Jianjia Zhang, Weifan Xu, Xiaofeng Wu
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is the most important pathogen of Bombyx mori, silkworm and causes severe losses in the silk industry. During the virus infectious cycle, budded virus (BVs) and occlusion-derived virus (ODVs) particles, which have identical genetic content but different phenotypes, are produced. The envelope glycoprotein GP64, specific in BVs, is involved in host cell receptor binding and is sufficient to mediate membrane fusion during the viral entry. However, the host cell factors, interacting with GP64 to mediate BVs infection, are still unknown...
February 12, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447975/profiling-of-novel-micrornas-elicited-by-ev71-and-ca16-infection-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#17
Jie Song, Yajie Hu, Xi Jiang, Wenbing Zhu, Zhongxiang Wu, Shaozhong Dong
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are two major etiologic agents associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide. Despite that they both belong to the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family, there are many differences in the infection process of these viruses. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Multiple studies indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) can play critical roles in the host-pathogen interaction. Our previous study reported that EV71 and CA16 infection leads to differential expression of miRNAs in human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells...
February 12, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447697/herpes-simplex-virus-1-vp22-inhibits-aim2-dependent-inflammasome-activation-to-enable-efficient-viral-replication
#18
Yuhei Maruzuru, Takeshi Ichinohe, Ryota Sato, Kensuke Miyake, Tokuju Okano, Toshihiko Suzuki, Takumi Koshiba, Naoto Koyanagi, Shumpei Tsuda, Mizuki Watanabe, Jun Arii, Akihisa Kato, Yasushi Kawaguchi
The AIM2 inflammasome is activated by DNA, leading to caspase-1 activation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, which are critical mediators in host innate immune responses against various pathogens. Some viruses employ strategies to counteract inflammasome-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but their in vivo relevance is less well understood. Here we show that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) tegument protein VP22 inhibits AIM2-dependent inflammasome activation...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447695/cervicovaginal-microbiota-and-reproductive-health-the-virtue-of-simplicity
#19
REVIEW
Melis N Anahtar, David B Gootenberg, Caroline M Mitchell, Douglas S Kwon
Cervicovaginal microbiota play a critical role in women's health and reproductive outcomes. Despite being one of the simplest commensal bacterial communities in the human body, we are only beginning to appreciate its complex dynamic nature and important role in host immune modulation. In this review, we discuss the "optimal" cervicovaginal bacterial community composition, the impact of microbiota on gynecologic and obstetric outcomes, and the hurdles to developing a deeper mechanistic understanding of the function of the cervicovaginal microbiome...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447449/prognostic-and-pathogenic-role-of-angiopoietin-1-and-2-in-pneumonia
#20
Birgitt Gutbier, Anne-Kathrin Neuhauß, Katrin Reppe, Carolin Ehrler, Ansgar Santel, Jörg Kaufmann, Markus Scholz, Norbert Weissmann, Lars Morawietz, Timothy J Mitchell, Stefano Aliberti, Stefan Hippenstiel, Norbert Suttorp, Martin Witzenrath
RATIONALE: During pneumonia, pathogen-host interaction evokes inflammation and lung barrier dysfunction. Tie2-activation by Angiopoietin-1 reduces, while Tie2-blockade by Angiopoietin-2 increases inflammation and permeability during sepsis. The role of Angiopoietin-1/-2 in pneumonia remains unidentified. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prognostic and pathogenetic impact of Angiopoietins in regulating pulmonary vascular barrier function and inflammation in bacterial pneumonia...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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