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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346716/neuropeptide-af-induces-piecemeal-degranulation-in-murine-mucosal-mast-cells-a-new-mediator-in-neuro-immune-communication-in-the-intestinal-lamina-propria
#1
Nada Abdellah, Samuel Van Remoortel, Omnia Mohey-Elsaeed, Mohamed-Nabil Mostafa, Yasser A Ahmed, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Roeland Buckinx
Neuropeptides AF (NPAF), FF (NPFF) and SF (NPSF) are RFamide neuropeptides known to be widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system, where they fulfill a wide range of functions with pain modulation being the most prominent one. Recent evidence indicates that RFamides act as mediators in mast cell-sensory nerve communications related to allergic disease. Previous work by our group has shown that the expression levels of some members of the Mas-related gene receptor (Mrgpr) family in both enteric neurons and mucosal mast cells change during intestinal inflammation...
January 18, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346349/early-treatment-of-siv-macaques-with-an-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7-mab-alters-virus-distribution-and-preserves-cd4-t-cells-in-later-stages-of-infection
#2
P J Santangelo, C Cicala, S N Byrareddy, K T Ortiz, D Little, K E Lindsay, S Gumber, J J Hong, K Jelicic, K A Rogers, C Zurla, F Villinger, A A Ansari, A S Fauci, J Arthos
Integrin α4β7 mediates the trafficking of leukocytes, including CD4+ T cells, to lymphoid tissues in the gut. Virus mediated damage to the gut is implicated in HIV and SIV mediated chronic immune activation and leads to irreversible damage to the immune system. We employed an immuno-PET/CT imaging technique to evaluate the impact of an anti-integrin α4β7 mAb alone or in combination with ART, on the distribution of both SIV infected cells and CD4+ cells in rhesus macaques infected with SIV. We determined that α4β7 mAb reduced viral antigen in an array of tissues of the lung, spleen, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346348/macrophages-regulate-lung-ilc2-activation-via-pla2g5-dependent-mechanisms
#3
M Yamaguchi, S K Samuchiwal, O Quehenberger, J A Boyce, B Balestrieri
Group V phospholipase A2 (Pla2g5) is a lipid-generating enzyme necessary for macrophage effector functions in pulmonary inflammation. However, the lipid mediators involved and their cellular targets have not been identified. Mice lacking Pla2g5 showed markedly reduced lung ILC2 activation and eosinophilia following repetitive Alternaria Alternata inhalation. While Pla2g5-null mice had Wt levels of immediate IL-33 release after one Alternaria dose, they failed to upregulate IL-33 in macrophages following repeated Alternaria administration...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346347/cd103-cd11b-mucosal-classical-dendritic-cells-initiate-long-term-switched-antibody-responses-to-flagellin
#4
A Flores-Langarica, K Müller Luda, E K Persson, C N Cook, S Bobat, J L Marshall, M W Dahlgren, K Hägerbrand, K M Toellner, M D Goodall, D R Withers, I R Henderson, B Johansson Lindbom, A F Cunningham, W W Agace
Antibody responses induced at mucosal and nonmucosal sites demonstrate a significant level of autonomy. Here, we demonstrate a key role for mucosal interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4)-dependent CD103+CD11b+ (DP), classical dendritic cells (cDCs) in the induction of T-dependent immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses in the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) following systemic immunization with soluble flagellin (sFliC). In contrast, IRF8-dependent CD103+CD11b- (SP) are not required for these responses...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346344/development-of-immune-and-microbial-environments-is-independently-regulated-in-the-mammary-gland
#5
K Niimi, K Usami, Y Fujita, M Abe, M Furukawa, Y Suyama, Y Sakai, M Kamioka, N Shibata, E J Park, S Sato, H Kiyono, H Yoneyama, H Kitazawa, K Watanabe, T Nochi, H Aso
Breastfeeding is important for mammals, providing immunological and microbiological advantages to neonates, together with the nutritional supply from the mother. However, the mechanisms of this functional diversity in the mammary gland remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that, similar to the gastrointestinal tract, the mammary gland develops immune and microbial environments consisting of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the microflora, respectively, both of which are important for protecting neonates and the mother from infectious diseases...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345577/probiotics-and-paraprobiotics-in-viral-infection-clinical-application-and-effects-on-the-innate-and-acquired-immune-systems
#6
Osamu Kanauchi, Akira Andoh, Sazaly AbuBakar, Naoki Yamamoto
Recently, the risk of viral infection has dramatically increased owing to changes in human ecology such as global warming and an increased geographical movement of people and goods. However, the efficacy of vaccines and remedies for infectious diseases is limited by the high mutation rates of viruses, especially, RNA viruses. Here, we comprehensively review the effectiveness of several probiotics and paraprobiotics (sterilized probiotics) for the prevention or treatment of virally-induced infectious diseases...
January 16, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345518/bacterial-pathogenesis-and-interleukin-17-interconnecting-mechanisms-of-immune-regulation-host-genetics-and-microbial-virulence-that-influence-severity-of-infection
#7
Michelle N Chamoun, Antje Blumenthal, Matthew J Sullivan, Mark A Schembri, Glen C Ulett
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the control of many different disorders, including autoimmune, oncogenic, and diverse infectious diseases. In the context of infectious diseases, IL-17 protects the host against various classes of microorganisms but, intriguingly, can also exacerbate the severity of some infections. The regulation of IL-17 expression stems, in part, from the activity of Interleukin-23 (IL-23), which drives the maturation of different classes of IL-17-producing cells that can alter the course of infection...
January 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345374/ship-negatively-regulates-type-ii-immune-responses-in-mast-cells-and-macrophages
#8
REVIEW
Peter Dobranowski, Laura M Sly
SHIP is a hematopoietic-specific lipid phosphatase that dephosphorylates PI3K-generated PI(3,4,5)-trisphosphate. SHIP removes this second messenger from the cell membrane blunting PI3K activity in immune cells. Thus, SHIP negatively regulates mast cell activation downstream of multiple receptors. SHIP has been referred to as the "gatekeeper" of mast cell degranulation as loss of SHIP dramatically increases degranulation or permits degranulation in response to normally inert stimuli. SHIP also negatively regulates Mϕ activation, including both pro-inflammatory cytokine production downstream of pattern recognition receptors, and alternative Mϕ activation by the type II cytokines, IL-4, and IL-13...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345366/interactions-between-the-microbiota-and-innate-and-innate-like-lymphocytes
#9
REVIEW
Michael G Constantinides
The microbiota, which consists of commensal bacteria, fungi, and viruses, limits the colonization of pathogens at barrier tissues and promotes immune homeostasis. The latter is accomplished through the induction and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Innate lymphocytes, which include the type-1 innate lymphoid cell (ILC1), NK cell, type-2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2), type-3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3), and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cell populations, and innate-like lymphocytes, such as NKT cells, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, and γδ T cells, are uniquely capable of responding to the microbiota due to their tissue localization and rapid primary responses...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345365/deletion-of-bcg-hip1-protease-enhances-dendritic-cell-and-cd4-t-cell-responses
#10
Erica Bizzell, Jonathan Kevin Sia, Melanie Quezada, Ana Enriquez, Maria Georgieva, Jyothi Rengarajan
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in the generation of CD4 T cell responses to pathogens. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) harbors immune evasion mechanisms that impair DC responses and prevent optimal CD4 T cell immunity. The vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) shares many of the immune evasion proteins utilized by Mtb, but the role of these proteins in DC and T cell responses elicited by BCG is poorly understood. We previously reported that the Mtb serine protease, Hip1, promotes sub-optimal DC responses during infection...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344858/laser-capture-microdissection-as-a-tool-to-study-the-mucosal-immune-response-in-celiac-disease
#11
Giuseppe Iacomino, Vera Rotondi Aufiero, Pasquale Marena, Antonella Venezia, Riccardo Troncone, Salvatore Auricchio, Giuseppe Mazzarella
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a powerful tool for selection and isolation of single cells or compartments from complex primary tissues to perform molecular analyses. Celiac disease is a genetic autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine. Increased intraepithelial lymphocytes and the presence of the lamina propria inflammatory infiltrate of the duodenal mucosa is a common part of the disease. These cells promote inflammatory processes through the release of cytokines...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343428/development-and-pre-clinical-evaluation-in-the-swine-model-of-a-mucosal-vaccine-tablet-for-human-influenza-viruses-a-proof-of-concept-study
#12
V Busignies, G Simon, G Mollereau, O Bourry, V Mazel, M Rosa-Calatrava, P Tchoreloff
Liquid vaccine formulations present some disadvantages such as stability problems, cold chain requirement or administration by trained personnel. Vaccine formulated as tablets would present a wide range of progress such as an increase stability that would facilitate the administration, the distribution and the storage of vaccine formulations. This work investigates the possibility to develop a mucosal tablet vaccine for human influenza viruses. The tablets were tested in vitro for biological efficacy and stability and in vivo in swine as a model for influenza A virus immunity...
January 14, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341450/characterization-of-a-novel-papain-inducible-murine-model-of-eosinophilic-rhinosinusitis
#13
Anuj Tharakan, Alex Dobzanski, Nyall R London, Syed M Khalil, Nitya Surya, Andrew P Lane, Murugappan Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is a disease characterized by eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate and a local type 2 cytokine milieu. Current animal models fail to recapitulate many of the innate and adaptive immunologic hallmarks of the disease, thus hindering the development of effective therapeutics. In the present study, mice were exposed intranasally to the cysteine protease papain, which shares functional similarities with parasitic proteases and aeroallergens, to generate a rapidly inducible murine model of eosinophilic rhinosinusitis...
January 17, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338309/oral-microbiota-reduce-wound-healing-capacity-of-epithelial-monolayers-irrespective-of-the-presence-of-5-fluorouracil
#14
Eline Vanlancker, Barbara Vanhoecke, Tom Sieprath, Janie Bourgeois, Annelore Beterams, Barbara De Moerloose, Winnok H De Vos, Tom Van de Wiele
Oral mucositis is still one of the most painful side effects of chemotherapeutic treatment and a mounting body of evidence suggests a key role for the oral microbiome in mucositis development. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this work, we have investigated the interactions between the host, the microbiome, and chemotherapeutic treatments in more detail. The effect of 5-fluorouracil, commonly inducing mucositis, was assessed on a co-culture model that consists of an epithelial cell layer and a biofilm derived from oral microbiota from different types of samples (saliva, buccal swabs and tongue swabs) and donors (healthy individuals and patients suffering from mucositis)...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336057/modification-of-lymphocyte-migration-to-peyer-s-patches-by-inhibition-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-lyase-ameliorates-murine-colitis
#15
Kazuhiko Shirakabe, Masaaki Higashiyama, Hirotaka Furuhashi, Takeshi Takajo, Koji Maruta, Yoshikiyo Okada, Chie Kurihara, Chikako Watanabe, Shunsuke Komoto, Kengo Tomita, Shigeaki Nagao, Soichiro Miura, Masayuki Saruta, Ryota Hokari
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1, a therapeutic target of the S1P1 agonist FTY720, plays a crucial role in lymphocyte migration and is expressed in several cells including naïve T lymphocytes and endothelial cells. 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutyl imidazole (THI), an inhibitor of S1P lyase (SPL), exhibits immunomodulatory activity through increasing the S1P concentration in the secondary lymphoid organs, but its effects on colitis remain unclear. We aimed to clarify how THI affects colitis and migration of naïve T lymphocytes in Peyer's patches (PPs)...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331497/dietary-antioxidant-micronutrients-alter-mucosal-inflammatory-risk-in-a-murine-model-of-genetic-and-microbial-susceptibility
#16
Joseph F Pierre, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Romain Bouziat, Nathan A Hubert, Vanessa Leone, Jun Miyoshi, Bana Jabri, Eugene B Chang
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are caused by the convergence of microbial, environmental, and genetic factors. Diet significantly alters these interactions by affecting both the host and microbiome. Using a mucosal inflammatory model that resembles the human condition of ileal pouchitis, we investigated the effects of Control (CONT) or Antioxidant (AOX) diet, containing pharmacologically relevant levels of 4 micronutrients, on disease risk in wild-type and IL-10-/- animals following surgical self-filling (SF) ileal blind loop placement...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330675/recognizing-conserved-non-canonical-localization-patterns-of-toll-like-receptors-in-tissues-and-across-species
#17
REVIEW
Glenn Hamonic, J Alex Pasternak, Heather L Wilson
Toll-like receptors (TLR) 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 were originally characterized as exclusively expressed on the cell surface and TLR 3, 7, 8 and 9 were said to be localized to the endosomes. However, continued research in this area shows that TLR localization may be altered across cell-types, and in response to stimulation, age or disease. Mucosal surfaces must remain tolerant to the commensal flora and thus intracellular or basal lateral localization of TLRs at mucosal surfaces may be necessary to prevent induction of an inflammatory response to commensal flora while still allowing the possibility for the receptors to prime an immune response when a pathogen has crossed the epithelial barrier...
January 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330512/inactivated-rotavirus-vaccine-by-parenteral-administration-induces-mucosal-immunity-in-mice
#18
Theresa K Resch, Yuhuan Wang, Sung-Sil Moon, Jessica Joyce, Song Li, Mark Prausnitz, Baoming Jiang
To improve the safety and efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccines, we developed an inactivated rotavirus vaccine (IRV) for parenteral administration. Since it remains unknown whether parenteral vaccination can induce mucosal immunity, we performed a comprehensive assessment of immune responses to IRV in mice with an adjuvant-free dissolving polymer MN patch or by alum-adjuvanted IM injection. We demonstrated that IRV induced the expression of the gut homing receptor LPAM-1 on T and B cells in spleen and mLN of vaccinated mice...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328499/mait-cells-are-chronically-activated-in-patients-with-autoimmune-liver-disease-and-promote-pro-fibrogenic-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation
#19
Katrin Böttcher, Krista Rombouts, Francesca Saffioti, Davide Roccarina, Matteo Rosselli, Andrew Hall, TuVinh Luong, Emmanuel A Tsochatzis, Douglas Thorburn, Massimo Pinzani
Autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) are chronic liver pathologies characterised by fibrosis and cirrhosis due to immune-mediated liver damage. In this study, we addressed the question whether mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, innate-like T cells, are functionally altered in patients with AILD and whether MAIT cells can promote liver fibrosis through activation of hepatic stellate cells. We analysed the phenotype and function of MAIT cells from AILD patients and healthy controls by multi-colour flow cytometry and investigated the interaction between human MAIT cells and primary human hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs)...
January 12, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325417/rhubarb-supplementation-promotes-intestinal-mucosal-innate-immune-homeostasis-through-modulating-intestinal-epithelial-microbiota-in-goat-kids
#20
Jinzhen Jiao, Jian Wu, Min Wang, Chuanshe Zhou, Rong-Zhen Zhong, Zhi-Liang Tan
The abuse and misuse of antibiotics in livestock production pose a potential health risk globally. Rhubarb can serve as a potential alternative to antibiotics, and several studies have looked into its anti-cancer, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to test the effects of rhubarb supplementation to the diet of young ruminants on innate immune function and epithelial microbiota in the small intestine. Goat kids were fed with a control diet supplemented with or without rhubarb (1...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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