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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224205/healthcare-acquired-infections-prevention-strategies
#1
Shelanah A Fernando, Timothy J Gray, Thomas Gottlieb
Healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) impact on patient care and have cost implications for the Australian healthcare system. The management of HAI is exacerbated by rising rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Health-care workers and a contaminated hospital environment are increasingly implicated in the transmission and persistence of multi-resistant organisms (MRO), as well as other pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. This has resulted in a timely focus on a range of HAI prevention actions. Core components include antimicrobial stewardship, to reduce overuse and ensure evidence-based antimicrobial use; infection prevention strategies, to control MRO - particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp...
December 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222343/bacterial-cyclic-%C3%AE-1-2-glucans-sequester-iron-to-protect-against-iron-induced-toxicity
#2
Sreegowrinadh Javvadi, Sheo Shankar Pandey, Amita Mishra, Binod Bihari Pradhan, Subhadeep Chatterjee
Cellular iron homeostasis is critical for survival and growth. Bacteria employ a variety of strategies to sequester iron from the environment and to store intracellular iron surplus that can be utilized in iron-restricted conditions while also limiting the potential for the production of iron-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we report that membrane-derived oligosaccharide (mdo) glucan, an intrinsic component of Gram-negative bacteria, sequesters the ferrous form of iron. Iron-binding, uptake, and localization experiments indicated that both secreted and periplasmic β-(1,2)-glucans bind iron specifically and promote growth under iron-restricted conditions...
December 8, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222103/a-novel-non-antibiotic-lgt-based-selection-system-for-stable-maintenance-of-expression-vectors-in-escherichia-coli-and-vibrio-cholerae
#3
Manuela Terrinoni, Stefan L Nordqvist, Susanne Källgård, Jan Holmgren, Michael Lebens
Antibiotic selection for maintenance of expression plasmids is discouraged in production of recombinant proteins for pharmaceutical or other human uses due to the risks of antibiotic residue contamination of the final products and release of DNA encoding antibiotic resistance into the environment. We describe the construction of expression plasmids that are instead maintained by complementation of the lgt gene encoding a (pro)lipoprotein glyceryl transferase essential for biosynthesis of bacterial lipoprotein...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222019/a-novel-use-of-cellulose-based-filter-paper-containing-silver-nanoparticles-for-its-potential-application-as-wound-dressing-agent
#4
Adnan Haider, Sajjad Haider, Inn-Kyu Kang, Anuj Kumar, Madhusudana Rao Kummara, Tahseen Kamal, Sung Soo Han
The frequent use of antibiotics against microbial infections may lead the emergence of antibiotic resistant microbial strains. To overcome these microbial strains, we need to fabricate alternative materials which can handle them. It is for this reason, we have fabricated cellulose (CE) based filter paper (FP) composite scaffolds comprising of adsorbed chitosan (CS) and sliver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). The AgNPs are incorporated in the CS layer of the composite scaffold. Prior to evaluate the efficacy of the scaffolds against gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains, the scaffolds were characterized for the presence of the Ag NPs with field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffractometer (XRD)...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221995/antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-colistin-evaluation-of-seven-commercial-mic-products-against-standard-broth-microdilution-for-escherichia-coli-klebsiella-pneumoniae-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-spp
#5
Erika Matuschek, Jenny Åhman, Catherine Webster, Gunnar Kahlmeter
OBJECTIVE: Both EUCAST and CLSI recommend broth microdilution (BMD) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of colistin, but BMD is rarely used in routine microbiology laboratories. The objective of this study was to evaluate five commercially available BMD products and two brands of gradient tests for colistin MIC determination using BMD according to ISO standard 20776-1 as reference. METHODS: Colistin MIC determination was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions on five commercially available BMD products (Sensititre, MICRONAUT-S, MICRONAUT MIC-Strip, SensiTest and UMIC) and two gradient tests (Etest and MIC Test Strip)...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220872/new-hydrazide-hydrazones-of-isonicotinic-acid-synthesis-lipophilicity-and-in-vitro-antimicrobial-screening
#6
Łukasz Popiołek, Anna Biernasiuk, Anna Berecka, Anna Gumieniczek, Anna Malm, Monika Wujec
This paper describes the synthesis, lipophilicity and in vitro antimicrobial assays of 15 new hydrazide-hydrazones of isonicotinic acid. New derivatives were obtained on the basis of the condensation reaction of isonicotinic acid hydrazide with different aromatic aldehydes. The chemical structure of synthesized compounds was confirmed by spectral methods. Experimental lipophilicity of new isonicotinic acid derivatives was determined using reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography. All synthesized compounds were subjected to in vitro antimicrobial assays against reference strains of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi belonging to Candida spp...
December 8, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220644/structure-and-genetics-of-the-o-specific-polysaccharide-of-escherichia-coli-o27
#7
Andrei V Perepelov, Tingting Chen, Sofya N Senchenkova, Andrei V Filatov, Jingjie Song, Alexander S Shashkov, Bin Liu, Yuriy A Knirel
The O-specific polysaccharide (O-antigen) is a part of the lipopolysaccharide on the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria. The O-polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli O27 and studied by sugar analysis and Smith degradation along with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the branched hexasaccharide repeating unit was established, which is unique among known structures of bacterial polysaccharides:where GlcA is non-stoichiometrically O-acetylated at position 3 (∼22%) or 4 (∼37%)...
December 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220507/assessing-the-heterogeneity-of-in-silico-plasmid-predictions-based-on-whole-genome-sequenced-clinical-isolates
#8
Cedric C Laczny, Valentina Galata, Achim Plum, Andreas E Posch, Andreas Keller
High-throughput next-generation shotgun sequencing of pathogenic bacteria is growing in clinical relevance, especially for chromosomal DNA-based taxonomic identification and for antibiotic resistance prediction. Genetic exchange is facilitated for extrachromosomal DNA, e.g. plasmid-borne antibiotic resistance genes. Consequently, accurate identification of plasmids from whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data remains one of the major challenges for sequencing-based precision medicine in infectious diseases. Here, we assess the heterogeneity of four state-of-the-art tools (cBar, PlasmidFinder, plasmidSPAdes and Recycler) for the in silico prediction of plasmid-derived sequences from WGS data...
December 5, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219809/the-cell-wall-of-the-filamentous-anoxygenic-phototrophic-bacterium-oscillochloris-trichoides
#9
Olga I Keppen, Ruslan N Ivanovsky, Galina M Streshinskaya, Natalia V Lebedeva, Alexander S Shashkov, Andrey S Dmitrenok, Denis S Grouzdev
The filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium Oscillochloris trichoides DG-6 has been studied, and it has been shown that there are no lipopolysaccharides on the cell surface. Fatty acids hydroxylated at the C3 position, amino sugars and phosphate-containing compounds characteristic of lipid A have also not been found. The genes encoding for proteins responsible for the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides and the genes for the transport system, usually localized in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, have not been detected in the genome...
December 8, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218583/promising-antibacterial-effects-of-silver-nanoparticle-loaded-tea-tree-oil-nanoemulsion-a-synergistic-combination-against-resistance-threat
#10
Roqya Najafi-Taher, Behnaz Ghaemi, Sharmin Kharazi, Samira Rasoulikoohi, Amir Amani
Highly resistant pathogens may be developed in patients with immune disorders after prolonged exposure to antibiotics, a growing threat worldwide. In order to overcome these problems, this study introduces a new class of engineered nanosystems comprising of tea tree oil nanoemulsion (TTO NE) loaded with Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Silver shows a strong toxicity towards a wide range of microorganisms. Also, TTO NE could be employed as a promising and safe antimicrobial agent for local therapies of bacterial infections...
December 7, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217618/lps-upregulates-palmitoylated-enzymes-of-the-phosphatidylinositol-cycle-an-insight-from-proteomic-studies
#11
Justyna Sobocińska, Paula Roszczenko-Jasińska, Monika Zaręba-Kozioł, Aneta Hromada-Judycka, Orest V Matveichuk, Gabriela Traczyk, Katarzyna Łukasiuk, Katarzyna Kwiatkowska
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria which induces strong pro-inflammatory reactions of mammals. These processes are triggered upon sequential binding of LPS to CD14, a GPI-linked plasma membrane raft protein, and to the TLR4/MD2 receptor complex. We have found earlier that upon LPS binding CD14 triggers generation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], a lipid controlling subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Here we show that stimulation of RAW264 macrophage-like cells with LPS induces global changes of the level of fatty-acylated, most likely palmitoylated, proteins...
December 7, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216940/-study-on-risk-factor-of-central-venous-catheter-infection-in-icu-1-160-patients-report
#12
Ming Zhang, Yongqing Xu, Zhiming Jiang, Junying Qian, Zhonghui Zhang, Nannan Sun, Jian Xie, Tao Li
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the etiology and risk factors of central venous catheter (CVCs) infections, and to explore the prophylaxis and treatment for catheter-related infections. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. The patients with CVCs admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Qianfoshan Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University from January 2000 to December 2016 were enrolled. The gender, age, catheter data and microorganism culture results of all patients were collected...
December 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216620/physicochemical-stability-of-an-oral-suspension-of-trimethoprim-20-mg-ml-in-combination-with-sulfadiazine-200-mg-ml-in-pcca-base-suspendit
#13
Richard A Graves, Kelly V Phan, Levon A Bostanian, Tarun K Mandal, Yashoda V Pramar
Trimethoprim is a diaminopyrimidine antibacterial agent that, like sulfonamides, inhibits bacterial folic acid synthesis, but at a different stage in the metabolic pathway. It has a similar spectrum of activity to the sulfonamides and is given by mouth or by injection, either alone or in conjunction with a sulfonamide, such as sulfadiazine. Sulfadiazine is a bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. The combination of the two drugs produces a synergistic effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, by inhibiting enzymes in the folic acid pathways, which in turn inhibits bacterial thymidine synthesis...
September 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216242/the-oxyr-regulated-phnw-gene-encoding-2-aminoethylphosphonate-pyruvate-aminotransferase-helps-protect-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-from-tert-butyl-hydroperoxide
#14
Warunya Panmanee, Nisanart Charoenlap, Sopapan Atichartpongkul, Aekkapol Mahavihakanont, Matthew D Whiteside, Geoff Winsor, Fiona S L Brinkman, Skorn Mongkolsuk, Daniel J Hassett
The LysR member of bacterial transactivators, OxyR, governs transcription of genes involved in the response to H2O2 and organic (alkyl) hydroperoxides (AHP) in the Gram-negative pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We have previously shown that organisms lacking OxyR are rapidly killed by <2 or 500 mM H2O2 in planktonic and biofilm bacteria, respectively. In this study, we first employed a bioinformatic approach to elucidate the potential regulatory breadth of OxyR by scanning the entire P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome for canonical OxyR promoter recognition sequences (ATAG-N7-CTAT-N7-ATAG-N7-CTAT)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215863/near-infrared-laser-excited-nanoparticles-to-eradicate-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-and-promote-wound-healing
#15
Yue Qiao, Fei Ma, Chao Liu, Bo Zhou, Qiaolin Wei, Wanlin Li, Danni Zhong, Yangyang Li, Min Zhou
With the ever-growing threat of bacterial infections, especially for multidrug-resistant microbial infections, the development of highly effective treatment modalities to inhibit the infections is challenging. Although silver nanoparticles have been intensively applied as an antimicrobial agent for decades, the therapeutic efficacy towards multidrug-resistant bacteria is still unsatisfactory. Here, we show that near-infrared (NIR) laser-excited silver triangular nanoparticles (Tri-Ag) can efficiently kill Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E...
December 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215132/may-car-washing-represent-a-risk-for-legionella-infection
#16
T Baldovin, A Pierobon, C Bertoncello, E Destefani, M Gennari, A Stano, V Baldo
BACKGROUND: Legionella is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium naturally found in aquatic environments. It can pose a health problem when it grows and spreads in man-made water systems. Legionella pneumophila is the most common cause of Legionnaires' disease nowadays, a community-acquired pneumonia with pulmonary symptoms and chest radiography no different from any other form of infectious pneumonia. Legionella monitoring is important for public health reasons, including the identification of unusual environmental sources of Legionella...
January 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213354/chemical-composition-and-pharmacological-effects-of-geopropolis-produced-by-melipona-quadrifasciata-anthidioides
#17
Cintia Miranda Dos Santos, Jaqueline Ferreira Campos, Helder Freitas Dos Santos, José Benedito Perrella Balestieri, Denise Brentan Silva, Kely de Picoli Souza, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Leticia M Estevinho, Edson Lucas Dos Santos
Stingless bees produce geopropolis, which is popularly described for its medicinal properties, but for which few scientific studies have demonstrated pharmacological effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of the geopropolis of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides and to evaluate its antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The composition of the hydroethanolic extract of geopropolis (HEG) included di- and trigalloyl and phenylpropanyl heteroside derivatives, flavanones, diterpenes, and triterpenes...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213101/modulation-of-the-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-drug-efflux-conduit-mtre
#18
Giulia Tamburrino, Salomé Llabrés, Owen N Vickery, Samantha J Pitt, Ulrich Zachariae
Widespread antibiotic resistance, especially of Gram-negative bacteria, has become a severe concern for human health. Tripartite efflux pumps are one of the major contributors to resistance in Gram-negative pathogens, by efficiently expelling a broad spectrum of antibiotics from the organism. In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, one of the first bacteria for which pan-resistance has been reported, the most expressed efflux complex is MtrCDE. Here we present the electrophysiological characterisation of the outer membrane component MtrE and the membrane fusion protein MtrC, obtained by a combination of planar lipid bilayer recordings and in silico techniques...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212086/comparative-analyses-of-transport-proteins-encoded-within-the-genomes-of-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-hd100-and-bdellovibrio-exovorus-jss
#19
Fereshteh Heidari Tajabadi, Arturo Medrano-Soto, Masoud Ahmadzadeh, Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani, Milton H Saier
Bdellovibrio, δ-proteobacteria, including B. bacteriovorus (Bba) and B. exovorus (Bex), are obligate predators of other Gram-negative bacteria. While Bba grows in the periplasm of the prey cell, Bex grows externally. We have analyzed and compared the transport proteins of these 2 organisms based on the current contents of the Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; www.tcdb.org). Bba has 103 transporters more than Bex, 50% more secondary carriers, and 3 times as many MFS carriers. Bba has far more metabolite transporters than Bex as expected from its larger genome, but there are 2 times more carbohydrate uptake and drug efflux systems, and 3 times more lipid transporters...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212075/echinochrome-a-release-by-red-spherule-cells-is-an-iron-withholding-strategy-of-sea-urchin-innate-immunity
#20
Christopher J Coates, Claire McCulloch, Joshua Betts, Tim Whalley
Cellular immune defences in sea urchins are shared amongst the coelomocytes - a heterogeneous population of cells residing in the coelomic fluid (blood equivalent) and tissues. The most iconic coelomocyte morphotype is the red spherule cell (or amebocyte), so named due to the abundance of cytoplasmic vesicles containing the naphthoquinone pigment echinochrome A. Despite their identification over a century ago, and evidence of antiseptic properties, little progress has been made in characterising the immunocompetence of these cells...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
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