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Mucosal immunity

Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Fazel Zoheiri, Carlo C Lazado
Immunostimulation through the use of sustainable and eco-friendly dietary additives is one of the current prophylactic strategies in fish husbandry. Plant-based immunostimulants are highly considered for this intent, both for their scientific and practical advantages. Persian hogweed (Heracleum persicum) is a flower-bearing herb that possesses interesting pharmacological importance due to its bioactive compounds. It is commonly used as a spice, food additive, dietary supplement and traditional remedy. The present study evaluated the potential of H...
October 14, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jasmyn S Abrams, Savannah E Howe, Nathalie Becerra, Punit Kohli, Vjollca Konjufca
In this work we report a protocol for synthesizing nano-size ovalbumin-functionalized polydiacetylene (PDA) liposomes (LP-Ova). We show that LP-Ova administered per-orally (p.o.) and subcutaneously (s.c.), without the use of adjuvants, induces high serum IgG1 titers. As reported previously using polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs), p.o.-primed mice developed high titers of IgG2c and intestinal IgA following s.c. boosting immunization with LP-Ova. In contrast, mice that received a single s.c. immunization with LP-Ova did not develop serum IgG2c or intestinal IgA antibodies...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Lijun Du, John J Kim, Jinhua Shen, Ning Dai
The barrier function of the intestine is essential for maintaining the normal homeostasis of the gut and mucosal immune system. Abnormalities in intestinal barrier function expressed by increased intestinal permeability have long been observed in various gastrointestinal disorders such as Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Imbalance of metabolizing junction proteins and mucosal inflammation contributes to intestinal hyperpermeability. Emerging studies exploring in vitro and in vivo model system demonstrate that Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase- (ROCK-) and myosin light chain kinase- (MLCK-) mediated pathways are involved in the regulation of intestinal permeability...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Mahesh Kudrimoti, Amarintha Curtis, Samar Azawi, Francis Worden, Sanford Katz, Douglas Adkins, Marcelo Bonomi, Jenna Elder, Stephen T Sonis, Richard Straube, Oreola Donini
Dusquetide, a novel Innate Defense Regulator, modulates the innate immune system at a key convergence point in intracellular signaling pathways and has demonstrated activity in both reducing inflammation and increasing clearance of bacterial infection. Innate immunity has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis (OM), a universal toxicity of chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Testing the hypothesis that dusquetide can mitigate the development and duration of OM, preclinical studies have been completed and correlated with interim results from a Phase 2 clinical study in patients undergoing CRT for head and neck cancer...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Karima Bouzerzour, Stéphanie Ferret-Bernard, Olivia Ménard, Laurence Le Normand, Cécile Perrier, Cindy Le Bourgot, Julien Jardin, Claire Bourlieu, Thomas Carton, Pascale Le Ruyet, Isabelle Cuinet, Cécile Bonhomme, Didier Dupont
PURPOSE: Although composition of infant formula has been significantly improved during the last decade, major differences with the composition and structure of breast milk still remain and might affect nutrient digestion and gut biology. We hypothesized that the incorporation of dairy fat in infant formulas could modify their physiological impacts by making their composition closer to that of human milk. The effect of milk fat and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fragments in infant formulas on gut digestion, mucosal immunity and microbiota composition was evaluated...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Anders Dige, Tue Kruse Rasmussen, Peter Nejsum, Rikke Hagemann-Madsen, Andrew R Williams, Jørgen Agnholt, Jens F Dahlerup, Christian L Hvas
Helminthic therapy of immune-mediated diseases has gained attention in recent years, but we know little of how helminths modulate human immunity. In this study, we investigated how self-infection with Trichuris (T.) trichiura in an adult man without intestinal disease affected mucosal and systemic immunity. Colonic mucosal biopsies were obtained at baseline, during T. trichiura infection, and after its clearance following mebendazole treatment. Unexpectedly, the volunteer experienced a Campylobacter colitis following T...
October 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Dervla O'Malley
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, bloating and disturbed bowel habit, symptoms which impact on the quality of life of sufferers. The pathophysiological changes underlying this multifactorial condition are complex and include increased sensitivity to luminal and mucosal factors which result in altered colonic transit and visceral pain. Moreover, dysfunctional communication in the bidirectional signaling axis between the brain and the gut, which involves efferent and afferent branches of the peripheral nervous systems, circulating endocrine hormones and local paracrine and neurocrine factors, including immune and perhaps even microbial signaling molecules have a role to play in this disorder...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Catherine Daniel, Marie Titecat, Sabine Poiret, Delphine Cayet, Denise Boutillier, Michel Simonet, Jean-Claude Sirard, Nadine Lemaître, Florent Sebbane
BACKGROUND: Pseudotuberculosis is an infection caused by the bacterial enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and is considered to be a significant problem in veterinary medicine. We previously found that intranasal administration of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain that secretes the low-calcium response V (LcrV) antigen from Y. pseudotuberculosis (Ll-LcrV) confers protection against a lethal Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Here, we aimed at characterizing the immunological basis of this LcrV-elicited protective response and at determining the duration of vaccine-induced immunity...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
Yutaka Sugi, Kyoko Takahashi, Kenta Kurihara, Kazuaki Nakata, Hikari Narabayashi, Yuji Hamamoto, Makoto Suzuki, Masato Tsuda, Shigemasa Hanazawa, Akira Hosono, Shuichi Kaminogawa
Immune responses against gut microbiota should be minimized to avoid unnecessary inflammation at mucosal surface. In this study, we analyzed the expression patterns of Toll-interacting protein (Tollip), an inhibitor of TLRs and IL-1 family cytokine-related intracellular signaling, in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Comparable mRNA expression was observed in murine small and large IECs (S-IECs and L-IECs). However, Tollip protein was only detected in L-IECs, but not in S-IECs. Similar results were obtained in germ-free mice, indicating that L-IEC-specific TOLLIP expression does not depend on bacterial colonization...
2016: PloS One
Maria C Cenit, Pilar Codoñer-Franch, Yolanda Sanz
Gut microbiota shapes the development of the mucosal immune system and may provide protection against immune-mediated diseases. Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition triggered by dietary gluten proteins, recently associated with gut microbiota alterations in cross-sectional studies comparing patients and controls. Whether or not these differences are causally related to the disease has yet to be elucidated, but evaluation of specific bacteria isolated from CD patients in experimental models suggests that they can promote an adverse response to dietary gluten, whereas other commensal bacteria can be protective...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Giuseppe Losurdo, Mariabeatrice Principi, Andrea Iannone, Enzo Ierardi, Alfredo Di Leo
Celiac disease (CD) is the most common autoimmune enteropathy, triggered by a deregulated immune response to gliadin. It has been hypothesized that human intestinal microbiota may interfere with the pathogenesis of the disease and in the clinical course of CD. In the present review, we analyzed the microbiota alterations observed in the course of CD, how they may influence the pathogenesis of CD, and the possible applications for a microbiota modulation in CD. In detail, most of the current literature underlined that the dysbiosis in CD is hallmarked by an increase in gram-negative and Bacteroidetes species, and by a decrease in Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Massimo Marzorati, Tom Van de Wiele
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) hosts the most complex microbial community in the human body. Given the extensive metabolic potential which is present in this community, this additional organ is of key importance to maintain a healthy status and several diseases are frequently correlated with an alteration of the composition/functionality of the gut microbiota. Consequently, there is a great interest in identifying potential approaches that could modulate the microbiota and its metabolism to bring about a positive health effect...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Anca Trifan, Oana Stoica, Catalin-Alexandru Chihaia, Mihai Danciu, Carol Stanciu, Ana-Maria Singeap
INTRODUCTION: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by a marked eosinophilic infiltrate in the esophageal mucosa. What was once considered a rare disease has nowadays become one of the most frequent esophageal diseases in the Western countries, occupying a place just next to the gastroesophageal reflux disease. EoE etiology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown, although most studies consider that allergic and genetic factors play the most important role...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Elisa Schiavi, Marita Gleinser, Evelyn Molloy, David Groeger, Remo Frei, Ruth Ferstl, Noelia Rodriguez-Perez, Mario Ziegler, Ray Grant, Thomas Fintan Moriarty, Stephan Plattner, Selena Healy, Mary O'Connell Motherway, Cezmi A Akdis, Jennifer Roper, Friedrich Altmann, Douwe van Sinderen, Liam O'Mahony
: The immune modulating properties of certain bifidobacterial strains, such as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum 35624: ™ (B. longum 35624), have been well described, although the strain-specific molecular characteristics associated with such immune regulatory activity are not well defined. It has previously been demonstrated that B. longum 35624: produces a cell surface exopolysaccharide and in this study we investigated the role played by this exopolysaccharide in influencing the host immune response...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Iain Welsby, Stanislas Goriely
Interleukin (IL)-23 plays a central role in the orchestration of inflammatory responses. Produced by dendritic cells and macrophages, this cytokine promotes the protection of the host against mucosal pathogens through the induction of IL-17 and related cytokines by lymphoid cells. Preclinical disease models and association studies in humans have also clearly demonstrated the implication of IL-23 signalling pathway in inflammatory diseases. Indeed, this cytokine is now considered as a major therapeutic target in immune-based pathologies such as psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis or Crohn's disease...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Xingguang Lin, Jialong Yang, Jinli Wang, Hongxiang Huang, Hong-Xia Wang, Pengcheng Chen, Shang Wang, Yun Pan, Yu-Rong Qiu, Gregory A Taylor, Bruce A Vallance, Jimin Gao, Xiao-Ping Zhong
T-cells play an important role in promoting mucosal immunity against pathogens, but the mechanistic basis for their homeostasis in the intestine is still poorly understood. We report here that T-cell-specific deletion of mTOR results in dramatically decreased CD4 and CD8 T-cell numbers in the lamina propria of both small and large intestines under both steady-state and inflammatory conditions. These defects result in defective host resistance against a murine enteropathogen, Citrobacter rodentium, leading to the death of the animals...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
S Kang, C Zhang, T Ohno, M Azuma
The PD-1/B7-H1 pathway regulates immune responses and maintains homeostasis. Here, we identified a unique expression of B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) on masticatory mucosae in the oral cavity. B7-H1 was physiologically expressed on the dorsal surface of the tongue, gingiva, and hard palate. Other squamous epithelia and other structures of the epithelia did not express B7-H1 in the steady state. Physiological B7-H1 expression on masticatory mucosae was limited on prickle cells, and its expression on basal keratinocytes (KCs) was strictly regulated...
October 12, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Semmannan Kalaiyarasu, Manoj Kumar, Dhanapal Senthil Kumar, Sandeep Bhatia, Sandeep Kumar Dash, Sushant Bhat, Rohit K Khetan, Shanmugasundaram Nagarajan
One of the major causes of death in highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection in chicken is due to acute induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine (cytokine storm) which leads to severe pathology and acute mortality. Dendritic cells and macrophages of respiratory tract are the major antigen presenting cells (APCs) getting exposed to mucosal pathogens. We hypothesized that chicken dendritic cells might be a major target for H5N1 HPAIV for induction of cytokine dysregulation. Infection of chMoDCs with H5N1 HPAIV produced high titers of progeny virus with more rounding and cytotoxicity than H9N2 LPAIV...
October 12, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Hongye Jiang, Tingjin Chen, Hengchang Sun, Zeli Tang, Jinyun Yu, Zhipeng Lin, Pengli Ren, Xinyi Zhou, Yan Huang, Xuerong Li, Xinbing Yu
Clonorchiasis, caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish containing infective metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensisis (C.sinensis), remains a common public health problem. New effective prevention strategies are still urgent to control this food-borne infectious disease. The previous studies suggested Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) spores was an ideal vaccines delivery system, and the C.sinensis enolase (CsENO) was a potential vaccine candidate against clonorchiasis. In the current study, we detected CsENO-specific IgM levels by ELISA in sera, intestinal mucus and skin mucus in grass carps (Ctenopharyngodon idella) through oral administration with B...
October 8, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shen-An Hwang, Marian L Kruzel, Jeffrey K Actor
Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein found in mammalian mucosal secretions and granules of neutrophils, possesses several immune modulatory properties. Published reports indicate that lactoferrin enhances the efficacy of the tuberculosis vaccine, BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin), both by increasing macrophage and dendritic cell ability to stimulate receptive T cells and by modulating the inflammatory response. This report is the first to demonstrate the effects of a recombinant human lactoferrin (10 μg/mL) on human PBMC derived CD14(+) and CD16(+) macrophages stimulated with a strong (LPS, 10 ng/mL) or weaker (BCG, MOI 1:1) stimulator of inflammation...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
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