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Host-pathogen interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036633/rna-sequencing-of-brassica-napus-reveals-cellular-redox-control-of-sclerotinia-infection
#1
Ian J Girard, Chaobo Tong, Michael G Becker, Xingyu Mao, Junyan Huang, Teresa de Kievit, W G Dilantha Fernando, Shengyi Liu, Mark F Belmonte
Brassica napus is one of the world's most valuable oilseeds and is under constant pressure by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal agent of white stem rot. Despite our growing understanding of host pathogen interactions at the molecular level, we have yet to fully understand the biological processes and underlying gene regulatory networks responsible for determining disease outcomes. Using global RNA sequencing, we profiled gene activity at the first point of infection on the leaf surface 24 hours after pathogen exposure in susceptible (B...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034957/a-root-knot-nematode-small-glycine-and-cysteine-rich-secreted-effector-misgcr1-is-involved-in-plant-parasitism
#2
Chinh-Nghia Nguyen, Laetitia Perfus-Barbeoch, Michaël Quentin, Jianlong Zhao, Marc Magliano, Nathalie Marteu, Martine Da Rocha, Nicolas Nottet, Pierre Abad, Bruno Favery
Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are obligate endoparasites that maintain a biotrophic relationship with their hosts. They infect roots as microscopic vermiform second-stage juveniles, and establish specialized feeding structures called 'giant-cells', from which they withdraw water and nutrients. The nematode effector proteins secreted in planta are key elements in the molecular dialogue of parasitism. Here, we compared Illumina RNA-seq transcriptomes for M. incognita obtained at various points in the lifecycle, and identified 31 genes more strongly expressed in parasitic stages than in preparasitic juveniles...
October 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034326/bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-destabilizes-influenza-viruses
#3
Christopher Bandoro, Jonathan A Runstadler
Depending on the specific viral pathogen, commensal bacteria can promote or reduce the severity of viral infection and disease progression in their hosts. Influenza A virus (IAV) has a broad host range, comprises many subtypes, and utilizes different routes of transmission, including the fecal-oral route in wild birds. It has been previously demonstrated that commensal bacteria can interact with the host's immune system to protect against IAV pathogenesis. However, it is unclear whether bacteria and their products may be interacting directly with IAV to impact virion stability...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034218/deciphering-babesia-vector-interactions
#4
REVIEW
Sandra Antunes, Catarina Rosa, Joana Couto, Joana Ferrolho, Ana Domingos
Understanding host-pathogen-tick interactions remains a vitally important issue that might be better understood by basic research focused on each of the dyad interplays. Pathogens gain access to either the vector or host during tick feeding when ticks are confronted with strong hemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses. A prominent example of this is the Babesia spp.-tick-vertebrate host relationship. Babesia spp. are intraerythrocytic apicomplexan organisms spread worldwide, with a complex life cycle. The presence of transovarial transmission in almost all the Babesia species is the main difference between their life cycle and that of other piroplasmida...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034217/evolution-of-salmonella-host-cell-interactions-through-a-dynamic-bacterial-genome
#5
REVIEW
Bushra Ilyas, Caressa N Tsai, Brian K Coombes
Salmonella Typhimurium has a broad arsenal of genes that are tightly regulated and coordinated to facilitate adaptation to the various host environments it colonizes. The genome of Salmonella Typhimurium has undergone multiple gene acquisition events and has accrued changes in non-coding DNA that have undergone selection by regulatory evolution. Together, at least 17 horizontally acquired pathogenicity islands (SPIs), prophage-associated genes, and changes in core genome regulation contribute to the virulence program of Salmonella...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034110/toll-like-receptor-4-dependent-inflammatory-responses-following-intestinal-colonization-of-secondary-abiotic-il10-deficient-mice-with-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Anne Grunau, Ulrike Escher, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
The rising incidences of infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) have gained increasing attention in medicine, but also in the general public and global health politics. The mechanisms underlying opportunistic pathogen-host interactions are unclear, however. To address this, we challenged secondary abiotic IL10(-/-) mice deficient for Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4(-/-) × IL10(-/-)), the main receptor of the Gram-negative cell wall constituent lipopolysaccharide, with a clinical MDR PA isolate...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034105/changes-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-host-homeostasis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-focus-on-the-bacterial-gut-microbiome
#7
REVIEW
Ana Beatriz Dein Terra Mota Ribeiro, Markus M Heimesaat, Stefan Bereswill
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections cause severe CD4+ T cell depletion leading to chronic inflammation and immune activation, impaired barrier function, and microbial translocation. Even under effective antiretroviral therapy, these processes persist, leading to gut microbiome dysbiosis and disturbance of microbiome-host homeostasis. This systematic review aims at analyzing how gut microbiome and host immune system influence each other during HIV pathogenesis. An online search applying the PubMed database was conducted...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033963/convergent-evolution-of-pathogen-effectors-toward-reactive-oxygen-species-signaling-networks-in-plants
#8
REVIEW
Nam-Soo Jwa, Byung Kook Hwang
Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033917/newly-isolated-bacteriophages-from-the-podoviridae-siphoviridae-and-myoviridae-families-have-variable-effects-on-putative-novel-dickeya-spp
#9
Špela Alič, Tina Naglič, Magda Tušek-Žnidarič, Maja Ravnikar, Nejc Rački, Matjaž Peterka, Tanja Dreo
Soft rot pathogenic bacteria from the genus Dickeya cause severe economic losses in orchid nurseries worldwide, and there is no effective control currently available. In the last decade, the genus Dickeya has undergone multiple changes as multiple new taxa have been described, and just recently a new putative Dickeya species was reported. This study reports the isolation of three bacteriophages active against putative novel Dickeya spp. isolates from commercially produced infected orchids that show variable host-range profiles...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032551/two-photon-intravital-microscopy-of-lyme-borrelia-in-mice
#10
Alexia A Belperron, Jialing Mao, Linda K Bockenstedt
Two-photon intravital microscopy is a powerful tool that allows visualization of cells in intact tissues in a live animal in real time. In recent years, this advanced technology has been applied to understand pathogen-host interactions using fluorescently labeled bacteria. In particular, infectious fluorescent transformants of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, an Ixodes tick-transmitted pathogen, have been imaged by two-photon intravital microscopy to study bacterial motility and interactions of the pathogen with feeding ticks and host tissues...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032547/genome-wide-mutagenesis-in-borrelia-burgdorferi
#11
Tao Lin, Lihui Gao
Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is a functional genomics approach to identify bacterial virulence determinants and virulence factors by simultaneously screening multiple mutants in a single host animal, and has been utilized extensively for the study of bacterial pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions, and spirochete and tick biology. The signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis has been developed to investigate virulence determinants and pathogenesis of Borrelia burgdorferi. Mutants in genes important in virulence are identified by negative selection in which the mutants fail to colonize or disseminate in the animal host and tick vector...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032348/systems-proteomics-approaches-to-study-bacterial-pathogens-application-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
REVIEW
Amir Banaei-Esfahani, Charlotte Nicod, Ruedi Aebersold, Ben C Collins
Significant developments and improvements in basic and clinical research notwithstanding, infectious diseases still claim at least 13 million lives annually. Classical research approaches have deciphered many molecular mechanisms underlying infection. Today it is increasingly recognized that multiple molecular mechanisms cooperate to constitute a complex system that is used by a given pathogen to interfere with the biochemical processes of the host. Therefore, systems-level approaches now complement the standard molecular biology techniques to investigate pathogens and their interactions with the human host...
October 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031697/ubiquitin-modifying-enzymes-and-regulation-of-the-inflammasome
#13
REVIEW
Michael G Kattah, Barbara A Malynn, Averil Ma
Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-modifying enzymes play critical roles in a wide variety of intracellular signaling pathways. Inflammatory signaling cascades downstream of TNF, TLR agonists, antigen receptor cross-linking, and cytokine receptors, all rely on ubiquitination events to direct subsequent immune responses. In the past several years, inflammasome activation and subsequent signal transduction have emerged as an excellent example of how ubiquitin signals control inflammatory responses. Inflammasomes are multiprotein signaling complexes that ultimately lead to caspase activation and release of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family members, IL-1β and IL-18...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030877/candida-albicans-possess-a-highly-versatile-and-dynamic-high-affinity-iron-transport-system-important-for-its-commensal-pathogenic-lifestyle
#14
Zeinab Mamouei, Guisheng Zeng, Yan-Ming Wang, Yue Wang
Iron is an essential nutrient for nearly all organisms, but iron overdose is toxic. The human commensal-pathogenic fungus Candida albicans traverses host niches with markedly different iron availability. During systemic infection, C. albicans must activate the high-affinity iron permease Ftr1 to acquire iron sequestered by the host's iron-withholding defense and suppresses iron uptake while residing in the iron-rich gut to avoid toxicity. Ftr1 associates with a ferroxidase to form an iron transporter. C. albicans contains four permease and five ferroxidase homologs, suggesting 20 possible subunit combinations...
October 14, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030446/comparative-genomics-based-markers-discrimination-of-host-specificity-in-fusarium-oxysporum
#15
Peter van Dam, Mara de Sain, Anneliek Ter Horst, Michelle van der Gragt, Martijn Rep
The polyphyletic nature of many formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) prevents molecular identification of newly encountered strains based on conserved, vertically inherited genes. Alternative molecular detection methods that could replace labour- and time-intensive disease assays are therefore highly desired. Effectors are functional elements in the pathogen-host interaction and have been found to show very limited sequence diversity between strains of the same forma specialis, which makes them potential markers for host-specific pathogenicty...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029144/broad-range-survey-of-vector-borne-pathogens-and-tick-host-identification-of-ixodes-ricinus-from-southern-czech-republic
#16
Vaclav Honig, Heather E Carolan, Zuzana Vavruskova, Christian Massire, Michael R Mosel, Christopher D Crowder, Megan A Rounds, David J Ecker, Daniel Ruzek, Libor Grubhoffer, Benjamin J Luft, Mark W Eshoo
Ixodes ricinus ticks are vectors of numerous human and animal pathogens. They are host generalists able to feed on more than 300 vertebrate species. The prevalence of tick-borne pathogens is influenced by host-vector-pathogen interactions that results in spatial distribution of infection risk. Broad-range PCR and electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) was used to analyze 435 I. ricinus nymphs from four localities in the south of the Czech Republic for the species identification of tick-borne pathogens...
October 3, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028886/analysis-of-protein-targets-in-pathogen-host-interaction-in-infectious-diseases-a-case-study-on-plasmodium-falciparum-and-homo-sapiens-interaction-network
#17
Sovan Saha, Kaustav Sengupta, Piyali Chatterjee, Subhadip Basu, Mita Nasipuri
Infection and disease progression is the outcome of protein interactions between pathogen and host. Pathogen, the role player of Infection, is becoming a severe threat to life as because of its adaptability toward drugs and evolutionary dynamism in nature. Identifying protein targets by analyzing protein interactions between host and pathogen is the key point. Proteins with higher degree and possessing some topologically significant graph theoretical measures are found to be drug targets. On the other hand, exceptional nodes may be involved in infection mechanism because of some pathway process and biologically unknown factors...
September 23, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028879/review-of-computational-methods-for-virus-host-protein-interaction-prediction-a-case-study-on-novel-ebola-human-interactions
#18
Anup Kumar Halder, Pritha Dutta, Mahantapas Kundu, Subhadip Basu, Mita Nasipuri
Identification of potential virus-host interactions is useful and vital to control the highly infectious virus-caused diseases. This may contribute toward development of new drugs to treat the viral infections. Recently, database records of clinically and experimentally validated interactions between a small set of human proteins and Ebola virus (EBOV) have been published. Using the information of the known human interaction partners of EBOV, our main objective is to identify a set of proteins that may interact with EBOV proteins...
September 26, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028545/penicillium-expansum-compatible-and-penicillium-digitatum-non-host-pathogen-infection-differentially-alter-ethylene-biosynthesis-in-apple-fruit
#19
Laura Vilanova, Núria Vall-Llaura, Rosario Torres, Josep Usall, Neus Teixidó, Christian Larrigaudière, Jordi Giné-Bordonaba
The role of ethylene on inducing plant resistance or susceptibility to certain fungal pathogens clearly depends on the plant pathogen interaction with little or no-information available focused on the apple-Penicillium interaction. Taken advantage that Penicillium expansum is the compatible pathogen and P. digitatum is the non-host of apples, the present study aimed at deciphering how each Penicillium spp. could interfere in the fruit ethylene biosynthesis at the biochemical and molecular level. The infection capacity and different aspects related to the ethylene biosynthesis were conducted at different times post-inoculation...
September 30, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027998/temporal-dynamics-of-uncultured-viruses-a-new-dimension-in-viral-diversity
#20
Ksenia Arkhipova, Timofey Skvortsov, John P Quinn, John W McGrath, Christopher Cr Allen, Bas E Dutilh, Yvonne McElarney, Leonid A Kulakov
Recent work has vastly expanded the known viral genomic sequence space, but the seasonal dynamics of viral populations at the genome level remain unexplored. Here we followed the viral community in a freshwater lake for 1 year using genome-resolved viral metagenomics, combined with detailed analyses of the viral community structure, associated bacterial populations and environmental variables. We reconstructed 8950 complete and partial viral genomes, the majority of which were not persistent in the lake throughout the year, but instead continuously succeeded each other...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
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