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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315708/2016-international-meeting-of-the-global-virus-network
#1
REVIEW
Ramesh Akkina, Heinz Ellerbrok, William Hall, Hideki Hasegawa, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Harold Kleanthous, Edward McSweegan, Natalia Mercer, Victor Romanowski, Hirofumi Sawa, Anders Vahlne
The Global Virus Network (GVN) was established in 2011 in order to strengthen research and responses to current viral causes of human disease and to prepare against new viral pandemic threats. There are now 38 GVN Centers of Excellence and 6 Affiliate laboratories in 24 countries. GVN scientists meet annually to learn about each other's current research, address collaborative priorities and plan future programs. The 2016 meeting was held from October 23-25 in Hokkaido, Japan, in partnership with the Japanese Society for Virology, the National Institute of Infectious Diseases of Japan and the Research Center for Zoonosis Control of Hokkaido University...
March 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278352/mobile-phone-based-interactive-voice-response-as-a-tool-for-improving-access-to-healthcare-in-remote-areas-in-ghana-an-evaluation-of-user-experiences
#2
J Brinkel, J May, R Krumkamp, M Lamshöft, B Kreuels, E Owusu-Dabo, A Mohammed, A Bonacic Marinovic, P Dako-Gyeke, A Krämer, J N Fobil
OBJECTIVES: To investigate and determine the factors that enhanced or constituted barriers to the acceptance of an mHealth system which was piloted in Asante-Akim North District of Ghana to support healthcare of children. METHODS: Four semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 37 mothers. Participants were selected from a study population of mothers who subscribed to a pilot mHealth system which used an interactive voice response for its operations...
March 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179007/global-research-trends-of-world-health-organization-s-top-eight-emerging-pathogens
#3
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: On December 8(th), 2015, World Health Organization published a priority list of eight pathogens expected to cause severe outbreaks in the near future. To better understand global research trends and characteristics of publications on these emerging pathogens, we carried out this bibliometric study hoping to contribute to global awareness and preparedness toward this topic. METHOD: Scopus database was searched for the following pathogens/infectious diseases: Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Rift valley, Crimean-Congo, Nipah, Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and Severe Respiratory Acute Syndrome (SARS)...
February 8, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167603/at-home-with-mastomys-and-rattus-human-rodent-interactions-and-potential-for-primary-transmission-of-lassa-virus-in-domestic-spaces
#4
Jesse Bonwitt, Almudena Mari Sáez, Joseph Lamin, Rashid Ansumana, Michael Dawson, Jacob Buanie, Joyce Lamin, Diana Sondufu, Matthias Borchert, Foday Sahr, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet, Hannah Brown
The multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir for Lassa virus (LASV). Zoonotic transmission occurs when humans are directly or indirectly exposed to fluids of the multimammate mouse, such as urine, saliva, and blood. Housing characteristics and domestic organization affect rodent density in and around households and villages, and are likely to be a risk factor for Lassa fever in humans where the reservoir exists. We use semi-structured interviews (N = 51), a quantitative survey (N = 429), direct observations, and a rodent ecology study to provide new insights into how the organization of domestic spaces brings together humans and rodents and creates pathways for infection in rural settlements in Bo District, Sierra Leone...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111475/immunobiology-of-ebola-and-lassa-virus-infections
#5
REVIEW
Joseph B Prescott, Andrea Marzi, David Safronetz, Shelly J Robertson, Heinz Feldmann, Sonja M Best
Two of the most important contemporary emerging viruses that affect human health in Africa are Ebola virus (EBOV) and Lassa virus (LASV). The 2013-2016 West African outbreak of EBOV was responsible for more than 11,000 deaths, primarily in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. LASV is constantly emerging in these and surrounding West African countries, with an estimate of more than 500,000 cases of Lassa fever, and approximately 5,000 deaths, annually. Both EBOV and LASV are zoonotic, and human infection often results in a severe haemorrhagic fever in both cases...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093544/annual-incidence-of-lassa-virus-infection-in-southern-mali
#6
David Safronetz, Nafomon Sogoba, Sory Ibrahim Diawara, Sidy Bane, Kyle Rosenke, Ousmane Maiga, Matt Boisen, Robert F Garry, Luis M Branco, L Robbin Lindsay, Sékou F Traoré, Heinz Feldmann, Seydou Doumbia
Previously, we reported a high seroprevalence rate of Lassa virus antibodies in inhabitants of three villages in southern Mali where infected rodents have been demonstrated. Herein, we report a 1-year follow-up study in which we were able to collect a second blood samples from 88.7% of participants of the same cohort. We identified 23 seroconversions for IgG antibodies reactive against Lassa virus, representing an incidence of 6.3% (95% confidence interval = 3.8-8.8%). Seroconversion was frequently seen in preteenage children (12/23, 51...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076397/when-viruses-don-t-go-viral-the-importance-of-host-phylogeographic-structure-in-the-spatial-spread-of-arenaviruses
#7
Sophie Gryseels, Stuart J E Baird, Benny Borremans, Rhodes Makundi, Herwig Leirs, Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq
Many emerging infections are RNA virus spillovers from animal reservoirs. Reservoir identification is necessary for predicting the geographic extent of infection risk, but rarely are taxonomic levels below the animal species considered as reservoir, and only key circumstances in nature and methodology allow intrinsic virus-host associations to be distinguished from simple geographic (co-)isolation. We sampled and genetically characterized in detail a contact zone of two subtaxa of the rodent Mastomys natalensis in Tanzania...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012899/corning-hyperflask-%C3%A2-for-viral-amplification-and-production-of-diagnostic-reagents
#8
Brian J Kearney, Matthew A Voorhees, Priscilla L Williams, Scott P Olschner, Cynthia A Rossi, Randal J Schoepp
Viral preparations are essential components in diagnostic research and development. The production of large quantities of virus traditionally is done by infecting numerous tissue culture flasks or roller bottles, which require large incubators and/or roller bottle racks. The Corning HYPERFlask(®) is a multilayer flask that uses a gas permeable film to provide gas exchange between the cells and culture medium and the atmospheric environment. This study evaluated the suitability of the HYPERFlask for production of Lassa, Ebola, Bundibugyo, Reston, and Marburg viruses and compared it to more traditional methods using tissue culture flasks and roller bottles...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999160/25-hydroxycholesterol-inhibition-of-lassa-virus-infection-through-aberrant-gp1-glycosylation
#9
Punya Shrivastava-Ranjan, Éric Bergeron, Ayan K Chakrabarti, César G Albariño, Mike Flint, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou
Lassa virus (LASV) infection is a major public health concern due to high fatality rates and limited effective treatment. The interferon-stimulated gene cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC). 25HC is involved in regulating cholesterol biosynthesis and has recently been identified as a potent antiviral targeting enveloped virus entry. Here, we show a previously unrecognized role of CH25H in inhibiting LASV glycoprotein glycosylation and the production of infectious virus...
December 20, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976464/methods-for-collecting-paired-observations-from-emergency-medical-services-and-emergency-department-providers-for-pediatric-cervical-spine-injury-risk-factors
#10
Fahd A Ahmad, Hamilton Schwartz, Lorin R Browne, Sherry Lassa-Claxton, Michael Wallendorf, E Brooke Lerner, Nathan Kuppermann, Julie C Leonard
OBJECTIVES: Cervical spine injuries (CSI) after blunt trauma in children are rare but cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Emergency medical services (EMS) and emergency department (ED) providers routinely use spinal precautions and cervical spine imaging respectively during the management of children experiencing blunt trauma. These practices lack evidence, and there is concern that they may be harmful. A pediatric CSI risk-assessment tool is needed to inform EMS and ED provider decision-making...
December 15, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975074/imported-case-of-lassa-fever-in-sweden-with-encephalopathy-and-sensorineural-hearing-deficit
#11
Anna Grahn, Andreas Bråve, Martin Lagging, Leif Dotevall, David Ekqvist, Helena Hammarström, Helen Karlberg, Nina Lagerqvist, Martina Sansone, Anders Tegnell, Peter Ulleryd, Marie Studahl
We describe an imported case of Lassa fever with both encephalopathy and bilateral sensorineural hearing deficit. Absence of fever during hospitalization, initially nonspecific symptoms, and onset of hearing deficit in a late stage of disease probably contributed to delayed diagnosis (14 days after admittance to hospital). The pathogenesis of neurological manifestations of Lassa fever is poorly understood and no specific treatment was given. A total of 118 personnel had close contact with the patient, but no secondary cases occurred...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957363/aseptic-meningitis-caused-by-lassa-virus-case-series-report
#12
Peter O Okokhere, Idowu A Bankole, Christopher O Iruolagbe, Benard E Muoebonam, Martha O Okonofua, Simeon O Dawodu, George O Akpede
The Lassa virus is known to cause disease in different organ systems of the human body, with varying clinical manifestations. The features of severe clinical disease may include bleeding and/or central nervous system manifestations. Whereas Lassa fever encephalopathy and encephalitis are well described in the literature, there is paucity of data on Lassa virus meningitis. We present the clinical description, laboratory diagnosis, and management of 4 consecutive cases of aseptic meningitis associated with Lassa virus infection without bleeding seen in a region of Nigeria known to be endemic for both the reservoir rodent and Lassa fever...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928003/lassa-virus-cell-entry-reveals-new-aspects-of-virus-host-cell-interaction
#13
REVIEW
Giulia Torriani, Clara Galan-Navarro, Stefan Kunz
Viral entry represents the first step of every viral infection and is a determinant for the host range and disease potential of a virus. Here, we review the latest developments on cell entry of the highly pathogenic Old World arenavirus Lassa virus, providing novel insights into the complex virus-host cell interaction of this important human pathogen. We will cover new discoveries on the molecular mechanisms of receptor recognition, endocytosis, and the use of late endosomal entry factors.
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855284/development-of-live-attenuated-arenavirus-vaccines-based-on-codon-deoptimization-of-the-viral-glycoprotein
#14
Benson Y H Cheng, Aitor Nogales, Juan Carlos de la Torre, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
Several arenaviruses, chiefly Lassa (LASV) in West Africa, cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans and pose important public health problems in their endemic regions. To date, there are no FDA-approved arenavirus vaccines and current anti-arenaviral therapy is limited to the use of ribavirin that has very limited efficacy. In this work we document that a recombinant prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) with a codon deoptimized (CD) surface glycoprotein (GP), rLCMV/CD, exhibited wild type (WT)-like growth properties in cultured cells despite barely detectable GP expression levels in rLCMV/CD-infected cells...
January 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795340/comparison-of-magpix-assays-and-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-detection-of-hemorrhagic-fever-viruses
#15
Neal G Satterly, Matthew A Voorhees, Abbe D Ames, Randal J Schoepp
Viral hemorrhagic fevers, because of their high mortality rates, the lack of medical countermeasures, and their potential use as instruments of bioterrorism, pose a significant threat to the developed and the developing areas of the world. The key to preventing the spread of these diseases is early and accurate detection. For decades, the gold-standard immunoassay for hemorrhagic fever detection has been the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); however, newer technologies are emerging with increased sensitivities...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785522/disinfection-of-aircraft-appropriate-disinfectants-and-standard-operating-procedures-for-highly-infectious-diseases
#16
Joachim Klaus, Peter Gnirs, Sabine Hölterhoff, Angela Wirtz, Matthias Jeglitza, Walter Gaber, Rene Gottschalk
For infectious diseases caused by highly pathogenic agents (e. g., Ebola/Lassa fever virus, SARS-/MERS-CoV, pandemic influenza virus) which have the potential to spread over several continents within only a few days, international Health Protection Authorities have taken appropriate measures to limit the consequences of a possible spread. A crucial point in this context is the disinfection of an aircraft that had a passenger on board who is suspected of being infected with one of the mentioned diseases...
December 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771389/lassa-and-ebola-virus-inhibitors-identified-using-minigenome-and-recombinant-virus-reporter-systems
#17
Stephen R Welch, Lisa Wiggleton Guerrero, Ayan K Chakrabarti, Laura K McMullan, Mike Flint, Gregory R Bluemling, George R Painter, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou, César G Albariño
Lassa virus (LASV) and Ebola virus (EBOV) infections are important global health issues resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. While several promising drug and vaccine trials for EBOV are ongoing, options for LASV infection are currently limited to ribavirin treatment. A major factor impeding the development of antiviral compounds to treat these infections is the need to manipulate the virus under BSL-4 containment, limiting research to a few institutes worldwide. Here we describe the development of a novel LASV minigenome assay based on the ambisense LASV S segment genome, with authentic terminal untranslated regions flanking a ZsGreen (ZsG) fluorescent reporter protein and a Gaussia princeps luciferase (gLuc) reporter gene...
October 19, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736754/favipiravir-pharmacokinetics-in-nonhuman-primates-and-insights-for-future-efficacy-studies-of-hemorrhagic-fever-viruses
#18
Vincent Madelain, Jérémie Guedj, France Mentré, Thi Huyen Tram Nguyen, Frédéric Jacquot, Lisa Oestereich, Takumi Kadota, Koichi Yamada, Anne-Marie Taburet, Xavier de Lamballerie, Hervé Raoul
Favipiravir is an RNA polymerase inhibitor that showed strong antiviral efficacy in vitro and in small-animal models of several viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fever (HF), including Ebola virus. The aim of this work was to characterize the complex pharmacokinetics of favipiravir in nonhuman primates (NHPs) in order to guide future efficacy studies of favipiravir in large-animal models. Four different studies were conducted in 30 uninfected cynomolgus macaques of Chinese (n = 17) or Mauritian (n = 13) origin treated with intravenous favipiravir for 7 to 14 days with maintenance doses of 60 to 180 mg/kg of body weight twice a day (BID)...
January 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716429/serosurveillance-of-viral-pathogens-circulating-in-west-africa
#19
Aileen E O'Hearn, Matthew A Voorhees, David P Fetterer, Nadia Wauquier, Moinya R Coomber, James Bangura, Joseph N Fair, Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Randal J Schoepp
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is home to a variety of pathogens, but disease surveillance and the healthcare infrastructure necessary for proper management and control are severely limited. Lassa virus, the cause of Lassa fever, a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans is endemic in West Africa. In Sierra Leone at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Diagnostic Laboratory, up to 70 % of acute patient samples suspected of Lassa fever test negative for Lassa virus infection. This large amount of acute undiagnosed febrile illness can be attributed in part to an array of hemorrhagic fever and arthropod-borne viruses causing disease that goes undetected and untreated...
October 3, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704591/a-cell-based-high-throughput-protocol-to-screen-entry-inhibitors-of-highly-pathogenic-viruses-with-traditional-chinese-medicines
#20
Yong Yang, Han Cheng, Hui Yan, Peng-Zhan Wang, Rong Rong, Ying-Ying Zhang, Cheng-Bo Zhang, Rui-Kun Du, Li-Jun Rong
Emerging viruses such as Ebola virus (EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), and avian influenza virus H5N1 (AIV) are global health concerns. Since there is very limited options (either vaccine or specific therapy) approved for humans against these viruses, there is an urgent need to develop prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Previously we reported a high-throughput screening (HTS) protocol to identify entry inhibitors for three highly pathogenic viruses (EBOV, LASV, and AIV) using a human immunodeficiency virus-based pseudotyping platform which allows us to perform the screening in a BSL-2 facility...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
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