Read by QxMD icon Read


Benson Y H Cheng, Aitor Nogales, Juan Carlos de la Torre, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
Several arenaviruses, chiefly Lassa (LASV) in West Africa, cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans and pose important public health problems in their endemic regions. To date, there are no FDA-approved arenavirus vaccines and current anti-arenaviral therapy is limited to the use of ribavirin that has very limited efficacy. In this work we document that a recombinant prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) with a codon deoptimized (CD) surface glycoprotein (GP), rLCMV/CD, exhibited wild type (WT)-like growth properties in cultured cells despite barely detectable GP expression levels in rLCMV/CD-infected cells...
November 14, 2016: Virology
Neal G Satterly, Matthew A Voorhees, Abbe D Ames, Randal J Schoepp
Viral hemorrhagic fevers with their high mortality rates, lack of medical countermeasures, and potential use as instruments of bioterrorism, pose a significant threat to the developed and the developing areas of the world. The key to preventing the spread of these diseases is early and accurate detection. For decades, the gold-standard immunoassay for hemorrhagic fever detection has been the ELISA; however newer technologies are emerging with increased sensitivity. One such technology is the Luminex MAGPIX®™ platform using XMAP® microspheres...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Joachim Klaus, Peter Gnirs, Sabine Hölterhoff, Angela Wirtz, Matthias Jeglitza, Walter Gaber, Rene Gottschalk
For infectious diseases caused by highly pathogenic agents (e. g., Ebola/Lassa fever virus, SARS-/MERS-CoV, pandemic influenza virus) which have the potential to spread over several continents within only a few days, international Health Protection Authorities have taken appropriate measures to limit the consequences of a possible spread. A crucial point in this context is the disinfection of an aircraft that had a passenger on board who is suspected of being infected with one of the mentioned diseases...
October 26, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Stephen R Welch, Lisa Wiggleton Guerrero, Ayan K Chakrabarti, Laura K McMullan, Mike Flint, Gregory R Bluemling, George R Painter, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou, César G Albariño
Lassa virus (LASV) and Ebola virus (EBOV) infections are important global health issues resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. While several promising drug and vaccine trials for EBOV are ongoing, options for LASV infection are currently limited to ribavirin treatment. A major factor impeding the development of antiviral compounds to treat these infections is the need to manipulate the virus under BSL-4 containment, limiting research to a few institutes worldwide. Here we describe the development of a novel LASV minigenome assay based on the ambisense LASV S segment genome, with authentic terminal untranslated regions flanking a ZsGreen (ZsG) fluorescent reporter protein and a Gaussia princeps luciferase (gLuc) reporter gene...
October 19, 2016: Antiviral Research
Vincent Madelain, Jérémie Guedj, France Mentré, Thi Huyen Tram Nguyen, Frédéric Jacquot, Lisa Oestereich, Takumi Kadota, Koichi Yamada, Anne-Marie Taburet, Xavier de Lamballerie, Hervé Raoul
Favipiravir is a RNA polymerase inhibitor that showed a strong antiviral efficacy in vitro and in small animal models of several viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fever (HF) including Ebola virus. The aim of this work was to characterize the complex pharmacokinetics of favipiravir in non-human primates (NHP) in order to guide future efficacy studies of favipiravir in large animal models.Four different studies were conducted in 30 uninfected cynomolgus macaques of Chinese (n=17) or Mauritian (n=13) origin treated with intravenous favipiravir for 7 to 14 days with maintenance doses of 60 to 180 mg/kg BID...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Aileen E O'Hearn, Matthew A Voorhees, David P Fetterer, Nadia Wauquier, Moinya R Coomber, James Bangura, Joseph N Fair, Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Randal J Schoepp
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is home to a variety of pathogens, but disease surveillance and the healthcare infrastructure necessary for proper management and control are severely limited. Lassa virus, the cause of Lassa fever, a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans is endemic in West Africa. In Sierra Leone at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Diagnostic Laboratory, up to 70 % of acute patient samples suspected of Lassa fever test negative for Lassa virus infection. This large amount of acute undiagnosed febrile illness can be attributed in part to an array of hemorrhagic fever and arthropod-borne viruses causing disease that goes undetected and untreated...
October 3, 2016: Virology Journal
Yong Yang, Han Cheng, Hui Yan, Peng-Zhan Wang, Rong Rong, Ying-Ying Zhang, Cheng-Bo Zhang, Rui-Kun Du, Li-Jun Rong
Emerging viruses such as Ebola virus (EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), and avian influenza virus H5N1 (AIV) are global health concerns. Since there is very limited options (either vaccine or specific therapy) approved for humans against these viruses, there is an urgent need to develop prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Previously we reported a high-throughput screening (HTS) protocol to identify entry inhibitors for three highly pathogenic viruses (EBOV, LASV, and AIV) using a human immunodeficiency virus-based pseudotyping platform which allows us to perform the screening in a BSL-2 facility...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Svenja Wolff, Tilman Schultze, Sarah Katharina Fehling, Jan Philipp Mengel, Gerrit Kann, Timo Wolf, Markus Eickmann, Stephan Becker, Torsten Hain, Thomas Strecker
Lassa virus (LASV) is a zoonotic, hemorrhagic fever-causing virus endemic in West Africa, for which no approved vaccines or specific treatment options exist. Here, we report the genome sequence of LASV isolated from the first case of acquired Lassa fever disease outside of Africa.
2016: Genome Announcements
Samson E Isa, Attah Okwute, Kelly O Iraoyah, Shehu Y Nathan, Gomerep S Simji, Mark O Okolo, Joseph Anejo-Okopi, Daria Spicola, Daisy E Isa
BACKGROUND: Secondary transmission of Lassa fever (LF) occurs in the community and in health-care facilities, and is associated with high fatality in Nigeria. We investigated the role of oral ribavirin postexposure prophylaxis (orPEP) in preventing LF among the primary contacts of confirmed cases from December 2015 to March 2016. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Epidemiological and clinical data of LF contacts were prospectively collected. However, information regarding ribavirin adverse effects (AEs) were collected retrospectively through a telephone interview...
July 2016: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
Junjie Shao, Xiaoying Liu, Hinh Ly, Yuying Liang
Arenaviruses can cause lethal hemorrhagic fevers in humans with few preventative and therapeutic measures. The arenaviral glycoprotein stable signal peptide (SSP) is unique among signal peptides in that it is an integral component of the mature glycoprotein complex (GPC) and plays important roles not only in GPC expression and processing but also in the membrane fusion process during viral entry. Using the Pichinde virus (PICV) reverse genetics system, we analyzed the effects of alanine substitutions at many conserved residues within the SSP on viral replication in cell culture and in a guinea pig infection model...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Hadas Cohen-Dvashi, Hadar Israeli, Orly Shani, Aliza Katz, Ron Diskin
: To effectively infect cells, Lassa virus needs to switch in an endosomal compartment from its primary receptor, α-dystroglycan, to a protein termed LAMP1. A unique histidine triad on the surface of the receptor-binding domain from the glycoprotein spike complex of Lassa virus is important for LAMP1 binding. Here we investigate mutated spikes that have an impaired ability to interact with LAMP1 and show that although LAMP1 is important for efficient infectivity, it is not required for spike-mediated membrane fusion per se Our studies reveal important regulatory roles for histidines from the triad in sensing acidic pH and preventing premature spike triggering...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Giovanni Lo Iacono, Andrew A Cunningham, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet, Robert F Garry, Donald S Grant, Melissa Leach, Lina M Moses, Gordon Nichols, John S Schieffelin, Jeffrey G Shaffer, Colleen T Webb, James L N Wood
A considerable amount of disease is transmitted from animals to humans and many of these zoonoses are neglected tropical diseases. As outbreaks of SARS, avian influenza and Ebola have demonstrated, however, zoonotic diseases are serious threats to global public health and are not just problems confined to remote regions. There are two fundamental, and poorly studied, stages of zoonotic disease emergence: 'spillover', i.e. transmission of pathogens from animals to humans, and 'stuttering transmission', i.e. when limited human-to-human infections occur, leading to self-limiting chains of transmission...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Masaharu Iwasaki, Cherie T Ng, Beatrice Cubitt, Juan C de la Torre
: Several arenaviruses, chiefly Lassa virus (LASV), cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose serious public health concerns in their regions of endemicity. Moreover, mounting evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. We have documented that a recombinant LCMV containing the glycoprotein (GPC) gene of LASV within the backbone of the immunosuppressive clone 13 (Cl-13) variant of the Armstrong strain of LCMV (rCl-13/LASV-GPC) exhibited Cl-13-like growth properties in cultured cells, but in contrast to Cl-13, rCl-13/LASV-GPC was unable to establish persistence in immunocompetent adult mice, which prevented its use for some in vivo experiments...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Wei Wang, Zheng Zhou, Leike Zhang, Shaobo Wang, Gengfu Xiao
Mammarenaviruses, including lethal pathogens such as Lassa virus and Junín virus, can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. Entry is a key step for virus infection, which starts with binding of the envelope glycoprotein (GP) to receptors on target cells and subsequent fusion of the virus with target cell membranes. The GP precursor is synthesized as a polypeptide, and maturation occurs by two cleavage events, yielding a tripartite GP complex (GPC) formed by a stable signal peptide (SSP), GP1 and GP2. The unique retained SSP interacts with GP2 and plays essential roles in virion maturation and infectivity...
August 4, 2016: Virologica Sinica
Robert W Cross, Chad E Mire, Luis M Branco, Joan B Geisbert, Megan M Rowland, Megan L Heinrich, Augustine Goba, Mambu Momoh, Donald S Grant, Mohamed Fullah, Sheik Humarr Khan, James E Robinson, Thomas W Geisbert, Robert F Garry
Lassa fever is a significant health threat to West African human populations with hundreds of thousands of annual cases. There are no approved medical countermeasures currently available. Compassionate use of the antiviral drug ribavirin or transfusion of convalescent serum has resulted in mixed success depending on when administered or the donor source, respectively. We previously identified several recombinant human monoclonal antibodies targeting the glycoprotein of Lassa virus with strong neutralization profiles in vitro...
September 2016: Antiviral Research
Kuan-Wei Huang, Kai-Cheng Hsu, Lee-Ya Chu, Jinn-Moon Yang, Hanna S Yuan, Yu-Yuan Hsiao
The DEDDh family of exonucleases plays essential roles in DNA and RNA metabolism in all kingdoms of life. Several viral and human DEDDh exonucleases can serve as antiviral drug targets due to their critical roles in virus replication. Here using RNase T and CRN-4 as the model systems, we identify potential inhibitors for DEDDh exonucleases. We further show that two of the inhibitors, ATA and PV6R, indeed inhibit the exonuclease activity of the viral protein NP exonuclease of Lassa fever virus in vitro. Moreover, we determine the crystal structure of CRN-4 in complex with MES that reveals a unique inhibition mechanism by inducing the general base His179 to shift out of the active site...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Matthew L Boisen, Robert W Cross, Jessica N Hartnett, Augustine Goba, Mambu Momoh, Mohamed Fullah, Michael Gbakie, Sidiki Safa, Mbalu Fonnie, Francis Baimba, Veronica J Koroma, Joan B Geisbert, Stephanie McCormick, Diana K S Nelson, Molly M Millett, Darin Oottamasathien, Abby B Jones, Ha Pham, Bethany L Brown, Jeffrey G Shaffer, John S Schieffelin, Brima Kargbo, Momoh Gbetuwa, Sahr M Gevao, Russell B Wilson, Kelly R Pitts, Thomas W Geisbert, Luis M Branco, Sheik H Khan, Donald S Grant, Robert F Garry
BACKGROUND:  The 2013-2016 West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic is the largest recorded. Triage on the basis of clinical signs had limited success, and the time to diagnosis by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) could exceed 5 days. Here we describe the development and field validation of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test (ReEBOV RDT) to aid triage of individuals with suspected EVD. METHODS:  Samples from patients with suspected EVD were submitted to Kenema Government Hospital, Sierra Leone, for Lassa fever and EVD screening throughout 2014...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Isa-Rita M Russo, Catherine L Sole, Mario Barbato, Ullrich von Bramann, Michael W Bruford
Small mammals provide ecosystem services, acting, for example, as pollinators and seed dispersers. In addition, they are also disease reservoirs that can be detrimental to human health and they can also act as crop pests. Knowledge of their dispersal preferences is therefore useful for population management and landscape planning. Genetic data were used alongside landscape data to examine the influence of the landscape on the demographic connectedness of the Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) and to identify landscape characteristics that influence the genetic structure of this species across a spatially and temporally varying environment...
2016: Scientific Reports
Christian B Matranga, Adrianne Gladden-Young, James Qu, Sarah Winnicki, Dolo Nosamiefan, Joshua Z Levin, Pardis C Sabeti
Here we outline a next-generation RNA sequencing protocol that enables de novo assemblies and intra-host variant calls of viral genomes collected from clinical and biological sources. The method is unbiased and universal; it uses random primers for cDNA synthesis and requires no prior knowledge of the viral sequence content. Before library construction, selective RNase H-based digestion is used to deplete unwanted RNA - including poly(rA) carrier and ribosomal RNA - from the viral RNA sample. Selective depletion improves both the data quality and the number of unique reads in viral RNA sequencing libraries...
July 2, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Augustine Goba, S Humarr Khan, Mbalu Fonnie, Mohamed Fullah, Alex Moigboi, Alice Kovoma, Vandi Sinnah, Nancy Yoko, Hawa Rogers, Siddiki Safai, Mambu Momoh, Veronica Koroma, Fatima K Kamara, Edwin Konowu, Mohamed Yillah, Issa French, Ibraham Mustapha, Franklyn Kanneh, Momoh Foday, Helena McCarthy, Tiangay Kallon, Mustupha Kallon, Jenneh Naiebu, Josephine Sellu, Abdul A Jalloh, Michael Gbakie, Lansana Kanneh, James L B Massaly, David Kargbo, Brima Kargbo, Mohamed Vandi, Momoh Gbetuwa, Sahr M Gevao, John D Sandi, Simbirie C Jalloh, Donald S Grant, Sylvia O Blyden, Ian Crozier, John S Schieffelin, Susan L McLellan, Shevin T Jacob, Matt L Boisen, Jessica N Hartnett, Robert W Cross, Luis M Branco, Kristian G Andersen, Nathan L Yozwiak, Stephen K Gire, Ridhi Tariyal, Daniel J Park, Allyson M Haislip, Christopher M Bishop, Lilia I Melnik, William R Gallaher, William C Wimley, Jing He, Jeffrey G Shaffer, Brian M Sullivan, Sonia Grillo, Scott Oman, Courtney E Garry, Donna R Edwards, Stephanie J McCormick, Deborah H Elliott, Julie A Rouelle, Chandrika B Kannadka, Ashley A Reyna, Benjamin T Bradley, Haini Yu, Rachael E Yenni, Kathryn M Hastie, Joan B Geisbert, Peter C Kulakosky, Russell B Wilson, Michael B A Oldstone, Kelly R Pitts, Lee A Henderson, James E Robinson, Thomas W Geisbert, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Christian T Happi, Danny A Asogun, Pardis C Sabeti, Robert F Garry
BACKGROUND:  Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) has developed an advanced clinical and laboratory research capacity to manage the threat of Lassa fever, a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). The 2013-2016 Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) outbreak is the first to have occurred in an area close to a facility with established clinical and laboratory capacity for study of VHFs. METHODS:  Because of its proximity to the epicenter of the EVD outbreak, which began in Guinea in March 2014, the KGH Lassa fever Team mobilized to establish EBOV surveillance and diagnostic capabilities...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"