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Mucosal immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102763/the-best-defense-is-a-good-protease-offense-how-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-evades-mucosal-immunity-in-the-lung
#1
Lisa A Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100682/diet-derived-short-chain-fatty-acids-stimulate-intestinal-epithelial-cells-to-induce-mucosal-tolerogenic-dendritic-cells
#2
Gera Goverse, Rosalie Molenaar, Laurence Macia, Jian Tan, Martje N Erkelens, Tanja Konijn, Marlene Knippenberg, Emma C L Cook, Diana Hanekamp, Marc Veldhoen, Anita Hartog, Guus Roeselers, Charles R Mackay, Reina E Mebius
The gastrointestinal tract is continuously exposed to many environmental factors that influence intestinal epithelial cells and the underlying mucosal immune system. In this article, we demonstrate that dietary fiber and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) induced the expression of the vitamin A-converting enzyme RALDH1 in intestinal epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed that the expression levels of RALDH1 in small intestinal epithelial cells correlated with the activity of vitamin A-converting enzymes in mesenteric lymph node dendritic cells, along with increased numbers of intestinal regulatory T cells and a higher production of luminal IgA...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098913/diets-link-metabolic-syndrome-and-colorectal-cancer-development-review
#3
Jirakrit Saetang, Surasak Sangkhathat
Diets have been believed to be an important factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and colorectal cancer (CRC). In recent years, many studies have shown an intimate relationship between mucosal immunity, metabolism and diets, which has led to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and CRC development. Although the precise effects of diets on oncogenesis have not been compl-etely elucidated, microbiota changes and inflammation are believed to be important factors that influence the development of CRC...
January 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098247/c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-2-promotes-enterocyte-survival-and-goblet-cell-differentiation-in-the-inflamed-intestine
#4
A D Mandić, E Bennek, J Verdier, K Zhang, S Roubrocks, R J Davis, B Denecke, N Gassler, K Streetz, A Kel, M Hornef, F J Cubero, C Trautwein, G Sellge
c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) contribute to immune signaling but their functional role during intestinal mucosal inflammation has remained ill defined. Using genetic mouse models, we characterized the role of JNK1 and JNK2 during homeostasis and acute colitis. Epithelial apoptosis, regeneration, differentiation, and barrier function were analyzed in intestinal epithelium-specific (ΔIEC) or complete JNK1 and bone marrow chimeric or complete JNK2 deficient mice as well as double-knockout animals (JNK1(ΔIEC)JNK2(-/-)) during homeostasis and acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis...
January 18, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096700/sequential-combination-chemotherapy-of-dacarbazine-dtic-with-carboplatin-and-paclitaxel-for-patients-with-metastatic-mucosal-melanoma-of-nasal-cavity-and-paranasal-sinuses
#5
W Omata, A Tsutsumida, K Namikawa, A Takahashi, K Oashi, N Yamazaki
By the recent introduction of molecular targeting drugs against BRAF mutation and immune checkpoint inhibitors, the prognosis of patients with melanoma in advanced stage is now improving, but still in the minority. Mucosal melanoma lacks the BRAF mutations, and hence conventional chemotherapeutic regimens must be improved. We have conventionally used dacarbazine (DTIC) for patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma. However, the efficacy of DTIC in patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma has been limited. Therefore, we explored other possibilities to improve the prognosis of patients suffering from metastatic mucosal melanoma...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096541/the-mucosal-immune-system-master-regulator-of-bidirectional-gut-brain-communications
#6
REVIEW
Nick Powell, Marjorie M Walker, Nicholas J Talley
Communication between the brain and gut is not one-way, but a bidirectional highway whereby reciprocal signals between the two organ systems are exchanged to coordinate function. The messengers of this complex dialogue include neural, metabolic, endocrine and immune mediators responsive to diverse environmental cues, including nutrients and components of the intestinal microbiota (microbiota-gut-brain axis). We are now starting to understand how perturbation of these systems affects transition between health and disease...
January 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093107/characterization-and-identification-of-microbial-communities-in-bovine-necrotic-vulvovaginitis
#7
N Y Shpigel, L Adler-Ashkenazy, S Scheinin, T Goshen, A Arazi, Z Pasternak, Y Gottlieb
Bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis (BNVV) is a severe and potentially fatal disease of post-partum cows that emerged in Israel after large dairy herds were merged. While post-partum cows are commonly affected by mild vulvovaginitis (BVV), in BNVV these benign mucosal abrasions develop into progressive deep necrotic lesions leading to sepsis and death if untreated. The etiology of BNVV is still unknown and a single pathogenic agent has not been found. We hypothesized that BNVV is a polymicrobial disease where the normally benign vaginal microbiome is remodeled and affects the local immune response...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090466/microbiome-linked-crosstalk-in-the-gastrointestinal-exposome-towards-host-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Yuseok Moon
The gastrointestinal exposome represents the integration of all xenobiotic components and host-derived endogenous components affecting the host health, disease progression and ultimately clinical outcomes during the lifespan. The human gut microbiome as a dynamic exposome of commensalism continuously interacts with other exogenous exposome as well as host sentineling components including the immune and neuroendocrine circuit. The composition and diversity of the microbiome are established on the basis of the luminal environment (physical, chemical and biological exposome) and host surveillance at each part of the gastrointestinal lining...
December 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090315/chronic-mucocutaneous-candidiasis-disease-associated-with-inborn-errors-of-il-17-immunity
#9
REVIEW
Satoshi Okada, Anne Puel, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Masao Kobayashi
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections affecting the nails, skin and oral and genital mucosae caused by Candida spp., mainly Candida albicans. CMC is an infectious phenotype in patients with inherited or acquired T-cell deficiency. Patients with autosomal-dominant (AD) hyper IgE syndrome (HIES), AD signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) gain-of-function, autosomal-recessive (AR) deficiencies in interleukin (IL)-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1), IL-12p40, caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) or retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γT (RORγT) or AR autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) develop CMC as a major infectious phenotype that is categorized as Syndromic CMC...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089548/nanoformulation-of-synergistic-tlr-ligands-to-enhance-vaccination-against-entamoeba-histolytica
#10
Mayuresh M Abhyankar, Zannatun Noor, Mark A Tomai, James Elvecrog, Christopher B Fox, William A Petri
Diarrheal infectious diseases represent a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need for vaccines against diarrheal pathogens, especially parasites. Modern subunit vaccines rely on combining a highly purified antigen with an adjuvant to increase their efficacy. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of a nanoliposome adjuvant system to trigger a strong mucosal immune response to the Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin LecA antigen. CBA/J mice were immunized with alum, emulsion or liposome based formulations containing synthetic TLR agonists...
January 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088612/alterations-in-cytokine-gene-expression-profile-in-colon-mucosa-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-on-different-therapeutic-regimens
#11
Tsvetelina Velikova, Dobroslav Kyurkchiev, Zoya Spassova, Iliya Karakolev, Ekaterina Ivanova-Todorova, Iskra Altankova, Spaska Stanilova
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is assumed to be caused by genetic and environmental factors that interact together in promoting intestinal immune dysregulation where cytokines have validated role. However, the underlying intimate mechanisms in the human IBD involving cytokines still needs to be supplemented especially in the clinical context. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of some inflammatory and regulatory cytokines (IL-17A, IL-23, IL-6, TGFβ1, and IL-10) as well as of the transcription factor FoxP3 in mucosal samples of IBD and non-IBD patients...
January 12, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086991/does-waterfall-aerosol-influence-mucosal-immunity-and-chronic-stress-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#12
Carina Grafetstätter, Martin Gaisberger, Johanna Prossegger, Markus Ritter, Predrag Kolarž, Christina Pichler, Josef Thalhamer, Arnulf Hartl
BACKGROUND: The specific microclimate of alpine waterfalls with high levels of ionized water aerosols has been suggested to trigger beneficial immunological and psychological effects. In the present three-armed randomized controlled clinical study, we focused on effects on (i) immunological reagibility, on (ii) physiological stress responses, and on (iii) stress-related psychological parameters. METHODS: People with moderate to high stress levels (n = 65) spent an active sojourn with daily hiking tours in the National Park Hohe Tauern (Großkirchheim, Austria)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080988/medical-mycology-and-fungal-immunology-new-research-perspectives-addressing-a-major-world-health-challenge
#13
REVIEW
Neil A R Gow, Mihai G Netea
Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077655/expression-of-ifnlr1-on-intestinal-epithelial-cells-is-critical-to-the-antiviral-effects-of-ifn-lambda-against-norovirus-and-reovirus
#14
Megan T Baldridge, Sanghyun Lee, Judy J Brown, Nicole McAllister, Kelly Urbanek, Terence S Dermody, Timothy J Nice, Herbert W Virgin
: Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) has potent antiviral effects against multiple enteric viral pathogens, including norovirus and rotavirus, in both preventing and curing infection. Because the intestine includes a diverse array of cell types, however, the cell(s) upon which IFN-λ acts to exert its antiviral effects are unclear. Here, we sought to identify IFN-λ responsive cells by generation of mice with lineage-specific deletion of the receptor for IFN-λ, Ifnlr1 We found that expression of IFNLR1 on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in the small intestine and colon is required for enteric IFN-λ antiviral activity...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077651/bromodomain-containing-4-brd4-couples-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-rela-with-airway-inflammation-and-the-irf-rig-i-amplification-loop-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#15
Bing Tian, Jun Yang, Yingxin Zhao, Teodora Ivanciuc, Hong Sun, Roberto P Garofalo, Allan R Brasier
: The airway mucosa expresses protective interferon (IFN) and inflammatory cytokines in response to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection. In this study, we examine the role of bromodomain containing 4 (BRD4) in mediating this innate immune response in human small airway epithelial cells. We observe that RSV induces BRD4 to complex with NFκB/RelA. BRD4 is functionally required for expression of the NFκB-dependent inflammatory gene regulatory network (GRN), including the IFN Response Factor (IRFs)-1 and -7 that mediate a cross-talk pathway for RIG-I upregulation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077588/first-in-human-evaluation-of-the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-an-intranasally-administered-replication-competent-sendai-virus-vectored-hiv-type-1-gag-vaccine-induction-of-potent-t-cell-or-antibody-responses-in-prime-boost-regimens
#16
Julien Nyombayire, Omu Anzala, Brian Gazzard, Etienne Karita, Philip Bergin, Peter Hayes, Jakub Kopycinski, Gloria Omosa-Manyonyi, Akil Jackson, Jean Bizimana, Bashir Farah, Eddy Sayeed, Christopher L Parks, Makoto Inoue, Takashi Hironaka, Hiroto Hara, Tsugumine Shu, Tetsuro Matano, Len Dally, Burc Barin, Harriet Park, Jill Gilmour, Angela Lombardo, Jean-Louis Excler, Patricia Fast, Dagna S Laufer, Josephine H Cox
BACKGROUND:  We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)-vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine. METHODS:  Sixty-five HIV-1-uninfected adults in Kenya, Rwanda, and the United Kingdom were assigned to receive 1 of 4 prime-boost regimens (administered at 0 and 4 months, respectively; ratio of vaccine to placebo recipients, 12:4): priming with a lower-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with an adenovirus 35-vectored vaccine encoding HIV-1 Gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) given intramuscularly (SLA); priming with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly (SHA); priming with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly, followed by boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (ASH); and priming and boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (SHSH)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077318/alcohol-microbiome-life-style-influence-alcohol-and-non-alcoholic-organ-damage
#17
REVIEW
Manuela G Neuman, Samuel W French, Samir Zakhari, Stefen Malnick, Helmut K Seitz, Lawrence B Cohen, Mikko Salaspuro, Andreea Voinea Griffin, Andrei Barasch, Irina A Kirpich, Paul G Thomes, Laura W Schrum, Terrence M Donohue, Kusum Kharbanda, Marcus Cruz, Mihai Opris
This paper is based upon the "8th Charles Lieber's Satellite Symposium" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, onJune 25, 2016 at New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The integrative symposium investigated different aspects of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) as well as non-alcohol-induced liver disease (NAFLD) and possible repair. We revealedthe basic aspects of alcohol metabolism that may be responsible for the development of liver diseaseas well as the factors that determine the amount, frequency and which type of alcohol misuse leads to liver and gastrointestinal diseases...
January 7, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076570/bilateral-retinal-vasculitis-in-a-patient-with-lichen-planus
#18
Seyhan Dikci, Oğuzhan Genç, Turgut Yılmaz, Penpe Gül Fırat
Lichen planus (LP) is an autoimmune, inflammatory disease of unknown etiology that commonly affects the skin and mucous membranes. Retinal vasculitis is a group of vision-threatening disorders, in which autoimmunity is thought to play a role in pathogenesis. We present the case of a patient who was diagnosed with retinal vasculitis and who was followed up for mucosal LP. LP has not been reported as a cause of retinal vasculitis in the literature. We believe that the retinal vasculitis in this case was related to LP because cellular immunity plays a role in the pathogenesis of both entities...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072910/crosstalk-between-intestinal-epithelial-cell-and-adaptive-immune-cell-in-intestinal-mucosal-immunity
#19
Jun Tao Lu, An Tao Xu, Jun Shen, Zhi Hua Ran
Constantly challenged by luminal bacteria, intestinal epithelium forms both a physical and biochemical defense against pathogens. Besides, intestinal epithelium senses dynamic and continuous changes in luminal environment and transmits signals to subjacent immune cells accordingly. It has been long accepted that adaptive immune cells fulfill their roles partly by modulating function of intestinal epithelial cells. Recent studies have brought up the proposal that intestinal epithelial cells also actively participate in the regulation of adaptive immunity, especially CD4+ adaptive T cells, which indicates that there is reciprocal crosstalk between intestinal epithelial cells and adaptive immune cells and the crosstalk may play important role in intestinal mucosal immunity...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069935/resistance-to-type-1-interferons-is-a-major-determinant-of-hiv-1-transmission-fitness
#20
Shilpa S Iyer, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Scott Sherrill-Mix, Gerald H Learn, Lindsey Plenderleith, Andrew G Smith, Hannah J Barbian, Ronnie M Russell, Marcos V P Gondim, Catherine Y Bahari, Christiana M Shaw, Yingying Li, Timothy Decker, Barton F Haynes, George M Shaw, Paul M Sharp, Persephone Borrow, Beatrice H Hahn
Sexual transmission of HIV-1 is an inefficient process, with only one or few variants of the donor quasispecies establishing the new infection. A critical, and as yet unresolved, question is whether the mucosal bottleneck selects for viruses with increased transmission fitness. Here, we characterized 300 limiting dilution-derived virus isolates from the plasma, and in some instances genital secretions, of eight HIV-1 donor and recipient pairs. Although there were no differences in the amount of virion-associated envelope glycoprotein, recipient isolates were on average threefold more infectious (P = 0...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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