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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150700/prevalence-of-intestinal-parasites-in-companion-dogs-with-diarrhea-in-beijing-china-and-genetic-characteristics-of-giardia-and-cryptosporidium-species
#1
Zhongjia Yu, Yang Ruan, Mengjie Zhou, Siyuan Chen, Yinxin Zhang, Liya Wang, Guan Zhu, Yonglan Yu
Companion animals including dogs are one of the important components in One Health. Parasites may cause not only diseases in pet animals but also many zoonotic diseases infecting humans. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in fecal specimens (n = 485) collected from outpatient pet dogs with diarrhea in Beijing, China, for the entire year of 2015 by microscopic examination (all parasites) and SSU rRNA-based nested PCR detection (Giardia and Cryptosporidium). We observed a total of 124 (25...
November 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150377/urgent-versus-post-stabilisation-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hospitalised-hiv-infected-children-in-kenya-push-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Irene N Njuguna, Lisa M Cranmer, Vincent O Otieno, Cyrus Mugo, Hellen M Okinyi, Sarah Benki-Nugent, Barbra Richardson, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Urgent antiretroviral therapy (ART) among hospitalised HIV-infected children might accelerate recovery or worsen outcomes associated with immune reconstitution. We aimed to compare urgent versus post-stabilisation ART among hospitalised HIV-infected children in Kenya. METHODS: In this unmasked randomised controlled trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) HIV-infected, ART-naive children aged 0-12 years who were eligible for treatment to receive ART within 48 h (urgent group) or in 7-14 days (post-stabilisation group) at four hospitals in Kenya (two in Nairobi and two in western Kenya)...
November 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150194/booster-influenza-vaccination-confers-additional-immune-responses-in-an-elderly-rural-community-dwelling-population
#3
Masahide Matsushita, Seisho Takeuchi, Naoko Kumagai, Masaaki Morio, Chise Matsushita, Kazumi Arise, Toshihide Awatani
This study aimed to examine the effects of a booster vaccination in elderly people using 2 doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine during the 2012-2013 influenza epidemic. Seroprotection rates against the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain in younger elderly people (aged 61-75 years) and the A(H3N2) and B strains in both younger elderly people (aged 61-75 years) as well as very elderly people (aged 76-102 years) did not decrease at 22 weeks after vaccination. This approach confers long-lasting antibody responses and may be useful in clinical practice...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149824/gene-therapy-and-retinal-diseases
#4
Claudio Campa, Carla Enrica Gallenga, Elena Bolletta, Paolo Perri
Background Gene therapy represents the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid polymers into a patient's cells with the aim of treating an underlying disease. Over the past 2 decades this new therapy has made substantial progress owing to better understanding of the pathobiologic basis of various diseases coupled with growth of gene transfer biotechnologies. The eye, in particular, represents a suitable target for such therapy due to the immune privilege provided by the blood-ocular barrier, the ability to directly visualize, access and locally treat the cells and the minimal amount of vector needed given the size of this organ...
November 16, 2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149510/transferrin-as-a-predictor-of-survival-in-cirrhosis
#5
André Viveiros, Armin Finkenstedt, Benedikt Schaefer, Mattias Mandorfer, Bernhard Scheiner, Konrad Lehner, Moritz Tobiasch, Thomas Reiberger, Herbert Tilg, Michael Edlinger, Heinz Zoller
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with cirrhosis frequently present with high serum ferritin and low transferrin concentrations, reflecting impaired liver function and inflammation. Recent studies have shown that transferrin and its saturation with iron are MELD-independent predictors of mortality in patients with acute on chronic liver failure or decompensated cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic utility of serum iron parameters in relation to markers of liver function and immune activation...
November 17, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149221/dietary-protein-sources-differentially-affect-microbiota-mtor-activity-and-transcription-of-mtor-signaling-pathways-in-the-small-intestine
#6
Soumya K Kar, Alfons J M Jansman, Nirupama Benis, Javier Ramiro-Garcia, Dirkjan Schokker, Leo Kruijt, Ellen H Stolte, Johanna J Taverne-Thiele, Mari A Smits, Jerry M Wells
Dietary protein sources can have profound effects on host-microbe interactions in the gut that are critically important for immune resilience. However more knowledge is needed to assess the impact of different protein sources on gut and animal health. Thirty-six wildtype male C57BL/6J mice of 35 d age (n = 6/group; mean ± SEM body weight 21.9 ± 0.25 g) were randomly assigned to groups fed for four weeks with semi synthetic diets prepared with one of the following protein sources containing (300 g/kg as fed basis): soybean meal (SBM), casein, partially delactosed whey powder, spray dried plasma protein, wheat gluten meal and yellow meal worm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148885/self-clearance-of-pestivirus-in-a-pyrenean-chamois-rupicapra-pyrenaica-population
#7
Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont, Mathieu Garel, Philippe Gibert, Sébastien Lambert, Pierre Menaut, Brigitte Bonetti, Yvette Game, Gaël Reynaud, Kévin Foulché
Understanding the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction is key to the management of epidemics. A pestivirus belonging to the border disease virus group 4 emerged around 2001 in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in Spain and France. The virus had significant demographic impact in some populations, but it was less harmful and more endemic in other places. The determinants of these local variations are still unclear. Here, we documented empirical evidence of self-clearance of the virus in a chamois population in France...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148828/increased-cellular-aging-by-3-years-of-age-in-latino-preschool-children-who-consume-more-sugar-sweetened-beverages-a-pilot-study
#8
Janet M Wojcicki, Rosalinda Medrano, Jue Lin, Elissa Epel
BACKGROUND: Previous studies in adults and older children find that sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption increases risk for obesity and cellular aging, as measured by leukocyte telomere length (LTL). METHODS: In a previously described, San Francisco-based Latino birth cohort, where telomere length was measured at birth, we evaluate the relationship between beverage consumption (including SSB and 100% fruit juice), obesity, and LTL at 2-3 years old, as well as change in LTL from birth...
November 17, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147850/the-tear-cytokine-profile-in-patients-with-active-graves-orbitopathy
#9
Morgan Yang, Yvonne Chung, Stephanie Lang, Nobuyo Yawata, Lay Leng Seah, Audrey Looi
PURPOSE: The primary aim of this study is to isolate cytokines specific for active Graves' orbitopathy (GO) in the tears of affected patients. The secondary aim is to identify other cytokines of interest and to look at the profile of their levels over time. METHODS: This is a prospective pilot study conducted at the Singapore National Eye Centre. A total of 10 patients with active GO and 10 patients from each of 3 control groups were recruited. The 3 control groups were the following: age-matched normal female patients, patients with GO who were clinically inactive and patients with bilateral viral conjunctivitis...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147621/in-depth-immunophenotyping-of-patients-with-glioblastoma-multiforme-impact-of-steroid-treatment
#10
Guranda Chitadze, Charlotte Flüh, Elgar Susanne Quabius, Sandra Freitag-Wolf, Christian Peters, Marcus Lettau, Jaydeep Bhat, Daniela Wesch, Hans-Heinrich Oberg, Stefanie Luecke, Ottmar Janssen, Michael Synowitz, Janka Held-Feindt, Dieter Kabelitz
Despite aggressive treatment regimens based on surgery and radiochemotherapy, the prognosis of patients with grade IV glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains extremely poor, calling for alternative options such as immunotherapy. Immunological mechanisms including the Natural Killer Group 2 member D (NKG2D) receptor-ligand system play an important role in tumor immune surveillance and targeting the NKG2D system might be beneficial. However, before considering any kind of immunotherapy, a precise characterization of the immune system is important, particularly in GBM patients where conventional therapies with impact on the immune system are frequently co-administered...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147603/age-estrogen-and-immune-response-in-breast-adenocarcinoma-and-adjacent-normal-tissue
#11
David A Quigley, Andliena Tahiri, Torben Lüders, Margit H Riis, Allan Balmain, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Ida Bukholm, Vessela Kristensen
Chronic inflammation promotes breast tumor growth and invasion by accelerating angiogenesis and tissue remodeling in the tumor microenvironment. There is a complex relationship between inflammation and estrogen, which drives the growth of 70 percent of breast tumors. While low levels of estrogen exposure stimulate macrophages and other inflammatory cell populations, very high levels are immune suppressive. Breast tumor incidence is increased by obesity and age, which interact to influence inflammatory cell populations in normal breast tissue...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147059/tetanus-in-adult-males-bugando-medical-centre-united-republic-of-tanzania
#12
Riaz Aziz, Robert N Peck, Samuel Kalluvya, Bernard Kenemo, Alphonce Chandika, Jennifer A Downs
Problem: In the United Republic of Tanzania, the incidence of non-neonatal circumcision-related tetanus is probably underreported. Approach: We analysed charts and extracted information on outcome and wound location for non-neonatal cases of tetanus admitted to the intensive care unit of Bugando Medical Centre between 2001 and 2016. Local setting: Bugando Medical Centre, which is one of four teaching referral hospitals in the United Republic of Tanzania, has a 13-bed intensive care unit that manages all admitted patients with tetanus...
November 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146706/the-clinical-and-laboratory-evaluation-of-familial-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-and-the-importance-of-hepatic-and-spinal-cord-involvement-a-single-center-experience
#13
Burcin Beken, Selin Aytac, Gunay Balta, Baris Kuskonmaz, Duygu Uckan, Sule Unal, Mualla Cetin, Fatma Gumruk
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is an autosomal recessive, life-threatening condition characterized by defective immune response. A retrospective analysis was performed on 57 patients diagnosed with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis at Hacettepe University Pediatric Hematology Department. Mutation analysis was performed on 37 patients and of these; 11 had UNC13D, 10 had PRF1 and 3 had STX11 gene mutation. Of these patients 44% were found to have central nervous system involvement on admission and spinal cord involvement was also seen in 5 patients...
November 16, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146478/diacylglycerols-as-biomarkers-of-sustained-immune-activation-in-proteinopathies-associated-with-dementia
#14
REVIEW
Paul L Wood, John E Cebak, Randall L Woltjer
Cognitive decline is a devastating clinical condition, heavily correlated with age progression. In the cases of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Lewy body disease, the common neuropathologies are proteinopathies and neuroinflammation. Herein, we review current lipidomics findings and conclude that brain and circulating diacylglycerols represent biomarkers of this ongoing sustained immune response, presumably involving microglia. We further hypothesize that a logical next step will be to evaluate biomarkers of immune activation in a cohort of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and subsequently attempt to provide therapeutic intervention with anti-inflammatory therapy in MCI patients with immune activation...
November 13, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146352/anti-inflammatory-properties-of-edible-mushrooms-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Bożena Muszyńska, Agata Grzywacz-Kisielewska, Katarzyna Kała, Joanna Gdula-Argasińska
Mushrooms have been used extensively, owing to their nutritional and medicinal value, for thousands of years. Modern research confirms the therapeutic effect of traditionally used species. Inflammation is a natural response of the immune system to damaging factors, e.g. physical, chemical and pathogenic. Deficiencies of antioxidants, vitamins, and microelements, as well as physiological processes, such as aging, can affect the body's ability to resolve inflammation. Mushrooms are rich in anti-inflammatory components, such as polysaccharides, phenolic and indolic compounds, mycosteroids, fatty acids, carotenoids, vitamins, and biometals...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146060/clinicopathologic-correlation-of-programmed-death-ligand-1-expression-in-non-small-cell-lung-carcinomas-a-report-from-india
#16
Archana George Vallonthaiel, Prabhat Singh Malik, Varsha Singh, Vinay Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Mehar Chand Sharma, Sandeep Mathur, Sudheer Arava, Randeep Guleria, Deepali Jain
INTRODUCTION: Increased expression of Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) on cancer cells and immune cells predict response to PD-1/PDL1 inhibitors. Data regarding frequency and pattern of PD-L1 expression in NSCLC from India is not available. OBJECTIVES: To analyse PD-L1 expression on tumour cells (TC) and immune cells (IC) and to correlate PD-L1 expression with baseline clinico-pathological characteristics, oncogenic drivers and outcome data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PD-L1 expression on tumour cells and immune cells was analysed...
December 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145787/pneumocystosis-in-dogs-meta-analysis-of-43-published-cases-including-clinical-signs-diagnostic-procedures-and-treatment
#17
Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang, Andrea Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Abigail Guija-De-Arespacochaga, Andrea Klang, Herbert Weissenböck, Frank Künzel
We evaluated 43 published cases of dogs with confirmed Pneumocystis infection regarding the value of clinical parameters indicating the presence of the disease as well as tools for the detection of the pathogen. The assessed parameters included clinical signs, laboratory findings, results of thoracic radiography, autopsy, histopathology, methods for the detection of Pneumocystis, as well as medical therapy. Pneumocystosis was diagnosed most often in certain breeds (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Miniature Dachshund) with a predisposition for impaired immunity...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145543/association-of-ipilimumab-with-safety-and-antitumor-activity-in-women-with-metastatic-or-recurrent-human-papillomavirus-related-cervical-carcinoma
#18
Stephanie Lheureux, Marcus O Butler, Blaise Clarke, Mihaela C Cristea, Lainie P Martin, Katia Tonkin, Gini F Fleming, Anna V Tinker, Hal W Hirte, Daliah Tsoref, Helen Mackay, Neesha C Dhani, Prafull Ghatage, Johanne Weberpals, Stephen Welch, Nhu-An Pham, Vinicius Motta, Valentin Sotov, Lisa Wang, Katherine Karakasis, Smitha Udagani, Suzanne Kamel-Reid, Howard Z Streicher, Patricia Shaw, Amit M Oza
Importance: Based on evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced immune evasion, immunotherapy may be an attractive strategy in cervical cancer. Ipilimumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), which acts to downregulate the T-cell immune response. Objective: To assess the safety and antitumor activity of ipilimumab in recurrent cervical cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter trial was designed for patients with metastatic cervical cancer (squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma) with measurable disease and progression after at least 1 line of platinum chemotherapy...
November 16, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145358/progress-in-rubella-and-congenital-rubella-syndrome-control-and-elimination-worldwide-2000-2016
#19
Gavin B Grant, Susan E Reef, Minal Patel, Jennifer K Knapp, Alya Dabbagh
Although rubella virus infection usually causes a mild fever and rash illness in children and adults, infection during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, can result in miscarriage, fetal death, stillbirth, or infants with a constellation of congenital malformations known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) (1). Rubella is a leading vaccine-preventable cause of birth defects. Preventing these adverse pregnancy outcomes is the focus of rubella vaccination programs. In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) updated guidance on the preferred strategy for introduction of rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) into national immunization schedules and recommended an initial vaccination campaign, usually targeting children aged 9 months-14 years (1)...
November 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145357/global-routine-vaccination-coverage-2016
#20
Leora R Feldstein, Stephanie Mariat, Marta Gacic-Dobo, Mamadou S Diallo, Laura M Conklin, Aaron S Wallace
The Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 (GVAP) (1), endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012, calls on all countries to reach ≥90% national coverage for all vaccines in the country's routine immunization schedule by 2020. CDC and the World Health Organization (WHO) evaluated the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) global vaccination coverage estimates to describe changes in global and regional coverage as of 2016. Global coverage estimates for the third dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3), the third dose of polio vaccine, and the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) have ranged from 84% to 86% since 2010...
November 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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