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Edward L Squires
Most equine embryos are collected from the donor mare and transferred immediately as fresh embryos or shipped cooled to a recipient station for transfer within 24 hours. Very few equine embryos are frozen despite the numerous advantages of embryo cryopreservation. There are 2 major hurdles: Only the small embryos (<300 μm) provide good pregnancy rates after freezing/thawing and transfer. Also there is no good procedure for superovulating mares; thus, extra embryos for freezing are not readily available...
October 8, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Liza Margareth Medeiros de Carvalho Sousa, Gabriela Pacheco Mendes, Danila Barreiro Campos, Pietro Sampaio Baruselli, Paula de Carvalho Papa
We hypothesized that stimulatory and superovulatory treatments, using equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), modulate the expression of genes related to insulin, cellular modelling and angiogenesis signaling pathways in the bovine corpus luteum (CL). Therefore, we investigated: 1-the effect of these treatments on circulating insulin and somatomedin C concentrations and on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1 and IGFR1, as well as other insulin signaling molecules; 2-the effects of eCG on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1, GLUT4 and NFKB1A in bovine luteal cells; and 3-the effect of stimulatory and superovulatory treatments on gene and protein expression of ANG, ANGPT1, NOS2, ADM, PRSS2, MMP9 and PLAU...
2016: PloS One
Juan-Ke Xie, Qian Wang, Ting-Ting Zhang, Shen Yin, Cui-Lian Zhang, Zhao-Jia Ge
Controlled ovarian stimulation by exogenous gonadotrophins is a key procedure during the in vitro fertilization cycle to obtain a sufficient number of oocytes in humans. Previous studies demonstrated that repeated superovulation had deleterious effects on the ovaries. However, whether repeated superovulation adversely affects the mitochondrial functions of cumulus cells remains unclear. In this study, mice were divided into three groups: superovulation once (R1); superovulation three times (R3), and superovulation five times (R5)...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hatem Abu Hashim
Orally active aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have gained attention for treatment of infertile women with endometriosis in whom aromatase p450 is aberrantly expressed. This review aimed to critically appraise and summarize the available evidence concerning the use of AIs for management of endometriosis-associated infertility. PubMed was searched to May 2015 with the following key words: endometriosis, infertility and aromatase. Priority was given for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) followed by other study designs...
October 2016: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
M Mikkola, J Taponen
This study investigated the effect of sex-sorted semen compared with conventional semen on the outcome of embryo recovery, placing special emphasis on the quality, and developmental stage of embryos. Data were analyzed for 443 embryo collections with sex-sorted semen (SEX group) and 1528 with conventional semen (CONV group) in superovulated dairy heifers and cows. The insemination protocol for conventional semen included two inseminations, comprising a total dose of 30 million sperm passing into the uterine body...
August 20, 2016: Theriogenology
Reza Salehi, Marcos German Colazo, Stephen Tsoi, Amir Behrouzi, Benjamin K Tsang, Michael K Dyck, Masahito Oba, Divakar Justus Ambrose
The main objectives were to determine the influence of diets enriched in α-linolenic, linoleic or oleic acid on the development and transcriptomic profile of embryos collected from dairy cattle. Non-lactating Holstein cows received one of three diets supplemented with 8% rolled oilseeds: flax (FLX, n=8), sunflower (SUN, n=7) or canola (CAN, n=8). After a minimum 35-day diet adaptation, cows were superovulated, artificially inseminated and ova/embryos recovered non-surgically 7.5 days later. Cows fed FLX had less degenerated embryos and more viable embryos than those fed CAN or SUN...
September 20, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Hideki Igarashi, Toshifumi Takahashi, Hiroyuki Abe, Hiroshi Nakano, Osamu Nakajima, Satoru Nagase
STUDY QUESTION: Does in vivo aging of mouse oocytes affect mitochondrial function? SUMMARY ANSWER: Mitochondrial function was impaired in post-ovulatory in vivo-aged mouse oocytes and microinjection of somatic cell mitochondria did not rescue poor fertilization and embryonic development rates. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The mechanisms underlying the decline in oocyte quality associated with oocyte aging remain unknown, although studies have suggested that the decline is regulated by mitochondrial dysfunction...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
Laura Whidden, Josée Martel, Sophia Rahimi, J Richard Chaillet, Donovan Chan, Jacquetta M Trasler
Clinical studies have revealed an increased incidence of growth and genomic imprinting disorders in children conceived using Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), and aberrant DNA methylation has been implicated. We propose that compromised oocyte quality associated with female infertility may make embryos more susceptible to the induction of epigenetic defects by ART. DNA methylation patterns in the preimplantation embryo are dependent on the oocyte-specific DNA methyltransferase 1o (DNMT1o), levels of which are decreased in mature oocytes of aging females...
August 29, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
I Małysz-Cymborska, A Andronowska
The influence of induction of ovulation and superovulation with eCG and hCG on LH and FSH receptor levels in porcine oviducts on day 3 postcoitum was studied. In experiment I, gilts were assigned into cyclic (control; n = 5) and inseminated (n = 5) groups. In experiment II, there were 3 groups of animals: inseminated (n = 5), induced ovulation/inseminated (750 IU eCG, 500 IU hCG; n = 5) and superovulated/inseminated (1500 IU eCG, 1000 IU hCG; n = 5) gilts. Oviduct tissues were collected 3 d after insemination or PBS infusion...
October 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Patricia T Jimenez, Monica A Mainigi, R Ann Word, W Lee Kraus, Carole R Mendelson
For successful embryo implantation, endometrial stromal cells must undergo functional and morphological changes, referred to as decidualization. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate implantation and decidualization are not well defined. Here we demonstrate that the estradiol- and progesterone-regulated microRNA (miR)-200 family was markedly down-regulated in mouse endometrial stromal cells prior to implantation, whereas zinc finger E-box binding homeobox-1 and -2 and other known and predicted targets were up-regulated...
September 2016: Molecular Endocrinology
C Jaton, A Koeck, M Sargolzaei, C A Price, C Baes, F S Schenkel, F Miglior
Multiple embryos can be produced from a heifer or cow donors using an in vivo or an in vitro technique. Comparisons of the number of embryos produced by the same donors as heifers and cows and using different techniques are limited. The main objectives of this study were to assess the genetic correlation between the number of embryos produced by Holstein donors using an in vivo and in vitro technique as a heifer and as a cow. The data set used was recorded by Holstein Canada and included all successful superovulations or ovum pickup and in vitro fertilization procedures performed on Holstein donors for more than 20yr...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Mirela B Souza Cáceres, Wilian A Leite da Silva, Ana C Bini de Lima, Jair S de Oliveira, Christopher J Tavares Cardoso, Jonathan V Dos Santos, Evelyn R Andrade, Mauricio M Franco, Ralf Poehland, Fabiana de Andrade Melo Sterza
The production rates of viable embryos using sexed semen through the conventional methodologies of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer are generally not satisfactory. However, the cryopreservation of these embryos is considered efficient. Knowledge of epigenetics can provide new tools or allow for adapting new protocols that could enhance the efficiency of reproductive biotechnologies. The aim of this study was to characterize the pattern of trimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) in bovine embryos produced in vivo with sexed semen that were submitted to cryopreservation...
November 2016: Theriogenology
Mieke Baan, Kathleen J Krentz, Danielle A Fontaine, Dawn Belt Davis
The Black and Tan Brachyury (BTBR) mouse strain is a valuable model for the study of long-term complications from obesity-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus and autism spectrum disorder. Due to technical difficulties with assisted reproduction, genetically modified animals on this background have previously been generated through extensive backcrossing, which is expensive and time-consuming. We successfully generated two separate transgenic mouse lines after direct zygote microinjection into this background strain...
August 11, 2016: Transgenic Research
T Garcia Robles, R A García Fernández, P García-Palencia, M D Arrabal, B Sánchez Maldonado, M A Sánchez Pérez, E Rollan, J Martin Caballero, J M Flores
Following the performance of a superovulation protocol, multiple nodules were observed bilaterally in the uterine horns of 31 of 276 (11.2%) C57BL/6 J female mice aged 8.5 ± 0.6 (mean and standard error of mean) weeks. These lesions prevented embryo collection, and the uterine decidual reaction was suspected. Samples of pathological uteri (n = 20) and the normal genital tracts of donors treated with a similar superovulation protocol (control group, n = 10) were collected. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate pancytokeratin, desmin, vimentin, progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor α (ERα), Ki-67, cyclin D3 and c-Myc expression, as well as quantitative polymerase chain reaction to assess cyclin D3, Hoxa-10 and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) mRNA expression...
August 10, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Xi Luo, Qian Li, Jie Cheng, Kailu Lv, Qixin Hua, Youbing Xia
OBJECTIVE: To explore the protective effect of electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment on ovarian function in rats with ovulation induction. METHODS: Thirty SD female rats were numbered according to random number table. According to vaginal smear method, rats of estrus were divided into a normal group (10 rats) and cohabitated with male SD rats with the proportion of 1:1. With computer-generated random number, the remaining rats were divided into a model group and an EA group, 10 rats in each one...
May 2016: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Jessie W Maddison, Jessica P Rickard, Ethan Mooney, Naomi C Bernecic, Clement Soleilhavoup, Guillaume Tsikis, Xavier Druart, Tamara Leahy, Simon P de Graaf
Controlled breeding programmes utilising exogenous hormones are common in the Australian sheep industry, however the effects of such programmes on cervicovaginal mucus properties are lacking. As such, the aim of this study was to investigate cervicovaginal (CV) mucus from naturally cycling (NAT), progesterone synchronised (P4), prostaglandin synchronised (PGF2α), and superovulated (SOV) Merino ewes. Experiment 1; volume, colour, spinnbarkeit, chemical profile and protein concentration of mucus (NAT, P4, PGF2α and SOV; n=5 ewes/treatment) during the follicular (5 d) and luteal phases (8 d) was investigated...
September 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Jinjin Zhang, Jiaqiang Xiong, Li Fang, Zhiyong Lu, Meng Wu, Liangyan Shi, Xian Qin, Aiyue Luo, Shixuan Wang
Numerous studies have reported that human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) therapy can rescue the structure and function of injured tissues. The aims of this study were to explore the protective role of hUCMSC transplantation in a model of accelerated ovarian aging and to compare 2 methods of transplanting hUCMSCs, i.e. i) via intravenous injection (IV) and ii) in situ ovarian micro injection (MI). Female mice were subjected to superovulation and ozone inhalation to create a model of accelerated ovarian aging with a decline in both the quantity and quality of oocytes...
September 5, 2016: Bioscience Trends
Michael Y Esmail, Peimin Qi, Aurora Burds Connor, James G Fox, Alexis García
The reliable generation of high-percentage chimeras from gene-targeted C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells has proven challenging, despite optimization of cell culture and microinjection techniques. To improve the efficiency of this procedure, we compared the generation of chimeras by using 3 different inbred, albino host, embryo-generating protocols: BALB/cAnNTac (BALB/c) donor mice superovulated at 4 wk of age, 12-wk-old BALB/c donor mice without superovulation, and C57BL/6NTac-Tyr(tm1Arte) (albino B6) mice superovulated at 4 wk of age...
2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Yan Li, Di Lian, Shoulong Deng, Xiaosheng Zhang, Jinlong Zhang, Wenting Li, Hai Bai, Zhixian Wang, Hongping Wu, Juncai Fu, Hongbing Han, Jianzhong Feng, Guoshi Liu, Ling Lian, Zhengxing Lian
BACKGROUND: Brucella is a zoonotic Gram-negative pathogen that causes abortion and infertility in ruminants and humans. TLR4 is the receptor for LPS which can recognize Brucella and initiate antigen-presenting cell activities that affect both innate and adaptive immunity. Consequently, transgenic sheep over-expressing TLR4 are an suitable model to investigate the effects of TLR4 on preventing Brucellosis. In this study, we generated transgenic sheep overexpressing TLR4 and aimed to evaluate the effects of different seasons (breeding and non-breeding season) on superovulation and the imported exogenous gene on growth...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Koji Kimura
Superovulation (SOV) is a necessary technique to produce large numbers of embryos for embryo transfer. In the conventional methods, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) is administered to donor cattle twice daily for 3 to 4 days. As this method is labor intensive and stresses cattle, improving this method has been desired. We previously developed a novel and simple SOV method, in which the intramuscular injection of a single dose of FSH in aluminum hydroxide gel (AH-gel) induced the growth of multiple follicles, ovulation and the production of multiple embryos...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
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