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Host-pathogen interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226239/structural-basis-for-the-hijacking-of-endosomal-sorting-nexin-proteins-by-chlamydia-trachomatis
#1
Blessy Paul, Hyun Sung Kim, Markus C Kerr, Wilhelmina M Huston, Rohan D Teasdale, Brett M Collins
During infection chlamydial pathogens form an intracellular membrane-bound replicative niche termed the inclusion, which is enriched with bacterial transmembrane proteins called Incs. Incs bind and manipulate host cell proteins to promote inclusion expansion and provide camouflage against innate immune responses. Sorting nexin (SNX) proteins that normally function in endosomal membrane trafficking are a major class of inclusion-associated host proteins, and are recruited by IncE/CT116. Crystal structures of the SNX5 phox-homology (PX) domain in complex with IncE define the precise molecular basis for these interactions...
February 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224252/heat-shock-protein-70-in-lung-and-kidney-of-specific-pathogen-free-chickens-is-a-receptor-associated-protein-that-interacts-with-the-binding-domain-of-the-spike-protein-of-infectious-bronchitis-virus
#2
ZhiKun Zhang, Xin Yang, PengWei Xu, Xuan Wu, Long Zhou, HongNing Wang
Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a member of the family Coronaviridae. A binding domain that mediates the attachment of the virus to its receptor has been identified in the S1 protein of prototype IBV strain M41. In this study, we identified this binding domain in a different strain, as well as the cellular proteins that interact with it. First, we expressed the S1N proteins (residues 19-270) of M41 and another isolate, SCZJ3, and compared the binding capacities of recombinant S1N-M41 and S1N-SCZJ3 to host tissues...
February 21, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224116/persistence-of-functional-protein-domains-in-mycoplasma-species-and-their-role-in-host-specificity-and-synthetic-minimal-life
#3
Tjerko Kamminga, Jasper J Koehorst, Paul Vermeij, Simen-Jan Slagman, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Jetta J E Bijlsma, Peter J Schaap
Mycoplasmas are the smallest self-replicating organisms and obligate parasites of a specific vertebrate host. An in-depth analysis of the functional capabilities of mycoplasma species is fundamental to understand how some of simplest forms of life on Earth succeeded in subverting complex hosts with highly sophisticated immune systems. In this study we present a genome-scale comparison, focused on identification of functional protein domains, of 80 publically available mycoplasma genomes which were consistently re-annotated using a standardized annotation pipeline embedded in a semantic framework to keep track of the data provenance...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223455/acute-fetal-demise-with-first-trimester-maternal-infection-resulting-from-listeria-monocytogenes-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model
#4
Bryce Wolfe, Gregory J Wiepz, Michele Schotzko, Gennadiy I Bondarenko, Maureen Durning, Heather A Simmons, Andres Mejia, Nancy G Faith, Emmanuel Sampene, Marulasiddappa Suresh, Sophia Kathariou, Charles J Czuprynski, Thaddeus G Golos
Infection with Listeria monocytogenes during pregnancy is associated with miscarriage, preterm birth, and neonatal complications, including sepsis and meningitis. While the risk of these conditions is thought to be greatest during the third trimester of pregnancy, the determinants of fetoplacental susceptibility to infection, the contribution of gestational age, and the in vivo progression of disease at the maternal-fetal interface are poorly understood. We developed a nonhuman primate model of listeriosis to better understand antecedents of adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223439/sumoylation-of-turnip-mosaic-virus-rna-polymerase-promotes-viral-infection-by-counteracting-the-host-npr1-mediated-immune-response
#5
Xiaofei Cheng, Ruyi Xiong, Yinzi Li, Fangfang Li, Xueping Zhou, Aiming Wang
Sumoylation is a transient, reversible dynamic posttranslational modification that regulates diverse cellular processes including plant-pathogen interactions. Sumoylation of NPR1, a master regulator of basal and systemic acquired resistance to a broad spectrum of plant pathogens, activates the defense response. Here, we report that NIb, the only RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) that targets the nucleus upon translation, interacts exclusively with and is sumoylated by SUMO3 (SMALL UBIQUITIN-LIKE MODIFIER3), but not the three other Arabidopsis thaliana SUMO paralogs...
February 21, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223348/immunoactive-clostridial-membrane-vesicle-production-is-regulated-by-a-sporulation-factor
#6
Nozomu Obana, Ryoma Nakao, Kyoko Nagayama, Kouji Nakamura, Hidenobu Senpuku, Nobuhiko Nomura
Recently, many Gram-positive bacteria as well as gram-negative bacteria have been reported to produce MVs, but little is known regarding the regulators involved in MV formation. We found that a Gram-positive anaerobic pathogen, Clostridium perfringens, produces MVs predominantly containing membrane proteins and cell wall components. These MVs stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine production in mouse macrophage-like cells. We suggested that MVs induced IL-6 production through the TLR2 signaling pathway. Thus, the MV could have a role in the bacteria-host interaction and bacterial infection pathogenesis...
February 21, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223346/chlamydia-trachomatis-cellular-exit-alters-interactions-with-host-dendritic-cells
#7
Ashley M Sherrid, Kevin Hybiske
The strategies utilized by pathogens to exit host cells are an area of pathogenesis which has received surprisingly little attention, considering the necessity of this step for infections to propagate. Even less is known about how exit through these pathways affects downstream host-pathogen interactions and the generation of an immune response. Chlamydia exits host epithelial cells through two equally-active mechanisms: lysis and extrusion. Studies have characterized the outcome of interactions between host innate immune cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages and free, extracellular Chlamydia such as those resulting from lysis...
February 21, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222748/identification-of-host-cellular-proteins-that-interact-with-the-m-protein-of-a-highly-pathogenic-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-vaccine-strain
#8
Qian Wang, Yanwei Li, Hong Dong, Li Wang, Jinmei Peng, Tongqing An, Xufu Yang, Zhijun Tian, Xuehui Cai
BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) continues to pose one of the greatest threats to the swine industry. M protein is the most conserved and important structural protein of PRRSV. However, information about the host cellular proteins that interact with M protein remains limited. METHODS: Host cellular proteins that interact with the M protein of HP-PRRSV were immunoprecipitated from MARC-145 cells infected with PRRSV HuN4-F112 using the M monoclonal antibody (mAb)...
February 22, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222744/herpes-simplex-virus-1-infection-dampens-the-immediate-early-antiviral-innate-immunity-signaling-from-peroxisomes-by-tegument-protein-vp16
#9
Chunfu Zheng, Chenhe Su
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is an archetypal member of the alphaherpesvirus subfamily with a large genome encoding over 80 proteins, many of which play a critical role in virus-host interactions and immune modulation. Upon viral infections, the host cells activate innate immune responses to restrict their replications. Peroxisomes, which have long been defined to regulate metabolic activities, are reported to be important signaling platforms for antiviral innate immunity...
February 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222234/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-brassica-napus-leptosphaeria-maculans-pathosystem-identifies-receptor-signalling-and-structural-genes-underlying-plant-resistance
#10
Michael G Becker, Xuehua Zhang, Philip L Walker, Joey C Wan, Jenna L Millar, Deirdre Khan, Matthew J Granger, Jacob D Cavers, Ainsley C Chan, Dilantha W G Fernando, Mark F Belmonte
The hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans is the causal agent of blackleg disease in Brassica napus (canola, oilseed rape) and causes significant yield loss worldwide. While genetic resistance has been used to mitigate the disease using traditional breeding strategies, there is little knowledge about the genes contributing to blackleg resistance. RNA sequencing and a streamlined bioinformatics pipeline identified unique genes and plant defense pathways specific to plant resistance in the B. napus-L...
February 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222092/the-genetic-basis-of-resistance-and-matching-allele-interactions-of-a-host-parasite-system-the-daphnia-magna-pasteuria-ramosa-model
#11
Gilberto Bento, Jarkko Routtu, Peter D Fields, Yann Bourgeois, Louis Du Pasquier, Dieter Ebert
Negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS) is an evolutionary mechanism suggested to govern host-parasite coevolution and the maintenance of genetic diversity at host resistance loci, such as the vertebrate MHC and R-genes in plants. Matching-allele interactions of hosts and parasites that prevent the emergence of host and parasite genotypes that are universally resistant and infective are a genetic mechanism predicted to underpin NFDS. The underlying genetics of matching-allele interactions are unknown even in host-parasite systems with empirical support for coevolution by NFDS, as is the case for the planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna and the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa...
February 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221136/an-essential-dual-function-complex-mediates-erythrocyte-invasion-and-channel-mediated-nutrient-uptake-in-malaria-parasites
#12
Daisuke Ito, Marc A Schureck, Sanjay A Desai
Malaria parasites evade immune detection by growth and replication within erythrocytes. After erythrocyte invasion, the intracellular pathogen must increase host cell uptake of nutrients from plasma. Here, we report that the parasite-encoded RhopH complex contributes to both invasion and channel-mediated nutrient uptake. As rhoph2 and rhoph3 gene knockouts were not viable in the human P. falciparum pathogen, we used conditional knockdowns to determine that the encoded proteins are essential and to identify their stage-specific functions...
February 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220417/steady-state-and-kinetics-based-affinity-determination-in-effector-effector-target-interactions
#13
André Reinhard, Thorsten Nürnberger
Dissecting the functional basis of pathogenicity and resistance in the context of plant innate immunity benefits greatly from detailed knowledge about biomolecular interactions, as both resistance and virulence depend on specific interactions between pathogen and host biomolecules. While in vivo systems provide biological context to host-pathogen interactions, these experiments typically cannot provide quantitative biochemical characterization of biomolecular interactions. However, in many cases, the biological function does not only depend on whether an interaction occurs at all, but rather on the "intensity" of the interaction, as quantified by affinity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220138/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-of-phomopsis-liquidambari-provides-insights-into-genes-associated-with-different-lifestyles-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#14
Jun Zhou, Xin Li, Yan Chen, Chuan-Chao Dai
The mechanisms that trigger the switch from endophytic fungi to saprophytic fungi are largely unexplored. Broad host range Phomopsis liquidambari is established in endophytic and saprophytic systems with rice (Oryza sativa L.). Endophytic P. liquidambari promotes rice growth, increasing rice yield and improving the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer. This species's saprophytic counterpart can decompose rice litterfall, promoting litter organic matter cycling and the release of nutrients and improving the soil microbial environment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219792/conjugative-type-iv-secretion-in-gram-positive-pathogens-trag-a-lytic-transglycosylase-and-endopeptidase-interacts-with-translocation-channel-protein-tram
#15
Verena Kohler, Ines Probst, Andreas Aufschnaiter, Sabrina Büttner, Lisa Schaden, Gerald Rechberger, Günther Koraimann, Elisabeth Grohmann, Walter Keller
Conjugative transfer plays a major role in the transmission of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. pIP501 is a Gram-positive conjugative model plasmid with the broadest transfer host-range known so far and is frequently found in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates. The pIP501 type IV secretion system is encoded by 15 transfer genes. In this work, we focus on the VirB1-like protein TraG, a modular peptidoglycan metabolizing enzyme, and the VirB8-homolog TraM, a potential member of the translocation channel...
February 17, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219398/interaction-between-hcmv-pul83-and-human-aim2-disrupts-the-activation-of-the-aim2-inflammasome
#16
Yuan Huang, Di Ma, Heyu Huang, Yuanyuan Lu, Yi Liao, Lingling Liu, Xinglou Liu, Feng Fang
BACKGROUND: AIM2, a cytosolic DNA sensor, plays an important role during infection caused by pathogens with double-stranded DNA; however, its role in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection remains unclear. Previously, we showed an increase in AIM2 protein levels during the early stage of HCMV infection and a decrease 24 h post infection. Because HCMV has developed a variety of strategies to evade host immunity, we speculated that this decline might be attributed to a viral immune escape mechanism...
February 20, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217556/group-b-streptococcus-induces-neutrophil-recruitment-to-gestational-tissues-and-elaboration-of-extracellular-traps-and-nutritional-immunity
#17
Vishesh Kothary, Ryan S Doster, Lisa M Rogers, Leslie A Kirk, Kelli L Boyd, Joann Romano-Keeler, Kathryn P Haley, Shannon D Manning, David M Aronoff, Jennifer A Gaddy
Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a gram-positive bacterial pathogen associated with infection during pregnancy and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Infection of the extraplacental membranes surrounding the developing fetus, a condition known as chorioamnionitis, is characterized histopathologically by profound infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs, neutrophils) and greatly increases the risk for preterm labor, stillbirth, or neonatal GBS infection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217110/intra-species-and-inter-kingdom-signaling-of-legionella-pneumophila
#18
REVIEW
Ramon Hochstrasser, Hubert Hilbi
The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila parasitizes environ mental amoebae and, upon inhalation, replicates in alveolar macrophages, thus causing a life-threatening pneumonia called "Legionnaires' disease." The opportunistic pathogen employs a bi-phasic life cycle, alternating between a replicative, non-virulent phase and a stationary, transmissive/virulent phase. L. pneumophila employs the Lqs (Legionella quorum sensing) system as a major regulator of the growth phase switch. The Lqs system comprises the autoinducer synthase LqsA, the homologous sensor kinases LqsS and LqsT, as well as a prototypic response regulator termed LqsR...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216292/evolutionary-constraints-shaping-streptococcus-pyogenes-host-interactions
#19
REVIEW
Reid V Wilkening, Michael J Federle
Research on the Gram-positive human-restricted pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) has long focused on invasive illness, the most severe manifestations of GAS infection. Recent advances in descriptions of molecular mechanisms of GAS virulence, coupled with massive sequencing efforts to isolate genomes, have allowed the field to better understand the molecular and evolutionary changes leading to pandemic strains. These findings suggest that it is necessary to rethink the dogma involving GAS pathogenesis, and that the most productive avenues for research going forward may be investigations into GAS in its 'normal' habitat, the nasopharynx, and its ability to either live with its host in an asymptomatic lifestyle or as an agent of superficial infections...
February 16, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215351/a-genomic-comparison-of-putative-pathogenicity-related-gene-families-in-five-members-of-the-ophiostomatales-with-different-lifestyles
#20
Ljerka Lah, Ulrike Löber, Tom Hsiang, Stefanie Hartmann
Ophiostomatoid fungi are vectored by their bark-beetle associates and colonize different host tree species. To survive and proliferate in the host, they have evolved mechanisms for detoxification and elimination of host defence compounds, efficient nutrient sequestration, and, in pathogenic species, virulence towards plants. Here, we assembled a draft genome of the spruce pathogen Ophiostoma bicolor. For our comparative and phylogenetic analyses, we mined the genomes of closely related species (Ophiostoma piceae, Ophiostoma ulmi, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, and Grosmannia clavigera)...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
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