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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906055/mesenchymal-stem-cells-multipotent-stromal-cells-mscs-are-glycolytic-and-thus-glucose-is-a-limiting-factor-of-in-vitro-models-of-msc-starvation
#1
Austin Nuschke, Melanie Rodrigues, Albin W Wells, Kyle Sylakowski, Alan Wells
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) contribute to tissue repair but are challenged during wound healing when the blood supply is disrupted, thereby limiting nutrient delivery. Survival mechanisms against 'starvation' include autophagy, which we previously found to enhance differentiation efficiency. MSC response to models of in vitro nutrient deprivation are of great interest for improving MSC survival and therapeutic efficacy; however, the rate-limiting nutrients are unknown...
December 1, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905965/socioeconomic-status-and-self-rated-health-of-japanese-people-based-on-age-cohort-and-period
#2
Hidehiro Sugisawa, Ken Harada, Yoko Sugihara, Shizuko Yanagisawa, Masaya Shinmei
BACKGROUND: Differences in health resulting from differences in socioeconomic status (SES) have been identified around the world. Age, period, and cohort (A-P-C) differences in health are vital factors which are associated with disparities in SES. However, few studies have examined these differences simultaneously. Moreover, although self-rated health (SRH) has been frequently used as an indicator of health, biases in reporting SRH that depend on the socioeconomic characteristics of respondents have been scarcely adjusted in the previous studies...
August 2, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905949/burden-of-cumulative-risk-factors-associated-with-non-communicable-diseases-among-adults-in-uganda-evidence-from-a-national-baseline-survey
#3
Ronald Wesonga, David Guwatudde, Silver K Bahendeka, Gerald Mutungi, Fabian Nabugoomu, James Muwonge
BACKGROUND: Modification of known risk factors has been the most tested strategy for dealing with non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The cumulative number of NCD risk factors exhibited by an individual depicts a disease burden. However, understanding the risk factors associated with increased NCD burden has been constrained by scarcity of nationally representative data, especially in the developing countries and not well explored in the developed countries as well. METHODS: Assessment of key risk factors for NCDs using population data drawn from 3987 participants in a nationally representative baseline survey in Uganda was made...
December 1, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905928/perceptions-on-the-effect-of-small-electric-fans-on-comfort-inside-bed-nets-in-southern-ghana-a-qualitative-study
#4
Mulako S Jaeger, Olivier J T Briët, Joseph Keating, Collins K Ahorlu, Joshua O Yukich, Samuel Oppong, Peter Nardini, Constanze Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are known to be highly effective in reducing malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality. However, among those owning an LLIN, use rates are often suboptimal. A reported barrier to bed net use is discomfort due to heat. This qualitative study was part of a larger evaluation conducted in communities without electricity in rural Ghana to assess whether 0.8 W solar powered net fans can increase net use. METHODS: Twenty-three key informant interviews with household heads in the study communities in Shai-Osudoku District, southern Ghana, were conducted from July to August 2015...
December 1, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905485/b-and-t-lymphocyte-number-and-function-in-hiv-hiv-lymphoma-patients-treated-with-high-dose-chemotherapy-and-autologous-bone-marrow-transplantation
#5
Diego Bertoli, Alessandro Re, Marco Chiarini, Alessandra Sottini, Federico Serana, Viviana Giustini, Aldo M Roccaro, Chiara Cattaneo, Luigi Caimi, Giuseppe Rossi, Luisa Imberti
Combination of anti-retroviral therapy, high-dose chemotherapy (HCT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has led to an improved survival of HIV(+) non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients. We compared T- and B-cell subset recovery and related capability to respond to in-vitro stimulation, as well as T-cell repertoire modifications of HIV(+) and HIV(-) NHL patients undergoing HCT and ASCT as first-line consolidation or salvage treatment, using sequential blood samples obtained before and at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after ASCT...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905140/herpes-simplex-infection-simulating-richter-transformation-a-series-of-four-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Alireza Salem, Sanam Loghavi, Joseph D Khoury, Rose Lou Marie C Agbay, Jeffrey L Jorgensen, Jeffrey L Medeiros
AIMS: Richter transformation (RT) occurs in 5-10% of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) and is associated with a poor outcome. Histologic manifestations of RT are variable and include an increase in the proportion of large cells including prolymphocytes, immunoblasts and other pleomorphic cells along with an increased proliferation rate and often necrosis. Rarely, superimposed Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection involving lymph nodes in patients with CLL/SLL may mimic RT clinically and histologically...
December 1, 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905012/microbial-proteins-as-novel-industrial-biotechnology-hosts-to-treat-epilepsy
#7
REVIEW
Zareen Amtul, Amal A Aziz
Epilepsy is characterized by the hyperexcitability of various neuronal circuits that results due to the imbalance between glutamate-mediated excitation of voltage-gated cation channels and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition of anion channels leading to aberrant, sporadic oscillations or fluctuations in neuronal electrical activity. Epilepsy with a risk of mortality and around 65 million sufferers of all ages all over the world is limited therapeutically with high rates of adverse reactions, lack of complete seizure control, and over 30% patients with refractory epilepsy...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904803/building-healthy-eating-habits-in-childhood-a-study-of-the-attitudes-knowledge-and-dietary-habits-of-schoolchildren-in-malaysia
#8
Kazi Enamul Hoque, Megat Ahmad Kamaluddin, Ahmad Zabidi Abdul Razak, Afiq Athari Abdul Wahid
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity have increased rapidly in incidence to become a global issue today. Overweight and obesity problems are significantly linked to unhealthy dietary patterns, physical inactivity and misperception of body image. This study aimed to determine whether Malaysian children build healthy eating habits from childhood. METHODS: A survey on eating habits was conducted among primary school students in standards 4 to 6 in the state of Selangor, Malaysia...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904779/generation-characterization-and-maintenance-of-trastuzumab-resistant-her2-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#9
Sandra Zazo, Paula González-Alonso, Ester Martín-Aparicio, Cristina Chamizo, Ion Cristóbal, Oriol Arpí, Ana Rovira, Joan Albanell, Pilar Eroles, Ana Lluch, Juan Madoz-Gúrpide, Federico Rojo
Trastuzumab became the therapy of choice for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer in 1998, and it has provided clinical benefit ever since. However, a significant percentage of patients show primary resistance to trastuzumab at diagnosis, and most patients with metastatic disease that initially respond to trastuzumab eventually progress (acquired resistance). Consequently, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge of the mechanisms governing resistance, so that specific therapeutic strategies can be developed to provide improved efficacy...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904657/negative-campaigning-and-the-logic-of-retaliation-in-multiparty-competition
#10
Martin Dolezal, Laurenz Ennser-Jedenastik, Wolfgang C Müller
The extant literature has demonstrated that the logic of retaliation is a core feature of negative campaigning. Attacks by one side induce counterattacks by the other. Yet most research on the interactive nature of negative campaigning is limited to two-party competition and provides little theoretical justification for why political actors should respond to attacks with counterattacks. The present paper addresses these research gaps. We argue that the negativity bias in human information processing and the zero-sum nature of elections make retaliation a rational strategy...
April 2016: Int J Press Polit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903751/microdose-induced-drug-dna-adducts-as-biomarkers-of-chemotherapy-resistance-in-humans-and-mice
#11
Maike Zimmermann, Si-Si Wang, Hongyong Zhang, Tzu-Yin Lin, Michael Malfatti, Kurt Haack, Ted Ognibene, Hongyuan Yang, Susan Airhart, Kenneth W Turteltaub, George D Cimino, Clifford G Tepper, Alexandra Drakaki, Karim Chamie, Ralph de Vere White, Chong-Xian Pan, Paul T Henderson
We report progress on predicting tumor response to platinum-based chemotherapy with a novel mass spectrometry approach. Fourteen bladder cancer patients were administered one diagnostic microdose each of [14C]carboplatin (1% of the therapeutic dose). Carboplatin-DNA adducts were quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in blood and tumor samples collected within 24 hours, and compared to subsequent chemotherapy response. Patients with the highest adduct levels were responders, but not all responders had high adduct levels...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903720/oscillatory-dynamics-underlying-perceptual-narrowing-of-native-phoneme-mapping-from-6-to-12-months-of-age
#12
Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Jarmo A Hämäläinen, Teresa Realpe-Bonilla, April A Benasich
: During the first months of life, human infants process phonemic elements from all languages similarly. However, by 12 months of age, as language-specific phonemic maps are established, infants respond preferentially to their native language. This process, known as perceptual narrowing, supports neural representation and thus efficient processing of the distinctive phonemes within the sound environment. Although oscillatory mechanisms underlying processing of native and non-native phonemic contrasts were recently delineated in 6-month-old infants, the maturational trajectory of these mechanisms remained unclear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903649/structural-mechanism-underpinning-cross-reactivity-of-a-cd8-t-cell-clone-that-recognises-a-peptide-derived-from-human-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase
#13
David K Cole, Hugo A van den Berg, Angharad Lloyd, Michael D Crowther, Konrad Beck, Julia Ekeruche-Makinde, John J Miles, Anna M Bulek, Garry Dolton, Andrea J Schauenburg, Aaron Wall, Anna Fuller, Mathew Clement, Bruno Laugel, Pierre J Rizkallah, Linda Wooldridge, Andrew K Sewell
T-cell cross-reactivity is essential for effective immune surveillance, but has also been implicated as a pathway to autoimmunity. Previous studies have demonstrated that T-cell receptors (TCRs) that focus on a minimal motif within the peptide are able to facilitate a high level of T-cell cross-reactivity. However, the structural database shows that most TCRs exhibit less focussed antigen binding involving contact with more peptide residues. To further explore the structural features that allow the clonally expressed TCR to functionally engage with multiple peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs), we examined the ILA1 CD8+ T-cell clone that responds to a peptide sequence derived from human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903634/distinct-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-subsets-mediate-anti-her2-drug-resistance-in-breast-cancer
#14
Peter B Alexander, Rui Chen, Chang Gong, Lifeng Yuan, Jeff S Jasper, Yi Ding, Geoffrey J Markowitz, Pengyuan Yang, Xin Xu, Donald P McDonnell, Erwei Song, Xiao-Fan Wang
Targeted inhibitors of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) such as trastuzumab and lapatinib are among the first examples of molecularly targeted cancer therapy and have proven largely effective for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancers. However, approximately half of those patients either do not respond to these therapies or develop secondary resistance. Although a few signaling pathways have been implicated, a comprehensive understanding of mechanisms underlying HER2 inhibitor drug resistance is still lacking...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903627/the-role-of-the-antioxidant-system-during-intense-endurance-exercise-lessons-from-migrating-birds
#15
REVIEW
Clara Cooper-Mullin, Scott R McWilliams
During migration, birds substantially increase their metabolic rate and burn fats as fuel and yet somehow avoid succumbing to overwhelming oxidative damage. The physiological means by which vertebrates such as migrating birds can counteract an increased production of reactive species (RS) are rather limited: they can upregulate their endogenous antioxidant system and/or consume dietary antioxidants (prophylactically or therapeutically). Thus, birds can alter different components of their antioxidant system to respond to the demands of long-duration flights, but much remains to be discovered about the complexities of RS production and antioxidant protection throughout migration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903500/primary-resistance-to-pd-1-blockade-mediated-by-jak%C3%A2-mutations
#16
Daniel Sanghoon Shin, Jesse M Zaretsky, Helena Escuin-Ordinas, Angel Garcia-Diaz, Siwen Hu-Lieskovan, Anusha Kalbasi, Catherine S Grasso, Willy Hugo, Salemiz Sandoval, Davis Y Torrejon, Nicolaos Palaskas, Gabriel Abril Rodriguez, Giulia Parisi, Ariel Azhdam, Bartosz Chmielowski, Grace Cherry, Elizabeth Seja, Beata Berent-Maoz, I Peter Shintaku, Dung Thi Le, Drew M Pardoll, Luis A Diaz, Paul C Tumeh, Thomas G Graeber, Roger S Lo, Begoña Comin-Anduix, Antoni Ribas
Loss of function mutations in JAK½ can lead to acquired resistance to anti-programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) therapy. We reasoned they may also be involved in primary resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy. JAK½ inactivating mutations were noted in tumor biopsies of 1 of 23 patients with melanoma and in 1 of 16 patients with mismatch repair deficient colon cancer treated with PD-1 blockade. Both cases had a high mutational load but did not respond to anti-PD-1 therapy. Two out of 48 human melanoma cell lines had JAK½ mutations, which led to lack of PD-L1 expression upon interferon gamma exposure mediated by inability to signal through the interferon gamma receptor pathway...
November 30, 2016: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903466/preoperative-3-dimensional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-uterine-myoma-and-endometrium-prior-to-myomectomy
#17
Young Jae Kim, Kwang Gi Kim, Seung Hyun Lee, Byung Chul Kang, Sa Ra Lee
Uterine myomas are the most common gynecologic benign tumor affecting women of childbearing age, and myomectomy is the main surgical option to preserve the uterus and fertility. During myomectomy for women with multiple myomas, it is advisable to identify and remove as many as possible to decrease the risk of future myomectomies. With deficient preoperative imaging, gynecologists are challenged to identify the location and size of myomas and the endometrium, which in turn can lead to uterine rupture during future pregnancies...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903463/her2-transmembrane-mutations-v659-g660-that-stabilize-homo-and-hetero-dimerization-are-rare-oncogenic-drivers-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-that-respond-to-afatinib
#18
Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou, Alexa B Schrock, Eduard V Bocharov, Samuel J Klempner, Carolina Kawamura Haddad, Gary Steinecker, Melissa Johnson, Barbara J Gitlitz, Jon Chung, Paulo V Campregher, Jeffrey S Ross, Philip J Stephens, Vincent A Miller, James H Suh, Siraj M Ali, Vamsidhar Velcheti
INTRODUCTION: HER2 transmembrane domain (TMD) mutations (HER2(V659E), HER2(G660D)) have previously been identified in lung adenocarcinomas, but their frequency and clinical significance is unknown. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 8,551 consecutive lung adenocarcinomas using hybrid-capture based comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) at the request of the individual treating physicians for the purpose of making therapy decisions. RESULTS: We identified 15 cases (0...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903362/-levels-of-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-internal-exposure-levels-in-pregnant-women-of-xiamen-and-influencing-factors
#19
X S Yu, J He, J H Chen, Z B Lai, Y H Su, M M Shi, Z X Huang, Q J Cheng, X Y Ke, B H Zhao
Objective: To investigate the level of and factors influencing internal exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in pregnant women. Methods: In all, 1 064 pregnant women were recruited in a hospital of Xiamen. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire to obtain data on sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle. Peripheral venous blood and cord blood samples were collected. Of the 1 064 pregnant women, 600 were enrolled in this study after completing the questionnaire and providing peripheral venous blood and cord blood...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903359/-a-cohort-study-of-hiv-incidence-among-injecting-drug-users-in-dehong-prefecture-yunnan-province
#20
Y C Yang, Z Y Jin, R H Tang, L Li, R H Ye, Y F Cao, S J Yang, S T Yao, S Duan, N He
Objective: To investigate the incidence rates of HIV among injection drug users (IDU) in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province. Methods: We recruited 1 413 HIV-negative IDU attending drug rehabilitation centers and identified a further 1 830 potential participants from a historical database from 2004-2009 using the same criteria. Fingerprint recognition technology was used to confirm the identity of all participants. A total of 3 243 HIV-negative IDU were recruited by the end of 2015, of which 2 546 (78.5%) had been followed up at least once since the initial data collection and 697 (21...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
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