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Gastro intestinal

Manuel Fresno, Núria Gironès
Chagas disease is a multisystemic disorder caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , which affects ~8 million people in Latin America, killing 7,000 people annually. Chagas disease is one of the main causes of death in the endemic area and the leading cause of infectious myocarditis in the world. T. cruzi infection induces two phases, acute and chronic, where the infection is initially asymptomatic and the majority of patients will remain clinically indeterminate for life. However, over a period of 10-30 years, ~30% of infected individuals will develop irreversible, potentially fatal cardiac syndromes (chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy [CCC]), and/or dilatation of the gastro-intestinal tract (megacolon or megaesophagus)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yan-Ling Yin, Hui-Jun Zhang, Ya-Jie Yuan, Huan Tang, Dan Chen, Sha Jing, Hao-Xian Wu, Sha-Sha Wang, Guang-Hui Zhao
Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis) is an important zoonotic parasite that parasitizes the gastro-intestines of humans and animals, with diarrhea as the most common clinical symptom. The goat has been indicated as one of the most important reservoirs of G. duodenalis for humans. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis in goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1311 faecal specimens were examined, and the overall prevalence was 7...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Alessandra Zilli, Ilaria Fanetti, Dario Conte, Sara Massironi
Gallium-68 DOTA-peptide positron emission tomography/computed tomography (68 Ga-PET/CT) has emerged as a promising tool for the diagnosis and staging of gastro-entero-pancreatic neoplasms, thanks to its high sensitivity and specificity. Heterotopic pancreas, which is relatively rare, has never been reported as a possible cause of false positives of68 Ga-PET/CT. We report on the first case of a heterotopic pancreas showing pathological uptake at68 Ga-PET/CT, thus mimicking an intestinal neuroendocrine tumor...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Riccardo Ariotti, Stefano Partelli, Francesca Muffatti, Valentina Andreasi, Francesca Della Sala, Massimo Falconi
Neuroendocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic neoplasms (GEP-NENs) constitute a heterogeneous group of tumors, whose incidence has increased over the years. The most frequent site for primary disease is the stomach followed by small and large intestine, and pancreas. In the last decade, a dramatic growing in the incidence of small, incidental GEP-NENs has been recorded. In parallel, an increasing attitude toward more conservative approaches instead of surgical management has being widely spreading. This is particularly true for small, asymptomatic, pancreatic NEN as for these tumor forms an active surveillance has proven to be safe and feasible...
March 12, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Maria Aponte, Francesca Ungaro, Ivana d'Angelo, Carmen De Caro, Roberto Russo, Giuseppe Blaiotta, Fabrizio Dal Piaz, Antonio Calignano, Agnese Miro
This study reports novel food-grade granules for co-delivery of L. plantarum 299v and a standardized extract of Olea europaea leaves (Phenolea®) as oral carrier of probiotics and hydroxytyrosol. Different granule formulations containing either L. plantarum 299v (Lac), or the olive leave extract (Phe) or their combination (Lac-Phe) have been successfully produced through wet granulation employing excipients generally regarded as safe as granulating/binding agents. L. plantarum cells withstood the manufacturing process and were stable upon storage at 4°C for more than 6 months...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Farzana Kastury, E Smith, Ranju R Karna, Kirk G Scheckel, A L Juhasz
Although metal(loid) bioaccessibility of ambient particulate matter, with an aerodynamic diameter of <10μm (PM10 ), has recently received increasing attention, limited research exists into standardising in-vitro methodologies using simulated lung fluid (SLF). Contradictions exist regarding which assay parameters should be adopted. Additionally, potential continuation of metal(loid) dissolution once PM10 is cleared from the lungs and passed through the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) has rarely been addressed...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
A L Sennesael, A S Larock, B Devalet, V Mathieux, F Verschuren, X Muschart, O Dalleur, J M Dogné, A Spinewine
AIMS: To determine the preventability of serious adverse drug reactions (ADR) related to the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC), and to explore contributing factors to preventable ADRs. Results were compared with vitamin K antagonists (VKA). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in the emergency departments of two teaching hospitals from July 2015 to January 2016. Patients admitted with a thrombotic or bleeding event while under DOAC or VKA were included...
March 9, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Mei Ling Lim, Bei Yi Paulynn Yong, Mei Qi Maggie Mar, Shin Yuh Ang, Mei Mei Chan, Madeleine Lam, Ngian Choo Janet Chong, Violeta Lopez
BACKGROUND: The number of patients on home enteral nutrition (HEN) is on the increase due to advancement in technology and shift in focus of providing care from acute to community care settings. AIM: This study aimed to explore the experiences of community nurses and home carers, in caring for patients on HEN. METHODS: A mixed-method approach was adopted. (i) A face-to-face survey design was used to elicit experience of carers of patients on HEN...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Saverio La Francesca, Johnathon M Aho, Matthew R Barron, Ellen W Blanco, Sherif Soliman, Lena Kalenjian, Ariel D Hanson, Elisaveta Todorova, Matthew Marsh, KaLia Burnette, Harout DerSimonian, Robert D Odze, Dennis A Wigle
Treatment of esophageal disease can necessitate resection and reconstruction of the esophagus. Current reconstruction approaches are limited to utilization of an autologous conduit such as stomach, small bowel, or colon. A tissue engineered construct providing an alternative for esophageal replacement in circumferential, full thickness resection would have significant clinical applications. In the current study, we demonstrate that regeneration of esophageal tissue is feasible and reproducible in a large animal model using synthetic polyurethane electro-spun grafts seeded with autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (aMSCs) and a disposable bioreactor...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
M Struyve, G Robaeys
Ectopic varices are dilated portosystemic venous collaterals located outside of the gastro-esophageal region. Whereas they are common endoscopic findings in patients with portal hypertension, ectopic variceal bleeding is rather rare and accounts for only 1 to 5 % of all variceal bleedings. The rectum and the duodenum are the most common sites for ectopic varices, but they can be present along the whole intestinal tract and neighborhood. At present, there is no consensus well established on diagnostic workup for ectopic variceal bleeding and their therapeutic strategies...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Arnaud Pasquer, Elise Pelascini, Gilles Poncet, Maud Robert
PURPOSE: Postoperative abdominal pain after Roux en Y gastric bypass associated with gastro esophageal reflux is difficult to manage. A gastro-gastric fistula can be the etiology and besides pain and weight regain, it can also be revealed by a dilatation of the excluded stomach and duodenum. METHODS: We present the case of a 45-year-old woman who had a medical history of revisional RYGB after failure of gastric band. She recently complained of recurrent epigastric abdominal pain and biliary GERD...
March 5, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Donatienne Van Weehaeghe, Olivier Gheysens, Vincent Vandecaveye, Patrick Schöffski, Koen Van Laere, Christophe M Deroose
BACKGROUND: Gastro-intestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are very rare tumors of the gastro-intestinal tract, originating from the interstitial cells of Cajal or a common cell precursor which both express type III tyrosine kinase receptors. Regorafenib is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor used to treat gastro-intestinal stromal tumors. To our knowledge this is the first case in literature to show the response of regorafenib on PET. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old male with lower abdominal pain and weight loss was referred to our hospital...
March 5, 2018: BMC Cancer
Marcelle M Nascimento
Dental caries and periodontitis are amongst the most common diseases affecting humans worldwide. There is an evolving trend for dental and medical research to share knowledge on the etiology and promising therapies for human diseases. Inspired by the success of fecal microbiota transplant to manage gastro-intestinal disordes, oral microbiome transplant has been proposed but not yet tested in humans. This article critically reviews the potential of oral microbiome transplant for managing oral diseases.
October 2017: Journal of the California Dental Association
Jürgen Rahmer, Christian Stehning, Bernhard Gleich
Remote magnetic manipulation is a powerful technique for controlling devices inside the human body. It enables actuation and locomotion of tethered and untethered objects without the need for a local power supply. In clinical applications, it is used for active steering of catheters in medical interventions such as cardiac ablation for arrhythmia treatment and for steering of camera pills in the gastro-intestinal tract for diagnostic video acquisition. For these applications, specialized clinical-scale field applicators have been developed, which are rather limited in terms of field strength and flexibility of field application...
2018: PloS One
Kay Critchell, Mia O Hoogenboom
The effect of a pollutant on the base of the food web can have knock-on effects for trophic structure and ecosystem functioning. In this study we assess the effect of microplastic exposure on juveniles of a planktivorous fish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus), a species that is widespread and abundant on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Under five different plastic concentration treatments, with plastics the same size as the natural food particles (mean 2mm diameter), there was no significant effect of plastic exposure on fish growth, body condition or behaviour...
2018: PloS One
Maurizio Valeriani, Pierluigi Bonfili, Chiara Reverberi, Luca Marinelli, Letizia Ferella, Giuseppe Minniti, Vitaliana DE Sanctis, Mattia Falchetto Osti, Paolo Bonome, Lidia Tronnolone, Emilia Varrassi, Giovanni Luca Gravina, Pietro Franzese, Vincenzo Tombolini, Mario DI Staso
BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate outcomes in patients with low-risk prostate cancer treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy (HyRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between April 2004 and December 2015, 175 patients with low-risk prostate cancer were treated with HyRT 60 Gy in 20 fractions with or without image guidance and reduction of margin from clinical target volume to planning target volume. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 66 months. The 8-year overall survival for the whole patient cohort was 88...
March 2018: Anticancer Research
Elisa Schmoeckel, Thomas Kirchner, Doris Mayr
The differentiation between a primary mucinous ovarian neoplasm and an extra-ovarian metastasis in the ovary is often challenging in the histopathologic practice. Among various ovarian metastases from the gastro-intestinal tract the low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) is an important differential diagnosis to consider particularly in case of pseudomyxoma peritonei. A newly recognized marker in the routine diagnostic of a mucinous neoplasm in the ovary is SATB2 (Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2)...
December 14, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
Iddo Vardi, Ortal Barel, Michal Sperber, Michael Schvimer, Moran Nunberg, Michael Field, Jodie Ouahed, Dina Marek-Yagel, Lael Werner, Yael Haberman, Avishay Lahad, Yair Anikster, Gideon Rechavi, Iris Barshack, Joshua J McElwee, Joseph Maranville, Raz Somech, Scott B Snapper, Batia Weiss, Dror S Shouval
BACKGROUND: Advances in genomics have facilitated the discovery of monogenic disorders in patients with unique gastro-intestinal phenotypes. Syndromic diarrhea, also called tricho-hepato-enteric (THE) syndrome, results from deleterious mutations in SKIV2L or TTC37 genes. The main features of this disorder are intractable diarrhea, abnormal hair, facial dysmorphism, immunodeficiency and liver disease. AIM: To report on a patient with THE syndrome and present the genetic analysis that facilitated diagnosis...
February 26, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Nguyen Th Mai, Nicholas Dobbs, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Romain A Colas, Le Tp Thao, Nguyen Tt Thuong, Ho Dt Nghia, Nguyen Hh Hanh, Nguyen T Hang, A Dorothee Heemskerk, Jeremy N Day, Lucy Ly, Do DA Thu, Laura Merson, Evelyne Kestelyn, Marcel Wolbers, Ronald Geskus, David Summers, Nguyen Vv Chau, Jesmond Dalli, Guy E Thwaites
Background Adjunctive dexamethasone reduces mortality from tuberculous meningitis (TBM) but not disability, which is associated with brain infarction. We hypothesised that aspirin prevents TBM-related brain infarction through its anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, and pro-resolution properties. Methods We conducted a randomised controlled trial in HIV-uninfected adults with TBM of daily aspirin 81mg or 1000mg, or placebo, added to the first 60 days of anti-tuberculosis drugs and dexamethasone (NCT02237365)...
February 27, 2018: ELife
Piyush Kalakoti, Daniel M Sciubba, Andrew J Pugely, Matthew J McGirt, Kanika Sharma, Devi P Patra, Kevin Phan, Karthik Madhavan, Richard P Menger, Christina Notarianni, Bharat Guthikonda, Anil Nanda, Hai Sun
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of psychiatric diseases on short-term outcomes in patients undergoing fusion surgery for LDDD. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Limited literature exists on the prevalence and impact of psychiatric comorbidities on outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for lumbar degenerative disc disease (LDDD). METHODS: Adult patients (>18 years) registered in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database (2002-2011) and undergoing an elective spine fusion for LDDD that met inclusion criteria formed the study population...
February 23, 2018: Spine
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