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Leidy Johanna Ocampo Arroyave, María Clara Restrepo-Méndez, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Denise Petrucci Gigante, Helen Gonçalves
This study focuses on trends and inequalities in health risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study compared two birth cohorts in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The sample included 1,281 adolescents from the 1982 cohort and 4,106 from the 1993 cohort, followed in 2001 and 2011, respectively. The study recorded alcohol intake, illegal drug use, smoking, sexual initiation < 16 years, lack of condom use, and multiple sex partners. Total prevalence rates were calculated for each cohort, stratified by gender and per capita income, besides absolute and relative measures of inequality...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
I O Oliveira, L P Silva, M C Borges, O M Cruz, J W Tessmann, J V S Motta, F K Seixas, B L Horta, D P Gigante
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Homocysteine (Hcy) is a key intermediate in methionine metabolism. A high plasma concentration of Hcy is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases among other determinants. In this study, we aimed to investigate the interactions between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase enzyme gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms and lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity) on Hcy concentrations in a young Brazilian population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study population comprised 3803 individuals from the Pelotas Birth Cohort, aged 22-23 years...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Noora Rafeek, Rajeswaran Rangasami, Kamakshi Dhanraj, Santhosh Joseph
Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is a very rare breast disease affecting young girls of premenarche and adolescent ages. It is a benign fibroepithelial tumour characterised by stromal and epithelial proliferation that causes rapidly growing breast mass. Bilateral symmetrical involvement is extremely rare. In this article, we describe this entity in a girl aged 13 years who presented with bilateral gigantically enlarged breasts. Ultrasonography and MRI showed large, multilobulated masses involving both breasts entirely...
October 6, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Donato Iacovazzo, Márta Korbonits
X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) is a recently identified condition of early-onset GH excess resulting from the germline or somatic duplication of the GPR101 gene on chromosome Xq26.3. Thirty patients have been formally reported so far. The disease affects mostly females, occurs usually sporadically, and is characterised by early onset and marked overgrowth. Most patients present with concomitant hyperprolactinaemia. Histopathology shows pituitary hyperplasia or pituitary adenoma with or without associated hyperplasia...
September 29, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Francisca Caimari, Márta Korbonits
Recently, a number of novel genetic alterations have been identified that predispose individuals to pituitary adenomas. Clinically relevant pituitary adenomas are relatively common, present in 0.1% of the general population. They are mostly benign monoclonal neoplasms that arise from any of the five hormone-secreting cell types of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, and cause disease due to hormonal alterations and local space-occupying effects. The pathomechanism of pituitary adenomas includes alterations in cell-cycle regulation and growth factor signaling, which are mostly due to epigenetic changes; somatic and especially germline mutations occur more rarely...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Khushboo, Y Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Cheng-Hsiu Tsai, Naoki Kohno
Living baleen whales (Mysticeti) include the world's largest animals to have ever lived-blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) can reach more than 30 m. However, the gigantism in baleen whales remains little explored. Here, we compiled all published stem mysticetes from the Eocene and Oligocene and then mapped the estimated body size onto different phylogenies that suggest distinct evolutionary histories of baleen whales. By assembling all known stem baleen whales, we present three novel findings in early mysticete evolution...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
Rosario Cianci, Biagio Barbano, Antonietta Gigante, Edoardo Rosato, Alvaro Zaccaria, Nicola Mangialardi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Erik R Mohlhenrich, Rachel Lockridge Mueller
Salamanders have the largest nuclear genomes among tetrapods and, excepting lungfishes, among vertebrates as a whole. Lynch and Conery (2003) have proposed the mutational-hazard hypothesis to explain variation in genome size and complexity. Under this hypothesis, non-coding DNA imposes a selective cost by increasing the target for degenerative mutations, i.e. the mutational hazard. Expansion of non-coding DNA, and thus genome size, is driven by increased levels of genetic drift and/or decreased mutation rates; the former determines the efficiency with which purifying selection can remove excess DNA, while the latter determines the level of mutational hazard...
October 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Felipe Garcia Ribeiro, André Carraro, Janaína Vieira Dos Santos Motta, Denise Petrucci Gigante
Objective To investigate the social impact of literacy on the smoking behavior of illiterate individuals who share the household with literate individuals. Method This cross-sectional study employed data from the 2008 Brazilian National Household Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios, PNAD). Smokers were defined as individuals reporting use of any tobacco product daily or less than daily. The literacy profiles of residents were identified. Poisson regressions adjusted for skin color, age, and maximum level of literacy in the household were performed...
June 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Kamila L N Bandeira, Felipe Medeiros Simbras, Elaine Batista Machado, Diogenes de Almeida Campos, Gustavo R Oliveira, Alexander W A Kellner
Titanosaurian dinosaurs include some of the largest land-living animals that ever existed, and most were discovered in Cretaceous deposits of Argentina. Here we describe the first Brazilian gigantic titanosaur, Austroposeidon magnificus gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Cretaceous Presidente Prudente Formation (Bauru Group, Paraná Basin), São Paulo State, southeast Brazil. The size of this animal is estimated around 25 meters. It consists of a partial vertebral column composed by the last two cervical and the first dorsal vertebrae, all fairly complete and incomplete portions of at least one sacral and seven dorsal elements...
2016: PloS One
Massimiliano D'Imperio, Giacomina Brunetti, Isabella Gigante, Francesco Serio, Pietro Santamaria, Angela Cardinali, Silvia Colucci, Fiorenza Minervini
Food industries are increasingly oriented toward new foods to improve nutritional status and/or to combat nutritional deficiency diseases. In this context, silicon biofortification could be an innovative tool for obtaining new foods with possible positive effects on bone mineralization. In this paper, an alternative and quick in vitro approach was applied in order to evaluate the potential health-promoting effects of five silicon-biofortified leafy vegetables (tatsoi, mizuna, purslane, Swiss chard and chicory) on bone mineralization compared with a commercial silicon supplement...
October 3, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Paula Duarte de Oliveira, Fernando C Wehrmeister, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Helen Gonçalves, Maria Cecília F Assunção, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Denise P Gigante, Fernando C Barros, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes
BACKGROUND: Overweight/obesity has been reported to worsen pulmonary function (PF). This study aimed to examine the association between PF and several body composition (BC) measures in two population-based cohorts. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of individuals aged 18 and 30 years from two Pelotas Birth Cohorts in southern Brazil. PF was assessed by spirometry. Body measures that were collected included body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, percentages of total and segmented (trunk, arms and legs) fat mass (FM) and total fat-free mass (FFM)...
2016: PloS One
Terry A Gates, Chris Organ, Lindsay E Zanno
Exaggerated cranial structures such as crests and horns, hereafter referred to collectively as ornaments, are pervasive across animal species. These structures perform vital roles in visual communication and physical interactions within and between species. Yet the origin and influence of ornamentation on speciation and ecology across macroevolutionary time scales remains poorly understood for virtually all animals. Here, we explore correlative evolution of osseous cranial ornaments with large body size in theropod dinosaurs using a phylogenetic comparative framework...
2016: Nature Communications
Stefano Alivernini, Mariola Kurowska-Stolarska, Barbara Tolusso, Roberta Benvenuto, Aziza Elmesmari, Silvia Canestri, Luca Petricca, Antonella Mangoni, Anna Laura Fedele, Clara Di Mario, Maria Rita Gigante, Elisa Gremese, Iain B McInnes, Gianfranco Ferraccioli
MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is an important regulator of B cells in mice. B cells have a critical role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we show that miR-155 is highly expressed in peripheral blood B cells from RA patients compared with healthy individuals, particularly in the IgD(-)CD27(-) memory B-cell population in ACPA(+) RA. MiR-155 is highly expressed in RA B cells from patients with synovial tissue containing ectopic germinal centres compared with diffuse synovial tissue. MiR-155 expression is associated reciprocally with lower expression of PU...
September 27, 2016: Nature Communications
Serban Radian, Yoan Diekmann, Plamena Gabrovska, Brendan Holland, Lisa Bradley, Helen Wallace, Karen Stals, Anna-Marie Bussell, Karen McGurren, Martin Cuesta, Anthony W Ryan, Maria Herincs, Laura C Hernández-Ramírez, Aidan Holland, Jade Samuels, Elena Daniela Aflorei, Sayka Barry, Judit Dénes, Ida Pernicova, Craig E Stiles, Giampaolo Trivellin, Ronan McCloskey, Michal Ajzensztejn, Noina Abid, Scott A Akker, Moises Mercado, Mark Cohen, Rajesh V Thakker, Stephanie Baldeweg, Ariel Barkan, Madalina Musat, Miles Levy, Stephen M Orme, Martina Unterländer, Joachim Burger, Ajith V Kumar, Sian Ellard, Joseph McPartlin, Ross McManus, Gerard J Linden, Brew Atkinson, David J Balding, Amar Agha, Chris J Thompson, Steven J Hunter, Mark G Thomas, Patrick J Morrison, Márta Korbonits
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) founder mutation R304(*) (or p.R304(*) ; NM_003977.3:c.910C>T, p.Arg304Ter) identified in Northern Ireland (NI) predisposes to acromegaly/gigantism; its population health impact remains unexplored. We measured R304(*) carrier frequency in 936 Mid Ulster, 1,000 Greater Belfast (both in NI) and 2,094 Republic of Ireland (ROI) volunteers and in 116 NI or ROI acromegaly/gigantism patients. Carrier frequencies were 0.0064 in Mid Ulster (95%CI = 0.0027-0...
September 21, 2016: Human Mutation
Lorna G Christie, Andrew J Surman, Rachel A Scullion, Feng Xu, De-Liang Long, Leroy Cronin
The {Pd84 }(Ac) wheel, initially discovered serendipitously, is the only reported giant palladium macrocycle-a unique structure that spontaneously assembles from small building blocks. Analogues of this structure are elusive. A new modular route to {Pd84 }(Ac) is described, allowing incorporation of other ligands, and a new screening approach to cluster discovery. Structural assignments were made of new species from solution experiments, overcoming the need for crystallographic analysis. As a result, two new palladium macrocycles were discovered: a structural analogue of the existing {Pd84 }(Ac) wheel with glycolate ligands, {Pd84 }(Gly) , and the next in a magic number series for this cluster family-a new {Pd72 }(Prop) wheel decorated with propionate ligands...
October 4, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Romina Buffarini, María Clara Restrepo-Méndez, Vera M Silveira, Jaime J Miranda, Helen D Gonçalves, Isabel O Oliveira, Bernardo L Horta, Denise P Gigante, Ana Maria Menezes, Maria Cecília F Assunção
AIM: Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), a marker of glucose control in individuals with diabetes mellitus, is also related with the incidence of cardiometabolic risk in populations free of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of HbA1c levels according to early-life and contemporary factors in adolescents and adults without diabetes mellitus. METHODS: HbA1c was measured in adults aged 30 years and adolescents aged 18 years who are participants in the 1982 and 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohorts, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Anne-Lise Lecoq, Philippe Zizzari, Mirella Hage, Lyvianne Decourtye, Clovis Adam, Say Viengchareun, Johannes D Veldhuis, Valérie Geoffroy, Marc Lombès, Virginie Tolle, Anne Guillou, Auli Karhu, Laurent Kappeler, Philippe Chanson, Peter Kamenický
Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene predispose humans to pituitary adenomas, particularly of the somatotroph lineage. Mice with global heterozygous inactivation of Aip (Aip(+/-)) also develop pituitary adenomas but differ from AIP-mutated patients by the high penetrance of pituitary disease. The endocrine phenotype of these mice is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the endocrine phenotype of Aip(+/-) mice by assessing the somatic growth, ultradian pattern of GH secretion and IGF1 concentrations of longitudinally followed male mice at 3 and 12 months of age...
October 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
J A Goldbogen, D Cade, J Calambokidis, A S Friedlaender, J Potvin, P S Segre, A J Werth
Baleen whales are gigantic obligate filter feeders that exploit aggregations of small-bodied prey in littoral, epipelagic, and mesopelagic ecosystems. At the extreme of maximum body size observed among mammals, baleen whales exhibit a unique combination of high overall energetic demands and low mass-specific metabolic rates. As a result, most baleen whale species have evolved filter-feeding mechanisms and foraging strategies that take advantage of seasonally abundant yet patchily and ephemerally distributed prey resources...
September 7, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
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