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Mucosal immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637001/a-novel-method-to-generate-salmonella-typhi-ty21a-ghosts-exploiting-the-%C3%AE-phage-holin-endolysin-system
#1
Gayeon Won, Boram Kim, John Hwa Lee
Human typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi still poses a severe global disease burden in developing countries despite the availability of commercial vaccines. In this study, we constructed a non-living S. Typhi Ty21a vaccine candidate by employing a lambda (λ) phage-derived holin-endolysin system to efficiently construct bacterial ghosts. The lysis plasmid pJHL464 harbors an R lysis cassette that is stringently regulated by dual promoters containing cI857/λPR and ParaBAD/araC components. The plasmid was introduced into an asd gene-deleted S...
June 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636959/the-enteric-network-interactions-between-the-immune-and-nervous-systems-of-the-gut
#2
REVIEW
Bryan B Yoo, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Interactions between the nervous and immune systems enable the gut to respond to the variety of dietary products that it absorbs, the broad spectrum of pathogens that it encounters, and the diverse microbiome that it harbors. The enteric nervous system (ENS) senses and reacts to the dynamic ecosystem of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by translating chemical cues from the environment into neuronal impulses that propagate throughout the gut and into other organs in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636560/lipocalin-2-regulates-intestine-bacterial-survival-by-interplaying-with-siderophore-in-a-weaned-piglet-model-of-escherichia-coli-infection
#3
Bing-Xiu Guo, Qian-Qian Wang, Jia-Hui Li, Zhen-Shun Gan, Xiao-Feng Zhang, Yi-Zhen Wang, Hua-Hua Du
Iron is an essential nutrient that facilitates cell proliferation and growth, which plays a pivotal role in modulating the battle for survival between mammalian hosts and their pathogens. Pathogenic bacteria secrete siderophores to acquire iron from the host. However, lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), a siderophore-binding antimicrobial protein, binds to siderophores to prevent bacterial uptake of iron, which is critical for the control of systemic infection with Escherichia coli (E. coli). But few studies focus on the anti-infective response of Lcn2 in the intestines by inhibiting bacterial proliferation based on microbial iron metabolism...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635957/itk-signalling-via-the-ras-irf4-pathway-regulates-the-development-and-function-of-tr1-cells
#4
Weishan Huang, Sabrina Solouki, Nicholas Koylass, Song-Guo Zheng, Avery August
Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells differentiate in response to signals engaging the T cell receptor (TCR), express high levels of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, but not Foxp3, and can suppress inflammation and promote immune tolerance. Here we show that ITK, an important modulator of TCR signalling, is required for the TCR-induced development of Tr1 cells in various organs, and in the mucosal system during parasitic and viral infections. ITK kinase activity is required for mouse and human Tr1 cell differentiation...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633955/the-microbiome-and-transfusion-in-cancer-patients
#5
REVIEW
Hadi Goubran, Jerard Seghatchian, Julia Radosevic, Gaafar Ragab, Thierry Burnouf
Our microbiota is determined by many variables including ABO blood groups. The microbiota is not only confined to the gut and skin but is also recoverable from blood of healthy donors. The microbiota shape our immune system through cross reactivity with antigens, the expression of direct molecular patterns, the release of cytokines, the effects on nutrients and micronutrients and even through an interplay with epigenetics. It is likely, therefore, that a donor's microbiota could alter the antigenicity of blood and its components and potentially contribute to transfusion-related immune modulation [TRIM]...
June 3, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633646/role-of-serotonin-on-the-intestinal-mucosal-immune-response-to-stress-induced-diarrhea-in-weaning-mice
#6
Yulan Dong, Yanan Han, Zixu Wang, Zhuoming Qin, Chenyu Yang, Jing Cao, Yaoxing Chen
BACKGROUND: During weaning, babies and young animal often experience diarrhea from food intolerance and/or decreasing levels of maternal antibodies, and diarrhea tends to be particularly severe during the early-weaned period, which often exhibits an underdeveloped immune system, a disturbed gut environment and results in nutrient malabsorption and dehydration. It was deduced that neuroendocrine might have close relation with diarrhea, especially 5-HT. METHODS: To explore the role of serotonin (5-HT) in weaning mice subjected to stress-induced diarrhea, 21-day-old weaned mice were divided into the following groups: control group, stress-induced diarrhea group (restrained by binding the hind limbs and intragastric administration of folium sennae with 0...
June 21, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631214/identification-of-bufadienolides-from-the-boreal-toad-anaxyrus-boreas-active-against-a-fungal-pathogen
#7
Kelly Barnhart, Megan E Forman, Thomas P Umile, Jordan Kueneman, Valerie McKenzie, Irene Salinas, Kevin P C Minbiole, Douglas C Woodhams
Amphibian granular glands provide a wide range of compounds on the skin that defend against pathogens and predators. We identified three bufadienolides-the steroid-like compounds arenobufagin, gamabufotalin, and telocinobufagin-from the boreal toad, Anaxyrus boreas, through liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Compounds were detected both after inducing skin gland secretions and in constitutive mucosal rinses from toads. We described the antimicrobial properties of each bufadienolide against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), an amphibian fungal pathogen linked with boreal toad population declines...
June 19, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631048/celiac-disease-from-etiological-factors-to-evolving-diagnostic-approaches
#8
REVIEW
Anantdeep Kaur, Olga Shimoni, Michael Wallach
Celiac disease has advanced from a medical rarity to a highly prevalent disorder. Patients with the disease show varying degrees of chronic inflammation within the small intestine due to an aberrant immune response to the digestion of gliadin found in wheat. As a result, cytokines and antibodies are produced in celiac patients that can be used as specific biomarkers for developing diagnostic tests. This review paper describes celiac disease in terms of its etiological cause, pathological effects, current diagnostic tests based on mucosal biopsy, and the genetic basis for the disease...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630108/inducing-mucosal-iga-a-challenge-for-vaccine-adjuvants-and-delivery-systems
#9
REVIEW
Prosper N Boyaka
Mucosal IgA or secretory IgA (SIgA) are structurally equipped to resist chemical degradation in the harsh environment of mucosal surfaces and enzymes of host or microbial origin. Production of SIgA is finely regulated, and distinct T-independent and T-dependent mechanisms orchestrate Ig α class switching and SIgA responses against commensal and pathogenic microbes. Most infectious pathogens enter the host via mucosal surfaces. To provide a first line of protection at these entry ports, vaccines are being developed to induce pathogen-specific SIgA in addition to systemic immunity achieved by injected vaccines...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629979/nasal-vaccination-with-poly-%C3%AE-amino-ester-poly-d-l-lactide-co-glycolide-hybrid-nanoparticles
#10
Genada Sinani, Melike Sessevmez, M Koray Gök, Saadet Özgümüş, Alper Okyar, H Oya Alpar, Erdal Cevher
Mucosal vaccination stimulates both mucosal and systemic immunity. However, mucosal applications of vaccine antigens in their free form generally result in poor systemic immune responses and need adjuvantation. In this study, bovine serum albumin loaded, new hybridised poly(β-amino ester)-poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsion-solvent evaporation method, characterised and evaluated in vivo as nasal vaccine carriers. Cationic spherical particles with a mean size of 240nm, good physical stability and high encapsulation efficiency were obtained...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629671/oral-immunisation-with-taishan-pinus-massoniana-pollen-polysaccharide-adjuvant-with-recombinant-lactococcus-lactis-expressing-proteus-mirabilis-ompa-confers-optimal-protection-in-mice
#11
J Zhou, K Wei, C Wang, W Dong, N Ma, L Zhu, L P Hu, H Huang, R Zhu
BACKGROUND: Proteus mirabilis poses a critical burden on the breeding industry, but no efficient vaccine is available for animals. METHOD: A recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing the ompA of P. mirabilis was used to develop a vaccine. The mucosal and systemic immune responses of the recombinant vaccine were evaluated in mice after oral immunisation. The inhibition on P. mirabilis colonisation of vaccines was also determined. Moreover, Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides (TPPPS) were used as adjuvants to examine the immunomodulatory effects...
June 16, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628846/substance-p-and-the-neurokinin-1-receptor-expression-in-dog-ileum-with-and-without-inflammation
#12
Giulia Polidoro, Fiorella Giancola, Federico Fracassi, Marco Pietra, Giuliano Bettini, Martina Asti, Roberto Chiocchetti
In the gastrointestinal tract, the tachykinin Substance P (SP) is involved in motility, fluid and electrolyte secretion, and blood flow and regulation of immunoinflammatory response. SP exerts its biological activity on target cells by interacting mainly with the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R). The present study aims to quantify the percentage of SP-immunoreactive (SP-IR) enteric neurons and the density of SP-IR nerve fibers in the ileum of control dogs (CTRL-dogs; n=7) vs dogs with spontaneous ileal inflammation (INF-dogs; n=8)...
June 12, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628361/lipocalin-2-an-emerging-player-in-iron-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#13
Xia Xiao, Beng San Yeoh, Matam Vijay-Kumar
Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), an innate immune protein, has emerged as a critical iron regulatory protein during physiological and inflammatory conditions. As a bacteriostatic factor, Lcn2 obstructs the siderophore iron-acquiring strategy of bacteria and thus inhibits bacterial growth. As part of host nutritional immunity, Lcn2 facilitates systemic, cellular, and mucosal hypoferremia during inflammation, in addition to stabilizing the siderophore-bound labile iron pool. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the interaction between Lcn2 and iron, and its effects in various inflammatory diseases...
June 19, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626380/clinical-and-pathologic-remission-of-pediatric-ulcerative-colitis-with-serum-derived-bovine-immunoglobulin-added-to-the-standard-treatment-regimen
#14
Rachelle A Soriano, Asuncion G Ramos-Soriano
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that is particularly troublesome for pediatric patients, as current therapeutic options consist of biologic agents and steroids which alter the immune response and have the harmful side effect of leaving the patient more susceptible to opportunistic infections and eventual surgery. Another option for therapy exists in the form of serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI), the key ingredient in a medical food, EnteraGam®. The FDA has reviewed the safety of SBI and issued a no challenge letter to the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) findings for this medical food...
May 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625807/evidence-for-altered-levels-of-immunoglobulin-d-in-the-nasal-airway-mucosa-of-patients-with-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#15
Jin-Young Min, Jayakar V Nayak, Kathryn E Hulse, Whitney W Stevens, Paul A Raju, Julia H Huang, Lydia A Suh, Griet A Van Roey, James E Norton, Roderick G Carter, Caroline P E Price, Ava R Weibman, Ali R Rashan, Eliver E Ghosn, Zara M Patel, Tetsuya Homma, David B Conley, Kevin C Welch, Stephanie Shintani-Smith, Anju T Peters, Leslie C Grammer, Kathleen E Harris, Atsushi Kato, Peter H Hwang, Robert C Kern, Leonore A Herzenberg, Robert P Schleimer, Bruce K Tan
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is an enigmatic antibody isotype best known when co-expressed with IgM on naïve B cells. However, elevated soluble IgD (sIgD) and increased IgD(+)IgM(-) B cell populations have been described in the human upper respiratory mucosa. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether levels of sIgD and IgD(+) B cells are altered in nasal tissue from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We further characterized IgD(+) B cell populations and explored clinical and local inflammatory factors associated with tissue sIgD levels...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625726/pulmonary-administration-of-soluble-antigen-arrays-is-superior-to-antigen-in-treatment-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#16
Christopher Kuehl, Sharadvi Thati, Bradley Sullivan, Joshua Sestak, Michael Thompson, Teruna Siahaan, Cory Berkland
Antigen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) has been used to hyposensitize patients to allergens and offers an enticing approach for attenuating autoimmune diseases. Applying ASIT to mucosal surfaces such as the lungs may engage unique immune response pathways to improve efficacy. Pulmonary delivery of soluble antigen arrays (SAgAs) was explored in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a multiple sclerosis model. SAgAs were designed to impede immune response to autoantigen epitopes and are composed of a hyaluronan backbone with peptides PLP139-151 and LABL, a disease-causing proteolipid peptide epitope and an ICAM-1 ligand, respectively...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625525/recombinant-lactobacillus-casei-expressing-clostridium-perfringens-toxoids-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE%C2%B5-and-%C3%AE-1-gives-protection-against-clostridium-perfringens-in-rabbits
#17
Li Zhao, Zhihou Guo, Jiali Liu, Zi Wang, Ruichong Wang, Yijing Li, Li Wang, Yigang Xu, Lijie Tang, Xinyuan Qiao
The present study used Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 as antigen delivery system to express C. perfringens toxoids α-β2-ε-β1 to construct the recombination Lactobacillus casei pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393. After being induced by 1% xylose, the specificity and integrity of recombinant strain were determined by Western-blotting. Rabbits as native animal model were immunized orally with pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393 and the titers of specific IgG and sIgA were determined by ELISA. The result showed that oral administration with the recombinants could elicit both local mucosal and systemic immune responses...
June 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625152/lipid-oxidation-products-in-the-pathogenesis-of-inflammation-related-gut-diseases
#18
Barbara Sottero, Daniela Rossin, Giuseppe Poli, Fiorella Biasi
A defective mucosal barrier function is the principal cause of the uncontrolled onset and progression of a number of human inflammatory gut diseases, most of which are characterized by chronic intermittent immune and inflammatory responses leading to structural intestinal damage, which can represent a potential risk for colorectal cancer development. During the active disease phase the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and the induction of oxidative reactions by activated leukocytes and epithelial cells represent the main event in intestinal inflammation...
June 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624468/fish-mass-immunization-against-virus-with-recombinant-spiny-bacterins
#19
Julio Coll
Bacterins obtained from recombinant bacteria displaying heterologous antigens in its surface coded by prokaryotic rather than eukaryotic expression plasmids (here called "spiny" bacterins or spinycterins), have been used to increase fish immunogenicity of recombinant viral protein fragments. To explore their immunogenicity, five bacterial-specific membrane anchor-motifs characterized in the literature (Nmistic, Mistic, NTD, YAIN and YBEL) were genetically fused to the immunorelevant cystein-free 117 amino acid fragment II from the ORF149 of cyprinid herpes virus 3 (frgIICyHV3)...
June 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622453/plasmablasts-with-a-mucosal-phenotype-contribute-to-plasmacytosis-in-sle
#20
Henrik E Mei, Stefanie Hahne, Andreas Redlin, Bimba F Hoyer, Kaiyin Wu, Lisa Baganz, Anna R Lisney, Tobias Alexander, Birgit Rudolph, Thomas Dörner
Objective To analyze the composition of known plasmacytosis in SLE to obtain further insight into the nature of underlying mechanisms. Methods Plasmablasts of active and inactive/treated SLE patients, and of healthy controls were characterized by flow cytometry, EliSpot and transwell migration assays, and results were compared to characteristics of vaccination-induced plasmablasts. Serum cytokine levels were analyzed by a Luminex assay, and kidney biopsies by histology. Results We here demonstrate the expression of markers of mucosal immune reactions by circulating plasmablasts in SLE...
June 16, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
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