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Bronchiolitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050972/lair-1-limits-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-in-viral-bronchiolitis
#1
Ruben J Geerdink, Marije P Hennus, Geertje H A Westerlaken, Alferso C Abrahams, Kim I Albers, Jona Walk, Esther Wesselink, Riny Janssen, Louis Bont, Linde Meyaard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048473/use-of-taurolidine-in-lung-transplantation-for-cystic-fibrosis-and-impact-on-bacterial-colonization
#2
Mohamed Zeriouh, Anton Sabashnikov, Nikhil P Patil, Bastian Schmack, Barlomiej Zych, Prashant N Mohite, Diana García Sáez, Achim Koch, Ashham Mansur, Simona Soresi, Alexander Weymann, Nandor Marczin, Thorsten Wahlers, Fabio De Robertis, André Rüdiger Simon, Aron-Frederik Popov
OBJECTIVES: The presence of bacterial colonization that causes chronic pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients remains a key issue before lung transplantation. We sought to assess the impact of intraoperative taurolidine lavage on bacterial colonization and long-term outcomes following lung transplantation in CF patients. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2013, 114 CF patients underwent lung transplantation at our institute, and taurolidine 2% bronchial lavage was applied in a substantial proportion of patients (n = 42)...
October 18, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045741/respiratory-syncytial-virus-genotypes-host-immune-profiles-and-disease-severity-in-young-children-hospitalized-with-bronchiolitis
#3
Rosa Rodriguez-Fernandez, Lorena I Tapia, Chin-Fen Yang, Juan Pablo Torres, Susana Chavez-Bueno, Carla Garcia, Lisa M Jaramillo, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Hasan S Jafri, Mark E Peeples, Pedro A Piedra, Octavio Ramilo, Asuncion Mejias
Background: Data on how RSV genotypes influence disease severity and host immune responses is limited. We characterized the genetic variability of RSV during five seasons, and evaluated the role of RSV subtypes, genotypes and viral loads on disease severity and host transcriptional profiles. Methods: Prospective, observational study including a convenience sample of healthy infants hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis. Nasopharyngeal samples for viral load quantitation, typing and genotyping, and blood samples for transcriptome analyses were obtained within 24h of hospitalization...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043847/smoking-related-interstitial-fibrosis-evidence-of-radiologic-regression-with-advancing-age-and-smoking-cessation
#4
Aurélie Fabre, Ann Treacy, Lisa P Lavelle, Maciek Narski, Nazia Faheem, David Healy, Jonathan D Dodd, Michael P Keane, James J Egan, Gilles Jebrak, Hervé Mal, Marcus W Butler
More data are needed regarding the radiology, co-morbidities and natural history of smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF), a common pathological finding, mainly described heretofore in association with lung cancer, where respiratory bronchiolitis (RB) usually co-exists. We prospectively acquired high resolution CT scan data (edge-enhancing lung reconstructions) to detect any radiologic interstitial lung abnormality (ILA) in individuals who ultimately underwent surgical lobectomy for lung cancer (n = 20), for radiologic/pathologic correlation...
October 18, 2017: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026061/from-specific-humidifier-disinfectants-disease-to-humidifier-disinfectants-syndrome
#5
Jong-Han Leem, Jong-Hyeon Lee
Humidifier disinfectant damage was terrible chemical damage caused by household goods that happened in only South Korea, but it is still very little known in humidifier disinfectant damage. Up to now, previous research tried to focus on interstitial fibrosis on terminal bronchiole and alveoli because it is specific finding, compared with other diseases. To figure out overall effects from HDs, many epidemiologic and toxicologic research is underway. Humidifier disinfectants showed to give rise to typical toxicologic effects on various target organs, such as skin, conjunctiva, naval mucosa, bronchial mucosa, alveoli and so on, which were sharing common toxicological responses...
October 7, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021713/epidemiology-of-bronchiolitis-a-description-of-emergency-department-visits-and-hospitalizations-in-puerto-rico-2010-2014
#6
Andrea Rivera-Sepulveda, Enid J Garcia-Rivera
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology of bronchiolitis as a clinical diagnosis and its impact on emergency department visits and hospitalizations in tropical and semitropical regions. We described the epidemiology of bronchiolitis emergency visits and hospitalizations, its temporal trend and geographic distribution in Puerto Rico between 2010 and 2014. METHODS: We performed a retrospective descriptive analysis of a representative sample of privately insured children with bronchiolitis from January 2010 to December 2014...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020237/hiv-associated-chronic-lung-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-in-zimbabwe-chest-radiographic-and-high-resolution-computed-tomography-findings
#7
Sujal R Desai, Arjun Nair, Jamie Rylance, Hilda Mujuru, Kusum Nathoo, Grace McHugh, Edith Majonga, John Metcalfe, Katharina Kranzer, Rashida A Ferrand
Background: Chronic respiratory symptoms are common among children living with HIV. We investigated the radiological features of chronic lung disease in children aged 6 to 16 years taking antiretroviral therapy for at least six months in Harare, Zimbabwe. Methods: Consecutive participants from a HIV clinic underwent clinical assessment and chest radiography (CXR). Participants with an abnormal CXR (assessed by a clinician) and/or those meeting a clinical case definition for chronic lung disease (CLD) underwent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993573/measurement-of-nanoparticle-exposure-in-crematoriums-and-estimation-of-respiratory-deposition-of-the-nanoparticles-by-number-and-size-distribution
#8
Nobuhuki Kato, Yasuto Mastui, Masaki Takaoka, Minoru Yoneda
OBJECTIVES: Nanoparticles (NPs), including hazardous substances, are generated in crematoriums due to the high temperatures during the combustion process. NPs are reported to greatly impact animals' health by reaching the alveoli and being carried to the entire body through the blood stream. However, studies in crematoriums have yet to assess workers' exposure to the generated NPs. The purpose of this study is to assess workers' exposure to NPs released in crematoriums. METHODS: Field surveys were conducted in three crematoriums with an emphasis on cremation, bone rearrangement and cleaning processes...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992427/effects-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-2-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-human-subjects-and-mice
#9
Alireza Tahamtan, Yazdan Samieipoor, Fatemeh Sadat Nayeri, Ali Akbar Rahbarimanesh, Anahita Izadi, Ali Rashidi-Nezhad, Masoumeh Tavakoli-Yaraki, Mohammad Farahmand, Louis Bont, Fazel Shokri, Talat Mokhatri-Azad, Vahid Salimi
An accumulating body of evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system plays a significant role in pathophysiological processes and impacts disease severity. Here we investigate the possible role of a cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) functional variant in determining disease severity and the potential pharmacological therapeutic effects of CB2 activation in viral respiratory infection. The common missense variant (CAA/CGG; Q63R) of the gene-encoding CB2 receptor (CNR2) was evaluated in 90 inpatient and 90 outpatient children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI)...
October 9, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988958/mycobacterium-abscessus-and-massiliense-lung-infection-during-macrolide-treatment-for-bronchiolitis-obliterans-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#10
Noriko Miyake, Yong Chong, Ruriko Nishida, Katsuto Takenaka, Koji Kato, Toshihiro Miyamoto, Akio Aono, Akiko Takaki, Satoshi Mitarai, Shinji Shimoda, Nobuyuki Shimono, Koichi Akashi
In patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), post-transplant lung infection is critical for their prognosis. Mycobacterium abscessus complex is not fully recognized as a nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pathogen of post-SCT lung infection. Here, we present three post-allogeneic SCT patients who developed pulmonary infection caused by M. abscessus complex including M. abscessus and M. massiliense. In all three cases, macrolide antibiotics had been administered for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) before the confirmation of their infection, and macrolide resistance was noted in the M...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988637/-value-of-procalcitonin-for-infants-with-bronchiolitis-in-an-emergency-department
#11
M Desmarest, C Aupiais, J Le Gal, L Tourteau, J Le Coz, E de Paepe, L Titomanlio, A Faye
CONTEXT: Very few studies have evaluated the role of procalcitonin (PCT) in infants with bronchiolitis. AIMS: To describe infants who had both a diagnosis of bronchiolitis at the emergency department and a blood test including PCT, and to compare the characteristics of children according to the PCT value. METHODS: Infants admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2014 who had a diagnosis of bronchiolitis and a blood test including PCT were included...
October 4, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987320/lung-development-regeneration-and-plasticity-from-disease-physiopathology-to-drug-design-using-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
REVIEW
Engi Ahmed, Caroline Sansac, Said Assou, Delphine Gras, Aurélie Petit, Isabelle Vachier, Pascal Chanez, John De Vos, Arnaud Bourdin
Lungs have a complex structure composed of different cell types that form approximately 17 million airway branches of gas-delivering bronchioles connected to 500 million gas-exchanging alveoli. Airways and alveoli are lined by epithelial cells that display a low rate of turnover at steady-state, but can regenerate the epithelium in response to injuries. Here, we review the key points of lung development, homeostasis and epithelial cell plasticity in response to injury and disease, because this knowledge is required to develop new lung disease treatments...
October 4, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987219/role-of-viral-infections-in-the-development-and-exacerbation-of-asthma-in-children
#13
REVIEW
Tuomas Jartti, James E Gern
Viral infections are closely linked to wheezing illnesses in children of all ages. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main causative agent of bronchiolitis, whereas rhinovirus (RV) is most commonly detected in wheezing children thereafter. Severe respiratory illness induced by either of these viruses is associated with subsequent development of asthma, and the risk is greatest for young children who wheeze with RV infections. Whether viral illnesses actually cause asthma is the subject of intense debate...
October 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986353/when-is-bronchiolitis-not-bronchiolitis
#14
Morag N J Wilson, Laura Gardner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985727/respiratory-mechanics-in-infants-with-severe-bronchiolitis-on-controlled-mechanical-ventilation
#15
Pablo Cruces, Sebastián González-Dambrauskas, Julio Quilodrán, Jorge Valenzuela, Javier Martínez, Natalia Rivero, Pablo Arias, Franco Díaz
BACKGROUND: Analysis of respiratory mechanics during mechanical ventilation (MV) is able to estimate resistive, elastic and inertial components of the working pressure of the respiratory system. Our aim was to discriminate the components of the working pressure of the respiratory system in infants on MV with severe bronchiolitis admitted to two PICU's. METHODS: Infants younger than 1 year old with acute respiratory failure caused by severe bronchiolitis underwent neuromuscular blockade, tracheal intubation and volume controlled MV...
October 6, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985369/reducing-early-career-general-practitioners-antibiotic-prescribing-for-respiratory-tract-infections-a-pragmatic-prospective-non-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Parker Magin, Amanda Tapley, Simon Morgan, Joshua S Davis, Patrick McElduff, Lucy Yardley, Kim Henderson, Anthea Dallas, Lawrie McArthur, Katie Mulquiney, Andrew Davey, Paul Little, Neil Spike, Mieke L van Driel
Background: Inappropriate antibiotic prescription and consequent antibacterial resistance is a major threat to healthcare. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of a multifaceted intervention in reducing early career general practitioners' (GPs') antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis. Methods: A pragmatic non-randomized trial employing a non-equivalent control group design nested within an existing cohort study of GP registrars' (trainees') clinical practice...
July 17, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984536/airway-injury-in-an-in-vitro-human-epithelium-fibroblast-model-of-diacetyl-vapor-exposure-diacetyl-induced-basal-suprabasal-spongiosis
#17
William M Gwinn, Gordon P Flake, Ronald W Bousquet, Genie J Taylor, Daniel L Morgan
Inhalation exposure to diacetyl (DA) is associated with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) in workers and induces OB-like fibrotic airway lesions in rats. The pathogenesis of OB is poorly understood in part due to complex interactions between airway epithelial, mesenchymal and blood-derived inflammatory cells. DA-induced airway toxicity in the absence of recruited-inflammatory/immune cells was characterized using an air-liquid interface (ALI) model consisting of human airway epithelium with (Epi/FT) and without (Epi) a mesenchymal component...
June 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968829/the-ns1-protein-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-blocks-glucocorticoid-receptor-nuclear-translocation-by-targeting-ipo13-may-account-for-glucocorticoid-insensitive
#18
Jun Xie, Xiaoru Long, Leiqiong Gao, Sisi Chen, Keting Zhao, Wei Li, Na Zhou, Na Zang, Yu Deng, Luo Ren, Lijia Wang, Zhengxiu Luo, Wenwei Tu, Xiaodong Zhao, Zhou Fu, Xiaohong Xie, Enmei Liu
In spite of their powerful anti-inflammatory effect, glucocorticoids have shown no significant clinical benefit in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced bronchiolitis, the reason for which remains unclear. Upon glucocorticoid binding, the cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) translocates to the nucleus with the help of importin-13 (IPO13). Here, we report that RSV infection reduced GR nuclear translocation in the nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) of the RSV-infected infants, lungs of infected mice, and A549 cells, which coincided with decreased IPO13 expression...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968457/natural-course-of-the-nodular-bronchiectatic-form-of-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease-long-term-radiologic-change-without-treatment
#19
Tae Yun Park, Semin Chong, Jae-Woo Jung, In Won Park, Byoung Whui Choi, Changwon Lim, Chang Un Lee, Yang Soo Kim, Hye Won Choi, Jae Chol Choi
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Although the incidence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease is increasing, the long-term natural course of the nodular bronchiectatic form of MAC lung disease is not well described. The objective of our study is to evaluate long-term radiologic changes in untreated MAC lung disease by analyzing serial chest computed tomography (CT) scan findings. METHODS: Of 104 patients with MAC lung disease, we selected 40 untreated nodular bronchiectatic MAC patients who underwent serial chest CTs without treatment for at least four years (mean = 6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962520/editor-s-highlight-complete-attenuation-of-mouse-lung-cell-proliferation-and-tumorigenicity-in-cyp2f2-knockout-and-cyp2f1-humanized-mice-exposed-to-inhaled-styrene-for-up-to-2%C3%A2-years-supports-a-lack-of-human-relevance
#20
George Cruzan, James S Bus, Marcy I Banton, Satinder S Sarang, Robbie Waites, Debra B Layko, James Raymond, Darol Dodd, Melvin E Andersen
Styrene is a mouse-specific lung carcinogen, and short-term mode of action studies have demonstrated that cytotoxicity and/or cell proliferation, and genomic changes are dependent on CYP2F2 metabolism. The current study examined histopathology, cell proliferation, and genomic changes in CD-1, C57BL/6 (WT), CYP2F2(-/-) (KO), and CYP2F2(-/-) (CYP2F1, 2B6, 2A13-transgene) (TG; humanized) mice following exposure for up to 104 weeks to 0- or 120-ppm styrene vapor. Five mice per treatment group were sacrificed at 1, 26, 52, and 78 weeks...
October 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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