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Mesenchymal stem cells

Dale B Bosco, Mark D Roycik, Yonghao Jin, Martin A Schwartz, Ty J Lively, Diego A R Zorio, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang
Development of adipose tissue requires the differentiation of less specialized cells, such as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), into adipocytes. Since matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play critical roles in the cell differentiation process, we conducted investigations to determine if a novel mercaptosulfonamide-based MMP inhibitor (MMPI), YHJ-7-52, could affect hMSC adipogenic differentiation and lipid accumulation. Enzyme inhibition assays, adipogenic differentiation experiments, and quantitative PCR methods were employed to characterize this inhibitor and determine its effect upon adipogenesis...
2017: PloS One
Farzaneh Mohamadyar-Toupkanlou, Ebrahim Vasheghani-Farahani, Hana Hanaee-Ahvaz, Masoud Soleimani, Masumeh Dodel, Parvaneh Havasi, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi, Elham Sadat Taherzadeh
The increasing demand for biocompatible bone substitutes has made it a priority to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine scientists. Combination of minerals, growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins with nanofibrous scaffolds is a potential promising strategy for bone reconstruction and clinical applications. In this study, nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) was incorporated in electrospun nanofibrous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds coated with fibronectin (Fn). The potential bone regeneration capacities of these scaffolds were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs)...
February 20, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
F Mohammadian, A Eatemadi, H Daraee
Over 278 million of people worldwide suffers from hearing loss, and this disease has significant detrimental effects emotionally and economically on individuals and the society in totality. Treatment using cochlear implant dramatically improve the perception, and production of speech, as well as the patient quality of life, with the different sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Yet, there are some challenges faced by a cochlear implant. In this review, we propose the regeneration of spiral ganglion neurons which is an interface neuron using human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (hAFMSCs), due to its high pluripotency potentials, this stem cell source can regenerate the spiral ganglion and this in-turn will bring back the inner ear hair-cells to functionality...
January 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Brittany C Parker Kerrigan, Yuzaburo Shimizu, Michael Andreeff, Frederick F Lang
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cell that has been exploited for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including cancer. In particular, MSCs have been studied extensively for their ability to treat glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and deadly form of brain cancer in adults. MSCs are attractive therapeutics because they can be obtained relatively easily from patients, are capable of being expanded numerically in vitro, can be easily engineered and are inherently capable of homing to tumors, making them ideal vehicles for delivering biological antitumoral agents...
February 20, 2017: Cytotherapy
Siu Hong Dexter Wong, Jinming Li, Xiaohui Yan, Ben Wang, Rui Li, Li Zhang, Liming Bian
Cells sense and respond to the surrounding microenvironment through binding of membranous integrin to ligands such as the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide. Previous studies show that the RGD tether properties on substrate influence cell adhesion and spreading, but few studies have reported strategies to control the tether mobility of RGD on substrate via a physical and non-contact approach. Herein, we demonstrate a novel strategy to tune the tether mobility of RGD on substrate via magnetic force. We conjugate a monolayer of RGD-bearing magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on glass substrate via the flexible and coiled poly(ethylene glycol) linker of large molecular weight (PEG, average MW: 2000), and this increases the RGD tether mobility, which can be significantly reduced by applying magnetic attraction on MNPs...
February 24, 2017: Nano Letters
Daniel J Kota, Karthik S Prabhakara, Naama Toledano-Furman, Deepa Bhattarai, Qingzheng Chen, Bryan DiCarlo, Philippa Smith, Fabio Triolo, Pamela L Wenzel, Charles S Cox, Scott D Olson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is soon predicted to become the third leading cause of death and disability worldwide. After the primary injury, a complex set of secondary injuries develops hours and days later with prolonged neuroinflammation playing a key role. TBI and other inflammatory conditions are currently being treated in pre-clinical and clinical trials by a number of cellular therapies. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are of great interest due to their widespread usage, safety, and relative ease to isolate and culture...
February 24, 2017: Stem Cells
Madeline Burke, James P K Armstrong, Andrew Goodwin, Robert C Deller, Benjamin M Carter, Robert L Harniman, Aasiya Ginwalla, Valeska P Ting, Sean A Davis, Adam W Perriman
The rapid pace of development in biotechnology has placed great importance on controlling cell-material interactions. In practice, this involves attempting to decouple the contributions from adhesion molecules, cell membrane receptors, and scaffold surface chemistry and morphology, which is extremely challenging. Accordingly, a strategy is presented in which different chemical, biochemical, and morphological properties of 3D biomaterials are systematically varied to produce novel scaffolds with tuneable cell affinities...
February 24, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
Xianyan Yang, Sanzhong Xu, Xiaoyi Chen, Dongshuang He, Xiurong Ke, Lei Zhang, Guojing Yang, An Liu, Xiaozhou Mou, Wei Xia, Zhongru Gou
Osteoporotic femur fractures are the most common fragility fracture and account for approximately one million injuries per year. Local intervention by intra-marrow injection is potentially a good choice for preventing osteoporotic bone loss when the osteoporotic femoral fracture was treated. Previously, it was shown that trace element co-doped calcium phosphate (teCaP) implants could stimulate osteoporotic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell activity in vitro and bone regeneration in femoral bone defects in osteoporotic animal models...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
W Reef Hardy, Nicanor I Moldovan, Leni Moldovan, Kenneth J Livak, Datta, Chirayu Goswami, Mirko Corselli, Dmitry O Traktuev, Iain R Murray, Bruno Péault, Keith March
Adipose tissue is a rich source of multipotent mesenchymal stem-like cells, located in the perivascular niche. Based on their surface markers, these have been assigned to two main categories: CD34+CD31-CD45-CD146- cells (adventitial stromal/stem cells, ASCs), and CD146+CD31-CD34-CD45- cells (pericytes, PCs). These populations display heterogeneity of unknown significance. We hypothesized that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, a functional marker of primitivity, could help to better define ASC and PC subclasses...
February 24, 2017: Stem Cells
Shi-Zheng Wu, Ying-Lan Li, Wei Huang, Wen-Feng Cai, Jialiang Liang, Christian Paul, Lin Jiang, Zhi-Chao Wu, Meifeng Xu, Ping Zhu, Yigang Wang
It has been reported that CXCR4-overexpressing mesenchymal stem cells (MSC(CX4) ) can repair heart tissue post myocardial infarction. This study aims to investigate the MSCCX4-derived paracrine cardio-protective signaling in the presence of myocardial infarction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were divided into 3 groups: MSC only, MSC(CX4) , and CXCR4 gene-specific siRNA-transduced MSC. Mesenchymal stem cells were exposed to hypoxia, and then MSCs-conditioned culture medium was incubated with neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes, respectively...
February 23, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Annette K Brenner, Ina Nepstad, Øystein Bruserud
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a bone marrow malignancy, and various bone marrow stromal cells seem to support leukemogenesis, including osteoblasts and endothelial cells. We have investigated how normal bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) support the in vitro proliferation of primary human AML cells. Both MSCs and primary AML cells show constitutive release of several soluble mediators, and the mediator repertoires of the two cell types are partly overlapping. The two cell populations were cocultured on transwell plates, and MSC effects on AML cells mediated through the local cytokine/soluble mediator network could thus be evaluated...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Dror Luger, Michael J Lipinski, Peter C Westman, David K Glover, Julien Dimastromatteo, Juan C Frias, M T Albelda, Sergey Sikora, Alex Kharazi, Grigory Vertelov, Ron Waksman, Stephen E Epstein
Rationale: Virtually all mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) studies assume therapeutic effects accrue from local myocardial effects of engrafted MSCs. Since few intravenously-administered MSCs engraft in the myocardium, studies have mainly utilized direct myocardial delivery. We adopted a different paradigm. Objective: To test whether intravenously-administered MSCs reduce LV dysfunction both post-AMI and in ischemic cardiomyopathy, and that these effects are caused, at least partly, by systemic anti-inflammatory activities...
February 23, 2017: Circulation Research
Xiaoli Li, Yan Wang, Guoliang An, Di Liang, Zhonghui Zhu, Ximeng Lian, Piye Niu, Caixia Guo, Lin Tian
The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-fibrotic effect and possible mechanism of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in silica-induced lung injury and fibrosis in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, rats were exposed to 50mg/ml silica intratracheally. The rats were sacrificed on day 15 or day 30 after intravenous injection of BMSCs. Histopathological examination demonstrated that BMSCs decreased the blue areas of collagen fibers and the number of nodules. Alveolar epithelium was damaged by silica, but it was restored by BMSCs...
February 20, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Azza S Shehata, Nabila M Al-Ghonemy, Samah M Ahmed, Samar R Mohamed
The present research was conducted to evaluate the effect of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) as a potential therapeutic tool for improvement of skeletal muscle recovery after induced chemodenervation atrophy by repeated local injection of botulinum toxin-A in the right tibialis anterior muscle of adult male albino rats. Forty five adult Wistar male albino rats were classified into control and experimental groups. Experimental group was further subdivided into 3 equal subgroups; induced atrophy, BM-MSCs treated and recovery groups...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Natasa Kenda Suster, Spela Smrkolj, Irma Virant-Klun
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of aggressive character of ovarian cancer and unsuccessful treatment of women with this deadly disease has been recently explained by the theory of cancer stem cells (CSCs). It has been reported that ovarian carcinogenesis and progression of disease is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT, a physiological cell process during embryonic development and later in life during regeneration, could, when induced in pathological condition, generate CSCs-like cells...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
Balakrishnan Aristatile, Ghedeir M Alshammari
Cucurbita ficifolia (C. ficifolia) has been traditionally known for its medicinal properties as an antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory agent. However, there has been an enduring attention towards the identification of unique method, to isolate the natural components for therapeutic applications. Our study focuses on different polar and non-polar solvents (methanol, hexane and chloroform) to extract the bioactive components from C. ficifolia (pumpkin) and to study the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity effects on human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs)...
February 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Nina Jung, Heinz Rupp, Rembert Koczulla, Claus Vogelmeier, Peter Alter
Recent studies demonstrated potential effects of stem cells on cardiac function in heart failure. However, influences of the technique of application remained undetermined. In the present study, the pericardial sac was used as depot for fluorescent-labeled mesenchymal stem cells in rats. To evaluate influences of inflammation on cell homing, a sterile pericarditis was induced by talc. It is shown that intrapericardial stem cells application is sufficient to provide myocardial penetration. The extent of homing was amplified by inflammation in a talc-induced pericarditis...
February 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Simone Perucca, Andrea Di Palma, Pier Paolo Piccaluga, Claudia Gemelli, Elisa Zoratti, Giulio Bassi, Edoardo Giacopuzzi, Andrea Lojacono, Giuseppe Borsani, Enrico Tagliafico, Maria Teresa Scupoli, Simona Bernardi, Camilla Zanaglio, Federica Cattina, Valeria Cancelli, Michele Malagola, Mauro Krampera, Mirella Marini, Camillo Almici, Sergio Ferrari, Domenico Russo
A human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (MSCs) and cord blood-derived CD34+ stem cell co-culture system was set up in order to evaluate the proliferative and differentiative effects induced by MSCs on CD34+ stem cells, and the reciprocal influences on gene expression profiles. After 10 days of co-culture, non-adherent (SN-fraction) and adherent (AD-fraction) CD34+ stem cells were collected and analysed separately. In the presence of MSCs, a significant increase in CD34+ cell number was observed (fold increase = 14...
2017: PloS One
Indong Jun, Taufiq Ahmad, Seongwoo Bak, Joong-Yup Lee, Eun Mi Kim, Jinkyu Lee, Yu Bin Lee, Hongsoo Jeong, Hojeong Jeon, Heungsoo Shin
Although the coculture of multiple cell types has been widely employed in regenerative medicine, in vivo transplantation of cocultured cells while maintaining the hierarchical structure remains challenging. Here, a spatially assembled bilayer cell sheet of human mesenchymal stem cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells on a thermally expandable hydrogel containing fibronectin is prepared and its effect on in vitro proangiogenic functions and in vivo ischemic injury is investigated. The expansion of hydrogels in response to a temperature change from 37 to 4 °C allows rapid harvest and delivery of the bilayer cell sheet to two different targets (an in vitro model glass surface and in vivo tissue)...
February 23, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Guillermo A Herrera, Jiamin Teng, Chun Zeng, Elba A Turbat-Herrera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
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