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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821722/egyptian-rousette-bats-maintain-long-term-protective-immunity-against-marburg-virus-infection-despite-diminished-antibody-levels
#1
Amy J Schuh, Brian R Amman, Tara K Sealy, Jessica R Spengler, Stuart T Nichol, Jonathan S Towner
Although bats are natural reservoir hosts for numerous zoonotic viruses, little is known about the long-term dynamics of the host immune response following infection and how these viruses are maintained in nature. The Egyptian rousette bat (ERB) is a known reservoir host for Marburg virus (MARV). Following infection of ERBs with MARV, virus-specific IgG antibodies are induced but rapidly wane and by 3 months post-infection the bats are seronegative. To determine whether reinfection of ERBs plays a role in MARV maintenance, we challenge groups of ERBs that were "naturally" or experimentally infected with MARV 17-24 months prior...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766193/filovirus-research-how-it-began
#2
Werner Slenczka
The first reported filovirus outbreak occurred in August 1967, when laboratory workers in Marburg and Frankfurt, Germany, and Belgrade, Yugoslavia (now Serbia) became infected with an unknown highly pathogenic agent. The disease was characterized by high fever, malaise, rash, hemorrhagic and tetanic manifestations, and high lethality, amounting to 25%. The disease was introduced to Europe by grivets (Chlorocebus aethiops), which were used for biomedical research and vaccine production. The causative agent, Marburg virus, was isolated and identified by scientists of the University of Marburg, Germany in cooperation with specialists for viral electron microscopy at the Bernhard Nocht Institute in Hamburg, Germany...
August 2, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764429/non-negative-intensity-and-back-calculated-non-negative-intensity-for-analysis-of-directional-structure-borne-sound
#3
Daipei Liu, Zdeněk Havránek, Steffen Marburg, Herwig Peters, Nicole Kessissoglou
Non-negative intensity (NNI) is an approach to identify the surface areas of a structure that contribute to sound power. NNI is evaluated in terms of the acoustic impedance matrix obtained directly at the structural surface and as such can only identify surface contributions to sound power at a far-field receiver surface that fully circumscribes the structure. In contrast, back-calculated NNI is evaluated in terms of the acoustic impedance matrix obtained at a far-field receiver surface, and hence can identify surface contributions to sound power at a far-field receiver surface that does not fully circumscribe the structure...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750668/from-hybridomas-to-a-robust-microalgal-based-production-platform-molecular-design-of-a-diatom-secreting-monoclonal-antibodies-directed-against-the-marburg-virus-nucleoprotein
#4
Franziska Hempel, Michael Maurer, Björn Brockmann, Christian Mayer, Nadine Biedenkopf, Anne Kelterbaum, Stephan Becker, Uwe G Maier
BACKGROUND: The ideal protein expression system should provide recombinant proteins in high quality and quantity involving low production costs only. However, especially for complex therapeutic proteins like monoclonal antibodies many challenges remain to meet this goal and up to now production of monoclonal antibodies is very costly and delicate. Particularly, emerging disease outbreaks like Ebola virus in Western Africa in 2014-2016 make it necessary to reevaluate existing production platforms and develop robust and cheap alternatives that are easy to handle...
July 27, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724616/marburg-virus-survivor-immune-responses-are-th1-skewed-with-limited-neutralizing-antibody-responses
#5
Spencer W Stonier, Andrew S Herbert, Ana I Kuehne, Ariel Sobarzo, Polina Habibulin, Chen V Abramovitch Dahan, Rebekah M James, Moses Egesa, Stephen Cose, Julius Julian Lutwama, Leslie Lobel, John M Dye
Until recently, immune responses in filovirus survivors remained poorly understood. Early studies revealed IgM and IgG responses to infection with various filoviruses, but recent outbreaks have greatly expanded our understanding of filovirus immune responses. Immune responses in survivors of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Sudan virus (SUDV) infections have provided the most insight, with T cell responses as well as detailed antibody responses having been characterized. Immune responses to Marburg virus (MARV), however, remain almost entirely uncharacterized...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723972/correction-chaperone-mediated-autophagy-protein-bag3-negatively-regulates-ebola-and-marburg-vp40-mediated-egress
#6
Jingjing Liang, Cari A Sagum, Mark T Bedford, Sachdev S Sidhu, Marius Sudol, Ziying Han, Ronald N Harty
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006132.].
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706276/kanyawara-virus-a-novel-rhabdovirus-infecting-newly-discovered-nycteribiid-bat-flies-infesting-previously-unknown-pteropodid-bats-in-uganda
#7
Tony L Goldberg, Andrew J Bennett, Robert Kityo, Jens H Kuhn, Colin A Chapman
Bats are natural reservoir hosts of highly virulent pathogens such as Marburg virus, Nipah virus, and SARS coronavirus. However, little is known about the role of bat ectoparasites in transmitting and maintaining such viruses. The intricate relationship between bats and their ectoparasites suggests that ectoparasites might serve as viral vectors, but evidence to date is scant. Bat flies, in particular, are highly specialized obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that incidentally bite humans. Using next-generation sequencing, we discovered a novel ledantevirus (mononegaviral family Rhabdoviridae, genus Ledantevirus) in nycteribiid bat flies infesting pteropodid bats in western Uganda...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685291/filovirus-strategies-to-escape-antiviral-responses
#8
Judith Olejnik, Adam J Hume, Daisy W Leung, Gaya K Amarasinghe, Christopher F Basler, Elke Mühlberger
This chapter describes the various strategies filoviruses use to escape host immune responses with a focus on innate immune and cell death pathways. Since filovirus replication can be efficiently blocked by interferon (IFN), filoviruses have evolved mechanisms to counteract both type I IFN induction and IFN response signaling pathways. Intriguingly, marburg- and ebolaviruses use different strategies to inhibit IFN signaling. This chapter also summarizes what is known about the role of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in filovirus infection...
July 8, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659479/crystal-structure-of-the-marburg-virus-nucleoprotein-core-domain-chaperoned-by-a-vp35-peptide-reveals-a-conserved-drug-target-for-filovirus
#9
Tengfei Zhu, Hao Song, Ruchao Peng, Yi Shi, Jianxun Qi, George F Gao
Filovirus nucleoprotein (NP), viral protein 35 (VP35), and polymerase L are essential for viral replication and nucleocapsid formation. Here, we identified a 28-residue peptide (NP binding peptide, NPBP) from the Marburg virus (MARV) VP35 through sequence alignment with previously identified Ebola virus (EBOV) NPBP, which bound to the core region (residues 18-344) of the N-terminal portion of MARV NP with high affinity. The crystal structure of the MARV NP-core/NPBP complex at a resolution of 2.6 Å revealed that NPBP binds to the C-terminal region of the NP-core via electrostatic and non-polar interactions...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653188/guide-to-the-correct-use-of-filoviral-nomenclature
#10
Jens H Kuhn
The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) currently recognizes three genera and seven species as part of the mononegaviral family Filoviridae. Eight distinct filoviruses (Bundibugyo virus, Ebola virus, Lloviu virus, Marburg virus, Ravn virus, Reston virus, Sudan virus, and Taï Forest virus) have been assigned to these seven species. This chapter briefly summarizes the status quo of filovirus classification and focuses on the importance of differentiating between filoviral species and filoviruses and the correct use of taxonomic and vernacular filovirus names and abbreviations in written and oral discourse...
June 27, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647292/risk-factors-of-refeeding-syndrome-in-malnourished-older-hospitalized-patients
#11
Maryam Pourhassan, Ingeborg Cuvelier, Ilse Gehrke, Christian Marburger, Mirja Katrin Modreker, Dorothee Volkert, Hans-Peter Willschrei, Rainer Wirth
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite the high prevalence of malnutrition among older hospitalized persons, it is unknown how many of these malnourished patients are at risk of developing the refeeding syndrome (RFS). In this study, we sought to compare the prevalence and severity of malnutrition among older hospitalized patients with prevalence of known risk factors of RFS. METHODS: This cross-sectional multicenter-study investigated older participants who were consecutively admitted to the geriatric acute care ward...
June 10, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645623/identification-of-a-coumarin-based-antihistamine-like-small-molecule-as-an-anti-filoviral-entry-inhibitor
#12
Han Cheng, Adam Schafer, Veronica Soloveva, Dima Gharaibeh, Tara Kenny, Cary Retterer, Rouzbeh Zamani, Sina Bavari, Norton P Peet, Lijun Rong
Filoviruses, consisting of Ebola virus, Marburg virus and Cuevavirus, cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans with high mortality rates up to 90%. Currently, there is no approved vaccine or therapy available for the prevention and treatment of filovirus infection in humans. The recent 2013-2015 West African Ebola epidemic underscores the urgency to develop antiviral therapeutics against these infectious diseases. Our previous study showed that GPCR antagonists, particularly histamine receptor antagonists (antihistamines) inhibit Ebola and Marburg virus entry...
June 20, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636653/the-ebola-virus-vp35-protein-binds-viral-immunostimulatory-and-host-rnas-identified-through-deep-sequencing
#13
Kari A Dilley, Alexander A Voorhies, Priya Luthra, Vinita Puri, Timothy B Stockwell, Hernan Lorenzi, Christopher F Basler, Reed S Shabman
Ebola virus and Marburg virus are members of the Filovirdae family and causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with high fatality rates in humans. Filovirus virulence is partially attributed to the VP35 protein, a well-characterized inhibitor of the RIG-I-like receptor pathway that triggers the antiviral interferon (IFN) response. Prior work demonstrates the ability of VP35 to block potent RIG-I activators, such as Sendai virus (SeV), and this IFN-antagonist activity is directly correlated with its ability to bind RNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622346/flavivirus-and-filovirus-evoprinters-new-alignment-tools-for-the-comparative-analysis-of-viral-evolution
#14
Thomas Brody, Amarendra S Yavatkar, Dong Sun Park, Alexander Kuzin, Jermaine Ross, Ward F Odenwald
BACKGROUND: Flavivirus and Filovirus infections are serious epidemic threats to human populations. Multi-genome comparative analysis of these evolving pathogens affords a view of their essential, conserved sequence elements as well as progressive evolutionary changes. While phylogenetic analysis has yielded important insights, the growing number of available genomic sequences makes comparisons between hundreds of viral strains challenging. We report here a new approach for the comparative analysis of these hemorrhagic fever viruses that can superimpose an unlimited number of one-on-one alignments to identify important features within genomes of interest...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618802/non-negative-intensity-for-coupled-fluid-structure-interaction-problems-using-the-fast-multipole-method
#15
Daniel R Wilkes, Herwig Peters, Paul Croaker, Steffen Marburg, Alec J Duncan, Nicole Kessissoglou
The non-negative intensity (NNI) method is applied to large-scale coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems using the fast multipole boundary element method (FMBEM). The NNI provides a field on the radiating structure surface that consists of positive-only contributions to the radiated sound power, thus avoiding the near-field cancellation effects that otherwise occur with the sound intensity field. Thus far the NNI has been implemented with the boundary element method (BEM) for relatively small problem sizes to allow for the full BEM coefficient and inverse matrices to be explicitly constructed and stored...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617362/-marburg-s-variant-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-report
#16
A S Kotov, K V Firsov, M S Bunak
Marburg's variant of multiple sclerosis, first described by the Austrian neurologist Otto Marburg in 1906, is a rare demyelinating disease that usually leads to severe disability or death within weeks to months. Our case report describes a young 24-year old woman with Marburg's variant of multiple sclerosis who became totally disabled over a period of some months. Clinical features and MRI-characteristics of two demyelinating diseases: acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and Marburg's variant of multiple sclerosis are discussed...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611428/deep-sequencing-of-marburg-virus-genome-during-sequential-mouse-passaging-and-cell-culture-adaptation-reveals-extensive-changes-over-time
#17
Haiyan Wei, Jonathan Audet, Gary Wong, Shihua He, Xueyong Huang, Todd Cutts, Steven Theriault, Bianli Xu, Gary Kobinger, Xiangguo Qiu
Marburg virus (MARV) has caused outbreaks of filoviral hemorrhagic fever since its discovery in 1967. The largest and deadliest outbreak occurred in Angola in 2005, with 252 cases and 227 deaths. In 2014, we developed a mouse-adapted MARV, Angola variant through serial passaging in mice. The mouse-adapted MARV exhibits many of the hallmarks of MARV disease in humans. By applying deep-sequencing to every passage of the virus, we are able to study virus evolution in this host with surprising precision. We show that two regions go through substantial changes: the intergenic region between NP and VP35, as well as the first 100 amino acids of the VP40 protein...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603449/filoviruses-and-bats
#18
Amy J Schuh, Brian R Amman, Jonathan S Towner
While Reston and Lloviu viruses have never been associated with human disease, the other filoviruses cause outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever characterised by person-to-person transmission and high case fatality ratios. Cumulative evidence suggests that bats are the most likely reservoir hosts of the filoviruses. Ecological investigations following Marburg virus disease outbreaks associated with entry into caves inhabited by Rousettus aegyptiacus bats led to the identification of this bat species as the natural reservoir host of the marburgviruses...
March 2017: Microbiology Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592526/novel-cross-reactive-monoclonal-antibodies-against-ebolavirus-glycoproteins-show-protection-in-a-murine-challenge-model
#19
James Duehr, Teddy John Wohlbold, Lisa Oestereich, Veronika Chromikova, Fatima Amanat, Madhusudan Rajendran, Sergio Gomez-Medina, Ignacio Mena, Benjamin R tenOever, Adolfo García-Sastre, Christopher F Basler, Cesar Munoz-Fontela, Florian Krammer
Out of an estimated 31,100 cases since their discovery in 1976, ebolaviruses have caused approximately 13,000 deaths. The vast majority (∼11,000) of these occurred during the 2013-2016 West African epidemic. Three out of five species in the genus are known to cause Ebola Virus Disease in humans. Several monoclonal antibodies against the ebolavirus glycoprotein are currently in development as therapeutics. However, there is still a paucity of monoclonal antibodies that can cross-react between the glycoproteins of different ebolavirus species, and the mechanism of these monoclonal antibody therapeutics is still not understood in detail...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580138/plasma-membrane-association-facilitates-conformational-changes-in-the-marburg-virus-protein-vp40-dimer
#20
Nisha Bhattarai, Jeevan B Gc, Bernard S Gerstman, Robert V Stahelin, Prem P Chapagain
Filovirus infections cause hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates that often results in high fatality rates. The Marburg virus is a lipid-enveloped virus from the Filoviridae family and is closely related to the Ebola virus. The viral matrix layer underneath the lipid envelope is formed by the matrix protein VP40 (VP40), which is also involved in other functions during the viral life-cycle. As in the Ebola virus VP40 (eVP40), the recently determined X-ray crystal structure of the Marburg virus VP40 (mVP40) features loops containing cationic residues that form a lipid binding basic patch...
April 26, 2017: RSC Advances
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