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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928994/different-concentrations-of-edwardsiella-tarda-ghost-vaccine-induces-immune-responses-in-vivo-and-protects-sparus-macrocephalus-against-a-homologous-challenge
#1
Maocang Yan, Jinyu Liu, Yu Li, Xuepeng Wang, Heng Jiang, Hao Fang, Zhiming Guo, Yongcan Sun
Bacterial ghosts (BGs) can be generated by the controlled expression of the PhiX174 lysis gene E in gram-negative bacteria. They are intriguing vaccine candidates since ghosts retain functional antigenic cellular determinants often lost during traditional inactivation procedures. Here we prepared Edwardsiella tarda ghost (ETG) and tested different concentrations in vaccination trials. The results showed that serum IgM antibody titers were significantly higher in three different concentration immunization groups than control group (P < 0...
June 18, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928892/phospholipases-a-2-purified-from-cottonmouth-snake-venoms-display-no-antibacterial-effect-against-four-representative-bacterial-species
#2
Ying Jia, Justin Villarreal
Snake venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) has widely been reported to possess antibacterial effects, and PLA2 is the major component of cottonmouth snake venoms. We assessed the antibacterial activities of crude venoms from Western cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma), Eastern cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus), and Florida cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti) snakes against two gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae) bacteria...
June 18, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928049/synergy-between-conventional-antibiotics-and-anti-biofilm-peptides-in-a-murine-sub-cutaneous-abscess-model-caused-by-recalcitrant-eskape-pathogens
#3
Daniel Pletzer, Sarah C Mansour, Robert E W Hancock
With the antibiotic development pipeline running dry, many fear that we might soon run out of treatment options. High-density infections are particularly difficult to treat due to their adaptive multidrug-resistance and currently there are no therapies that adequately address this important issue. Here, a large-scale in vivo study was performed to enhance the activity of antibiotics to treat high-density infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It was shown that synthetic peptides can be used in conjunction with the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, meropenem, erythromycin, gentamicin, and vancomycin to improve the treatment outcome of murine cutaneous abscesses caused by clinical hard-to-treat pathogens including all ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae) pathogens and Escherichia coli...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927881/cultures-of-proximal-and-distal-segments-of-silicone-tubes-after-dacryocystorhinostomy
#4
Bruce B Becker
PURPOSE: To compare the results of cultures of the proximal and distal segments of silicone tubes after dacryocystorhinostomy. METHODS: The medical records of patients undergoing a dacryocystorhinostomy and silicone intubation were reviewed. The inclusion criteria were cultures of both distal and proximal stent segments after removal, dye testing, evaluation of the tear meniscus, and notation of the presence or absence of discharge before and after removal. The exclusion criteria included the use of systemic or topical antibiotics within 1 month before tube removal...
June 19, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926423/identification-of-kdn-gangliosides
#5
Ken Kitajima
KDN is an abbreviated name of 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid, and belongs to sialic acid members like N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). The aminoacyl group at C5 position of Neu5Ac is replaced by a hydroxyl group in KDN. Like Neu5Ac, KDN exists in various glycoconjugates including glycosphingolipids in vertebrates and gram-negative bacteria. Because of its unique properties, some methods are specifically applicable to KDN residue, although most detection methods for Neu5Ac are also applicable...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925677/collagen-vi-contains-multiple-host-defense-peptides-with-potent-in-vivo-activity
#6
Suado M Abdillahi, Tobias Maaß, Gopinath Kasetty, Adam A Strömstedt, Maria Baumgarten, Ramesh Tati, Sara L Nordin, Björn Walse, Raimund Wagener, Artur Schmidtchen, Matthias Mörgelin
Collagen VI is a ubiquitous extracellular matrix component that forms extensive microfibrillar networks in most connective tissues. In this study, we describe for the first time, to our knowledge, that the collagen VI von Willebrand factor type A-like domains exhibit a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in human skin infections in vivo. In silico sequence and structural analysis of VWA domains revealed that they contain cationic and amphipathic peptide sequence motifs, which might explain the antimicrobial nature of collagen VI...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925639/a-flow-through-assay-for-rapid-bedside-stratification-of-bloodstream-bacterial-infection-in-critically-ill-patients-a-pilot-study
#7
Pramod Jagtap, Rohini Singh, Karuna Deepika, Venkataraman Sritharan, Shalini Gupta
Bacterial infections affect more than 2 million people annually. Of these, systemic infections caused by bacteria in critically ill patients may lead to life-threatening conditions like sepsis. We have developed a point-of-care (POC) device called Septiflo™ that can detect and stratify the Gram status of bloodstream bacterial infection under 10 min from a drop of human plasma. It works on the principle of identifying pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) that are released into the bloodstream at the onset of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections, respectively...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924840/crude-leaf-extracts-of-piperaceae-species-downmodulate-inflammatory-responses-by-human-monocytes
#8
Angela Carolina Finato, Thais Fernanda Fraga-Silva, Amanda Uliana Carvalho Prati, Amauri Alves de Souza Júnior, Bruna Fonseca Mazzeu, Lidiane Gaspareto Felippe, Rute Alves Pinto, Marjorie de Assis Golim, Maria Sueli Parreira Arruda, Maysa Furlan, James Venturini
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of crude leaf extracts from Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth, P. arboreum Aub., P. umbellata L., P. fuligineum Kunth, and Peperomia obtusifolia A. Dietr. on an in vitro model of inflammatory response. The crude extracts were previously obtained by maceration of the leaves. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration was determined by the MTT assay using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Human monocytes were simultaneously challenged with each crude extract and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, to induce a strong inflammatory response...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924717/case-259
#9
Decai Tian, Xiaodong Zhu, Rong Xue, Peng Zhao, Yuanrong Yao
History In November 2012, a previously healthy 31-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a 2-month history of right-sided numbness, diplopia, and intermittent nausea and dizziness. She did not have a history of fever, weight loss, headache, photophobia, seizure, or extremity weakness. Physical examination revealed left abduction limitation and right-sided hypoesthesia. Kernig and Brudzinski signs were absent, and pathergy test results were negative. Laboratory evaluation revealed normal complete and differential blood counts, normal serum chemistry, and normal immune function...
July 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923791/omv-based-vaccine-formulations-against-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-are-both-protective-in-mice-and-immunogenic-in-calves
#10
Matias Fingermann, Lucía Avila, Maria Belén De Marco, Luciana Vázquez, Darío Nicolás Di Biase, Andrea Verónica Müller, Mirta Lescano, José Christian Dokmetjian, Sonsire Fernández Castillo, José Luis Pérez Quiñoy
Strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can cause the severe Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxins are protein toxins that bind and kill microvascular cells, damaging vital organs. No specific therapeutics or vaccines have been licensed for use in humans yet. The most common route of infection is by consumption of dairy or farm products contaminated with STEC. Domestic cattle colonized by STEC strains represent the main reservoir, and thus a source of contamination. Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMV) obtained after detergent treatment of gram-negative bacteria have been used over the past decades for producing many licensed vaccines...
June 20, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922855/hyporientalin-a-an-anti-candida-peptaibol-from-a-marine-trichoderma-orientale
#11
Ines Touati, Nicolas Ruiz, Olivier Thomas, Irina S Druzhinina, Lea Atanasova, Olfa Tabbene, Salem Elkahoui, Roudaina Benzekri, Lamjed Bouslama, Yves François Pouchus, Ferid Limam
A Trichoderma orientale strain LSBA1 was isolated from the Mediterranean marine sponge Cymbaxinella damicornis. The crude extract of T. orientale mycelium showed inhibitory activity against growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Purification of the anti-Candida component was performed using a combination of open silica gel-60 column and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The active compound called hyporientalin A has been identified as a peptaibol analogue of longibrachin-A-II using mass spectrometry...
June 19, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922417/direct-disk-testing-versus-isolation-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-urine-from-urinary-tract-infection
#12
Raz Nawzad Mohammad, Sherko Ali Omer
Background and Objectives: Urinary tract infections are common infections that can be caused by many bacterial pathogens. The susceptibility of such pathogens to antimicrobial agents is identified by different methods including disk diffusion test, direct sensitivity testing and determination minimum inhibitory concentration. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify bacteria cultured from urine samples and compare the results of direct sensitivity test (DST) against Kirby-Bauer's disk diffusion antimicrobial sensitivity (AST) with respect to reliability, time and cost...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921761/secretion-systems-and-secreted-proteins-in-gram-negative-entomopathogenic-bacteria-their-roles-in-insect-virulence-and-beyond
#13
REVIEW
Rebecca McQuade, S Patricia Stock
Many Gram-negative bacteria have evolved insect pathogenic lifestyles. In all cases, the ability to cause disease in insects involves specific bacterial proteins exported either to the surface, the extracellular environment, or the cytoplasm of the host cell. They also have several distinct mechanisms for secreting such proteins. In this review, we summarize the major protein secretion systems and discuss examples of secreted proteins that contribute to the virulence of a variety of Gram-negative entomopathogenic bacteria, including Photorhabdus , Xenorhabdus , Serratia , Yersinia , and Pseudomonas species...
June 19, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921672/high-throughput-screening-of-type-iii-secretion-determinants-reveals-a-major-chaperone-independent-pathway
#14
Nadja Heinz Ernst, Analise Z Reeves, Julia E Ramseyer, Cammie F Lesser
Numerous Gram-negative bacterial pathogens utilize type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to inject tens of effector proteins directly into the cytosol of host cells. Through interactions with cognate chaperones, type III effectors are defined and recruited to the sorting platform, a cytoplasmic component of these membrane-embedded nanomachines. However, notably, a comprehensive review of the literature reveals that the secretion of most type III effectors has not yet been linked to a chaperone, raising questions regarding the existence of unknown chaperones as well as the universality of chaperones in effector secretion...
June 19, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920962/effect-of-acylation-on-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-temporin-b-analogues
#15
Alessandra Romanelli, Concetta Avitabile, Luca Domenico D'Andrea, Elisabetta D'Aversa, Roberta Milani, Roberto Gambari
New peptides derived from the natural antimicrobial temporin B were obtained. The design, the antimicrobial activity as well as the characterization of the secondary structure of peptides in the presence of bacterial cells is here described. We identified TB_KKG6K (KKLLPIVKNLLKSLL) as the most active analogue against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as compared to natural temporin B (LLPIVGNLLKSLL) and TB_KKG6A (KKLLPIVANLLKSLL). Acylation with hydrophobic moieties led generally to reduced activity, however, acylation at position 6 of TB_KKG6K led to retained submicromolar activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis...
June 19, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917313/differences-in-substrate-specificity-of-v-cholerae-fabh-enzymes-suggest-new-approaches-for-the-development-of-novel-antibiotics-and-biofuels
#16
Jing Hou, Heping Zheng, Wen-Shyong Tzou, David R Cooper, Maksymilian Chruszcz, Mahendra D Chordia, Keehwan Kwon, Marek Grabowski, Wladek Minor
Vibrio cholerae, the causative pathogen of the life-threatening infection cholera, encodes two copies of β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III (vcFabH1 and vcFabH2). vcFabH1 and vcFabH2 are pathogenic proteins associated with fatty acid synthesis, lipid metabolism, and potential applications in biofuel production. Our biochemical assays characterize vcFabH1 as exhibiting specificity for acetyl-CoA and CoA thioesters with short acyl chains, similar to that observed for FabH homologs found in most Gram-negative bacteria...
June 19, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916344/antimicrobial-resistance-in-pasteurellaceae-of-veterinary-origin
#17
Geovana B Michael, Janine T Bossé, Stefan Schwarz
Members of the highly heterogeneous family Pasteurellaceae cause a wide variety of diseases in humans and animals. Antimicrobial agents are the most powerful tools to control such infections. However, the acquisition of resistance genes, as well as the development of resistance-mediating mutations, significantly reduces the efficacy of the antimicrobial agents. This article gives a brief description of the role of selected members of the family Pasteurellaceae in animal infections and of the most recent data on the susceptibility status of such members...
May 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915893/association-of-magnetotactic-multicellular-prokaryotes-with-pseudoalteromonas-species-in-a-natural-lagoon-environment
#18
Pedro Leão, Frederico J Gueiros-Filho, Dennis A Bazylinski, Ulysses Lins, Fernanda Abreu
Magnetotactic bacteria, for the most part, are free-living, motile, unicellular prokaryotes that inhabit almost all marine and freshwater environments. One notable exception to the unicellular mode, however, are the magnetotactic multicellular prokaryotes. These morphologically unique prokaryotes (e.g., Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis) are motile aggregates of 20-40 genetically identical, Gram-negative cells organised as a sphere (or ovoid in shape) and only motile as a unit. No specific close physical association between magnetotactic bacteria and non-magnetotactic microorganisms has ever been reported...
June 18, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915502/isolation-and-identification-of-mannheimia-haemolytica-by-culture-and-polymerase-chain-reaction-from-sheep-s-pulmonary-samples-in-shiraz-iran
#19
Mohammad Tabatabaei, And Fatemeh Abdollahi
Background and Aim: Mannheimia haemolytica is a Gram-negative, non-motile, and non-spore-forming rod-shaped coccobacillus bacterium. On blood agar plate, it shows complete hemolysis. This bacterium constitutes a part of normal flora of the upper respiratory system of ruminants. It is considered as the opportunistic pathogen and the main factor of pneumonic pasteurellosis, which has caused a severe economic loss in sheep and cattle industries. Considering the prevalence of the disease in sheep and goat population in the dry and hot regions of the country in general and in Fars province in particular in the form of pneumonia, the purpose of this study was to isolate and identify the bacterium M...
May 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915354/qsar-based-molecular-signatures-of-prenylated-iso-flavonoids-underlying-antimicrobial-potency-against-and-membrane-disruption-in-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria
#20
Carla Araya-Cloutier, Jean-Paul Vincken, Milou G M van de Schans, Jos Hageman, Gijs Schaftenaar, Heidy M W den Besten, Harry Gruppen
Prenylated flavonoids and isoflavonoids are phytochemicals with remarkable antibacterial activity. In this study, 30 prenylated (iso)flavonoids were tested against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli (the latter in combination with an efflux pump inhibitor). Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the most active compounds ranged between 6.3-15.0 µg/mL. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) analysis was performed and linear regression models were proposed with R2 between 0.77-0.80, average R2 m between 0...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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