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Host-pathogen interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526790/post-epizootic-persistence-of-asymptomatic-mycoplasma-conjunctivae-infection-in-iberian-ibex
#1
Xavier Fernández-Aguilar, Oscar Cabezón, José Enrique Granados, Joachim Frey, Emmanuel Serrano, Roser Velarde, Francisco Javier Cano-Manuel, Gregorio Mentaberre, Arián Ráez-Bravo, Paulino Fandos, Jorge Ramón López-Olvera
The susceptibility of Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) to Mycoplasma conjunctivae ocular infection and the changes in their interaction over time were studied in terms of clinical outcome, molecular detection and IgG immune response in a captive population that underwent a severe infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) outbreak. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was detected for the first time in the Iberian ibexes coinciding with the IKC outbreak. Its prevalence had a decreasing trend in 2013 that was consistent with the clinical resolution (August 35...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524855/viral-hijacking-of-host-caspases-an-emerging-category-of-pathogen-host-interactions
#2
REVIEW
Patrick F Connolly, Howard O Fearnhead
Viruses co-evolve with their hosts, and many viruses have developed mechanisms to suppress or modify the host cell apoptotic response for their own benefit. Recently, evidence has emerged for the opposite strategy. Some viruses have developed the ability to co-opt apoptotic caspase activity to facilitate their own proliferation. In these strategies, viral proteins are cleaved by host caspases to create cleavage products with novel activities which facilitate viral replication. This represents a novel and interesting class of viral-host interactions, and also represents a new group of non-apoptotic roles for caspases...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524748/an-unwanted-guest-neisseria-meningitides-carriage-risk-for-invasive-disease-and-the-impact-of-vaccination-with-insights-from-italy-incidence
#3
Elena Gianchecchi, Giulia Piccini, Alessandro Torelli, Rino Rappuoli, Emanuele Montomoli
Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) represents a potentially life-threatening condition caused by Neisseria meningitidis. The disease is characterized by a case fatality rate of 5-10% whereas serious clinical sequelae can develop in survivors within 12-24 hours from the first symptoms. However, IMD infection only occurs rarely, in fact, most of the interactions established between N. meningitidis and the host are harmless, and an estimated 10% of the population asymptomatically carries the bacterium in the nasopharynx...
May 19, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524625/mrna-decay-an-adaptation-tool-for-the-environmental-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#4
REVIEW
Amanda L M Bloom, Jay Leipheimer, John C Panepinto
Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment and humans constantly encounter them in the soil, air, water, and food. The vast majority of these interactions are inconsequential. However, in the context of immunodeficiency precipitated by HIV infection, hematologic malignancy, or transplantation, a small subset of fungi can cause devastating, systemic infection. The most deadly of the opportunistic environmental fungi, Cryptococcus neoformans, is estimated to cause hundreds of thousands of deaths per year, mostly in the context of HIV co-infection...
May 19, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523395/evaluating-the-association-between-body-weight-and-the-intestinal-microbiota-of-weaned-piglets-via-16s-rrna-sequencing
#5
Geon Goo Han, Jun-Yeong Lee, Gwi-Deuk Jin, Jongbin Park, Yo Han Choi, Byung Jo Chae, Eun Bae Kim, Yun-Jaie Choi
Due to the ban on the use of antimicrobial growth promoters in livestock feeds, understanding the relationship between intestinal microbiota and the physiology of the host has become very important for improving livestock performance. In this study, we investigated the relationship between intestinal microbiota and body weights of weaned piglets. Lighter (n = 9) and heavier (n = 9) 9-week-old weaned piglets were selected from approximately one hundred individuals based on their body weights. Their fecal microbial communities were analyzed by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene...
May 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522996/interfering-satellite-rnas-of-bamboo-mosaic-virus
#6
REVIEW
Kuan-Yu Lin, Na-Sheng Lin
Satellite RNAs (satRNAs) are sub-viral agents that may interact with their cognate helper virus (HV) and host plant synergistically and/or antagonistically. SatRNAs totally depend on the HV for replication, so satRNAs and HV usually evolve similar secondary or tertiary RNA structures that are recognized by a replication complex, although satRNAs and HV do not share an appreciable sequence homology. The satRNAs of Bamboo mosaic virus (satBaMV), the only satRNAs of the genus Potexvirus, have become one of the models of how satRNAs can modulate HV replication and virus-induced symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522323/in-vivo-imaging-of-pathogen-homing-to-the-host-tissues
#7
Joana Tavares, David M Costa, Ana Rafaela Teixeira, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Rogerio Amino
Hematogenous dissemination followed by tissue tropism is a characteristic of the infectious process of many pathogens including those transmitted by blood-feeding vectors. After entering into the blood circulation, these pathogens must arrest in the target organ before they infect a specific tissue. Here, we describe a non-invasive method to visualize and quantify the homing of pathogens to the host tissues. By using in vivo bioluminescence imaging we quantify the accumulation of luciferase-expressing parasites in the host organs during the first minutes following their intravascular inoculation in mice...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521336/chemical-ecology-of-antibiotic-production-by-actinomycetes
#8
Anne van der Meij, Sarah F Worsley, Matthew I Hutchings, Gilles P van Wezel
Actinomycetes are a diverse family of filamentous bacteria that produce a plethora of natural products relevant for agriculture, biotechnology and medicine, including the majority of the antibiotics we use in the clinic. Rather than as free-living bacteria, many actinomycetes have evolved to live in symbiosis with among others plants, fungi, insects and sponges. As a common theme, these organisms profit from the natural products and enzymes produced by the actinomycetes, for example, for protection against pathogenic microbes, for growth promotion or for the degradation of complex natural polymers such as lignocellulose...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521002/changes-in-microbiome-during-and-after-travellers-diarrhea-what-we-know-and-what-we-do-not
#9
David A Rasko
The study of bacterial pathogens has advanced from culture on plates to basic biochemical studies; to sequencing reference genomes and attempting to ascribe those qualities to the whole species; to evaluating complete communities based on the universal marker of the 16S rRNA gene; to now sequencing all available nucleic acids in any sample to characterize the community as a whole. These types of scientific advances highlight that there are multiple layers of information within any sample, and to some extent we are only now beginning to be able to identify, categorize and understand the complex interactions of the host, pathogen and microbiome...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518475/lipid-bodies-accumulation-in-leishmania-infantum-infected-c57bl-6-macrophages
#10
Nilda E Rodríguez, Ryan D Lockard, Elizabeth A Turcotte, Théo Araujo-Santos, Patrícia T Bozza, Valéria M Borges, Mary E Wilson
Lipid bodies (LBs) are intracellular accumulations of neutral lipids surrounded by a single membrane. These organelles are involved in the production of eicosanoids, which modulate immunity by either promoting or dampening inflammatory responses. Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, is an intracellular parasite that causes disease by suppressing macrophage microbicidal responses. C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with L. infantum strain LcJ had higher numbers of LB+ cells (P<0...
May 18, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518080/rearing-ixodes-scapularis-the-black-legged-tick-feeding-immature-stages-on-mice
#11
Andrew B Nuss, Manoj G Mathew, Monika Gulia-Nuss
Ixodes scapularis, the vector of Lyme disease, is one of the most important disease vectors in the eastern and Midwestern United States. This species is a three host tick that requires a blood meal from a vertebrate host for each development stage, and the adult females require a blood meal for reproduction. Larval ticks attach to their host for 3 - 5 days for feeding and drop off the host when fully engorged. This dependency on several different hosts and the lengthy attachment time for engorgement complicates tick rearing in the laboratory setting...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517912/keeping-good-friends-close-the-surface-and-secreted-proteomes-of-a-probiotic-bacterium-provide-candidate-proteins-for-intestinal-attachment-and-communication-with-the-host
#12
Constance J Jeffery
Bacteria use cell surface proteins and secreted proteins to interact with host tissues. Several dozen previously published proteomics studies have identified cell surface proteins for pathogens. In this issue, Celebioglu and Svensson (Proteomics 2017, XXX, XXX-XXX) use 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify secreted and cell surface proteins of a commensual gut bacterium, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. Some of the proteins are known to have functions in the cytoplasm, and their presence on the cell surface suggests they might be moonlighting proteins...
May 18, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515178/a-model-specific-role-of-microrna-223-as-a-mediator-of-kidney-injury-during-experimental-sepsis
#13
James F Colbert, Joshay A Ford, Sarah M Haeger, Yimu Yang, Kyrie L Dailey, Kristen C Allison, Viola Neudecker, Christopher M Evans, Vanessa L Richardson, Kelley Brodsky, Sarah Faubel, Holger K Eltzschig, Eric P Schmidt, Adit A Ginde
Sepsis outcomes are heavily dependent on the development of septic organ injury, but no interventions exist to interrupt or reverse this process. MicroRNA-223 (miR-223) is known to be involved in both inflammatory gene regulation and host-pathogen interactions key to the pathogenesis of sepsis. The goal of this study was to determine the role of miR-223 as a mediator of septic kidney injury. Using miR-223 knockout mice and multiple models of experimental sepsis, we found that miR-223 differentially influences acute kidney injury (AKI) based on the model used...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514713/pattern-recognition-receptors-and-coordinated-cellular-pathways-involved-in-tuberculosis-immunopathogenesis-emerging-concepts-and-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Abhishek Mishra, Shamim Akhtar, Chinnaswamy Jagannath, Arshad Khan
Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) play a central role in the recognition of numerous pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, resulting in activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Besides Toll Like Receptors, C-type Lectin Receptors and Nod Like Receptors are now being recognized for their involvement in inducing immune response against M. tuberculosis infection. Although, a functional redundancy of the PRRs has also been reported in many studies, emerging evidences support the notion that a cooperative and coordinated response generated by these receptors is critical to sustain the full immune control of M...
May 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514661/innate-recognition-of-intracellular-bacterial-growth-is-driven-by-the-tifa-dependent-cytosolic-surveillance-pathway
#15
Ryan G Gaudet, Cynthia X Guo, Raphael Molinaro, Haila Kottwitz, John R Rohde, Anne-Sophie Dangeard, Cécile Arrieumerlou, Stephen E Girardin, Scott D Gray-Owen
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) act as sentinels for incoming pathogens. Cytosol-invasive bacteria, such as Shigella flexneri, trigger a robust pro-inflammatory nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) response from IECs that is believed to depend entirely on the peptidoglycan sensor NOD1. We found that, during Shigella infection, the TRAF-interacting forkhead-associated protein A (TIFA)-dependent cytosolic surveillance pathway, which senses the bacterial metabolite heptose-1,7-bisphosphate (HBP), functions after NOD1 to detect bacteria replicating free in the host cytosol...
May 16, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514636/eco-evolutionary-theory-and-insect-outbreaks
#16
David J Páez, Vanja Dukic, Jonathan Dushoff, Arietta Fleming-Davies, Greg Dwyer
Eco-evolutionary theory argues that population cycles in consumer-resource interactions are partly driven by natural selection, such that changes in densities and changes in trait values are mutually reinforcing. Evidence that the theory explains cycles in nature, however, is almost nonexistent. Experimental tests of model assumptions are logistically impractical for most organisms, while for others, evidence that population cycles occur in nature is lacking. For insect baculoviruses in contrast, tests of model assumptions are straightforward, and there is strong evidence that baculoviruses help drive population cycles in many insects, including the gypsy moth that we study here...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514196/interactions-between-ns1-of-influenza-a-viruses-and-interferon-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-determinants-for-vaccine-development
#17
Ben X Wang, Eleanor N Fish
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause mild to severe infections in humans with considerable socioeconomic and global health consequences. The host interferon (IFN)-α/β response, critical as the first line of defense against foreign pathogens, is induced upon detection of IAV genomic RNA in infected cells by host innate pattern recognition receptors. IFN-α/β production and subsequent activation of cell signaling result in the expression of antiviral IFN-stimulated genes whose products target various stages of the IAV life cycle to inhibit viral replication and the spread of infection and establish an antiviral state...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513848/aspergillus-fumigatus-in-cystic-fibrosis-an-update-on-immune-interactions-and-molecular-diagnostics-in-abpa
#18
REVIEW
Ania Carsin, Thomas Romain, Stéphane Ranque, Martine Reynaud-Gaubert, Jean-Christophe Dubus, Jean-Louis Mège, J Vitte
A wide spectrum of pathological conditions may result from the interaction of Aspergillus fumigatus and the immune system of its human host. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is one of the most severe Aspergillus fumigatus-related diseases due to possible evolution towards pleuropulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis occurs almost exclusively in cystic fibrosis or asthmatic patients. An estimated 8 to 10% of cystic fibrosis patients experience this condition...
May 17, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513566/neurophysiological-changes-induced-by-chronic-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#19
REVIEW
Ellen Tedford, Glenn McConkey
Although the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most pervasive neurotropic pathogens in the world, the host-parasite interactions during CNS infection and the consequences of neurological infection are just beginning to be unraveled. The chronic stages of infection have been considered dormant, although several studies have found correlations of infection with an array of host behavioral changes. These may facilitate parasite transmission and impact neurological diseases. During infection, in addition to the presence of the parasites within neurons, host-mediated neuroimmune and hormonal responses to infection are also present...
May 17, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512513/using-a-concept-inventory-to-reveal-student-thinking-associated-with-common-misconceptions-about-antibiotic-resistance
#20
Ann M Stevens, Ann C Smith, Gili Marbach-Ad, Sarah A Balcom, John Buchner, Sandra L Daniel, Jeffrey J DeStefano, Najib M El-Sayed, Kenneth Frauwirth, Vincent T Lee, Kevin S McIver, Stephen B Melville, David M Mosser, David L Popham, Birgit E Scharf, Florian D Schubot, Richard W Seyler, Patricia Ann Shields, Wenxia Song, Daniel C Stein, Richard C Stewart, Katerina V Thompson, Zhaomin Yang, Stephanie A Yarwood
Misconceptions, also known as alternate conceptions, about key concepts often hinder the ability of students to learn new knowledge. Concept inventories (CIs) are designed to assess students' understanding of key concepts, especially those prone to misconceptions. Two-tiered CIs include prompts that ask students to explain the logic behind their answer choice. Such two-tiered CIs afford an opportunity for faculty to explore the student thinking behind the common misconceptions represented by their choice of a distractor...
April 2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
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