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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222007/current-concepts-in-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management-of-smoking-related-interstitial-lung-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Anupam Kumar, Sujith V Cherian, Robert Vassallo, Eunhee S Yi, Jay H Ryu
Tobacco exposure results in various changes to the airways and lung parenchyma. While emphysema represents the more common injury pattern, in some individuals, cigarette smoke injures alveolar epithelial and other lung cells resulting in diffuse infiltrates and parenchymal fibrosis. Smoking can trigger interstitial injury patterns mediated via recruitment and inappropriate persistence of myeloid and other immune cells including eosinophils. As our understanding of the role of cigarette smoke constituents in triggering lung injury continues to evolve, so does our recognition of the spectrum of smoking-related interstitial lung changes...
December 5, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221341/atypical-carcinoid-localized-at-the-bronchus-accompanied-by-diffuse-idiopathic-pulmonary-neuroendocrine-cell-hyperplasia-in-the-distal-lung-a-rare-case-report
#2
Kyoshiro Takegahara, Akira Sato, Takayuki Ibi, Tatsuya Inoue, Jitsuo Usuda
Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is hyperplasia of noninvasive neuroendocrine cells originating from Kultchitsky cells. This is a rare pathological condition, suspected to be a precursor lesion of carcinoid, together with tumorlet. In the WHO histological classification (4th edition) revised in 2015, DIPNECH was added to the category that includes neuroendocrine tumors. Our patient was a 77-year-old woman who initially visited another doctor because of coughing. Chest CT revealed a mass occluding the right intermediate bronchial trunk, and bronchial carcinoid was suspected from biopsy findings, leading to referral of this patient to our department...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215378/developing-resident-sensitive-quality-measures-a-model-from-pediatric-emergency-medicine
#3
Daniel J Schumacher, Eric S Holmboe, Cees van der Vleuten, Jamiu O Busari, Carol Carraccio
PURPOSE: To begin closing the gap with respect to quality measures available for use among residents, the authors sought to identify and develop resident-sensitive quality measures (RSQMs) for use in the pediatric emergency department (PED) setting. METHOD: In May 2016, the authors reviewed National Quality Measures Clearinghouse (NQMC) measures to identify resident-sensitive measures. To create additional measures focused on common, acute illnesses (acute asthma exacerbation, bronchiolitis, closed head injury [CHI]) in the PED, the authors used a nominal group technique (NGT) and Delphi process from September to December 2016...
December 5, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213258/the-complexity-of-antibody-responses-elicited-against-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-glycoproteins-in-hospitalized-children-younger-than-2-years
#4
Alfonsina Trento, Rosa Rodríguez-Fernández, María I González-Sánchez, Felipe González-Martínez, Vicente Mas, Mónica Vázquez, Concepción Palomo, José A Melero
The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the antibody responses to human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) glycoproteins in very young children has been a matter of controversy. Both, immaturity of the immune system at very early age and suppression of the host immune response by high level of maternal antibodies have been claimed to limit the host antibody response to virus infection and to jeopardize the use of hRSV vaccines under development in that age group. Hence, the antibody responses to the two major hRSV glycoproteins (F and G) were evaluated in children younger than 2 years, hospitalized with laboratory confirmed hRSV bronchiolitis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208009/troglostrongylus-brevior-a-new-parasite-for-romania
#5
Georgiana Deak, Angela Monica Ionică, Andrei Daniel Mihalca, Călin Mircea Gherman
BACKGROUND: The genus Troglostrongylus includes nematodes infecting domestic and wild felids. Troglostrongylus brevior was described six decades ago in Palestine and subsequently reported in some European countries (Italy, Spain, Greece, Bulgaria, and Bosnia and Herzegovina). As the diagnosis by the first-stage larvae (L1) may be challenging, there is a possibility of confusion with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Hence, the knowledge on the distribution of this neglected feline parasite is still scarce...
December 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206851/role-of-viral-coinfections-in-asthma-development
#6
Maria Luz Garcia-Garcia, Cristina Calvo, Sara Ruiz, Francisco Pozo, Victoria Del Pozo, Laura Remedios, Nadia Exposito, Ana Tellez, Inmaculada Casas
BACKGROUND: Viral respiratory infections, especially acute bronchiolitis, play a key role in the development of asthma in childhood. However, most studies have focused on respiratory syncytial virus or rhinovirus infections and none of them have compared the long-term evolution of single versus double or multiple viral infections. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the frequency of asthma development at 6-8 years in children with previous admission for bronchiolitis associated with single versus double or multiple viral infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206734/viral-bronchiolitis-in-picus-looking-further-than-the-acute-phase
#7
Florent Baudin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193814/hospital-admissions-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-born-moderately-late-preterm
#8
Paula Haataja, Päivi Korhonen, Riitta Ojala, Mikko Hirvonen, Matti Korppi, Mika Gissler, Tiina Luukkaala, Outi Tammela
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency and predictors of hospital admissions for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in moderately preterm (MP, 32+0 to 33+6 weeks) and late preterm (LP, 34+0 to 36+6 weeks) infants compared to term (T ≥37 weeks) and very preterm (VP, <32+0 weeks) infants. STUDY DESIGN: This national register-based study covered all infants born in Finland in 1991-2008. Data on 1 018 256 infants were analyzed in four gestational age-based groups: VP (n = 6329), MP (n = 6796), LP (n = 39 928), and T (n = 965 203) groups...
November 29, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193253/clinicians-need-to-decrease-antibiotic-use-in-previously-healthy-infants-hospitalised-with-bronchiolitis
#9
Marion Bailhache, Emilie Bloudeau, Olivier Richer, Pascal Pillet, Marie Lagarde
Bronchiolitis is a common viral acute respiratory infection that leads to frequent hospitalisation. Although serious bacterial infections are uncommon in such children (1), they could be co-infected with bacteria and the distinction between colonisation, co-infection or superinfection is not always possible. Antibiotics use varies in these situations (2) and their unnecessary use is a major cause of antibiotic resistance (3). We explored the factors that influenced prescribing antibiotic for previously healthy children hospitalised with bronchiolitis...
November 28, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191821/follicular-bronchiolitis-in-an-hiv-infected-individual-on-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-with-low-cd4-cell-count-but-sustained-viral-suppression
#10
Line D Rasmussen, Court Pedersen, Helle D Madsen, Christian B Laursen
A 36-year-old Danish man, living in Asia, was diagnosed with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and HIV in 2013 (CD4+ count: 6 cells/µL; viral load: 518 000 copies/mL). He initiated combination antiretroviral therapy. Later that year, he was also diagnosed with granulomatosis with polyangiitis and was treated with prednisolone. Despite complete viral suppression and increasing CD4+ count (162 cells/µL), he was readmitted with PCP in April 2015. Subsequently, he returned to Denmark (CD4+ count: 80 cells/µL, viral suppression)...
November 29, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189658/discharge-criteria-for-bronchiolitis-an-unmet-need
#11
Cristina Garcia-Mauriño, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Rebecca Wallihan, Katalin Koranyi, Bavani Rajah, Tiffany Shirk, Maria Vegh, Octavio Ramilo, Asuncion Mejias
BACKGROUND: Admission criteria and standardized management strategies for bronchiolitis are addressed in several guidelines and have shown to be beneficial; however, guidance regarding discharge criteria is limited and widely variable. We assessed the impact on clinical outcomes of a discharge protocol for children < 2 years of age hospitalized with bronchiolitis in a tertiary care pediatric hospital. METHODS: In October 2013, a protocol to standardize the discharge of children with bronchiolitis was implemented in the infectious diseases (ID) ward, but not in other pediatric units caring for these children (non-ID)...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189589/pediatric-emergency-research-canada-origins-and-evolution
#12
Liza Bialy, Amy Plint, Roger Zemek, David Johnson, Terry Klassen, Martin Osmond, Stephen Freedman
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the origins, growth, and progress of a national research network in pediatric emergency medicine. METHODS: The success of Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC) is described in terms of advancing the pediatric emergency medicine agenda, grant funding, peer-reviewed publications, mentoring new investigators, and global collaborations. RESULTS: Since 1995, clinicians and investigators within PERC have grown the network to 15 active tertiary pediatric emergency medicine sites across Canada...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187536/inflammasome-antagonism-by-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-c-protein
#13
Niraj K Shil, Swechha M Pokharel, Amiya K Banerjee, Michael Hoffman, Santanu Bose
Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the paramyxoviridae family. HPIV3 is a lung tropic virus causing airway diseases including pneumonia, croup, and bronchiolitis during infancy and childhood. Activation of inflammasome by pathogens results in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β during infection. Thus, inflammasome mediated pro-inflammatory response plays a critical role in regulating immune response and virus clearance. Inflammasome is a multimeric protein complex triggering caspase-1 activation...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184035/practice-variation-in-acute-bronchiolitis-a-pediatric-emergency-research-networks-study
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Suzanne Schuh, Franz E Babl, Stuart R Dalziel, Stephen B Freedman, Charles G Macias, Derek Stephens, Dale W Steele, Ricardo M Fernandes, Roger Zemek, Amy C Plint, Todd A Florin, Mark D Lyttle, David W Johnson, Serge Gouin, David Schnadower, Terry P Klassen, Lalit Bajaj, Javier Benito, Anupam Kharbanda, Nathan Kuppermann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Studies characterizing hospitalizations in bronchiolitis did not identify patients receiving evidence-based supportive therapies (EBSTs). We aimed to evaluate intersite and internetwork variation in receipt of ≥1 EBSTs during the hospital management of infants diagnosed with bronchiolitis in 38 emergency departments of pediatric emergency research networks in Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Spain, and Portugal...
December 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181038/implementing-an-oxygen-supplementation-and-monitoring-protocol-on-inpatient-pediatric-bronchiolitis-an-exercise-in-deimplementation
#15
Brian LeCleir, Leslie Jurecko, Alan T Davis, Nicholas J Andersen, Dominic Sanfilippo, Surender Rajasekaran, Anthony Olivero
Aim: Our goal in this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of our oxygen (O2) protocol to reduce length of stay (LOS) for children hospitalized with bronchiolitis. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, the outcomes of children ≤ 24 months old that were admitted with bronchiolitis and placed on the O2 protocol were compared to historical controls. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay. Secondary outcomes were duration of O2 supplementation, rates of pediatric intensive care unit transfer, and readmission...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178963/chloral-hydrate-enteral-infusion-for-sedation-in-ventilated-children-the-chosen-pilot-study
#16
Ari R Joffe, Jessica Hogan, Cathy Sheppard, Gerda Tawfik, Jonathan P Duff, Gonzalo Garcia Guerra
BACKGROUND: We aimed to test a novel method of delivery of chloral hydrate (CH) sedation in ventilated critically ill young children. METHODS: Children < 12 years old, within 72 hours of admission, who were ventilated, receiving enteral tube-feeds, with intermittent CH ordered were enrolled after signed consent. Patients received a CH loading-dose of 10 mg/kg enterally, then a syringe-pump enteral infusion at 5 mg/kg/hour, increasing to a maximum of 9 mg/kg/hour...
November 26, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178919/double-lung-unlike-single-lung-transplantation-might-provide-a-protective-effect-on-mortality-and-bronchiolitis-obliterans-syndrome
#17
Mohammed Fakhro, Ellen Broberg, Lars Algotsson, Lennart Hansson, Bansi Koul, Ronny Gustafsson, Per Wierup, Richard Ingemansson, Sandra Lindstedt
BACKGROUND: Survival after lung transplantation (LTx) is often limited by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). METHOD: Survey of 278 recipients who underwent LTx. The endpoint used was BOS (BOS grade ≥ 2), death or Re-lung transplantation (Re-LTx) assessed by competing risk regression analyses. RESULTS: The incidence of BOS grade ≥ 2 among double LTx (DLTx) recipients was 16 ± 3% at 5 years, 30 ± 4% at 10 years, and 37 ± 5% at 20 years, compared to single LTx (SLTx) recipients whose corresponding incidence of BOS grade ≥ 2 was 11 ± 3%, 20 ± 4%, and 24 ± 5% at 5, 10, and 20 years, respectively (p > 0...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178427/cd38-modulates-respiratory-syncytial-virus-driven-pro-inflammatory-processes-in-human-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells
#18
Ilaria Schiavoni, Carolina Scagnolari, Alberto L Horenstein, Pasqualina Leone, Alessandra Pierangeli, Fabio Malavasi, Clara M Ausiello, Giorgio Fedele
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the most common cause of hospitalization due to bronchiolitis in infants. Although the mechanisms behind this association are not completely elucidated, they appear to involve an excessive immune response causing lung pathology. Understanding the host response to RSV infection may help in the identification of targets for therapeutic intervention. We infected in vitro human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) with RSV and analysed various aspects of the cellular response...
November 27, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178284/nitric-oxide-inhalations-in-bronchiolitis-a-pilot-randomized-double-blinded-controlled-trial
#19
Asher Tal, David Greenberg, Yossef Av-Gay, Inbal Golan-Tripto, Yael Feinstein, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Ron Dagan, Aviv D Goldbart
AIM: The aims of this pilot study were to determine safety, tolerability (primary outcome) and efficacy (secondary outcome) of high-dose inhaled nitric oxide for the treatment of infants with moderately severe bronchiolitis. METHODS: This was a pilot, double-blinded, randomized controlled study (phase IIa). Intermittent inhalations of nitric oxide 160 ppm for 30 min or oxygen/air (control) were given 5 times/day to hospitalized infants (2-11 months) with acute bronchiolitis...
November 27, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176665/microbial-volatile-communication-in-human-organotypic-lung-models
#20
Layla J Barkal, Clare L Procknow, Yasmín R Álvarez-García, Mengyao Niu, José A Jiménez-Torres, Rebecca A Brockman-Schneider, James E Gern, Loren C Denlinger, Ashleigh B Theberge, Nancy P Keller, Erwin Berthier, David J Beebe
We inhale respiratory pathogens continuously, and the subsequent signaling events between host and microbe are complex, ultimately resulting in clearance of the microbe, stable colonization of the host, or active disease. Traditional in vitro methods are ill-equipped to study these critical events in the context of the lung microenvironment. Here we introduce a microscale organotypic model of the human bronchiole for studying pulmonary infection. By leveraging microscale techniques, the model is designed to approximate the structure of the human bronchiole, containing airway, vascular, and extracellular matrix compartments...
November 24, 2017: Nature Communications
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