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Host-pathogen interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235255/immune-response-profiling-of-primary-monocytes-and-oral-keratinocytes-to-different-tannerella-forsythia-strains-and-their-cell-surface-mutants
#1
Susanne Bloch, Stephanie Zwicker, Nagihan Bostanci, Åsa Sjöling, Elisabeth A Boström, Georgios N Belibasakis, Christina Schäffer
The oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia possesses a unique surface (S-) layer with a complex O-glycan containing a bacterial sialic acid mimic in the form of either pseudaminic acid or legionaminic acid at its terminal position. We hypothesize that different T. forsythia strains employ these stereoisomeric sugar acids for interacting with the immune system and resident host tissues in the periodontium. Here, we show how T. forsythia strains ATCC 43037 and UB4, displaying pseudaminic acid and legionaminic acid, respectively, and selected cell surface mutants of these strains, modulate the immune response in monocytes and human oral keratinocytes (HOK) using a multiplex immunoassay...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234327/influence-of-microbiota-on-intestinal-immune-system-in-ulcerative-colitis-and-its-intervention
#2
REVIEW
Sai-Long Zhang, Shu-Na Wang, Chao-Yu Miao
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with chronic and recurrent characteristics caused by multiple reasons. Although the pathogenic factors have not been clarified yet, recent studies have demonstrated that intestinal microbiota plays a major role in UC, especially in the immune system. This review focuses on the description of several major microbiota communities that affect UC and their interactions with the host. In this review, eight kinds of microbiota that are highly related to IBD, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa, Bacteroides, Roseburia species, Eubacterium rectale, Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium, and Candida albicans are demonstrated on the changes in amount and roles in the onset and progression of IBD...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234123/dusp1-regulates-apoptosis-and-cell-migration-but-not-the-jip1-protected-cytokine-response-during-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-sendai-virus-infection
#3
Alexa C Robitaille, Elise Caron, Nicolas Zucchini, Espérance Mukawera, Damien Adam, Mélissa K Mariani, Anaïs Gélinas, Audray Fortin, Emmanuelle Brochiero, Nathalie Grandvaux
The host antiviral response involves the induction of interferons and proinflammatory cytokines, but also the activation of cell death pathways, including apoptosis, to limit viral replication and spreading. This host defense is strictly regulated to eliminate the infection while limiting tissue damage that is associated with virus pathogenesis. Post-translational modifications, most notably phosphorylation, are key regulators of the antiviral defense implying an important role of protein phosphatases. Here, we investigated the role of the dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) in the host defense against human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a pathogenic virus of the Pneumoviridae family, and Sendai virus (SeV), a model virus being developed as a vector for anti-RSV vaccine...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233945/resource-limitation-prevents-the-emergence-of-drug-resistance-by-intensifying-within-host-competition
#4
Nina Wale, Derek G Sim, Matthew J Jones, Rahel Salathe, Troy Day, Andrew F Read
Slowing the evolution of antimicrobial resistance is essential if we are to continue to successfully treat infectious diseases. Whether a drug-resistant mutant grows to high densities, and so sickens the patient and spreads to new hosts, is determined by the competitive interactions it has with drug-susceptible pathogens within the host. Competitive interactions thus represent a good target for resistance management strategies. Using an in vivo model of malaria infection, we show that limiting a resource that is disproportionately required by resistant parasites retards the evolution of drug resistance by intensifying competitive interactions between susceptible and resistant parasites...
December 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233913/reference-quality-genome-assemblies-of-three-parastagonospora-nodorum%C3%A2-isolates-differing-in-virulence-on-wheat
#5
Jonathan K Richards, Nathan A Wyatt, Zhaohui Liu, Justin D Faris, Timothy L Friesen
Parastagonospora nodorum, the causal agent of Septoria nodorum blotch of wheat, has emerged as a model necrotrophic fungal organism for the study of host-microbe interactions. To date, three necrotrophic effectors have been identified and characterized from this pathogen, including SnToxA, SnTox1, and SnTox3. Necrotrophic effector identification was greatly aided by the development of a draft genome of Australian isolate SN15 via Sanger sequencing, yet remained largely fragmented. This research presents the development of near-finished genomes of P...
December 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233878/host-pathogen-interactions-and-subversion-of-autophagy
#6
REVIEW
David G McEwan
Macroautophagy ('autophagy'), is the process by which cells can form a double-membraned vesicle that encapsulates material to be degraded by the lysosome. This can include complex structures such as damaged mitochondria, peroxisomes, protein aggregates and large swathes of cytoplasm that can not be processed efficiently by other means of degradation. Recycling of amino acids and lipids through autophagy allows the cell to form intracellular pools that aid survival during periods of stress, including growth factor deprivation, amino acid starvation or a depleted oxygen supply...
December 12, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232932/adjuvant-probiotics-and-the-intestinal-microbiome-enhancing-vaccines-and-immunotherapy-outcomes
#7
REVIEW
Luis Vitetta, Emma Tali Saltzman, Michael Thomsen, Tessa Nikov, Sean Hall
Immune defence against pathogenic agents comprises the basic premise for the administration of vaccines. Vaccinations have hence prevented millions of infectious illnesses, hospitalizations and mortality. Acquired immunity comprises antibody and cell mediated responses and is characterized by its specificity and memory. Along a similar congruent yet diverse mode of disease prevention, the human host has negotiated from in utero and at birth with the intestinal commensal bacterial cohort to maintain local homeostasis in order to achieve immunological tolerance in the new born...
December 11, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231889/exploring-the-caste-specific-multi-layer-defense-mechanism-of-formosan-subterranean-termites-coptotermes-formosanus-shiraki
#8
Abid Hussain, Ming-Yi Tian, Shuo-Yang Wen
The survival and foraging of Coptotermesformosanus Shiraki in a microbe-rich environment reflect the adaptation of an extraordinary, sophisticated defense mechanism by the nest-mates. We aimed to explore the host pathogen interaction by studying caste-specific volatile chemistry and genes encoding the antioxidant defense of winged imagoes, nymphs, soldiers and workers of Formosan subterranean termites. Qualitative analyses of C.formosanus Shiraki performed by HS-SPME/GC-MS showed considerable variations in the chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their proportions among all the castes...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231886/feed-intake-and-weight-changes-in-bos-indicus-bos-taurus-crossbred-steers-following-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-type-1b-challenge-under-production-conditions
#9
Chase A Runyan, Erika D Downey-Slinker, Julia F Ridpath, Thomas B Hairgrove, Jason E Sawyer, Andy D Herring
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366) that were challenged with BVDV Type 1b, and where family lines were stratified across three vaccine treatments of modified live (MLV), killed, (KV) or no vaccine (NON). Pyrexia classification based on 40.0 °C threshold following challenge and vaccine treatment were investigated for potential interactions with sire for weight change and feed intake following challenge...
December 12, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231805/understanding-host-parasite-relationship-the-immune-central-nervous-system-microenvironment-and-its-effect-on-brain-infections
#10
Laura Adalid-Peralta, Brenda Sáenz, Gladis Fragoso, Graciela Cárdenas
The central nervous system (CNS) has been recognized as an immunologically specialized microenvironment, where immune surveillance takes a distinctive character, and where delicate neuronal networks are sustained by anti-inflammatory factors that maintain local homeostasis. However, when a foreign agent such as a parasite establishes in the CNS, a set of immune defences is mounted and several immune molecules are released to promote an array of responses, which ultimately would control the infection and associated damage...
December 12, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230233/whole-genome-sequencing-of-fusarium-fujikuroi-provides-insight-into-the-role-of-secretory-proteins-and-cell-wall-degrading-enzymes-in-causing-bakanae-disease-of-rice
#11
Bishnu M Bashyal, Kirti Rawat, Sapna Sharma, Deepika Kulshreshtha, S Gopala Krishnan, Ashok K Singh, Himanshu Dubey, Amolkumar U Solanke, T R Sharma, Rashmi Aggarwal
Fusarium fujikuroi causing bakanae disease has emerged as one of the major pathogen of rice across the world. The study aims to comparative genomic analysis of Fusarium fujikuroi isolates and identification of the secretary proteins of the fungus involved in rice pathogenesis. In the present study, F. fujikuroi isolate "F250" was sequenced with an assembly size of 42.47 Mb providing coverage of 96.89% on reference IMI58289 genome. A total of 13,603 protein-coding genes were predicted from genome assembly. The average gene density in the F...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230047/three-dimensional-3d-culture-of-adult-murine-colon-as-an-in-vitro-model-of-cryptosporidiosis-proof-of-concept
#12
Martha Baydoun, Sadia Benamrouz Vanneste, Colette Creusy, Karine Guyot, Nausicaa Gantois, Magali Chabe, Baptiste Delaire, Anthony Mouray, Atallah Baydoun, Gerard Forzy, Vincent Chieux, Pierre Gosset, Vincent Senez, Eric Viscogliosi, Jérôme Follet, Gabriela Certad
Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of diarrheal illness and was recently potentially associated with digestive carcinogenesis. Despite its impact on human health, Cryptosporidium pathogenesis remains poorly known, mainly due to the lack of a long-term culture method for this parasite. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a three-dimensional (3D) culture model from adult murine colon allowing biological investigations of the host-parasite interactions in an in vivo-like environment and, in particular, the development of parasite-induced neoplasia...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229911/comparative-genome-analysis-of-the-vineyard-weed-endophyte-pseudomonas-viridiflava-cdrtc14-showing-selective-herbicidal-activity
#13
Abdul Samad, Livio Antonielli, Angela Sessitsch, Stéphane Compant, Friederike Trognitz
Microbes produce a variety of secondary metabolites to be explored for herbicidal activities. We investigated an endophyte Pseudomonas viridiflava CDRTc14, which impacted growth of its host Lepidium draba L., to better understand the possible genetic determinants for herbicidal and host-interaction traits. Inoculation tests with a variety of target plants revealed that CDRTc14 shows plant-specific effects ranging from beneficial to negative. Its herbicidal effect appeared to be dose-dependent and resembled phenotypically the germination arrest factor of Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229824/molecular-mechanism-for-the-subversion-of-the-retromer-coat-by-the-legionella-effector-ridl
#14
Miguel Romano-Moreno, Adriana L Rojas, Chad D Williamson, David C Gershlick, María Lucas, Michail N Isupov, Juan S Bonifacino, Matthias P Machner, Aitor Hierro
Microbial pathogens employ sophisticated virulence strategies to cause infections in humans. The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila encodes RidL to hijack the host scaffold protein VPS29, a component of retromer and retriever complexes critical for endosomal cargo recycling. Here, we determined the crystal structure of L. pneumophila RidL in complex with the human VPS29-VPS35 retromer subcomplex. A hairpin loop protruding from RidL inserts into a conserved pocket on VPS29 that is also used by cellular ligands, such as Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16 domain family member 5 (TBC1D5) and VPS9-ankyrin repeat protein for VPS29 binding...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229568/trans-kingdom-rna-silencing-in-plant-fungal-pathogen-interactions
#15
REVIEW
Chenlei Hua, Jian-Hua Zhao, Hui-Shan Guo
Fungal pathogens represent a major group of plant invaders that are the causative agents of many notorious plant diseases. Large quantities of RNAs, especially small RNAs involved in gene silencing, have been found to transmit bidirectionally between fungal pathogens and their hosts. Although host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) technology has been developed and applied to protect crops from fungal infections, the mechanisms of RNA transmission, especially small RNAs regulating trans-kingdom RNA silencing in plant immunity, are largely unknown...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229567/rice-stripe-virus-interferes-with-s-acylation-of-remorin-and-induces-its-autophagic-degradation-to-facilitate-virus-infection
#16
Shuai Fu, Yi Xu, Chenyang Li, Yi Li, Jianxiang Wu, Xueping Zhou
Remorins are plant-specific membrane-associated proteins, and were proposed to play crucial roles in plant-pathogen interactions. However, little is known about pathogens' counter-response to remorin-mediated regulation. Here, we find the remorin protein (NbREM1) is down-regulated early in Rice stripe virus (RSV) infection by quantitative whole-proteome analysis. We demonstrate that the turnover of NbREM1 is regulated by the S-acylation modification and can enter the autophagy pathway for degradation. We further show that RSV can interfere with the S-acylation of NbREM1, that is required for negatively regulates RSV infection by restricting virus cell-to-cell trafficking...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229473/cystic-fibrosis-research-topics-featured-at-the-14th-ecfs-basic-science-conference-chairman-s-summary
#17
Marcus A Mall, Tzyh-Chang Hwang, Ineke Brakman
In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in the development of novel drugs targeting the basic defect in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This breakthrough is based on a solid foundation of knowledge on CFTR's function in health and how mutations in CFTR cause CF multi-organ disease. This knowledge has been collected and continuously expanded by an active and persistent CF research community and has paved the way for precision medicine for CF. Since 2004, the European Cystic Fibrosis Society (ECFS) has held an annual Basic Science Conference that has evolved as an international forum for interdisciplinary discussion of hot topics and unsolved questions related to CF research...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229386/the-interaction-of-soybean-reticulon-homology-domain-protein-gmrhp-with-soybean-mosaic-virus-encoded-p3-contributes-to-the-viral-infection
#18
Xiaoyan Cui, Lu Lu, Ying Wang, Xingxing Yuan, Xin Chen
Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), a member of the Potyvirus genus, is a prevalent and devastating viral pathogen in soybean-growing regions worldwide. Potyvirus replication occurs in the 6K2-induced viral replication complex at endoplasmic reticulum exit sites. Potyvirus-encoded P3 is also associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and is as an essential component of the viral replication complex, playing a key role in viral replication. This study provides evidence that the soybean (Glycine max) reticulon homology domain protein (designated as GmRHP) interacts with SMV P3 by using a two-hybrid yeast system to screen a soybean cDNA library...
December 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229193/novel-role-of-vpmas-as-major-adhesins-of-mycoplasma-agalactiae-mediating-differential-cell-adhesion-and-invasion-of-vpma-expression-variants
#19
Shrilakshmi Hegde, Martina Zimmermann, Renate Rosengarten, Rohini Chopra-Dewasthaly
Mycoplasma agalactiae exhibits antigenic variation by switching the expression of multiple surface lipoproteins called Vpmas. Although implicated to have a significant influence on the pathogenicity, their exact role in pathogen-host interactions has not been investigated so far. Initial attachment to host cells is regarded as one of the most important steps for colonization but this pathogen lacks the typical mycoplasma attachment organelle. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Vpmas in adhesion of M...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227356/novel-advances-on-tissue-immune-dynamics-in-hiv-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-lessons-from-imaging-studies
#20
Eirini Moysi, Kartika Padhan, Giulia Fabozzi, Constantinos Petrovas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent findings on the effect of HIV/SIV infection on lymph node viral and T-cell dynamics using imaging-based methodologies. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic infection, particularly HIV/SIV, alters dramatically the microenvironment, immune cell frequency, distribution, function and tissue organization of secondary lymphoid tissues. These changes are not always reversible. Over the past few years, the implementation of advanced imaging protocols on human lymph node biopsies as well as on longitudinal lymphoid tissues samples from nonhuman primates (NHP) have provided a wealth of information on how local immune responses evolve over time in response to a persisting retroviral pathogen...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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