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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422809/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis
#1
Kosaku Nanki, Shinta Mizuno, Katsuyoshi Matsuoka, Keiko Ono, Shinya Sugimoto, Hiroki Kiyohara, Mari Arai, Moeko Nakashima, Kozue Takeshita, Keiichiro Saigusa, Mitsutoshi Senoh, Tadashi Fukuda, Makoto Naganuma, Haru Kato, Wataru Suda, Masahira Hattori, Takanori Kanai
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been reported as a safe and effective therapy in patients with refractory and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). FMT has also been reported as a promising therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Both, CDI and UC, are believed to be caused by dysbiosis, such as altered compositions or decreased diversity of the intestinal microbiota. This report describes a patient with UC in remission with a second recurrent episode of CDI, who was treated with FMT...
January 2018: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404425/gut-microbiota-offers-universal-biomarkers-across-ethnicity-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-diagnosis-and-infliximab-response-prediction
#2
Youlian Zhou, Zhenjiang Zech Xu, Yan He, Yunsheng Yang, Le Liu, Qianyun Lin, Yuqiang Nie, Mingsong Li, Fachao Zhi, Side Liu, Amnon Amir, Antonio González, Anupriya Tripathi, Minhu Chen, Gary D Wu, Rob Knight, Hongwei Zhou, Ye Chen
Gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to the onset and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Given that gut microbiotas vary across geography and ethnicity, it remains obscure whether any universal microbial signatures for IBD diagnosis and prognosis evaluation exist irrespective of populations. Here we profiled the fecal microbiota of a series of Chinese IBD patients and combined them with two Western IBD cohorts, PRISM and RISK, for meta-analyses. We found that the gut microbial alteration patterns in IBD are similar among Chinese and Westerners...
January 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385143/longitudinal-microbiome-analysis-of-single-donor-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-and-or-ulcerative-colitis
#3
Michael Mintz, Shanawaj Khair, Suman Grewal, Joseph F LaComb, Jiyhe Park, Breana Channer, Ramona Rajapakse, Juan Carlos Bucobo, Jonathan M Buscaglia, Farah Monzur, Anupama Chawla, Jie Yang, Charlie E Robertson, Daniel N Frank, Ellen Li
BACKGROUND: Studies of colonoscopic fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in patients with recurrent CDI, indicate that this is a very effective treatment for preventing further relapses. In order to provide this service at Stony Brook University Hospital, we initiated an open-label prospective study of single colonoscopic FMT among patients with ≥ 2 recurrences of CDI, with the intention of monitoring microbial composition in the recipient before and after FMT, as compared with their respective donor...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373727/determinants-of-reduced-genetic-capacity-for-butyrate-synthesis-by-the-gut-microbiome-in-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis
#4
Emilio J Laserna-Mendieta, Adam G Clooney, Julián F Carretero-Gomez, Carthage Moran, Donal Sheehan, James A Nolan, Colin Hill, Cormac G M Gahan, Susan A Joyce, Fergus Shanahan, Marcus J Claesson
Background and Aims: Alterations in short chain fatty acid metabolism, particularly butyrate, have been reported in inflammatory bowel disease, but results have been conflicting because of small study numbers and failure to distinguish disease type, activity or other variables such as diet. We performed a comparative assessment of the capacity of the microbiota for butyrate synthesis, by quantifying butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase [BCoAT] gene content in stool from patients with Crohn's disease [CD; n = 71], ulcerative colitis [UC; n = 58] and controls [n = 75], and determined whether it was related to active vs inactive inflammation, microbial diversity, and composition and/or dietary habits...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361092/safety-clinical-response-and-microbiome-findings-following-fecal-microbiota-transplant-in-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Alka Goyal, Andrew Yeh, Brian R Bush, Brian A Firek, Leah M Siebold, Matthew Brian Rogers, Adam D Kufen, Michael J Morowitz
Background: The role of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in the treatment of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown. The aims of this study were to assess safety, clinical response, and gut microbiome alterations in children with Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), or indeterminate colitis (IC). Methods: In this open-label, single-center prospective trial, patients with IBD refractory to medical therapy underwent a single FMT by upper and lower endoscopy...
January 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359185/antibiotic-treatments-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-are-associated-with-distinct-bacterial-and-fungal-community-structures
#6
Regina Lamendella, Justin R Wright, Jada Hackman, Christopher McLimans, David R Toole, William Bernard Rubio, Rebecca Drucker, Hoi Tong Wong, Kate Sabey, John P Hegarty, David B Stewart
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common nosocomial infection in the United States, being associated with high recurrence and persistence rates. Though the relationship between intestinal dysbiosis and CDI is well known, it is unclear whether different forms of dysbiosis may potentially affect the course of CDI. How this is further influenced by C. difficile-directed antibiotics is virtually uninvestigated. In this study, diarrheal stool samples were collected from 20 hospitalized patients, half of whom were confirmed to have CDI...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358865/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-induces-remission-of-infantile-allergic-colitis-through-gut-microbiota-re-establishment
#7
Sheng-Xuan Liu, Yin-Hu Li, Wen-Kui Dai, Xue-Song Li, Chuang-Zhao Qiu, Meng-Ling Ruan, Biao Zou, Chen Dong, Yan-Hong Liu, Jia-Yi He, Zhi-Hua Huang, Sai-Nan Shu
AIM: To investigate the impact of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) treatment on allergic colitis (AC) and gut microbiota (GM). METHODS: We selected a total of 19 AC infants, who suffered from severe diarrhea/hematochezia, did not relieve completely after routine therapy or cannot adhere to the therapy, and were free from organ congenital malformations and other contraindications for FMT. Qualified donor-derived stools were collected and injected to the AC infants via a rectal tube...
December 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344020/a-case-of-immune-thrombocytopenia-as-a-rare-side-effect-of-an-immunotherapy-with-pd1-blocking-agents-for-metastatic-melanoma
#8
Claudia Pföhler, Hermann Eichler, Barbara Burgard, Nathalie Krecké, Cornelia S L Müller, Thomas Vogt
Background: Checkpoint blocking agents such as pembrolizumab or nivolumab may induce a diversity of mostly autoimmune-mediated side effects. These autoimmune phenomena mainly affect ductless glands such as the pituitary gland (hypophysitis), the thyroid gland (thyreoiditis), the skin (vitiligo and rash), the colon (colitis), and the lung (pneumonitis). Furthermore, many other organs or organ systems may be affected. Case Report: This work describes a case of an immune thrombocytopenia that developed or rather became clinically significant shortly after initiation of a systemic therapy with first nivolumab and later pembrolizumab given due to metastatic melanoma...
November 2017: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337777/rescue-diverting-loop-ileostomy-an-alternative-to-emergent-colectomy-in-the-setting-of-severe-acute-refractory-ibd-colitis
#9
Tara A Russell, Aaron J Dawes, Danielle S Graham, Stephanie A K Angarita, Christina Ha, Jonathan Sack
BACKGROUND: Severe acute refractory colitis has traditionally been an indication for emergent colectomy in IBD, yet under these circumstances patients are at elevated risk for complications because of their heightened inflammatory state, nutritional deficiencies, and immunocompromised state. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that rescue diverting loop ileostomy may be a viable alternative to emergent colectomy, providing the opportunity for colonic healing and patient optimization before more definitive surgery...
February 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325789/long-term-outcomes-following-ileal-pouch-anal-anastomosis-in-patients-with-indeterminate-colitis
#10
Uri Netz, Norman J Galbraith, Stephen O'Brien, Jane Carter, Stephen Manek, Robert E Petras, Susan Galandiuk
BACKGROUND: The advisability of performing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for patients with indeterminate colitis is debated. Indeterminate colitis is found in up to 15% of inflammatory bowel disease colectomy specimens. We determined long-term outcomes in patients diagnosed with indeterminate colitis undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. METHODS: Fifty-six patients were included with a mean follow-up of 14 ± 7 years. Long-term behavior was defined based on surgeon assessment as "Crohn disease-like" in patients who subsequently developed clear signs of Crohn disease and as "non-Crohn disease-like...
January 8, 2018: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302751/primary-fecal-diversion-and-bowel-dysfunction-in-restorative-proctocolectomy-for-ulcerative-colitis-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-study
#11
Anders Mark-Christensen, Søren Brandsborg, Søren Laurberg
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of primary fecal diversion on the risk of pouch dysfunction. METHODS: Patients operated with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in Denmark in 2000-2010 were identified and validated bowel function questionnaires retrieved from a cross-sectional study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of primary fecal diversion on pouch dysfunction. A diagnostic or procedural code for intraabdominal abscesses and fistulas, occurring within 1 year after pouch creation, and anastomotic leakage or extremely early-onset pouchitis within 30 days of surgery defined a pelvic complication...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290650/structural-shift-of-gut-microbiota-during-chemo-preventive-effects-of-epigallocatechin-gallate-on-colorectal-carcinogenesis-in-mice
#12
Xin Wang, Tao Ye, Wen-Jie Chen, You Lv, Zong Hao, Jun Chen, Jia-Ying Zhao, Hui-Peng Wang, Yuan-Kun Cai
AIM: To investigate the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on structural changes of gut microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: An azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model was established. Forty-two female FVB/N mice were randomly divided into the following three groups: group 1 (10 mice, negative control) was treated with vehicle, group 2 (16 mice, positive control) was treated with AOM plus vehicle, and group 3 (16 mice, EG) was treated with AOM plus EGCG...
December 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230210/checkpoint-blockade-toxicity-and-immune-homeostasis-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#13
REVIEW
Michael Dougan
Monoclonal antibodies targeting the regulatory immune "checkpoint" receptors CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1 are now standard therapy for diverse malignancies including melanoma, lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. Although effective in many patients and able to induce cures in some, targeting these regulatory pathways has led to a new class of immune-related adverse events. In many respects, these immune toxicities resemble idiopathic autoimmune diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and vitiligo...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227180/removal-of-the-cecum-affects-intestinal-fermentation-enteric-bacterial-community-structure-and-acute-colitis-in-mice
#14
Kirsty Brown, D Wade Abbott, Richard R E Uwiera, G Douglas Inglis
The murine cecum is a major site of fermentation of dietary materials, and production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). To examine the role that the cecum plays in acute bacterial infection in mice, the cecum was surgically removed, and changes in bacterial communities and production of SCFAs were analyzed relative to surgical sham animals. To incite bacterial colitis, mice were orally challenged with Citrobacter rodentium. The impact of butyrate administered directly into the colon was also examined. Concentrations of SCFAs in feces were substantially lower in mice with an excised cecum...
December 11, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218079/vegf-c-mediated-enhancement-of-lymphatic-drainage-reduces-intestinal-inflammation-by-regulating-il-9-il-17-balance-and-improving-gut-microbiota-in-experimental-chronic-colitis
#15
Xiaolei Wang, Jin Zhao, Li Qin
BACKGROUND: Inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis (IAL) induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C/VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) pathway plays a crucial role in chronic intestinal inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of VEGF-C mediated enhancement of lymphatic drainage on the intestinal inflammation in experimental chronic colitis (CC) and the potential mechanism was explored. METHODS: Mouse CC model was established by three cycles of 2% DSS administration for 5 days following water administration for 5 days...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184071/preventive-trichuris-suis-ova-tso-treatment-protects-immunocompetent-rabbits-from-dss-colitis-but-may-be-detrimental-under-conditions-of-immunosuppression
#16
Irina Leonardi, Alexandra Gerstgrasser, Thomas S B Schmidt, Flora Nicholls, Bernhard Tewes, Roland Greinwald, Christian von Mering, Gerhard Rogler, Isabelle Frey-Wagner
Trichuris suis ova (TSO) have been tested for therapeutic application in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) yet understanding of the underlying mechanisms and safety in an immunocompromised host is limited due to lack of a suitable animal model. We used a recently established rabbit model of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) induced colitis to study the efficacy, mechanisms and safety of TSO therapy in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed animals. TSO treatment prevented the DSS induced weight loss, delayed the onset of DSS induced symptoms by 2 days and significantly reduced the disease activity (DAI)...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164044/characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-strains-isolated-from-patients-with-c-difficile-associated-disease-in-korea
#17
Seung-Hak Cho, Jung-Whan Chon, Kun-Ho Seo, Young Kwon Kim, Jung-Beom Kim, Young-Seok Bak, Woon-Won Jung, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Jong Tae Choi
Objectives: Studies on Clostridium difficile are rare in Korea. We investigated the epidemiological characteristics of C. difficile isolates from patients with C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in Korea. Methods: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the presence of tcdA and tcdB toxin genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out by the disk-dilution method. C. difficile strains were subtyped by automated repetitive-element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR)...
October 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147700/brown-rice-and-retrograded-brown-rice-alleviate-inflammatory-response-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-dss-induced-colitis-mice
#18
Kemika Praengam, Yuraporn Sahasakul, Piengchai Kupradinun, Siriwan Sakarin, Wanwisa Sanitchua, Anudep Rungsipipat, Kasem Rattanapinyopituk, Pornpimon Angkasekwinai, Khaimuk Changsri, Wuttichai Mhuantong, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Siriporn Tuntipopipat
The present study was aimed to investigate the impacts of brown rice (BR) and retrograded brown rice (R-BR) consumption on colonic health and gut microbiota in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis mice. Thirty two female C57Bl/6Mlac mice were fed with modified AIN 93G diets by replacing cornstarch in the original composition with white rice (WR), BR and R-BR powder. The mice were divided into 4 groups and fed with the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: (1) negative control (WR: diet with WR), (2) positive control (DSS_WR: DSS and diet with WR), (3) DSS_BR: DSS and diet with BR, and (4) DSS_R-BR: DSS and diet with R-BR...
November 17, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132532/emerging-topics-in-gastroenterology
#19
REVIEW
Gretchen Irwin, Laura Mayans, Rick Kellerman
The bacteria and fungi in the human gut make up a community of microorganisms that lives in symbiosis with humans, engaging in numerous diverse interactions that influence health. This article outlines the current knowledge on emerging topics in gastroenterology, including microbiome and probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, cyclic vomiting syndrome, eosinophilic esophagitis, and microscopic colitis.
December 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113344/polysaccharides-from-chrysanthemum-morifolium-ramat-ameliorate-colitis-rats-by-modulating-the-intestinal-microbiota-community
#20
Jin-Hua Tao, Jin-Ao Duan, Shu Jiang, Nan-Nan Feng, Wen-Qian Qiu, Yong Ling
The gut microflora dysbiosis has been closely related with the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, the effect of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat on the gut microbiota was evaluated by ulcerative colitis (UC) rat model. Physiological and pathological analyses suggested that Chrysanthemum polysaccharides possessed notably protective effects on UC in vivo. Based on the Illumina MiSeq platform, 16S rRNA sequencing of the rat colonic contents indicated that the intestinal flora structure remarkably changed in the model rats and the tendency was alleviated to a certain degree by treatment with different dosages of Chrysanthemum polysaccharides...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
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