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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936214/a-mucosal-and-cutaneous-chemokine-ligand-for-the-lymphocyte-chemoattractant-receptor-gpr15
#1
Borja Ocón, Junliang Pan, Theresa Thu Dinh, Wenjing Chen, Romain Ballet, Michael Bscheider, Aida Habtezion, Hua Tu, Brian A Zabel, Eugene C Butcher
Chemoattractants control lymphocyte recruitment from the blood, contributing to the systemic organization of the immune system. The G protein-linked receptor GPR15 mediates lymphocyte homing to the large intestines and skin. Here we show that the 9 kDa CC-motif containing cationic polypeptide AP57/colon-derived sushi containing domain-2 binding factor (CSBF), encoded by C10orf99 in the human and 2610528A11Rik in the mouse, functions as a chemokine ligand for GPR15 (GPR15L). GPR15L binds GPR15 and attracts GPR15-expressing T cells including lymphocytes in colon-draining lymph nodes and Vγ3(+) thymic precursors of dermal epithelial T cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935575/non-pathological-infection-of-macaques-by-an-attenuated-mycobacterial-vaccine-is-not-reactivated-in-the-setting-of-hiv-coinfection
#2
Taylor Wayne Foreman, Ashley Victoria Veatch, Denae Nadine LoBato, Peter John Didier, Lara Angela Doyle-Meyers, Kasi Elizabeth Russell-Lodrigue, Andrew Alan Lackner, Konstantin Gus Kousoulas, Shabaana Abdul Khader, Deepak Kaushal, Smriti Mehra
Failure to replace BCG with efficacious anti-TB vaccines have prompted out-of-the-box thinking, including pulmonary vaccination in order to elicit local immunity. MtbΔsigH, a stress-response attenuated strain, protected against lethal TB when used to vaccinate macaques via inhalation. While live mycobacterial vaccines show promising efficacy, HIV co-infection and the resulting immunodeficiency prompts safety concerns about their use. We assessed the persistence and safety of MtbΔsigH, delivered directly to the lungs, in the setting of HIV coinfection...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935000/effect-of-early-life-gut-mucosal-compromise-on-disease-progression-in-nod-mice
#3
Katja M Bendtsen, Camilla Hf Hansen, Lukasz Krych, Karsten Buschard, Helene Farlov, Axel K Hansen
Disease expression in spontaneous nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice depends on environmental stimuli such as stress, diet, and gut microbiota composition. We evaluated a brief, early-life gut intervention in which pups were weaned to low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). We hypothesized that the mucus-reducing effect of this compound and subsequent increased host-bacterial contact would delay disease onset and decrease insulitis due to enhanced oral tolerance. However, disease incidence did not differ between groups, although median survival (time point when 50% of the mice are still alive) of the control group was 184 d compared with 205 d for DSS-treated mice...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934357/from-bacterial-killing-to-immune-modulation-recent-insights-into-the-functions-of-lysozyme
#4
REVIEW
Stephanie A Ragland, Alison K Criss
Lysozyme is a cornerstone of innate immunity. The canonical mechanism for bacterial killing by lysozyme occurs through the hydrolysis of cell wall peptidoglycan (PG). Conventional type (c-type) lysozymes are also highly cationic and can kill certain bacteria independently of PG hydrolytic activity. Reflecting the ongoing arms race between host and invading microorganisms, both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria have evolved mechanisms to thwart killing by lysozyme. In addition to its direct antimicrobial role, more recent evidence has shown that lysozyme modulates the host immune response to infection...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933668/nasal-aluminum-oxy-hydroxide-enables-adsorbed-antigens-to-induce-specific-systemic-and-mucosal-immune-responses
#5
Haiyue Xu, Tinashe B Ruwona, Sachin G Thakkar, Yanping Chen, Mingtao Zeng, Zhengrong Cui
Some insoluble aluminum salts are commonly used in injectable vaccines as adjuvants to accelerate, prolong, or enhance the antigen-specific immune responses. Data from previous studies testing the nasal mucosal vaccine adjuvant activity of aluminum salts are conflicting. The present study is designed to further assess the feasibility of repurposing aluminum salts in injectable vaccines as nasal mucosal vaccine adjuvants. Using Alhydrogel®, the international scientific standard of aluminum (oxy)hydroxide gels, and ovalbumin or 3 × M2e-HA2, a synthetic influenza virus fusion protein, as antigens, we showed in a mouse model that when dosed intranasally Alhydrogel® enables antigens adsorbed on it to induce stronger antigen-specific immune responses in both serum samples (e...
September 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932838/engineered-biomimetic-nanovesicles-show-intrinsic-anti-inflammatory-properties-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#6
Claudia Corbo, Walter E Cromer, Roberto Molinaro, Naama E Toledano Furman, Kelly A Hartman, Enrica De Rosa, Christian Boada, Xin Wang, David C Zawieja, Marco Agostini, Francesco Salvatore, Bincy P Abraham, Ennio Tasciotti
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Currently, it is treated with immunosuppressant or biologics that often induce severe adverse effects. Thus, there is an urgent clinical need for more specific treatments. To provide a valid therapeutic tool for IBD therapy, in this work we developed biomimetic nanovesicles by manipulating leukocyte membranes to exploit mechanisms of T-cell recruitment during inflammation...
September 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930685/human-tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-are-defined-by-core-transcriptional-and-functional-signatures-in-lymphoid-and-mucosal-sites
#7
Brahma V Kumar, Wenji Ma, Michelle Miron, Tomer Granot, Rebecca S Guyer, Dustin J Carpenter, Takashi Senda, Xiaoyun Sun, Siu-Hong Ho, Harvey Lerner, Amy L Friedman, Yufeng Shen, Donna L Farber
Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRMs) in mice mediate optimal protective immunity to infection and vaccination, while in humans, the existence and properties of TRMs remain unclear. Here, we use a unique human tissue resource to determine whether human tissue memory T cells constitute a distinct subset in diverse mucosal and lymphoid tissues. We identify a core transcriptional profile within the CD69(+) subset of memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in lung and spleen that is distinct from that of CD69(-) TEM cells in tissues and circulation and defines human TRMs based on homology to the transcriptional profile of mouse CD8(+) TRMs...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930286/molecular-and-cellular-signatures-underlying-superior-immunity-against-bordetella-pertussis-upon-pulmonary-vaccination
#8
R Hm Raeven, J Brummelman, J LA Pennings, L van der Maas, K Helm, W Tilstra, A van der Ark, A Sloots, P van der Ley, W van Eden, W Jiskoot, E van Riet, C Acm van Els, G Fa Kersten, W Gh Han, B Metz
Mucosal immunity is often required for protection against respiratory pathogens but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of induction remain poorly understood. Here, systems vaccinology was used to identify immune signatures after pulmonary or subcutaneous immunization of mice with pertussis outer membrane vesicles. Pulmonary immunization led to improved protection, exclusively induced mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and T helper type 17 (Th17) responses, and in addition evoked elevated systemic immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels, IgG-producing plasma cells, memory B cells, and Th17 cells...
September 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930285/interleukin-17a-negatively-regulates-lymphangiogenesis-in-t-helper-17-cell-mediated-inflammation
#9
H J Park, C M Yuk, K Shin, S-H Lee
During inflammation lymphatic vessels (LVs) are enlarged and their density is increased to facilitate the migration of activated immune cells and antigens. However, after antigen clearance, the expanded LVs shrink to maintain homeostasis. Here we show that interleukin (IL)-17A, secreted from T helper type 17 (TH17) cells, is a negative regulator of lymphangiogenesis during the resolution phase of TH17-mediated immune responses. Moreover, IL-17A suppresses the expression of major lymphatic markers in lymphatic endothelial cells and decreases in vitro LV formation...
September 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928960/the-relationship-between-mucosal-immunity-nasopharyngeal-carriage-asymptomatic-transmission-and-the-resurgence-of-bordetella-pertussis
#10
REVIEW
Christopher Gill, Pejman Rohani, Donald M Thea
The incidence of whooping cough in the US has been rising slowly since the 1970s, but the pace of this has accelerated sharply since acellular pertussis vaccines replaced the earlier whole cell vaccines in the late 1990s. A similar trend occurred in many other countries, including the UK, Canada, Australia, Ireland, and Spain, following the switch to acellular vaccines. The key question is why. Two leading theories (short duration of protective immunologic persistence and evolutionary shifts in the pathogen to evade the vaccine) explain some but not all of these shifts, suggesting that other factors may also be important...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928120/creation-of-a-claudin-2-binder-and-its-tight-junction-modulating-activity-in-a-human-intestinal-model
#11
Mutsumi Takigawa, Manami Iida, Shotaro Nagase, Hidehiko Suzuki, Akihiro Watari, Minoru Tada, Yoshiaki Okada, Takefumi Doi, Masayoshi Fukasawa, Kiyohito Yagi, Jun Kunisawa, Masuo Kondoh
Disruption of the gastrointestinal epithelial barrier is a hallmark of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The transmembrane protein claudin 2 (CLDN2) is a component of epithelial tight junctions (TJs). In the intestines of patients with IBDs, the expression of the pore-forming TJ protein CLDN2 is upregulated. Although CLDN2 is involved in these leaky barriers, whether it can be a target to enhance TJ integrity is unknown because a CLDN2-specific inhibitor has not been developed. Here, we used DNA immunization to generate a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognized an extracellular loop of CLDN2...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927119/effect-of-glutamine-enriched-nutritional-support-on-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-function-mmp-2-mmp-9-and-immune-function-in-patients-with-advanced-gastric-cancer-during-perioperative-chemotherapy
#12
Juan Wang, Yanfen Li, Yuanling Qi
We studied the effects of glutamine-enriched nutritional support on intestinal mucosal barrier, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and immune function during perioperative chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer. The study was conducted on 94 patients with advanced gastric cancer admitted from April 2015 to March 2016. They were randomly divided into observation and control groups, n=47. Control group was given basic nutritional support whereas glutamine-enriched nutritional support was given to patients in observation group...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926962/anti-nkg2d-mab-a-new-treatment-for-crohn-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Kasper Vadstrup, Flemming Bendtsen
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are immunologically-mediated, debilitating conditions resulting from destructive inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The pathogenesis of IBD is incompletely understood, but is considered to be the result of an abnormal immune response with a wide range of cell types and proteins involved. Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) is an activating receptor constitutively expressed on human Natural Killer (NK), γδ T, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT), CD56⁺ T, and CD8⁺ T cells...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923364/tissue-specific-immunity-at-the-oral-mucosal-barrier
#14
REVIEW
Niki M Moutsopoulos, Joanne E Konkel
The oral mucosal barrier is constantly exposed to a plethora of triggers requiring immune control, including a diverse commensal microbiome, ongoing damage from mastication, and dietary and airborne antigens. However, how these tissue-specific cues participate in the training of immune responsiveness at this site is minimally understood. Moreover, the mechanisms mediating homeostatic immunity at this interface are not yet fully defined. Here we present basic aspects of the oral mucosal barrier and discuss local cues that may modulate and train local immune responsiveness...
September 8, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923062/tissue-resident-stem-cell-activity-a-view-from-the-adult-drosophila-gastrointestinal-tract
#15
REVIEW
Qiang Liu, Li Hua Jin
The gastrointestinal tract serves as a fast-renewing model for unraveling the multifaceted molecular mechanisms underlying remarkably rapid cell renewal, which is exclusively fueled by a small number of long-lived stem cells and their progeny. Stem cell activity is the best-characterized aspect of mucosal homeostasis in mitotically active tissues, and the dysregulation of regenerative capacity is a hallmark of epithelial immune defects. This dysregulation is frequently associated with pathologies ranging from chronic enteritis to malignancies in humans...
September 18, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921509/baff-augments-iga2-and-il-10-production-by-tlr7-8-stimulated-total-peripheral-blood-b-cells
#16
Gerco den Hartog, Thijs L J van Osch, Martijn Vos, Ben Meijer, Huub F J Savelkoul, R J Joost van Neerven, Sylvia Brugman
Class-switching of B cells to IgA can be induced via both T cell-dependent and T cell-independent mechanisms. IgA is most predominantly produced mucosally and is important for combating infections and allergies. In contrast to mice, humans have two forms of IgA; IgA1 and IgA2 with diverse tissue distribution. In early life, IgA levels might be sub-optimal especially during the fall season when bacterial and viral infections are more common. Therefore, we investigated using human B cells whether T cell-independent factors -promoting cell survival, class switching and immunoglobulin secretion- BAFF, APRIL, IL-10 and retinoic acid can boost IgA production in the context of viral or bacterial infection...
September 17, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919998/reciprocal-influence-of-b-cells-and-tumor-macro-and-microenvironments-in-the-apc-min-model-of-colorectal-cancer
#17
Francesca Mion, Stefania Vetrano, Silvia Tonon, Viviana Valeri, Andrea Piontini, Alessia Burocchi, Luciana Petti, Barbara Frossi, Alessandro Gulino, Claudio Tripodo, Mario P Colombo, Carlo E Pucillo
One of the most fascinating aspects of the immune system is its dynamism, meant as the ability to change and readapt according to the organism needs. Following an insult, we assist to the spontaneous organization of different immune cells which cooperate, locally and at distance, to build up an appropriate response. Throughout tumor progression, adaptations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion and metastasis to distal organs, but also to dramatic changes in the activity and composition of the immune system...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917489/the-effects-of-single-or-combined-administration-of-galactooligosaccharide-and-pediococcus-acidilactici-on-cutaneous-mucus-immune-parameters-humoral-immune-responses-and-immune-related-genes-expression-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-fingerlings
#18
Maryam Modanloo, Siyavash Soltanian, Mostafa Akhlaghi, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar
The present study was performed to investigate the effects of single or combined administration of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and Pediococcus acidilactici on cutaneous mucus immune parameters, humoral immune responses and immune related genes expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Carps were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks as follows: non-supplemented (Control), prebiotic diet (10 g/kg GOS), probiotic diet (1 g/kg [0.9 × 10(7) CFU] lyophilized P. acidilactici) and synbiotic diet (10 GOS in combination with 1 g/kg [0...
September 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916356/molecular-characterization-of-polymeric-immunoglobulin-receptor-and-expression-response-to-aeromonas-hydrophila-challenge-in-carassius-auratus
#19
Li Wang, Jie Zhang, Xianghui Kong, Chao Pei, Xianliang Zhao, Li Li
The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) plays a pivotal role in mucosal immune response by transporting polymeric immunoglobulins onto the surface of mucosal epithelia to protect animals from invading pathogens. In this study, the full-length cDNA of pIgR was firstly cloned in Qihe crucian carp (Carassius auratus), hereafter designated as CapIgR, by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The molecular characterization and expression of CapIgR were investigated...
September 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914974/mucocutaneous-inflammation-in-the-ikaros-family-zinc-finger-1-ikzf1-keratin-5-specifc-transgenic-mice
#20
Mayumi Ueta, Junji Hamuro, Hiromi Nishigaki, Naomi Nakamura, Katsuhiko Shinomiya, Katsura Mizushima, Yuki Hitomi, Risa Tamagawa-Mineoka, Norihiko Yokoi, Yuji Naito, Katsushi Tokunaga, Norito Katoh, Chie Sotozono, Shigeru Kinoshita
BACKGROUND: Our genome-wide association study documented an association between cold medicine related Stevens-Johnson syndrome / toxic epidermal necrolysis (CM-SJS/TEN) and Ikaros Family Zinc Finger 1 (IKZF1). Few studies examined biological and pathological functions of IKZF1 in mucosal immunity. We hypothesized that IKZF1 contributes to the mucocutaneous inflammation. METHODS: Human skin and conjunctival tissues were obtained for immunohistological studies. Primary human conjunctival epithelial cells (PHCjECs) and adult human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa) also used for gene expression analysis...
September 15, 2017: Allergy
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