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Ayse Betul Ergul, Emrah Calıskan, Hasan Samsa, Ikbal Gokcek, Ali Kaya, Gozde Erturk Zararsiz, Yasemin Altuner Torun
The effectiveness of using a face mask with a small diffuser for oxygen delivery (OxyMask) was compared to use of a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in patients with moderate or severe bronchiolitis.The study population in this open, phase 4, randomized controlled trial consisted of 60 patients aged 1-24 months diagnosed with moderate or severe bronchiolitis and admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for oxygen therapy. The patients were randomized into two groups according to the method of oxygen delivery: a diffuser mask group and an HFNC group...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Takahiro Kuroki, Sangjoon Lee, Mikako Hirohama, Tomohiro Taku, Michiko Kumakura, Takahiro Haruyama, Kyosuke Nagata, Atsushi Kawaguchi
Lentinula edodes mycelia (LEM) solid culture extracts contain many bioactive compounds with diverse pharmacological activities such as antitumor, antiviral, and immunopotentiating effects. In this study, we examined the anti-influenza virus activity of LEM in vitro and in vivo . LEM directly inhibited influenza virus growth in vitro at early phases of infection, possibly at the entry process of viral particles to host cells. We also found that the nasal administration of LEM increased the survival rate of infected mice, and this was likely due to the direct action of LEM on the viral growth...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rachael Barr, Elliott J Carande, Andrew J Pollard, Simon B Drysdale
BACKGROUND: Viral bronchiolitis is one of the most common causes of hospitalisation in young infants. It has previously been shown that many United Kingdom (UK) hospital Trusts were not compliant with many aspects of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) bronchiolitis guideline prior to its publication. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate changes in the management of bronchiolitis by hospital Trusts between 2015 (before NICE guideline publication) and 2017, after publication...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Monal Sharma, Ranjithkumar Ravichandran, Sandhya Bansal, Ross M Bremner, Michael A Smith, T Mohanakumar
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that express self-antigens (SAgs) and donor human leukocyte antigens. Tissue-specific exosomes can be detected in the circulation following lung, heart, kidney and islet cell transplantations. We collected serum samples from patients who had undergone lung (n = 30), heart (n = 8), or kidney (n = 15) transplantations to isolate circulating exosomes. Exosome purity was analyzed by Western blot, using CD9 exosome-specific markers. Tissue-associated lung SAgs, collagen V (Col-V) and K-alpha 1 tubulin (Kα1T), heart SAgs, myosin and vimentin, and kidney SAgs, fibronectin and collagen IV (Col-IV), were identified using western blot...
June 15, 2018: Human Immunology
Laura Ibáñez Beltrán, Jose María García Sánchez, Isidoro Cortell Aznar, Santiago Mendizábal Oteiza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2018: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Dai Kimura, Jordy Saravia, Sridhar Jaligama, Isabella McNamara, Luan D Vu, Ryan D Sullivan, Salvatore Mancarella, Dahui You, Stephania A Cormier
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been observed in up to 75% of infants with moderate to severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in infants with congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to establish a mouse model of PH secondary to RSV bronchiolitis that mimics the disease etiology as it occurs in infants. Neonatal mice were infected with RSV at 5 days of age, and then re-infected 4 weeks later. Serum free medium was administered to age-matched mice as control...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
O Ogunsemowo, D O Olaleye, G N Odaibo
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) causes high morbidity and mortality in infants and young children. Although a high prevalence of HRSV has been reported in Nigeria, the subtype of the virus circulating in the country is not known. This crosssectional study was therefore designed to determine the subtypes of HRSV circulating among children in Ibadan. Two hundred and thirty-one nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from children presenting with respiratory infections in Secondary Health Facility (SHF) as well as those attending immunization centers in Primary Health Centers (PHCs) in Ibadan, Nigeria...
February 2018: Archives of basic and applied medicine
Keith C Meyer, Basant Sharma, Brent Kaufmann, Amanda Kupper, Michael Hodgson
Despite reports of pulmonary toxicity due to styrene, guidelines on acceptable styrene exposure levels have been based on risk of cancer and central nervous system and liver toxicity and not on respiratory effects. Many reports have linked exposure to styrene vapor in occupational settings to various forms of non-malignant pulmonary disorders including bronchiolitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and occupational asthma. We report two cases in which the same tasks performed in a single workplace resulted in exposure to styrene vapor with subsequent development of acute respiratory symptoms associated with impaired gas exchange and imaging and histopathologic findings consistent with bronchiolitis and organizing pneumonia...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
A Mendes-da-Silva, M Gonçalves-Pinho, A Freitas, I Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show contradictory data on the incidence of hospitalizations for acute bronchiolitis (AB) and an escalating increase in public health burden. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to analyze the population-based admission rate for AB in children under 2 years of age, in Portuguese public hospitals, from 2000 to 2015, to assess trends and regional variations in admission rate; outcomes; associated direct health-care costs; and changes in management after the implementation of national guidelines...
June 10, 2018: Pulmonology
Vicky L Baillie, Courtney P Olwagen, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: The detection of human rhinoviruses (HRV) is highly prevalent in children with pneumonia, bronchiolitis, acute asthma and croup; however, there is also evidence that HRV is common in asymptomatic individuals. The majority of studies on the role of different HRV serotypes during acute respiratory tract infections episodes have limited sample size to fully characterize the epidemiology of HRV infection, including those from low-middle income countries, where the burden of childhood respiratory disease is greatest...
July 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Linjie Zhang, Carlos B Gunther, Ozeia S Franco, Terry P Klassen
AIM: This meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) on the rate of hospitalization in infants with acute bronchiolitis in the Emergency Department (ED) setting. METHOD: We searched PubMed, Virtual Health Library-BVS and Cochrane CENTRAL from inception until January 31, 2018. We selected randomized trials that compared nebulized HS with normal saline (NS) or standard care in children up to 24 months of age with acute bronchiolitis in the ED setting...
June 12, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
María-José Barrera, Sergio Aguilera, Isabel Castro, Sergio González, Patricia Carvajal, Claudio Molina, Marcela A Hermoso, María-Julieta González
For many years, researchers in the field of autoimmunity have focused on the role of the immune components in the etiopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. However, some studies have demonstrated the importance of target tissues in their pathogenesis and the breach of immune tolerance. The immune system as well as target tissue cells (plasmatic, β-pancreatic, fibroblast-like synoviocytes, thyroid follicular and epithelial cells of the lachrymal glands, salivary glands, intestine, bronchioles and renal tubules) share the characteristic of secretory cells with an extended endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
June 8, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Bernadett Boda, Sacha Benaoudia, Song Huang, Rosy Bonfante, Ludovic Wiszniewski, Eirini D Tseligka, Caroline Tapparel, Samuel Constant
Respiratory viral infections cause mild to severe diseases, such as common cold, bronchiolitis and pneumonia and are associated with substantial burden for society. To test new molecules for shortening, alleviating the diseases or to develop new therapies, relevant human in vitro models are mandatory. MucilAir™, a human standardized air-liquid interface 3D airway epithelial culture holds in vitro specific mechanisms to counter invaders comparable to the in vivo situation, such as mucus production, mucociliary clearance, and secretion of defensive molecules...
June 8, 2018: Antiviral Research
Jon Olav Gjengstø Hunderi, Karin C Lødrup Carlsen, Leif Bjarte Rolfsjord, Kai-Håkon Carlsen, Petter Mowinckel, Håvard Ove Skjerven
AIM: In infants with acute bronchiolitis, the precision of parental disease severity assessment is unclear. We aimed to determine if parental assessment at the time of hospitalisation predicted the use of supportive care, and subsequently determine the likelihood that the infant with acute bronchiolitis would receive supportive care. METHODS: From the Bronchiolitis ALL south-east Norway study, we included all 267, 0-12 month old, infants with acute bronchiolitis whose parents at the time of hospitalisation completed a 3-item visual analogue scale (VAS) concerning Activity, Feeding and Illness...
June 11, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Juan Gea-Banacloche
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review highlights the most relevant articles on lung infections following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) published over the last year. Between 30 and 50% of HCT recipients will develop pulmonary infiltrates. These pulmonary complications may be infectious (caused by virus, bacteria, fungi, or protozoa) or noninfectious (e.g., fluid overload, heart failure, transfusion reactions like transfusion associated lung injury and transfusion-associated circulatory overload, drug reactions, engraftment syndrome, idiopathic pneumonia syndrome, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome)...
June 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Satoshi Sato, Tomoka Kambe, Zenshiro Tamaki, Mihoko Furuichi, Yoji Uejima, Eisuke Suganuma, Tadamasa Takano, Kawano Yutaka
OBJECTIVES: Incidences of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare, but these conditions are associated with high mortality. There have been few reports of SJS and TEN in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of SJS and TEN in a group of Japanese children. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed pediatric cases of SJS and TEN, from 2000 to 2015. RESULTS: We identified 12 cases of SJS and 3 cases of TEN, among children...
June 10, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Emily M Bucholz, James C Gay, Matthew Hall, Mitch Harris, Jay G Berry
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare readmission causes and timing within the first 30 days after hospitalization for 3 acute and 3 chronic common pediatric conditions. STUDY DESIGN: Data from the 2013 to 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database were used to examine the daily percentage of readmissions occurring on days 1-30 and the leading causes of readmission after hospitalization for 3 acute (appendicitis, bronchiolitis/croup, and gastroenteritis) and 3 chronic (asthma, epilepsy, and sickle cell) conditions for patients aged 1-17 years (n = 2 753 488)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Udit Chaddha, Pradnya D Patil, Ashraf Omar, Rajat Walia, Tanmay S Panchabhai
A 47-year-old man who was a redo double lung transplant recipient (cytomegalovirus [CMV] status: donor positive/recipient positive; Epstein-Barr virus status: donor positive/recipient positive) presented to the hospital with 1 week of generalized malaise, low-grade fevers, and dry cough. His redo lung transplantation was necessitated by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, and his previous lung transplantation 5 years earlier was for silicosis-related progressive massive fibrosis. He denied any difficulty breathing or chest pain...
June 2018: Chest
Ryan J Good, Matthew K Leroue, Angela S Czaja
OBJECTIVES: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is increasingly used in critically ill pediatric patients, despite limited data on safety and efficacy. Administrative data may be a good resource for observational studies. Therefore, we sought to assess the performance of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision procedure code for NIPPV. METHODS: Patients admitted to the PICU requiring NIPPV or heated high-flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) over the 11-month study period were identified from the Virtual PICU System database...
June 7, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
E A Lendermon, J M Dodd-O, T A Coon, X Wang, C R Ensor, N Cardenes, C L Koodray, H L Heusey, M F Bennewitz, P Sundd, G C Bullock, I Popescu, L Guo, C P O'Donnell, M Rojas, J F McDyer
BACKGROUND: Cellular and molecular mechanisms of acute and chronic lung allograft rejection have yet to be clearly defined, and obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) remains the primary limitation to survival in lung transplant recipients (LTRs). We have previously shown that T-bet-deficient recipients of full major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched, orthotopic left lung transplants develop accelerated obliterative airway disease (OAD) in the setting of acute cellular rejection characterized by robust alloimmune CD8+ interleukin (IL)-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ responses that are attenuated with neutralization of IL-17...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
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