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Juntaro Koyama, Yasuhiro Kaiho, Yoshihide Kawasaki, Tomonori Sato, Taro Fukushi, Atsushi Kyan, Yoichi Arai
OBJECTIVES: The phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor tadalafil is one of the first-choice drugs for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). However, tadalafil is not always equally beneficial to every patient. In order to determine whether penile blood pressure (PBP) can be used to identify patients who can benefit from tadalafil treatment, the correlation between PBP at baseline and changes in LUTS induced by tadalafil treatment was studied prospectively...
June 19, 2018: BJU International
Hirosumi Tamura, Arisa Higa, Hirotaka Hoshi, Gen Hiyama, Nobuhiko Takahashi, Masae Ryufuku, Gaku Morisawa, Yuka Yanagisawa, Emi Ito, Jun-Ichi Imai, Yuu Dobashi, Kiyoaki Katahira, Shu Soeda, Takafumi Watanabe, Keiya Fujimori, Shinya Watanabe, Motoki Takagi
Patient-derived tumor xenograft models represent a promising preclinical cancer model that better replicates disease, compared with traditional cell culture; however, their use is low-throughput and costly. To overcome this limitation, patient-derived tumor organoids (PDOs) were established from human lung, ovarian and uterine tumor tissues, among others, to accurately and efficiently recapitulate the tissue architecture and function. PDOs were able to be cultured for >6 months, and formed cell clusters with similar morphologies to their source tumors...
June 18, 2018: Oncology Reports
Iva Hojsak, Florence Lacaille, Girish L Gupte, Jutta Köglmeier
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The guidelines for the insertion and maintenance of the central venous catheter (CVC) in children on long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) were published 12 years ago and studies evaluating the outcomes are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a survey about criteria for CVC insertion and maintenance in intestinal failure/rehabilitation centres treating children on home PN. METHODS: An on-line cross-sectional survey based on previous European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) PN guidelines was distributed electronically to the members of the ESPGHAN networking group, Network for Intestinal Failure and Transplantation in Europe (NITE) and tertiary paediatric gastroenterology centres in Europe...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Andrea Bobbio, Anna Maria Manganelli, Silvano Cannone
OBJECTIVES: This paper addresses the moderating role of locomotion - a functional and fundamental dimension of self-regulation - in the relationship between job insecurity and subjective well-being. METHODS: A group of 205 adult Italian workers took part in the research by filling out an anonymous questionnaire that included measures of job insecurity, locomotion, satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect. RESULTS: Results showed that job insecurity was positively related to negative affect and negatively related to life satisfaction and positive affect...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Khouloud A Alsofyani
Subcutaneous fat necrosis of newborn is a form of noninfectious panniculitis. It is an uncommon condition and mostly occurs in full-term infants within first weeks of life that have had a significant condition such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at the time of birth. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of newborn is usually a self-limiting condition but may be associated with hypercalcemia, which may lead to life threatening levels. Hypercalcemia is a significant reason of subcutaneous fat necrosis and needs an intervention involving hyperhydration, calcitonin, diuretics, steroids and sometimes bisphosphonate in resistant cases...
June 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Khaled K Al-Dossari, Sameer Al-Ghamdi, Jamaan Al-Zahrani, Imad Abdulmajeed, Maher Alotaibi, Humoud Almutairi, Abdulrahman BinSwilim, Omar Alhatlan
Introduction: Epilepsy is one of the most stigmatizing disorders. Stigmas and negative attitudes associating epilepsy are due to poor public awareness and knowledge. This study evaluated Saudi public Knowledge, awareness, and attitude towards epilepsy. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted during the period from September 16, 2014 to January 1st 2015. A 20-item questionnaire adapted from the literature was validated and distributed to 422 adults living in Al-Kharj governorate, and 22 participants were excluded as they have never heard or read about epilepsy...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Péter Mihalicza, Mark Leys, Ilona Borbás, Szabolcs Szigeti, Olivia Biermann, Tanja Kuchenmüller
BACKGROUND: In evidence-informed policy-making (EIP), major knowledge gaps remain in understanding the context and possibilities for institutionalisation of knowledge translation. In 2014, the WHO Evidence-informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) Europe initiated a number of pilot countries, with Hungary among them, to engage in a 'situation analysis' (SA) in order to fill some of those gaps. This contribution discusses the results of the SA in Hungary on research-policy interactions, facilitating factors and potential barriers to establish a knowledge translation platform (KTP)...
June 19, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Oluwaseyi K Israel, Olufunmilayo I Fawole, Ayo S Adebowale, IkeOluwapo O Ajayi, Oyindamola B Yusuf, Abisola Oladimeji, Olufemi Ajumobi
BACKGROUND: Utilization of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) has been associated with reduction of malaria incidence, especially among children. The 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey revealed Osun State had the least proportion (5.7%) of under-five children (U5) who slept under LLIN the night before the survey. A study was conducted to assess caregivers' knowledge about LLIN, utilization of LLIN and factors influencing LLIN use among U5 in Osun State, Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1020 mothers/caregivers of U5 selected from six communities in Osun State using a multistage sampling technique...
June 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
Mona Pettersson, Mariann Hedström, Anna T Höglund
BACKGROUND: DNR decisions are frequently made in oncology and hematology care and physicians and nurses may face related ethical dilemmas. Ethics is considered a basic competence in health care and can be understood as a capacity to handle a task that involves an ethical dilemma in an adequate, ethically responsible manner. One model of ethical competence for healthcare staff includes three main aspects: being, doing and knowing, suggesting that ethical competence requires abilities of character, action and knowledge...
June 19, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Sarah Kanana Kiburi, Keneilwe Molebatsi, Anne Obondo, Mary W Kuria
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorders are a major cause of health and social problems worldwide. Research evidence shows a strong graded relationship of adverse childhood experiences and substance use in adulthood. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences and their association with substance use among patients with substance use disorders. METHOD: The study used a descriptive cross-sectional design. A total of 134 patients aged 18 years and above receiving inpatient treatment for substance use disorders were recruited into the study...
June 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Yufeng Si, Haishen Wen, Yun Li, Feng He, Jifang Li, Siping Li, Huiwen He
BACKGROUND: Salinity is an important abiotic stress that influences the physiological and metabolic activity, reproduction, growth and development of marine fish. It has been suggested that half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), a euryhaline fish species, uses a large amount of energy to maintain osmotic pressure balance when exposed to fluctuations in salinity. To delineate the molecular response of C. semilaevis to different levels of salinity, we performed RNA-seq analysis of the liver to identify the genes and molecular and biological processes involved in responding to salinity changes...
June 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
Zdravko Marjanovic, Lisa Bajkov, Jennifer MacDonald
The Conscientious Responders Scale is a five-item embeddable validity scale that differentiates between conscientious and indiscriminate responding in personality-questionnaire data (CR & IR). This investigation presents further evidence of its validity and generalizability across two experiments. Study 1 tests its sensitivity to questionnaire length, a known cause of IR, and tries to provoke IR by manipulating psychological reactance. As expected, short questionnaires produced higher Conscientious Responders Scale scores than long questionnaires, and Conscientious Responders Scale scores were unaffected by reactance manipulations...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Tengiz Verulava, Lana Khuchua, Iago Kachkachishvili, Revaz Jorbenadze
Health problems are substantially increased in homeless populations who have higher prevalence's of infectious diseases than do general population. They have relatively earlier onset of sexual activity, and due to lack of information, many facilities for the practice of unprotected sex and low level of condom usage increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study aims to identify the knowledge and prevention of STIs among homeless people. An analytic cross-sectional study was conducted in a Tbilisi municipal shelter...
July 2018: International Quarterly of Community Health Education
Tiago M Fernández-Caramés, Paula Fraga-Lamas, Manuel Suárez-Albela, Manuel A Díaz-Bouza
Pipes are one of the key elements in the construction of ships, which usually contain between 15,000 and 40,000 of them. This huge number, as well as the variety of processes that may be performed on a pipe, require rigorous identification, quality assessment and traceability. Traditionally, such tasks have been carried out by using manual procedures and following documentation on paper, which slows down the production processes and reduces the output of a pipe workshop. This article presents a system that allows for identifying and tracking the pipes of a ship through their construction cycle...
June 17, 2018: Sensors
Dario Palmieri, Anna Tessari, Vincenzo Coppola
The DNA Damage Response (DDR) is a complex signaling network that comes into play when cells experience genotoxic stress. Upon DNA damage, cellular signaling pathways are rewired to slow down cell cycle progression and allow recovery. However, when the damage is beyond repair, cells activate complex and still not fully understood mechanisms, leading to a complete proliferative arrest or cell death. Several conventional and novel anti-neoplastic treatments rely on causing DNA damage or on the inhibition of the DDR in cancer cells...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maria Gullander, Stein Knardahl, Dagfinn Matre
Aabstract Background and purpose Women exhibit higher prevalence of most painful disorders. Several explanations have been proposed for this discrepancy, one being that endogenous pain modulatory pathways, which affect incoming nociceptive signals, act differently in men and women. A less efficient pain inhibitory system has been proposed as a contributing factor to explain why women exhibit higher prevalence of most painful disorders. The present study determined whether muscle pain, induced experimentally by electrical stimulation, is inhibited by a painful heat stimulus...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Tarja Heiskanen, Risto P Roine, Eija Kalso
Background The prevalence of chronic non-malignant pain in developed countries is high, ranging from 14% to 50%. Patients with chronic pain are active users of health-care services and they report impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) when compared with the general population. Psychological distress has been identified as one of the risk factors for pain chronicity. Depression, anxiety and negative beliefs are associated with pain interference and perceived disability. Multidisciplinary pain management (MPM) aims to rehabilitating chronic pain patients by addressing both physical, psychological, social and occupational factors related to the pain problem...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Mats Persson, Jan Sörensen, Björn Gerdle
Objectives The present study challenges chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD)-subjects to a pharmacological intravenous (i.v.) test with morphine, ketamine, and active placebo (midazolam). The aim was to describe the short-term responses to drugs and the assumed heterogeneity in the patterns of responses. We related the different responder groups to the results from psychometric tests. Methods The study includes 95 patients, all with chronic WAD and referred to our departments. They answered a questionnaire including the following psychometric instruments relevant for chronic pain: Beck Depression Inventory, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Life Satisfaction Checklist, SF36 and EuroQol...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Berit Björkman, Iréne Lund, Staffan Arnér, Lars-Christer Hydén
Background and aim The curious phenomenon phantom limbs early became the object of research, and its underlying mechanisms have been discussed over the years. The complex nature of phantom phenomena makes interpretation of the results ambiguous, regarding both prevalence and the accompanying suffering. There is a lack of knowledge about how amputees experience the meaning and consequences of phantom phenomena. The present aim, therefore, was to investigate how individuals, in an interview situation, described the qualities of possible perceived phantom phenomena, and how their experience affected their lives one month after the amputation/mastectomy...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Christine Mohn, Olav Vassend, Stein Knardahl
Background and purpose The psychophysiological responses to and modulation of pressure pain stimulation are relatively new areas of investigation. The aims of the present study were to characterize subjective and cardiovascular (CV) responses to pressure pain stimulation, and to examine the relationship between CV responding and pain pressure pain sensitivity. Methods Thirty-nine pain-free, normotensive women were included in the study and tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycles. Pain threshold and tolerance were recorded at the right masseter muscle and the sternum, and visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to rate both pain intensity (the sensory dimension) and discomfort (the affective dimension)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
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