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Host-pathogen interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909495/the-neuro-immune-regulators-niregs-promote-tissue-resilience-a-vital-component-of-the-host-s-defense-strategy-against-neuroinflammation
#1
REVIEW
Yosra Bedoui, Jim W Neal, Philippe Gasque
An effective protective inflammatory response in the brain is crucial for the clearance of pathogens (e.g. microbes, amyloid fibrils, prionSC ) and should be closely regulated. However, the CNS seems to have limited tissue resilience to withstand the detrimental effects of uncontrolled inflammation compromising functional recovery and tissue repair. Newly described neuro-immune-regulators (NIREGs) are functionally related proteins regulating the severity and duration of the host inflammatory response. NIREGs such as CD200, CD47 and CX3CL1 are vital for increasing tissue resilience and are constitutively expressed by neurons...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908908/myocardin-related-transcription-factor-a-mrtf-a-contributes-to-acute-kidney-injury-by-regulating-macrophage-ros-production
#2
Li Liu, Xiaoyan Wu, Huihui Xu, Liming Yu, Xinjian Zhang, Luyang Li, Jianliang Jin, Tao Zhang, Yong Xu
A host of pathogenic factors induce acute kidney injury (AKI) leading to insufficiencies of renal function. In the present study we evaluated the role of myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A) in the pathogenesis of AKI. We report that systemic deletion of MRTF-A or inhibition of MRTF-A activity with CCG-1423 significantly attenuated AKI in mice induced by either ischemia-reperfusion or LPS injection. Of note, MRTF-A deficiency or suppression resulted in diminished renal ROS production in AKI models with down-regulation of NAPDH oxdiase 1 (NOX1) and NOX4 expression...
June 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908592/ecological-complexity-in-plant-virus-host-range-evolution
#3
Michael J McLeish, Aurora Fraile, Fernando García-Arenal
The host range of a plant virus is the number of species in which it can reproduce. Most studies of plant virus host range evolution have focused on the genetics of host-pathogen interactions. However, the distribution and abundance of plant viruses and their hosts do not always overlap, and these spatial and temporal discontinuities in plant virus-host interactions can result in various ecological processes that shape host range evolution. Recent work shows that the distributions of pathogenic and resistant genotypes, vectors, and other resources supporting transmission vary widely in the environment, producing both expected and unanticipated patterns...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908591/emerging-viruses-in-bees-from-molecules-to-ecology
#4
Dino P McMahon, Lena Wilfert, Robert J Paxton, Mark J F Brown
Emerging infectious diseases arise as a result of novel interactions between populations of hosts and pathogens, and can threaten the health and wellbeing of the entire spectrum of biodiversity. Bees and their viruses are a case in point. However, detailed knowledge of the ecological factors and evolutionary forces that drive disease emergence in bees and other host-pathogen communities is surprisingly lacking. In this review, we build on the fundamental insight that viruses evolve and adapt over timescales that overlap with host ecology...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908590/evolutionary-determinants-of-host-and-vector-manipulation-by-plant-viruses
#5
Kerry E Mauck, Quentin Chesnais, Lori R Shapiro
Plant viruses possess adaptations for facilitating acquisition, retention, and inoculation by vectors. Until recently, it was hypothesized that these adaptations are limited to virus proteins that enable virions to bind to vector mouthparts or invade their internal tissues. However, increasing evidence suggests that viruses can also manipulate host plant phenotypes and vector behaviors in ways that enhance their own transmission. Manipulation of vector-host interactions occurs through virus effects on host cues that mediate vector orientation, feeding, and dispersal behaviors, and thereby, the probability of virus transmission...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908150/microscopy-in-infectious-disease-research-imaging-across-scales
#6
REVIEW
Vibor Laketa
A comprehensive understanding of host-pathogen interactions requires quantitative assessment of molecular events across a wide range of spatiotemporal scales and organizational complexities. Due to recent technical developments, this is currently only achievable with microscopy. This article is providing a general perspective on the importance of microscopy in infectious disease research, with a focus on new imaging modalities that promise to have a major impact in biomedical research in the years to come. Every major technological breakthrough in light microscopy depends on, and is supported by, advancements in computing and information technologies...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908065/a-complex-interplay-between-the-extracellular-matrix-and-the-innate-immune-response-to-microbial-pathogens
#7
REVIEW
Hannah Tomlin, Anna Maria Piccinini
The role of the host extracellular matrix (ECM) in infection tends to be neglected. However, the complex interactions between invading pathogens, host tissues and immune cells occur in the context of the ECM. On the pathogen side, a variety of surface and secreted molecules, including microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM) and tissue degrading enzymes, are employed that interact with different ECM proteins in order to effectively establish an infection at specific sites...
June 16, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907741/transmission-clearance-trade-offs-indicate-that-dengue-virulence-evolution-depends-on-epidemiological-context
#8
Rotem Ben-Shachar, Katia Koelle
An extensive body of theory addresses the topic of pathogen virulence evolution, yet few studies have empirically demonstrated the presence of fitness trade-offs that would select for intermediate virulence. Here we show the presence of transmission-clearance trade-offs in dengue virus using viremia measurements. By fitting a within-host model to these data, we further find that the interaction between dengue and the host immune response can account for the observed trade-offs. Finally, we consider dengue virulence evolution when selection acts on the virus's production rate...
June 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907707/-leishmania-donovani-exploits-tollip-a-multitasking-protein-to-impair-tlr-il-1r-signaling-for-its-survival-in-the-host
#9
Naveen Parmar, Pragya Chandrakar, Preeti Vishwakarma, Kavita Singh, Kalyan Mitra, Susanta Kar
IL-1R/TLR signaling plays a significant role in sensing harmful foreign pathogens and mounting effective innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the precise mechanism by which Leishmania donovani, an obligate intramacrophagic pathogen, breaches IL-1R/TLR signaling and host-protective immunity remains obscure. In this study, we report the novel biphasic role of Toll-interacting protein (Tollip), a negative regulator of the IL-1R/TLR pathway, in the disease progression of experimental visceral leishmaniasis...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907103/ultrastructural-analysis-of-mitotic-drosophila-s2-cells-identifies-distinctive-microtubule-and-intracellular-membrane-behaviors
#10
Anton Strunov, Lidiya V Boldyreva, Evgeniya N Andreyeva, Gera A Pavlova, Julia V Popova, Alena V Razuvaeva, Alina F Anders, Fioranna Renda, Alexey V Pindyurin, Maurizio Gatti, Elena Kiseleva
BACKGROUND: S2 cells are one of the most widely used Drosophila melanogaster cell lines. A series of studies has shown that they are particularly suitable for RNAi-based screens aimed at the dissection of cellular pathways, including those controlling cell shape and motility, cell metabolism, and host-pathogen interactions. In addition, RNAi in S2 cells has been successfully used to identify many new mitotic genes that are conserved in the higher eukaryotes, and for the analysis of several aspects of the mitotic process...
June 15, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906476/adar1-affects-hcv-infection-by-modulating-innate-immune-response
#11
Maria Pujantell, Sandra Franco, Iván Galván-Femenía, Roger Badia, Marc Castellví, Edurne Garcia-Vidal, Bonaventura Clotet, Rafael de Cid, Cristina Tural, Miguel A Martínez, Eva Riveira-Muñoz, José A Esté, Ester Ballana
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a globally prevalent infectious pathogen. As many as 80% of people infected with HCV do not control the virus and develop a chronic infection. Response to interferon (IFN) therapy is widely variable in chronic HCV infected patients, suggesting that HCV has evolved mechanisms to suppress and evade innate immunity responsible for its control and elimination. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is a relevant factor in the regulation of the innate immune response. The loss of ADAR1 RNA-editing activity and the resulting loss of inosine bases in RNA are critical in producing aberrant RLR-mediated innate immune response, mediated by RNA sensors MDA5 and RIG-I...
June 12, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905867/cyclic-nucleotide-signaling-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-an-expanding-repertoire
#12
Richard M Johnson, Kathleen A McDonough
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of the most successful microbial pathogens, and currently infects over a quarter of the world's population. Mtb's success depends on the ability of the bacterium to sense and respond to dynamic and hostile environments within the host, including the ability to regulate bacterial metabolism and interactions with the host immune system. One of the ways Mtb senses and responds to conditions it faces during infection is through the concerted action of multiple cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904082/interactions-of-commensal-and-pathogenic-microorganisms-with-the-intestinal-mucosal-barrier
#13
REVIEW
Eric C Martens, Mareike Neumann, Mahesh S Desai
The intestinal mucosal barrier is composed of epithelial cells that are protected by an overlying host-secreted mucous layer and functions as the first line of defence against pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. Some microorganisms have evolved strategies to either survive in the mucosal barrier or circumvent it to establish infection. In this Review, we discuss the current state of knowledge of the complex interactions of commensal microorganisms with the intestinal mucosal barrier, and we discuss strategies used by pathogenic microorganisms to establish infection by either exploiting different epithelial cell lineages or disrupting the mucous layer, as well as the role of defects in mucus production in chronic disease...
June 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904064/cell-entry-of-a-host-targeting-protein-of-oomycetes-requires-gp96
#14
Franziska Trusch, Lars Loebach, Stephan Wawra, Elaine Durward, Andreas Wuensch, Nurul Aqilah Iberahim, Irene de Bruijn, Kevin MacKenzie, Ariane Willems, Aleksandra Toloczko, Javier Diéguez-Uribeondo, Tim Rasmussen, Thomas Schrader, Peter Bayer, Chris J Secombes, Pieter van West
The animal-pathogenic oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica causes serious losses in aquaculture by infecting and killing freshwater fish. Like plant-pathogenic oomycetes, S. parasitica employs similar infection structures and secretes effector proteins that translocate into host cells to manipulate the host. Here, we show that the host-targeting protein SpHtp3 enters fish cells in a pathogen-independent manner. This uptake process is guided by a gp96-like receptor and can be inhibited by supramolecular tweezers...
June 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903917/delineating-ftsq-mediated-regulation-of-cell-division-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
Preeti Jain, Basanti Malakar, Mehak Zahoor Khan, Savita Lochab, Archana Singh, Vinay K Nandicoori
Identifying and characterizing the individual contributors to bacterial cellular elongation and division will improve our understanding of their impact on cell growth and division. Here, we delineated the role of ftsQ, a terminal gene of the highly conserved division cell wall (dcw) operon, in growth, survival, and cell length maintenance in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We found that FtsQ overexpression significantly increases the cell length and number of multiseptate cells. FtsQ depletion in Mtb resulted in cells that were shorter than WT cells during the initial growth stages (4 days after FtsQ depletion), but were longer than WT cells at later stages (10 days after FtsQ depletion), and compromised the survival in vitro and in differentiated THP1 macrophages...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902439/the-impact-of-dietary-transition-metals-on-host-bacterial-interactions
#16
REVIEW
Christopher A Lopez, Eric P Skaar
Transition metals are required cofactors for many proteins that are critical for life, and their concentration within cells is carefully maintained to avoid both deficiency and toxicity. To defend against bacterial pathogens, vertebrate immune proteins sequester metals, in particular zinc, iron, and manganese, as a strategy to limit bacterial acquisition of these necessary nutrients in a process termed "nutritional immunity." In response, bacteria have evolved elegant strategies to access metals and counteract this host defense...
June 13, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901432/host-pathogen-interaction-reconstituted-in-3-dimensional-cocultures-of-mucosa-and-i-c-albicans-i
#17
Romina Buchs, Bruno Lehner, Phillippe Meuwly, Bruno Schnyder
<i>C. albicans</i> frequently causes recurrent intimal infectious disease (ID). This demands the treatment of multiple phases of the infection. The objective of this study was to uncover the host-pathogen-interaction using 2D epithelium cell-barrier and 3D subepithelium tissue cells of human mucosa. The 2D cell cultures assessed <i>C. albicans</i> adhesion. Addition of the anti-fungal drug Fluconazol did not inhibit the adhesion, despite its pathogen growth inhibition (MIC value 0.08μg/mL)...
June 14, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900506/the-role-of-flaviviral-proteins-in-the-induction-of-innate-immunity
#18
L Cedillo-Barrón, J García-Cordero, G Shrivastava, S Carrillo-Halfon, M León-Juárez, J Bustos Arriaga, Pc León Valenzuela, B Gutiérrez Castañeda
Flaviviruses are positive, single-stranded, enveloped cytoplasmic sense RNA viruses that cause a variety of important diseases worldwide. Among them, Zika virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Dengue virus have the potential to cause severe disease. Extensive studies have been performed to elucidate the structure and replication strategies of flaviviruses, and current studies are aiming to unravel the complex molecular interactions between the virus and host during the very early stages of infection...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899369/network-biology-discovers-pathogen-contact-points-in-host-protein-protein-interactomes
#19
Hadia Ahmed, T C Howton, Yali Sun, Natascha Weinberger, Youssef Belkhadir, M Shahid Mukhtar
In all organisms, major biological processes are controlled by complex protein-protein interactions networks (interactomes), yet their structural complexity presents major analytical challenges. Here, we integrate a compendium of over 4300 phenotypes with Arabidopsis interactome (AI-1MAIN ). We show that nodes with high connectivity and betweenness are enriched and depleted in conditional and essential phenotypes, respectively. Such nodes are located in the innermost layers of AI-1MAIN and are preferential targets of pathogen effectors...
June 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899345/subtractive-proteomics-to-identify-novel-drug-targets-and-reverse-vaccinology-for-the-development-of-chimeric-vaccine-against-acinetobacter-baumannii
#20
Vandana Solanki, Vishvanath Tiwari
The emergence of drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is the global health problem associated with high mortality and morbidity. Therefore it is high time to find a suitable therapeutics for this pathogen. In the present study, subtractive proteomics along with reverse vaccinology approaches were used to predict suitable therapeutics against A. baumannii. Using subtractive proteomics, we have identified promiscuous antigenic membrane proteins that contain the virulence factors, resistance factors and essentiality factor for this pathogenic bacteria...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
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