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gram negative bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235018/characterization-of-pathogenesis-of-and-immune-response-to-burkholderia-pseudomallei-k96243-using-both-inhalational-and-intraperitoneal-infection-models-in-balb-c-and-c57bl-6-mice
#1
Jeremy J Bearss, Melissa Hunter, Jennifer L Dankmeyer, Kristen A Fritts, Christopher P Klimko, Chris H Weaver, Jennifer L Shoe, Avery V Quirk, Ronald G Toothman, Wendy M Webster, David P Fetterer, Joel A Bozue, Patricia L Worsham, Susan L Welkos, Kei Amemiya, Christopher K Cote
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a Gram negative bacterium designated as a Tier 1 threat. This bacterium is known to be endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and can infect humans and animals by several routes. Inhalational melioidosis has been associated with monsoonal rains in endemic areas and is also a significant concern in the biodefense community. There are currently no effective vaccines for B. pseudomallei and antibiotic treatment can be hampered by non-specific symptomology and also the high rate of naturally occurring antibiotic resistant strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234737/bacterial-infections-in-children-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-receiving-ciprofloxacin-prophylaxis
#2
Suha Al Omar, Nadine Anabtawi, Wiam Al Qasem, Rawad Rihani
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to describe the incidence and type of bacterial infections associated with the use of ciprofloxacin prophylaxis as single agent in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). PROCEDURE: This was a retrospective review of all patients with AML, who were treated according to the AML02 protocol between 2011 and 2015. The medical records were reviewed for any positive cultures from the initiation of the protocol until death or protocol discontinuation...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234259/the-potential-role-of-gut-derived-inflammation-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#3
Phillip A Engen, Hemraj B Dodiya, Ankur Naqib, Christopher B Forsyth, Stefan J Green, Robin M Voigt, Jeffrey H Kordower, Ece A Mutlu, Kathleen M Shannon, Ali Keshavarzian
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with intestinal microbiota dysbiosis, abnormal intestinal permeability, and intestinal inflammation. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to determine if these gut abnormalities are present in another synucleinopathy, multiple system atrophy (MSA). METHODS: In six MSA and 11 healthy control subjects, we performed immunohistochemistry studies of colonic sigmoid mucosa to evaluate the intestinal barrier marker Zonula Occludens-1 and the endotoxin-related inflammation marker Toll-like-receptor-4 expression...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233789/in-silico-serine-%C3%AE-lactamases-analysis-reveals-a-huge-potential-resistome-in-environmental-and-pathogenic-species
#4
Christian Brandt, Sascha D Braun, Claudia Stein, Peter Slickers, Ralf Ehricht, Mathias W Pletz, Oliwia Makarewicz
The secretion of antimicrobial compounds is an ancient mechanism with clear survival benefits for microbes competing with other microorganisms. Consequently, mechanisms that confer resistance are also ancient and may represent an underestimated reservoir in environmental bacteria. In this context, β-lactamases (BLs) are of great interest due to their long-term presence and diversification in the hospital environment, leading to the emergence of Gram-negative pathogens that are resistant to cephalosporins (extended spectrum BLs = ESBLs) and carbapenems (carbapenemases)...
February 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233479/the-risk-factors-etiology-and-drug-resistance-of-infection-after-plastic-surgery-and-corresponding-measures
#5
Guangning Wang, Suhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Explore the risk factors, etiology, and drug resistance of infection after plastic surgery, and present corresponding measures. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 980 patients who underwent head and facial plastic surgery from January 2013 to December 2015. Postoperative infection occurred in 169 patients. We analyzed the distribution of pathogenic bacteria in patients undergoing plastic surgery, reviewed the drug resistance of Gram negative (G-) bacteria and Gram positive (G+) bacteria, and analyzed the effects of surgical duration, prophylactic use of antibacterial agents, length of stay (LOS), and preoperative hair removal on infection after plastic surgery...
February 23, 2017: Minerva Chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232823/development-of-a-rapid-reverse-blot-hybridization-assay-for-detection-of-clinically-relevant-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-blood-cultures-testing-positive-for-gram-negative-bacteria
#6
Hye-Young Wang, Gilsung Yoo, Juwon Kim, Young Uh, Wonkeun Song, Jong Bae Kim, Hyeyoung Lee
Rapid and accurate identification of the causative pathogens of bloodstream infections is crucial for the prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy to decrease the related morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a newly developed PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the rapid detection of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and their extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, and carbapenemase resistance genes directly from the blood culture bottles...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232669/sporulation-bacterial-cell-envelopes-and-the-origin-of-life
#7
REVIEW
Elitza I Tocheva, Davi R Ortega, Grant J Jensen
Electron cryotomography (ECT) enables the 3D reconstruction of intact cells in a near-native state. Images produced by ECT have led to the proposal that an ancient sporulation-like event gave rise to the second membrane in diderm bacteria. Tomograms of sporulating monoderm and diderm bacterial cells show how sporulation can lead to the generation of diderm cells. Tomograms of Gram-negative and Gram-positive cell walls and purified sacculi suggest that they are more closely related than previously thought and support the hypothesis that they share a common origin...
August 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232484/inhibition-of-virulence-promoting-disulfide-bond-formation-enzyme-dsbb-is-blocked-by-mutating-residues-in-two-distinct-regions
#8
Cristina Landeta, Brian M Meehan, Laura McPartland, Linda Ingendahl, Feras Hatahet, Ngoc Q Tran, Dana Boyd, Jon Beckwith
Disulfide bonds contribute to protein stability, activity and folding in a variety of proteins including many involved in bacterial virulence such as, toxins, adhesins, flagella and pili among others. Therefore, inhibitors of disulfide bond formation enzymes could have profound effects on pathogen virulence. In the Escherichia coli disulfide bond formation pathway, the periplasmic protein DsbA introduces disulfide bonds into substrates and then the cytoplasmic membrane protein DsbB reoxidizes DsbAs cysteines regenerating its activity...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231789/chemical-composition-and-pharmacological-significance-of-anethum-sowa-l-root
#9
Md Moshfekus Saleh-E-In, Nasim Sultana, Md Matiur Rahim, Md Aminul Ahsan, Md Nurul Huda Bhuiyan, Md Nur Hossain, Md Mahbubar Rahman, Sudhangshu Kumar Roy, Md Rabiul Islam
BACKGROUND: Medicinal herbs are used for the treatment of different ailments since antiquity. Different parts of Anethum sowa L. is used in folk medicine as a carminative for the treatment of flatulence, colic and hiccups of infants and children, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antispasmodic agent. The aim of our present study is to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil, proximate and elemental composition, amino acid, fatty acid profile and thermal behaviour of its root part as well as different pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity of the root essential oil...
February 23, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231526/enhanced-identification-of-%C3%AE-lactamases-and-its-classes-using-sequence-physicochemical-and-evolutionary-information-with-sequence-feature-characterization-of-the-classes
#10
Abhigyan Nath, S Karthikeyan
β-lactamases provides one of the most successful means of evading the therapeutic effects of β lactam class of antibiotics by many gram positive and gram negative bacteria. On the basis of sequence identity, β-lactamases have been identified into four distinct classes- A, B, C and D. The classes A, C and D are the serine β-lactamases and class B is the metallo-lactamse. In the present study, we developed a two stage cascade classification system. The first-stage performs the classification of β-lactamases from non-β-lactamases and the second-stage performs the further classification of β-lactamases into four different β-lactamase classes...
February 14, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231455/synthetic-investigation-physicochemical-characterization-and-antibacterial-evaluation-of-ternary-bi-iii-systems-with-hydroxycarboxylic-acid-and-aromatic-chelator-substrates
#11
C M Nday, E Halevas, A Tsiaprazi-Stamou, D Eleftheriadou, A Hatzidimitriou, G Jackson, D Reid, A Salifoglou
Due to its physical and chemical properties, bismuth (Bi(III)) is widely used in the treatment of several gastrointestinal and skin diseases, and infections caused by bacteria. Herein, its known antimicrobial potential was taken into consideration in the synthesis of two new hybrid ternary materials of Bi(III) with the physiological α-hydroxycarboxylic glycolic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), [Bi2(C2H2O3)2(C2H3O3)(NO3)]n(.) nH2O (1) and [Bi(C12H8N2)(NO3)4](C10H8N4) (2), aiming at improving its antibacterial properties...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230084/highly-potent-antimicrobial-peptides-from-n-terminal-membrane-binding-region-of-e-coli-mreb
#12
Karabi Saikia, Yalavarthi Durga Sravani, Vibin Ramakrishnan, Nitin Chaudhary
Microbial pathogenesis is a serious health concern. The threat escalates as the existing conventional antimicrobials are losing their efficacy against the evolving pathogens. Peptides hold promise to be developed into next-generation antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides adopt amphipathic structures that could selectively bind to and disrupt the microbial membranes. Interaction of proteins with membranes is central to all living systems and we reasoned that the membrane-binding domains in microbial proteins could be developed into efficient antimicrobials...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229205/-spectrum-of-pathogens-in-postoperative-complications-of-visceral-surgery-the-problem-of-multidrug-resistance
#13
A Kramer, J Pochhammer, P Walger, U Seifert, M Ruhnke, J C Harnoss
In general surgery the etiology of surgical site infections has not significantly changed over the last 30 years. Gram-positive bacteria, e.g. coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. as well as Gram-negative bacteria, e.g. Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are the most common findings. Although in general surgery 10% of the S. aureus causing postoperative wound infections were methicillin resistant (MRSA), no cases of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative (MRGN) bacteria were reported...
February 22, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228554/association-of-lyn-kinase-with-membrane-rafts-determines-its-negative-influence-on-lps-induced-signaling
#14
Kinga Borzęcka-Solarz, Justyna Dembińska, Aneta Hromada-Judycka, Gabriela Traczyk, Anna Ciesielska, Ewelina Ziemlińska, Anna Świątkowska, Katarzyna Kwiatkowska
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the component of Gram-negative bacteria which activates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to trigger pro-inflammatory responses. We examined the involvement of Lyn tyrosine kinase in TLR4 signaling of macrophages, distinguishing its catalytic activity and intermolecular interactions. For this, a series of Lyn-GFP constructs bearing point mutations in particular domains of Lyn were overexpressed in RAW264 macrophage-like cells or murine peritoneal macrophages, and their influence on LPS-induced responses was analyzed...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226400/population-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamic-target-attainment-of-ampicillin-in-neonates-with-hypoxemic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-the-setting-of-controlled-hypothermia
#15
Jeffrey J Cies, Keri N Fugarolas, Wayne S Moore, Robert W Mason, Ogechukwu R Menkiti
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic target attainment of ampicillin in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) undergoing controlled hypothermia (CH). DESIGN: Prospective, open-label pharmacokinetic study. SETTING: 189-bed, freestanding children's tertiary care teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Thirteen neonates (three females, 10 males) with HIE encephalopathy receiving CH and ampicillin 100 mg/kg/dose intravenously every 8 hours who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit between May 2013 and June 2014...
February 22, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225711/reactive-oxygen-therapy-a-novel-therapy-in-soft-tissue-infection
#16
Matthew Dryden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global burden of disease in skin and soft tissue lesions is enormous. Many chronic, poorly healing lesions get treated with antibiotics despite the lack of evidence for long-term antibiotics. There is a global antibiotic resistance crisis driven largely by inappropriate use of large volumes of antibiotics. One solution is to reduce the selection pressure on bacteria by reducing the volume of antibiotic use in medicine, agriculture and the environment. There are few novel antimicrobials...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225263/bactericidal-effect-of-gold-chitosan-nanocomposites-in-co-culture-models-of-pathogenic-bacteria-and-human-macrophages
#17
Gracia Mendoza, Anna Regiel-Futyra, Vanesa Andreu, Victor Sebastian, Agnieszka Kyzioł, Grazyna Stochel, Manuel Arruebo
Pathogenic bacteria are able to develop resistance mechanisms to avoid the antimicrobial potential of antibiotics becoming an increasing problem for the healthcare systems. The search for more effective and selective antimicrobial materials, though not harmful to mammalian cells, seems imperative. Herein we propose the use of gold-chitosan nanocomposites as effective bactericidal materials avoiding the damage to human cells. Nanocomposites were obtained taking advantage of the reductive and stabilizing action of chitosan solutions on two different gold precursor concentrations...
February 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225088/the-general-pts-component-hpr-determines-the-preference-for-glucose-over-mannitol
#18
Mangyu Choe, Young-Ha Park, Chang-Ro Lee, Yeon-Ran Kim, Yeong-Jae Seok
Preferential sugar utilization is a widespread phenomenon in biological systems. Glucose is usually the most preferred carbon source in various organisms, especially in bacteria where it is taken up via the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The currently proposed model for glucose preference over non-PTS sugars in enteric bacteria including E. coli is strictly dependent on the phosphorylation state of the glucose-specific PTS component, enzyme IIA(Glc) (EIIA(Glc)). However, the mechanism of the preference among PTS sugars is largely unknown in Gram-negative bacteria...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224989/mechanisms-of-envelope-permeability-and-antibiotic-influx-and-efflux-in-gram-negative-bacteria
#19
Muriel Masi, Matthieu Réfregiers, Klaas M Pos, Jean-Marie Pagès
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224490/predicting-beta-barrel-transmembrane-proteins-using-hmms
#20
Georgios N Tsaousis, Stavros J Hamodrakas, Pantelis G Bagos
Transmembrane beta-barrels (TMBBs) constitute an important structural class of membrane proteins located in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, and in the outer membrane of chloroplasts and mitochondria. They are involved in a wide variety of cellular functions and the prediction of their transmembrane topology, as well as their discrimination in newly sequenced genomes is of great importance as they are promising targets for antimicrobial drugs and vaccines. Several methods have been applied for the prediction of the transmembrane segments and the topology of beta barrel transmembrane proteins utilizing different algorithmic techniques...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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