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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915252/photoinactivation-of-bacteria-by-endogenous-photosensitizers-and-exposure-to-visible-light-of-different-wavelengths-a-review-on-existing-data
#1
M Hessling, B Spellerberg, K Hoenes
Visible light has strong disinfectant properties, a fact which is not well known in comparison to the antibacterial properties of UV light. This review compiles the published data on bacterial inactivation caused by visible light and endogenous photosensitizers. It evaluates more than 100 published studies containing information on about 40 different bacterial species irradiated within the spectral range from 380 to 780 nm. In the available data a high variability of the photoinactivation sensitivity is observed, which may be caused by undefined illumination conditions...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915102/transformation-of-hexabromocyclododecane-in-contaminated-soil-in-association-with-microbial-diversity
#2
Thao Thanh Le, Min-Hui Son, In-Huyn Nam, Hakwon Yoon, Yu-Gyeong Kang, Yoon-Seok Chang
This study evaluated the transformation of 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in soil under various conditions. Under anaerobic conditions for 21days, 34% of the total HBCD was reduced from rhizosphere soil containing humic acid, and 35% of the total HBCD was reduced from the non-rhizosphere soil; under aerobic conditions, 29% and 57-60% of the total HBCD were reduced from the same soil types after 40days. Three HBCD isomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD) were separately analyzed for their isomeric effects on transformation...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914268/anti-adhesive-antimicrobial-peptide-coating-prevents-catheter-associated-infection-in-a-mouse-urinary-infection-model
#3
Kai Yu, Joey C Y Lo, Mei Yan, Xiaoqiang Yang, Donald E Brooks, Robert E W Hancock, Dirk Lange, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent one of the most common hospital acquired infections with significant economic consequences and increased patient morbidity. CAUTIs often start with pathogen adhesion and colonization on the catheter surface followed by biofilm formation. Current strategies to prevent CAUTIs are insufficiently effective and antimicrobial coatings based on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) hold promise in curbing CAUTIs. Here we report an effective surface tethering strategy to prepare AMP coatings on polyurethane (PU), a common biomedical plastic used for catheter manufacture, by using an anti-adhesive hydrophilic polymer coating...
November 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914001/subtilosin-prevents-biofilm-formation-by-inhibiting-bacterial-quorum-sensing
#4
Ammar Algburi, Saskia Zehm, Victoria Netrebov, Anzhelica B Bren, Vladimir Chistyakov, Michael L Chikindas
Subtilosin, the cyclic lantibiotic protein produced by Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933, targets the surface receptor and electrostatically binds to the bacterial cell membrane. In this study, subtilosin was purified using ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation and purified via column chromatography. Subtilosin's antibacterial minimum and sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and sub-MIC) and anti-biofilm activity (biofilm prevention) were established. Subtilosin was evaluated as a quorum sensing (QS) inhibitor in Gram-positive bacteria using Fe(III) reduction assay...
December 2, 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913675/motility-and-adhesion-through-type-iv-pili-in-gram-positive-bacteria
#5
REVIEW
Kurt H Piepenbrink, Eric J Sundberg
Type IV pili are hair-like bacterial surface appendages that play a role in diverse processes such as cellular adhesion, colonization, twitching motility, biofilm formation, and horizontal gene transfer. These extracellular fibers are composed exclusively or primarily of many copies of one or more pilin proteins, tightly packed in a helix so that the highly hydrophobic amino-terminus of the pilin is buried in the pilus core. Type IV pili have been characterized extensively in Gram-negative bacteria, and recent advances in high-throughput genomic sequencing have revealed that they are also widespread in Gram-positive bacteria...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913093/genome-of-the-carbapenemase-producing-clinical-isolate-elizabethkingia-miricola-em_chuv-and-comparative-genomics-with-elizabethkingia-meningoseptica-and-elizabethkingia-anophelis-evidence-for-intrinsic-multidrug-resistance-trait-of-emerging-pathogens
#6
Onya Opota, Seydina M Diene, Claire Bertelli, Guy Prod'hom, Philippe Eckert, Gilbert Greub
Elizabethkingia miricola is a Gram-negative non-fermenting rod emerging as a life-threatening human pathogen. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase-producing clinical isolate E. miricola EM_CHUV was recovered in the setting of severe nosocomial pneumonia. In this study, the genome of E. miricola EM_CHUV was sequenced and a functional analysis was performed, including a comparative genomic study with Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Elizabethkingia anophelis. The resistome of EM_CHUV revealed the presence of a high number of resistance genes, including the presence of the blaGOB-13 and blaB-9 carbapenemase-encoding genes...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912917/isolation-and-characterization-of-pah-degrading-bacteria-from-the-eastern-province-saudi-arabia
#7
Tajudeen A Oyehan, Assad A Al-Thukair
Contaminated sediment samples were collected from the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia for isolation of pyrene- and phenanthrene-degrading bacteria by enrichment method. Four isolates were morphologically characterized as Gram-negative rod strains and 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed the isolates as closely related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. citronellolis, Ochrobactrum intermedium and Cupriavidus taiwanensis. Degradation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by the latter three strains was investigated in liquid cultures...
November 29, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912176/novel-designed-vmct1-analogs-with-increased-antimicrobial-activity
#8
Cibele Nicolaski Pedron, Marcelo Der Torossian Torres, Julia Aparecida da Silva Lima, Pedro Ismael Silva, Fernanda Dias Silva, Vani Xavier Oliveira
Antimicrobial peptides are biologically active molecules produced by a wide range of organisms as an essential component of the innate immune response. They have recently attracted great interest, since they have antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. VmCT1 is a cationic peptide from the venom of Vaejovis mexicanus smithi scorpions, which presents antibacterial activity and tends to helical structures. Its analogs were synthesized, characterized and the conformational studies were performed by circular dichroism...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911947/the-yersinia-pestis-effector-yopm-inhibits-pyrin-inflammasome-activation
#9
Dmitry Ratner, M Pontus A Orning, Megan K Proulx, Donghai Wang, Mikhail A Gavrilin, Mark D Wewers, Emad S Alnemri, Peter F Johnson, Bettina Lee, Joan Mecsas, Nobuhiko Kayagaki, Jon D Goguen, Egil Lien
Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are central virulence factors for many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, and secreted T3SS effectors can block key aspects of host cell signaling. To counter this, innate immune responses can also sense some T3SS components to initiate anti-bacterial mechanisms. The Yersinia pestis T3SS is particularly effective and sophisticated in manipulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, which are typically processed into their mature forms by active caspase-1 following inflammasome formation...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911359/directed-protein-packaging-within-outer-membrane-vesicles-from-escherichia-coli-design-production-and-purification
#10
Nathan J Alves, Kendrick B Turner, Scott A Walper
An increasing interest in applying synthetic biology techniques to program outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are leading to some very interesting and unique applications for OMV where traditional nanoparticles are proving too difficult to synthesize. To date, all Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to produce OMV demonstrating packaging of a variety of cargo that includes small molecules, peptides, proteins and genetic material. Based on their diverse cargo, OMV are implicated in many biological processes ranging from cell-cell communication to gene transfer and delivery of virulence factors depending upon which bacteria are producing the OMV...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911352/medical-equipment-antiseptic-processes-using-the-atmospheric-plasma-sprayed-copper-coatings
#11
M Goudarzi, Sh Saviz, M Ghoranneviss, A Salar Elahi
Antibacterial surfaces such as copper coatings are able to reduce the growth of bacteria. In this study, copper coatings was deposited on the 316 stainless steel substrates by a handmade device operating as an atmospheric plasma spraying system. The chemical composition microstructure and morphology surface of the coatings are examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and back scattering electron microscope (BSE). Micro hardness as one of the key properties of the coating is characterized based on cross-section...
November 30, 2016: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910828/biofilm-prevention-of-gram-negative-bacterial-pathogens-involved-in-periprosthetic-infection-by-antibiotic-loaded-calcium-sulfate-beads-in-vitro
#12
Robert P Howlin, Christopher Winnard, Connor J Frapwell, Jeremy S Webb, John J Cooper, Sean S Aiken, Paul Stoodley
Biofilm formation represents a key stage in the pathogenesis of prosthetic infections (PIs). More tolerant to antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts, biofilm bacteria are difficult to eradicate using conventional therapeutic regimes. A common approach in PI management is the adjunctive use of localised antibiotics in addition to systemic administration in an attempt to protect the implant from colonisation by infiltrating bacteria. This study evaluates the antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of antibiotic-loaded dissolvable calcium sulphate, previously shown to be effective against key gram-positive pathogens, against gram-negative species important in the establishment of chronic infection in PIs...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910791/effects-of-ethyl-acetate-extracts-from-the-polycephalomyces-nipponicus-isolate-cod-mk1201-ascomycetes-against-human-pathogenic-bacteria-and-a-breast-cancer-cell-line
#13
Kusavadee Sangdee, Prapairat Seephonkai, Benjaporn Buranrat, Nilawan Surapong, Aphidech Sangdee
This study aimed to identify a suitable organic solvent for extracting bioactive compounds from Polycephalomyces nipponicus and to evaluate the antibacterial and anticancer activities of the extracts obtained. Only extracts obtained with ethyl acetate exhibited antibacterial activity, so ethyl acetate was chosen for large-scale extraction. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria of the 3 ethyl acetate-derived extracts-ethyl acetate extract from P...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908581/sonodynamic-inactivation-of-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria-using-a-rose-bengal-antimicrobial-peptide-conjugate
#14
David Costley, Heather Nesbitt, Nigel Ternan, James Dooley, Ying-Ying Huang, Michael R Hamblin, Anthony P McHale, John F Callan
Combating antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious public health challenges facing society today. The development of new antibiotics or alternative techniques that can help combat antimicrobial resistance is being prioritised by many governments and stakeholders across the globe. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is one such technique that has received considerable attention but is limited by the inability of light to penetrate through human tissue, reducing its effectiveness when used to treat deep-seated infections...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908405/biosynthesis-of-selenium-nanoparticles-using-enterococcus-faecalis-and-evaluation-of-their-antibacterial-activities
#15
Sara Shoeibi, Mohammad Mashreghi
Microorganisms are capable of synthesizing metal nanoparticles, and specifically Enterococcus faecalis bacteria were tested for its ability to synthesize selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) from sodium selenite. The biosynthesized Se-NPs were spherical in shape with the size range of 29-195nm. Also, the TEM microscopy showed the accumulation of nano-structures as extracellular deposits. The ability of the bacteria to tolerate high levels of toxic selenite was studied by changing with different concentrations of sodium selenite (0...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907875/s-substituted-3-5-dinitrophenyl-1-3-4-oxadiazole-2-thiols-and-tetrazole-5-thiols-as-highly-efficient-antitubercular-agents
#16
Galina Karabanovich, Jan Němeček, Lenka Valášková, Alejandro Carazo, Klára Konečná, Jiřina Stolaříková, Alexandr Hrabálek, Oto Pavliš, Petr Pávek, Kateřina Vávrová, Jaroslav Roh, Věra Klimešová
Two new classes of antitubercular agents, namely 5-alkylsulfanyl-1-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1H-tetrazoles and 2-alkylsulfanyl-5-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles, and their structure-activity relationships are described. These compounds possessed excellent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including the clinically isolated multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains, with no cross resistance with first or second-line anti-TB drugs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the most promising compounds reached 0...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905820/evidence-based-validation-of-quorum-quenching-from-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-and-geobacillus-sp-in-bioremediation-of-oil-sludge
#17
Camilo Gómez-Garzón, Jenny Dussán
Many studies on quorum quenching focus on the discovery and characterization of novel acyl-homoserine lactonases (AHL-lactonases) because these enzymes could be used in the control of diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria. The effects of quorum quenching are also remarkable in the performance of bacterial consortia in applications such as bioremediation. In the current work, we demonstrated the presence of a potential novel AHL-lactonase-encoding locus (Bsph_3377) from Lysinibacillus sphaericus and Geobacillus sp...
September 1, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905092/broad-spectrum-of-antimicrobial-properties-of-commercial-wines-from-different-vitis-vinifera-l-varieties
#18
Aleksandra Radovanović, Biljana Arsić, Vladimir Radovanović, Branimir Jovančičević, Vesna Nikolić
Fifteen commercial wines produced from international and autochthonic varieties of Vitis vinifera L. cultivation of different Balkan winegrowing subregions were studied for their antimicrobial activity against six Gram-positive (Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria inocua, Sarcina lutea and Micrococcus flavus) and six Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella sonnei, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria. The concentrations and types of phenolic compounds responsible for antibacterial activity in wines were investigated by HPLC and spectroscopic methods...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904585/serum-procalcitonin-levels-distinguish-gram-negative-bacterial-sepsis-from-gram-positive-bacterial-and-fungal-sepsis
#19
Shuhua Li, Hengmo Rong, Qinliang Guo, Yifei Chen, Guqing Zhang, Jiong Yang
BACKGROUND: Serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels differ in patients with bacterial or fungal infections and are significantly elevated in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of different inflammatory markers to discriminate sepsis caused by different pathogens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 328 episodes of bacteremia from 292 patients with sepsis and 31 patients with suspected sepsis in this study. Medical records of patients who had bacteremia caused by Gram-negative bacteria (Gram-negative), Gram-positive bacteria (Gram-positive) or fungi were reviewed, and information about PCT and other inflammatory markers was recorded...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904045/puerarin-prevents-lps-induced-osteoclast-formation-and-bone-loss-via-inhibition-of-akt-activation
#20
Yun Zhang, Ming Yan, Qing-Feng Yu, Pei-Fan Yang, Hai-Dong Zhang, Yong-Hong Sun, Zhi-Fen Zhang, Yun-Feng Gao
Osteolysis induced by chronic Gram-negative bacterial infection underlies many bone diseases such as osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and periodontitis. Drugs that inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteolysis are critically needed for the prevention of bone destruction in infective bone diseases. In this study, we assessed the effect of puerarin, a natural isoflavone isolated from Pueraria lobata OHWI root, on LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. Our in vitro study showed that puerarin significantly inhibited LPS-induced osteoclast differentiation from osteoclast precursor RAW264...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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