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gram negative bacteria

Stephen F Murphy, Jonathan F Anker, Daniel J Mazur, Christel Hall, Anthony J Schaeffer, Praveen Thumbikat
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a complex disorder that affects a large proportion of all men. A limited understanding of its etiology and pathogenesis is reflected by the absence of effective therapies. Although CPPS is deemed clinically non-infectious with no well-defined etiological role for microbes, bacteria is readily isolated from both healthy and patient prostate secretion and urine samples. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that a specific gram-negative bacterial isolate can induce CPPS-like symptoms in mice...
September 21, 2018: Prostate
J Hu, L J Worrall, C Hong, M Vuckovic, C E Atkinson, N Caveney, Z Yu, N C J Strynadka
The bacterial type III secretion system, or injectisome, is a syringe shaped nanomachine essential for the virulence of many disease causing Gram-negative bacteria. At the core of the injectisome structure is the needle complex, a continuous channel formed by the highly oligomerized inner and outer membrane hollow rings and a polymerized helical needle filament which spans through and projects into the infected host cell. Here we present the near-atomic resolution structure of a needle complex from the prototypical Salmonella Typhimurium SPI-1 type III secretion system, with local masking protocols allowing for model building and refinement of the major membrane spanning components of the needle complex base in addition to an isolated needle filament...
September 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Gabriele do Carmo, Tanize S Fernandes, Marcelo Pedroso, Adriano Ferraz, Alexandre T Neto, Ubiratan F Silva, Marco A Mostardeiro, Davi F Back, Ionara I Dalcol, Ademir F Morel
The investigation of the crude extract of leaves and bark of Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lemaire allowed isolated of a not yet described coumarin, together with three known coumarins (bergapten, xanthotoxin and dimethyl allyl xanthyletin), and a not yet described imidazole alkaloid. All structures were established by means of spectral analysis, including extensive 2D NMR studies. In addition, the alkaloid had its absolute stereochemistry determined by X-ray diffraction. Meanwhile, extracts and pure compounds were tested against various strains of bacteria and fungi, showing promising antimicrobial activities...
September 18, 2018: Fitoterapia
María Díez-Aguilar, Miquel Ekkelenkamp, María-Isabel Morosini, Irene Merino, Juan de Dios Caballero, Mark Jones, Mireille van Westreenen, Michael M Tunney, Rafael Cantón, Ad C Fluit
Non-fermenting Gram negative bacteria are increasingly being cultured in respiratory samples from people with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study aimed to determine the susceptibility of clinical CF respiratory isolates from distinct geographical regions to a range of antimicrobials. A total of 286 isolates (106 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 100 Burkholderia spp., 59 Achromobacter spp., 12 Pandoraea spp. and 9 Ralstonia spp.) from The Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Spain, USA and Australia were tested. The MIC50 , MIC90 and susceptibility categorization were determined...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Amr Fouda, Saad El-Din Hassan, Salem S Salem, Th I Shaheen
Nowadays, medical textiles have become the most essential and developing part in human healthcare sector. This work was undertaken with a view to harness the bio-active macromolecules secreted by fungi e.g. proteins and enzymes in bio-synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for multifunctional textiles such as antibacterial activity and UV protection with considering the cytotoxicity limitation. Herein, the isolated fungus, Aspergillus terreus, was allowed to produce proteins which has affinity to cape ZnO-NPs. Various factors affecting the behavior of the secreted proteins on the formed nanoparticles were investigated...
September 18, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Weizhong Chen, Ya Zhang, Yifei Zhang, Yishuang Pi, Tongnian Gu, Liqiang Song, Yu Wang, Quanjiang Ji
Pseudomonas species are a large class of gram-negative bacteria that exhibit significant biomedical, ecological, and industrial importance. Despite the extensive research and wide applications, genetic manipulation in Pseudomonas species, in particular in the major human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, remains a laborious endeavor. Here we report the development of a genome editing method pCasPA/pACRISPR by harnessing the CRISPR/Cas9 and the phage λ-Red recombination systems. The method allows for efficient and scarless genetic manipulation in P...
August 31, 2018: iScience
Xueqing Xing, Wanshun Ma, Xiaoyi Zhao, Jiayi Wang, Lei Yao, Xingyu Jiang, Zhonghua Wu
This report clarifies the interaction of surface-charge modified gold nanoparticles with phospholipid membranes, which is helpful to understand the antibacterial mechanism of positive-charge modified gold nanoparticles to gram-negative bacteria. Although the simulated bacteria cell membranes as a whole are negatively charged, the local electrostatic repulsive interaction between the positive-charge coated AuNPs and the small-size flexible cationic head group of DOPE molecules induce the phase transformation of the simulated bacteria cell membranes from a lamellar to an inverted hexagonal phase...
September 21, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Toshifumi Tomoyasu, Keigo Tsuruno, Ryosuke Tanatsugu, Aya Miyazaki, Hiroyuki Kondo, Atsushi Tabata, Robert A Whiley, Kenji Sonomoto, Hideaki Nagamune
Streptococcus intermedius DnaK complements the temperature-sensitive phenotype of an Escherichia coli dnaK null mutant, only if co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE are co-expressed. Therefore, we examined whether S. intermedius DnaK and E. coli DnaK could recognize heterologous co-chaperones in vitro. The addition of heterologous GrpE to DnaK and DnaJ partially stimulated ATPase activity, and almost completely stimulated the luciferase refolding activity. Addition of heterologous DnaJ to GrpE and DnaK also stimulated ATPase activity but significant luciferase refolding activity was not observed...
September 21, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Daniel Charlier, Phu Nguyen Le Minh, Martine Roovers
In all organisms, carbamoylphosphate (CP) is a precursor common to the synthesis of arginine and pyrimidines. In Escherichia coli and most other Gram-negative bacteria, CP is produced by a single enzyme, carbamoylphosphate synthase (CPSase), encoded by the carAB operon. This particular situation poses a question of basic physiological interest: what are the metabolic controls coordinating the synthesis and distribution of this high-energy substance in view of the needs of both pathways? The study of the mechanisms has revealed unexpected moonlighting gene regulatory activities of enzymes and functional links between mechanisms as diverse as gene regulation and site-specific DNA recombination...
September 20, 2018: Amino Acids
Rémi Terrasse, Mathias Winterhalter
Selective permeability is a key feature of biological membranes. It is controlled by the physico-chemical properties of the lipid bilayer and by channel-forming membrane proteins. Here we focus on the permeation of small molecules across channel-forming proteins in Gram-negative bacteria called porins and present a new approach based on artificial amino acids. We introduced Hco, a fluorescent amino acid with characteristic excitation and emission wavelengths, into OmpF and measured FRET from Hco to dissolved Bocillin FL using solubilized OmpF porins...
September 24, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Si Jack Chong, Yee Onn Kok, Rosanna Xiang Ying Tay, Desai Suneel Ramesh, Kok Chai Tan, Bien Keem Tan
Background: Inhalational injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in burns patients. This study aims to analyse the clinical outcomes, complications and bacteriology of inhalational burn patients. Methods: A prospective study was done on consecutive admissions to Burn Department, Singapore General Hospital over 15 months from January 2015 to March 2016. Presence of inhalational injury, demographics, complications and outcomes was recorded. Diagnosis of inhalational injury was based on history, symptoms and nasoendoscopy...
2018: Burns and Trauma
Fatehi Elzein, Ahmed Elzein, Nazik Mohammed, Ramiz Alswailem
A 26-year-old woman was diagnosed with and treated for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 2002. She was admitted 11 years later with nephrotic-range proteinuria and lupus nephritis and received two doses of rituximab after failing on steroids and mycophenolate mofetil. Four months later, she presented with fever and joint pain/swelling. Gram stains, joint aspirates, and blood culture all yielded negative results for bacteria. She was discharged after treatment for a possible flare of lupus, but two weeks later, she presented again with a cough and shortness of breath in addition to the flare symptoms...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Konrad M Wanka, Thilo Damerau, Benjamin Costas, Angela Krueger, Carsten Schulz, Sven Wuertz
BACKGROUND: Innovations in fish nutrition act as drivers for the sustainable development of the rapidly expanding aquaculture sector. Probiotic dietary supplements are able to improve health and nutrition of livestock, but respective bacteria have mainly been isolated from terrestrial, warm-blooded hosts, limiting an efficient application in fish. Native probiotics adapted to the gastrointestinal tract of the respective fish species will establish within the original host more efficiently...
September 20, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Zihan Chen, Xiaoyan Shi
The off-label uses of tigecycline (TGC) to treat ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) have aroused worldwide concerns. The efficacy about TGC has been recently reported. However, the adverse events (AEs) remain controversial. Our study aims to analyze the safety of the high-dose (HD) regimens in the treatment of VAP due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens.The clinical data of 134 patients who were diagnosed with VAP from January 2013 to December 2015 in the NeuroScience Care Unit (NCU) were analyzed retrospectively...
September 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Carlos García-Delgado, Víctor Barba-Vicente, Jesús M Marín-Benito, J Mariano Igual, María J Sánchez-Martín, M Sonia Rodríguez-Cruz
Soil microbiology could be affected by the presence of pesticide residues during intensive farming, potentially threatening the soil environment. The aim here was to assess the dissipation of the herbicides triasulfuron and prosulfocarb, applied as a combined commercial formulation, and the changes in soil microbial communities (through the profile of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) extracted from the soil) during the dissipation time of the herbicides under field conditions. The dissipation of herbicides and the soil microbial structure were assessed under different agricultural practices, such as the repeated application of herbicides (twice), in unamended and amended soils with two organic amendments derived from green compost (GC1 and GC2) and with non-irrigation and irrigation regimes...
January 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Andrew Walkden, Catherine Fullwood, Shi Zhuan Tan, Leon Au, Malcolm Armstrong, Arun K Brahma, Jaya D Chidambaram, Fiona Carley
PURPOSE: Microbial keratitis (MK) is a major cause of corneal blindness worldwide. Variations in season and temperature can affect MK incidence due to specific causative organisms; however, few studies have examined these factors in the UK. METHODS: Retrospective review of all corneal scrapes from patients with MK presenting to Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, UK, between January 2004 and December 2015. Manchester's monthly temperature data were obtained from Met Office UK...
September 18, 2018: Cornea
Maryline Chomton, David Brossier, Michaël Sauthier, Emilie Vallières, Josée Dubois, Guillaume Emeriaud, Philippe Jouvet
OBJECTIVES: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the second most common nosocomial infection in pediatric intensive care. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently issued diagnosis criteria for pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia and for ventilator-associated events in adults. The objectives of this pediatric study were to determine the prevalence of ventilator-associated pneumonia using these new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria, to describe the risk factors and management of ventilator-associated pneumonia, and to assess a simpler method to detect ventilator-associated pneumonia with ventilator-associated event in critically ill children...
September 17, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Suado M Abdillahi, Ramesh Tati, Sara L Nordin, Maria Baumgarten, Oskar Hallgren, Leif Bjermer, Jonas Erjefält, Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson, Birendra Singh, Kristian Riesbeck, Matthias Mörgelin
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a Gram-negative human commensal commonly residing in the nasopharynx of preschool children. It occasionally causes upper respiratory tract infection such as acute otitis media, but can also spread to the lower respiratory tract causing bronchitis and pneumonia. There is increasing recognition that NTHi has an important role in chronic lower respiratory tract inflammation, particularly in persistent infection in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jia-Shun Wu, Min Zheng, Mei Zhang, Xin Pang, Li Li, Sha-Sha Wang, Xiao Yang, Jing-Biao Wu, Ya-Jie Tang, Ya-Ling Tang, Xin-Hua Liang
Microbiota has been widely considered to play a critical role in human carcinogenesis. Human papilloma virus, hepatitis B and C virus, and Helicobacter pylori are implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer of uterine cervix, liver, and stomach, respectively. However, whether Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) , a common Gram negative oral bacteria, is associated with oral carcinogenesis still remains unclear and its underlying mechanism needs to be addressed. Here, we established a combined experimental system of 4NQO-induced oral carcinoma model and chronic periodontitis model and investigated the effects of P...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Susan Harris, Marta J Piotrowska, Robert J Goldstone, Ruby Qi, Geoffrey Foster, Ulrich Dobrindt, Jean-Yves Madec, Charlotte Valat, Francesco V Rao, David G E Smith
Bacterial surface polysaccharides play significant roles in fitness and virulence. In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli , major surface polysaccharides are lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and capsule, representing O- and K-antigens, respectively. There are multiple combinations of O:K types, many of which are well-characterized and can be related to ecotype or pathotype. In this investigation, we have identified a novel O:K permutation resulting through a process of major genome reorganization in a clade of E...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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