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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930798/prevalence-of-obesity-no-leisure-time-physical-activity-and-short-sleep-duration-among-occupational-groups-in-29-states
#1
Jan Birdsey, Aaron L Sussell
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine prevalence of obesity (body mass index of 30 or higher), no leisure-time physical activity in the past 30 days (no LTPA), and short sleep duration (averaging less than 7 hours of sleep per 24-hour period) among 22 occupational groups. METHODS: We analyzed 2013 and 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 29 states, controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and education. RESULTS: By occupation, prevalence ranged from 16...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930375/occupation-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-minsk-tractor-plant-workers
#2
Denis Vinnikov, Sergey Semizhon, Tatsyana Rybina, Ludmila Savich, Vicktor Scherbitsky, Igor Manichev
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to measure the association of exposure to dust at workplace with COPD using objective methods of exposure and outcome classification. METHODS: Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ) to forced vital capacity (FVC) <70%; FVC below LLN, and FEV1 below LLN from the annual screening of Minsk Tractor Plant workers (N = 458) were tested for predictors in an adjusted logistic regression model. RESULTS: In a regression model, adjusted for pack-years of smoking, age, sex, and work duration, work in highly exposed workplaces was associated with FEV1 /FVC<70% (odds ratio (OR) 2...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919824/strengthening-participation-by-young-women-sex-workers-in-hiv-programs-reflections-on-a-study-from-bangkok-thailand
#3
Cath Conn, Kristel Modderman, Shoba Nayar
BACKGROUND: Participation is an accepted means of increasing the effectiveness of public health programs, and as such, it is considered an important component of HIV interventions targeting at-risk youth. The situation of young women sex workers in Thailand is alarming on many fronts, including that of HIV risk. As a result, HIV programs in Thailand are the key interventions undertaken in relation to young women sex workers' health. A small-scale study used semistructured interviews to explore the participation reports of five young women sex workers, as well as the related views of two community support workers, who lived and worked in Bangkok, Thailand...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916143/violent-behavior-by-emergency-department-patients-with-an-involuntary-hold-status
#4
Nancy L Dawson, Christian Lachner, Tyler F Vadeboncoeur, Michael J Maniaci, Veronica Bosworth, Teresa A Rummans, Archana Roy, M Caroline Burton
BACKGROUND: Violence against health care workers has been increasing. Health care workers in emergency departments (EDs) are highly vulnerable because they provide care for patients who may have mental illness, behavioral problems, or substance use disorders (alone or in combination) and who are often evaluated during an involuntary hold. Our objective was to identify factors that may be associated with violent behavior in ED patients during involuntary holds. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients evaluated during an involuntary hold at a suburban acute care hospital ED from January 2014 through November 2015...
August 18, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915767/sick-leave-among-people-in-paid-work-after-age-65-a-swedish-population-based-study-covering-1995-2000-2005-and-2010
#5
K Farrants, S Marklund, L Kjeldgård, J Head, K Alexanderson
AIMS: Extending working life into older age groups is discussed in many countries. However, there is no knowledge about how this affects rates of sick leave. The aim of this work was to investigate rates of sick leave among people in paid work after retirement age and if such rates have changed over time. METHODS: Swedish nationwide register data on people aged >65 years and living in Sweden in 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010 were analysed. All people with a sufficiently high work income to be eligible for public sick leave benefits were included...
September 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915113/causative-factors-for-sexual-and-reproductive-health-status-of-pregnant-adolescent-girls-in-urban-communities-of-lagos-nigeria
#6
Yetunde A Kuyinu, Toriola T Femi-Adebayo, Babatunde A Odugbemi, Elochukwu E Ukatu
Background The overall goal of this study was to determine the causative factors for pregnancy status in adolescent girls in two communities in the Lagos Island local government area. Methods A mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) study reviewing routine health facility antenatal care (ANC) records and conducting focus group discussions among 46 pregnant adolescents, exploring their views about sex, contraception, pregnancy and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, was carried out. Key informant interviews were also carried out among healthcare workers and community members to assess their perceptions of adolescents' SRH problems...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912117/sample-size-calculations-for-population-size-estimation-studies-using-multiplier-methods-with-respondent-driven-sampling-surveys
#7
Elizabeth Fearon, Sungai T Chabata, Jennifer A Thompson, Frances M Cowan, James R Hargreaves
BACKGROUND: While guidance exists for obtaining population size estimates using multiplier methods with respondent-driven sampling surveys, we lack specific guidance for making sample size decisions. OBJECTIVE: To guide the design of multiplier method population size estimation studies using respondent-driven sampling surveys to reduce the random error around the estimate obtained. METHODS: The population size estimate is obtained by dividing the number of individuals receiving a service or the number of unique objects distributed (M) by the proportion of individuals in a representative survey who report receipt of the service or object (P)...
September 14, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910931/-quality-of-network-direct-reporting-of-information-about-intervention-service-in-population-at-high-risk-for-hiv-infection-in-china-2013-2014
#8
L Li, X B Cao, W Luo, C H Wang, Z Y Wu, K M Rou
Objective: To analyze the problems in the network direct reporting of information about intervention service conducted in population at high risk for HIV infection in China during 2013-2014, and provide evidence for the improvement of the network direct reporting of the intervention information. Methods: The wrong records of the intervention service in population at high-risk were collected from national AIDS prevention and treatment information system. The wrong records, including those found at county (district) level and those found at state level, were analyzed with descriptive statistical method...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910923/-a-qualitative-study-on-high-risk-behaviors-and-related-factors-of-reported-hiv-aids-cases-aged-60-years-and-above-in-some-areas-of-henan-province
#9
N Li, H Li, Y M Ma, P Y Fan, W J Yang, Q Zhu
Objective: To understand the major high risk behaviors and related factors among reported HIV/AIDS cases aged ≥60 years in some areas of Henan province. Methods: In Dengzhou, Xunxian county of Hebi and Xiangcheng county of Xuchang, where the reported number and proportion of HIV/AIDS cases aged ≥60 years were high, a face to face interview was conducted among the cases aged ≥60 years during July-August in 2016. The information about the high risk behaviors before HIV infection confirmation were collected by using a semi-structured questionnaire...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910231/professionals-attitude-toward-reporting-child-sexual-abuse-in-saudi-arabia
#10
Dalia M Al-Saif, Majid Al-Eissa, Hassan Saleheen, Huda Al-Mutlaq, Mark D Everson, Maha A Almuneef
Child sexual abuse (CSA) requires specialized knowledge and training that includes forensic interview skills. The aim of this study was to determine variations in professionals' attitudes toward CSA by measuring three aspects of forensic attitudes (sensitivity, specificity, and skepticism) and evaluating disagreements concerning the assessment of CSA cases in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional, web-based study, in which the Child Forensic Attitude Scale was used to measure professionals' attitudes, was conducted...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901825/beyond-homonegativity-understanding-hong-kong-people-s-attitudes-about-social-acceptance-of-gay-lesbian-people-sexual-orientation-discrimination-protection-and-same-sex-marriage
#11
Tien Ee Dominic Yeo, Tsz Hang Chu
This study examined attitudes about social acceptance, discrimination protection, and marriage equality for gay/lesbian people with a representative sample of 1,008 Hong Kong Chinese adults via a telephone survey. Despite majority endorsement of homosexuality (52.29% positive vs 34.12% negative) and discrimination protection (50.77% favorable vs 14.62% opposed), attitudes toward same-sex marriage diverged (32.72% favorable vs 39.45% opposed). There was a sharp distinction in accepting gay/lesbian people as co-workers (83...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901213/hiv-prevalence-and-correlated-factors-of-female-sex-workers-and-male-clients-in-a-border-region-of-yunnan-province-china
#12
Jing Zhu, Rui Yuan, Dan Hu, Zhibin Zhu, Ning Wang, Bei Wang
Female sex workers (FSWs) and their male clients are vulnerable to HIV infection and serve as a bridge in HIV transmission from the high-risk population to the general, low-risk population. To examine the factors of FSWs and male clients that correlate with the prevalence of HIV infection in the Chinese-Vietnamese border region, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 in the Hekou county of the Yunnan province of China. We performed a questionnaire survey to collect data on demographics, sexual behavior, and drug use...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894259/cd161-identifies-polyfunctional-th1-th17-cells-in-the-genital-mucosa-that-are-depleted-in-hiv-infected-female-sex-workers-from-nairobi-kenya
#13
Geneviève Boily-Larouche, Kenneth Omollo, Julianna Cheruiyot, Jane Njoki, Makobu Kimani, Joshua Kimani, Julius Oyugi, Julie Lajoie, Keith R Fowke
CD161 identifies a subset of circulating Th17 cells that are depleted in the blood and gut of HIV-infected individuals. In the female reproductive tract (FRT), the pattern of CD161 expression on CD4(+) cells remains unknown. Here, we characterized CD161 expression in the FRT of Kenyan female sex workers (FSW). Compared to the blood, CD161(+)CD4(+) T cells were enriched in the FRT of uninfected FSWs. These cells were depleted in FRT of HIV-infected FSWs. Cervical CD161(+) cells harboured an activated phenotype (CD69, CD95, HLA-DR) with elevated expression of tissue-homing markers (CCR6, β7 integrin) and HIV co-receptor (CCR5)...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893933/tumour-virus-epidemiology
#14
REVIEW
Ruth M Lunn, Gloria D Jahnke, Charles S Rabkin
A viral etiology of cancer was first demonstrated in 1911 by Peyton Rous who injected cell-free filtrate from a chicken sarcoma into healthy chickens and found it induced a tumour. Since the discovery over 50 years ago of the Epstein-Barr virus as the cause of Burkitt lymphoma, seven other human viruses or groups of viruses-hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, some human papillomaviruses, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Merkel cell polyomavirus-have been linked to human cancer...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893304/preventing-hiv-infection-without-targeting-the-virus-how-reducing-hiv-target-cells-at-the-genital-tract-is-a-new-approach-to-hiv-prevention
#15
REVIEW
Julie Lajoie, Lucy Mwangi, Keith R Fowke
For over three decades, HIV infection has had a tremendous impact on the lives of individuals and public health. Microbicides and vaccines studies have shown that immune activation at the genital tract is a risk factor for HIV infection. Furthermore, lower level of immune activation, or what we call immune quiescence, has been associated with a lower risk of HIV acquisition. This unique phenotype is observed in highly-exposed seronegative individuals from different populations including female sex workers from the Pumwani cohort in Nairobi, Kenya...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893268/a-novel-hiv-vaccine-targeting-the-protease-cleavage-sites
#16
REVIEW
Hongzhao Li, Robert W Omange, Francis A Plummer, Ma Luo
HIV preferentially infects activated CD4+ T cells and mutates rapidly. The classical vaccine approach aimed to generate broad immune responses to full HIV proteins largely failed to address the potential adverse impact of increased number of activated CD4+ T cells as viral targets. Learning from natural immunity observed in a group of HIV resistant Kenyan female sex workers, we are testing a novel vaccine approach. It focuses immune response to the highly conserved sequences surrounding the HIV protease cleavage sites (PCS) to disrupt viral maturation, while limiting excessive immune activation...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891716/implementation-of-a-county-township-village-allied-hiv-prevention-and-control-intervention-in-rural-china
#17
Jun Yu, Yi Zhang, Junjun Jiang, Qinglin Lu, Bingyu Liang, Deping Liu, Keyong Fang, Jiegang Huang, Yang He, Chuanyi Ning, Yanyan Liao, Jingzhen Lai, Wudi Wei, Fengxiang Qin, Li Ye, Wenkui Geng, Hao Liang
In China, rural areas are a weak link of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. From September 2011, an innovative "county-township-village" allied intervention was implemented in Longzhou County, Guangxi, which assigned the tasks of HIV/AIDS prevention and control to the county Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), township hospitals, and village clinics, respectively, instead of traditional intervention in which the county CDC undertook the entire work. A 6-year consecutive cross-sectional survey, including 3-year traditional intervention (2009-2011) and 3-year innovative intervention (2012-2014), was conducted to evaluate the effects of the new intervention...
September 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890656/effects-of-teaching-health-care-workers-on-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pesticide-poisonings-in-uganda
#18
REVIEW
Claudia Sibani, Kristian Kjaer Jessen, Bircan Tekin, Victoria Nabankema, Erik Jørs
BACKGROUND: Acute pesticide poisoning in developing countries is a considerable problem, requiring diagnosis and treatment. This study describes how training of health care workers in Uganda affects their ability to diagnose and manage acute pesticide poisoning. METHOD: A postintervention cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. A total of 326 health care workers in Uganda were interviewed on knowledge and handling of acute pesticide poisoning...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890504/an-alarmingly-high-proportion-of-anti-retroviral-drugs-resistant-hiv-1-infection-among-high-risk-groups-in-central-vietnam-a-sub-study-of-the-national-sentinel-survey
#19
Hung Thai Do, Dong Thanh Nguyen, Lan Anh Thi Nguyen, Duong Huy Do, Huy Xuan Le, Xuan Mai Thi Trinh, Hong Vy Nu Ton, Ikumi Sawada, Noriko Kitamura, Nhat Minh Le, Keisuke Yoshihara, Thu Huong Thi Phan, Chien Trong Bui, Koya Ariyoshi, Lay Myint Yoshida
We investigated the prevalence of HIV drug resistance among high risk groups such as injecting drug user (IDU), female sex worker (FSW) and men having sex with men (MSM) in central Vietnam. We used HIV positive samples from 2012-2013 sentinel surveillance surveys. Study subjects were screened for HIV infection by standardized screening assays and the positive samples were further tested for HIV viral load and drug resistant mutations by in-house assays. Drug resistant mutations (DRMs) were determined using the Stanford University online sequence analysis tool...
September 11, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883425/computational-genome-wide-survey-of-odorant-receptors-from-two-solitary-bees-dufourea-novaeangliae-hymenoptera-halictidae-and-habropoda-laboriosa-hymenoptera-apidae
#20
Snehal D Karpe, Surbhi Dhingra, Axel Brockmann, R Sowdhamini
Olfactory/odorant receptors (ORs) probably govern eusocial behaviour in honey bees through detection of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) and queen mandibular gland pheromones (QMP). CHCs are involved in nest-mate recognition whereas QMP acts as sex pheromone for drones and as retinue pheromone for female workers. Further studies on the effect of eusociality on the evolution of ORs are hindered by the non-availability of comprehensive OR sets of solitary species. We report complete OR repertoires from two solitary bees Dufourea novaeangliae (112 ORs) and Habropoda laboriosa (151 ORs)...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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