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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143474/chronic-intestinal-pseudo-obstruction-progress-in-management
#1
REVIEW
G Di Nardo, T B Karunaratne, S Frediani, R De Giorgio
Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a severe form of gastrointestinal dysmotility (often due to derangement of the innervation/smooth muscle/interstitial cells of Cajal) with recurrent episodes of intestinal subocclusion mimicking a mechanical obstruction. Because of its complexity and heterogeneity, CIPO is often misdiagnosed or remains unrecognized until advanced stages. Management is a critical aspect in CIPO patient care. So far, most prokinetic drugs have not proven efficacy in restoring intestinal propulsion, thus nutritional support, fluid/electrolyte replacement, and antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment...
December 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136948/gastroprotective-effect-and-mode-of-action-of-methanol-extract-of-sphenodesme-involucrata-var-paniculata-c-b-clarke-munir-lamiaceae-leaves-on-experimental-gastric-ulcer-models
#2
Puthanpura Sasidharan Sreeja, Karuppusamy Arunachalam, Sathyanarayanan Saikumar, Muniyandi Kasipandi, Sivaraj Dhivya, Rajan Murugan, Thangaraj Parimelazhagan
Sphenodesme involucrata var. paniculata (C. B. Clarke) Munir, endemic to South Asia, is used by tribal for alleviation from abdominal disorders, inflammation and body pain. However, the gastroprotective properties of this species have not yet been studied. The leaves of S. involucrata were extracted by Soxhlet extraction using different solvents successively and the extracts were analyzed for antioxidant and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities using different in vitro assays. The chemical composition of methanol extract of S...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133112/persistent-abdominal-pain-after-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-is-associated-with-increased-healthcare-consumption-and-sick-leave
#3
Sarah Z Wennmacker, Marcel G W Dijkgraaf, Gert P Westert, Joost P H Drenth, Cornelis J H M van Laarhoven, Philip R de Reuver
BACKGROUND: Although, 33% to 40% of symptomatic gallstone patients reported persistent abdominal pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, there is no data on the burden of this pain to the healthcare system and society at large. This study determined healthcare consumption, sick leave, and costs in patients with persistent abdominal pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Secondly, predictive factors for healthcare consumption were assessed. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included all 146 patients with persistent abdominal pain (patient-reported on Gastro-Intestinal Quality of Life Index (score 0-3) 24 weeks after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, derived from a previous prospective cohort...
November 10, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117755/contribution-of-oxidative-stress-in-acute-intestinal-mucositis-induced-by-5-fluorouracil-5-fu-and-its-pro-drug-capecitabine-in-rats
#4
Kaïs Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
This study was designed to examine the contribution of oxidative stress in gastrointestinal disorders after an intraperitoneal administration of 5-FU (100mg/kg b.w.) and capecitabine oral administration (500mg/kg b.w.). The animals were divided into three groups: Group A (NaCl, 10ml/kg b.w.) considered as control group, group B was intoxicated by 5-FU and the group of animals (group C) treated with capecitabine (CAP). To evaluate the secretory and enteropooling effects, we were used as a hypersecretion agent (MgSO4, 1ml/100g b...
November 8, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114128/efficacy-of-glutathione-s-transferase-purified-antigen-of-the-gastro-intestinal-nematode-haemonchus-contortus-in-diagnosis-of-sheep-haemonchosis
#5
Omnia M Kandil, Irene S Gamil, Seham H M Hendawy, Fatma Medhat, Ola H El-Habit
Haemonchus contortus is one of the most pathogenic and economically important parasites of sheep. Different H. contortus antigens; crude somatic antigen (CSA), excretory/secretory antigen (ESA), crude larval antigen (CLA), glutathione-S-transferase antigen (GST) and recombinant protein (rhcp 26/23) were prepared and characterized using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot. The antigens were immunologically evaluated through indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for diagnosis of haemonchosis in experimentally and naturally infected sheep...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111469/an-in-silico-approach-to-determine-challenges-in-the-bioavailability-of-ciprofloxacin-a-poorly-soluble-weak-base-with-borderline-solubility-and-permeability-characteristics
#6
Simone Hansmann, Yoshihiro Miyaji, Jennifer Dressman
Ciprofloxacin is administered as the hydrochloride salt in immediate release formulations for the treatment of various infectious diseases in different patient populations. Due to its weakly basic properties and poor solubility, the in vivo behaviour of this compound could be influenced by both physicochemical and physiological factors. The first aim of this study was to investigate the behaviour of ciprofloxacin (Ciprobay® 500 mg tablets) in the human gastro-intestinal tract with in vitro dissolution, transfer and two-stage experiments...
October 27, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108848/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-safety-profiling-of-is01957-a-preclinical-candidate-possessing-dual-activity-against-inflammation-and-nociception
#7
Anjna Sharma, Asmita Magotra, Ashish Dogra, Santosh Kumar Rath, Sheikh Rayees, Priya Wazir, Sadhana Sharma, Payare Lal Sangwan, Surjeet Singh, Gurdarshan Singh, Utpal Nandi
In spite of unprecedented advances in modern systems of medicine, there is necessity for exploration of traditional plant based secondary metabolites or their semisynthetic derivatives which may results in better therapeutic activity, low toxicity and favourable pharmacokinetics. In this context, computational model based predictions aid medicinal chemists in rational development of new chemical entity having unfavourable pharmacokinetic properties which is a major hurdle for its further development as a drug molecule...
November 3, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108515/long-term-use-of-cinacalcet-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-with-hypercalcemic-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-a-single-center-prospective-study
#8
Vasileios Zavvos, Lamprini Fyssa, Marios Papasotiriou, Evangelos Papachristou, Theodoros Ntrinias, Eirini Savvidaki, Dimitrios S Goumenos
OBJECTIVES: Persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism is common after successful kidney transplant, with concomitant hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia potentially leading to reduced graft survival and increased cardiovascular risk. Cinacalcet, a calcimimetic agent that activates the calcium-sensing receptors in parathyroid glands, is a therapeutic option. In this study, we assessed the long-term treatment effects of cinacalcet for a period of up to 5 years in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients...
October 31, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095860/red-cell-distribution-width-as-a-novel-marker-for-predicting-high-risk-from-upper-gastro-intestinal-bleeding-patients
#9
Kyeong Ryong Lee, Sang O Park, Sin Young Kim, Dae Young Hong, Jong Won Kim, Kwang Je Baek, Dong Hyuk Shin, Young Hwan Lee
BACKGROUND: In upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) patients, early risk stratification allows appropriate therapy that may be helpful for reducing morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the efficacy of red-cell distribution width (RDW) for prediction of high-risk in UGIB patients. METHODS: We conducted a clinical retrospective observational study based on data for UGIB patients from 2012 to 2013. The primary outcome was the high-risk UGIB, defined as those who required urgent intervention and/or 30-days mortality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080342/cross-talk-between-bile-acids-and-gastro-intestinal-and-thermogenic-clues-from-bariatric-surgery
#10
Gabriella Garruti, Agostino Di Ciaula, Helen H Wang, David Q-H Wang, Piero Portincasa
Obesity is rapidly increasing and has reached epidemic features worldwide. It´s linked to insulin resistance, systemic low-grade inflammation and common pathogenic pathways with a number of comorbidities (including cancer), leading to high mortality rates. Besides change of lifestyles (diet and physical exercise) and pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery is able to rapidly improve several metabolic and morphologic features associated with excessive fat storage, and currently represents an in vivo model to study the pathogenic mechanisms underlying obesity and obesity-related complications...
October 28, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078666/developing-a-robotic-pancreas-program-the-dutch-experience
#11
REVIEW
Carolijn L Nota, Maurice J Zwart, Yuman Fong, Jeroen Hagendoorn, Melissa E Hogg, Bas Groot Koerkamp, Marc G Besselink, I Quintus Molenaar
Robot-assisted surgery has been developed to overcome limitations of conventional laparoscopy aiming to further optimize minimally invasive surgery. Despite the fact that robotics already have been widely adopted in urology, gynecology, and several gastro-intestinal procedures, like colorectal surgery, pancreatic surgery lags behind. Due to the complex nature of the procedure, surgeons probably have been hesitant to apply minimally invasive techniques in pancreatic surgery. Nevertheless, the past few years pancreatic surgery has been catching up...
2017: J Vis Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072917/dual-level-statistical-investigation-of-equilibrium-solubility-in-simulated-fasted-and-fed-intestinal-fluid
#12
Bayan E Ainousah, Jeremy Perrier, Claire Dunn, Ibrahim Khadra, Clive G Wilson, Gavin W Halbert
The oral route is the preferred option for drug administration but contains the inherent issue of drug absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) in order to elicit systemic activity. A pre-requisite for absorption is drug dissolution, which is dependent upon drug solubility in the variable milieu of GIT fluid, with poorly soluble drugs presenting a formulation and biopharmaceutical challenge. Multiple factors within GIT fluid influence solubility ranging from pH to the concentration and ratio of amphiphilic substances such as phospholipid, bile salt, monoglyceride and cholesterol and to aid in vitro investigation simulated intestinal fluids (SIF) covering the fasted and fed state have been developed...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069277/a-novel-pretherapeutic-gene-expression-based-risk-score-for-treatment-guidance-in-gastric-cancer
#13
L Bauer, A Hapfelmeier, S Blank, M Reiche, J Slotta-Huspenina, M Jesinghaus, A Novotny, T Schmidt, B Grosser, M Kohlruss, W Weichert, K Ott, G Keller
Background: Perioperative chemotherapy is an established treatment for advanced gastric cancer patients. Treatment selection is based on clinical staging (cT). We aimed to establish and validate a prognostic score including clinical and molecular factors, to optimize treatment decisions for these patients. Patients and methods: We analyzed 626 carcinomas of the stomach and of the gastro-oesophageal junction from two academic centers including primarily resected and pre-/perioperatively treated patients...
October 23, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064257/effect-of-coadministered-water-on-the-in-vivo-performance-of-oral-formulations-containing-n-acetylcysteine-an-in-vitro-approach-using-the-dynamic-open-flow-through-test-apparatus
#14
Maximilian Sager, Felix Schneider, Philipp Jedamzik, Markus Wiedmann, Ellen Schremmer, Mirko Koziolek, Werner Weitschies
The drug plasma profile after oral administration of immediate release dosage forms can be affected by the human gastrointestinal physiology, the formulation, and the drug itself. In this work, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro performance of two formulations (granules vs. tablet) containing the highly soluble drug N-Acetylcysteine (BCS class I). Thereby, special attention was paid to the effect of the dosage form and the coadministration of water on drug release. Interestingly, the in vivo results from a pharmacokinetic study with 11 healthy volunteers indicated that the drug plasma concentrations were comparable for the tablet given with water as well as for the granules given with and without water...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057712/rapunzel-syndrome-gastric-trichobezoar-a-rare-presentation-with-generalised-oedema-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Islam Nour, Mona Abd Alatef, Ahmed Megahed, Sohier Yahia, Yahya Wahba, Abd Elazeez Shabaan
Rapunzel syndrome is a rare form of gastric trichobezoar. A 4-year-old girl presented with generalised oedema and an epigastric mass. Her family was of a relatively low socio-economic background. There was microcytic hypochromic anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and an elevated α1-antitrypsin clearance. Abdominal ultrasound and non-contrast computed tomography demonstrated a heterogeneous mass related to the stomach. Upper gastro-intestinal tract endoscopy failed to remove it. Surgical laparotomy was undertaken through a single anterior gastrotomy incision and a large mass was extracted which was a cast of the duodenum and stomach and had a tail of approximately 60 cm in length which extended to the jejunum...
October 23, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057095/salmonet-an-integrated-network-of-ten-salmonella-enterica-strains-reveals-common-and-distinct-pathways-to-host-adaptation
#16
Aline Métris, Padhmanand Sudhakar, David Fazekas, Amanda Demeter, Eszter Ari, Marton Olbei, Priscilla Branchu, Rob A Kingsley, Jozsef Baranyi, Tamas Korcsmáros
Salmonella enterica is a prominent bacterial pathogen with implications on human and animal health. Salmonella serovars could be classified as gastro-intestinal or extra-intestinal. Genome-wide comparisons revealed that extra-intestinal strains are closer relatives of gastro-intestinal strains than to each other indicating a parallel evolution of this trait. Given the complexity of the differences, a systems-level comparison could reveal key mechanisms enabling extra-intestinal serovars to cause systemic infections...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053599/gut-fermentation-of-dietary-fibres-physico-chemistry-of-plant-cell-walls-and-implications-for-health
#17
REVIEW
Barbara A Williams, Lucas J Grant, Michael J Gidley, Deirdre Mikkelsen
The majority of dietary fibre (DF) originates from plant cell walls. Chemically, DF mostly comprise carbohydrate polymers, which resist hydrolysis by digestive enzymes in the mammalian small intestine, but can be fermented by large intestinal bacteria. One of the main benefits of DF relate to its fermentability, which affects microbial diversity and function within the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT), as well as the by-products of the fermentation process. Much work examining DF tends to focus on various purified ingredients, which have been extracted from plants...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046740/draft-genome-sequence-and-characterization-of-commensal-escherichia-coli-strain-bg1-isolated-from-bovine-gastro-intestinal-tract
#18
Audrey Segura, Pauline Auffret, Christophe Klopp, Yolande Bertin, Evelyne Forano
Escherichia coli is the most abundant facultative anaerobic bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract of mammals but can be responsible for intestinal infection due to acquisition of virulence factors. Genomes of pathogenic E. coli strains are widely described whereas those of bovine commensal E. coli strains are very scarce. Here, we report the genome sequence, annotation, and features of the commensal E. coli BG1 isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract of cattle. Whole genome sequencing analysis showed that BG1 has a chromosome of 4,782,107 bp coding for 4465 proteins and 97 RNAs...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046150/complex-interplay-between-solubilization-digestion-supersaturation-and-absorption-of-poorly-soluble-drugs-with-lipid-based-formulations
#19
Vincent Jannin
Lipid-based formulations (LBFs) can be effective oral drug delivery systems for poorly water-soluble chemical entities, provided they are designed with careful selection of the excipients, based on their role in the delivery system and in relation to the drug properties [1]. LBFs comprise four types of formulations (type I, II, III A and B, IV) containing mixture of oils, surfactants and hydrophilic cosolvents, some of which are able to self-emulsify in contact with the gastrointestinal medium [2]. Key considerations in the selection step must be the series of mechanisms underpinning oral bioavailability enhancement...
October 18, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045902/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-expression-licenses-type-2-helper-t-cells-to-function-in-a-t-cell-receptor-independent-fashion
#20
Carlos M Minutti, Sebastian Drube, Natalie Blair, Christian Schwartz, Jame C McCrae, Andrew N McKenzie, Thomas Kamradt, Michal Mokry, Paul J Coffer, Maria Sibilia, Alice J Sijts, Padraic G Fallon, Rick M Maizels, Dietmar M Zaiss
Gastro-intestinal helminth infections trigger the release of interleukin-33 (IL-33), which induces type-2 helper T cells (Th2 cells) at the site of infection to produce IL-13, thereby contributing to host resistance in a T cell receptor (TCR)-independent manner. Here, we show that, as a prerequisite for IL-33-induced IL-13 secretion, Th2 cells required the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and of its ligand, amphiregulin, for the formation of a signaling complex between T1/ST2 (the IL-33R) and EGFR...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
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