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Diversion colitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218079/vegf-c-mediated-enhancement-of-lymphatic-drainage-reduces-intestinal-inflammation-by-regulating-il-9-il-17-balance-and-improving-gut-microbiota-in-experimental-chronic-colitis
#1
Xiaolei Wang, Jin Zhao, Li Qin
BACKGROUND: Inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis (IAL) induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C/VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) pathway plays a crucial role in chronic intestinal inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of VEGF-C mediated enhancement of lymphatic drainage on the intestinal inflammation in experimental chronic colitis (CC) and the potential mechanism was explored. METHODS: Mouse CC model was established by three cycles of 2% DSS administration for 5 days following water administration for 5 days...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184071/preventive-trichuris-suis-ova-tso-treatment-protects-immunocompetent-rabbits-from-dss-colitis-but-may-be-detrimental-under-conditions-of-immunosuppression
#2
Irina Leonardi, Alexandra Gerstgrasser, Thomas S B Schmidt, Flora Nicholls, Bernhard Tewes, Roland Greinwald, Christian von Mering, Gerhard Rogler, Isabelle Frey-Wagner
Trichuris suis ova (TSO) have been tested for therapeutic application in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) yet understanding of the underlying mechanisms and safety in an immunocompromised host is limited due to lack of a suitable animal model. We used a recently established rabbit model of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) induced colitis to study the efficacy, mechanisms and safety of TSO therapy in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed animals. TSO treatment prevented the DSS induced weight loss, delayed the onset of DSS induced symptoms by 2 days and significantly reduced the disease activity (DAI)...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164044/characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-strains-isolated-from-patients-with-c-difficile-associated-disease-in-korea
#3
Seung-Hak Cho, Jung-Whan Chon, Kun-Ho Seo, Young Kwon Kim, Jung-Beom Kim, Young-Seok Bak, Woon-Won Jung, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Jong Tae Choi
Objectives: Studies on Clostridium difficile are rare in Korea. We investigated the epidemiological characteristics of C. difficile isolates from patients with C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in Korea. Methods: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the presence of tcdA and tcdB toxin genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out by the disk-dilution method. C. difficile strains were subtyped by automated repetitive-element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR)...
October 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147700/brown-rice-and-retrograded-brown-rice-alleviate-inflammatory-response-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-dss-induced-colitis-mice
#4
Kemika Praengam, Yuraporn Sahasakul, Piengchai Kupradinun, Siriwan Sakarin, Wanwisa Sanitchua, Anudep Rungsipipat, Kasem Rattanapinyopituk, Pornpimon Angkasekwinai, Khaimuk Changsri, Wuttichai Mhuantong, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Siriporn Tuntipopipat
The present study was aimed to investigate the impacts of brown rice (BR) and retrograded brown rice (R-BR) consumption on colonic health and gut microbiota in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis mice. Thirty two female C57Bl/6Mlac mice were fed with modified AIN 93G diets by replacing cornstarch in the original composition with white rice (WR), BR and R-BR powder. The mice were divided into 4 groups and fed with the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: (1) negative control (WR: diet with WR), (2) positive control (DSS_WR: DSS and diet with WR), (3) DSS_BR: DSS and diet with BR, and (4) DSS_R-BR: DSS and diet with R-BR...
November 17, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132532/emerging-topics-in-gastroenterology
#5
REVIEW
Gretchen Irwin, Laura Mayans, Rick Kellerman
The bacteria and fungi in the human gut make up a community of microorganisms that lives in symbiosis with humans, engaging in numerous diverse interactions that influence health. This article outlines the current knowledge on emerging topics in gastroenterology, including microbiome and probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, cyclic vomiting syndrome, eosinophilic esophagitis, and microscopic colitis.
December 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113344/polysaccharides-from-chrysanthemum-morifolium-ramat-ameliorate-colitis-rats-by-modulating-the-intestinal-microbiota-community
#6
Jin-Hua Tao, Jin-Ao Duan, Shu Jiang, Nan-Nan Feng, Wen-Qian Qiu, Yong Ling
The gut microflora dysbiosis has been closely related with the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, the effect of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat on the gut microbiota was evaluated by ulcerative colitis (UC) rat model. Physiological and pathological analyses suggested that Chrysanthemum polysaccharides possessed notably protective effects on UC in vivo. Based on the Illumina MiSeq platform, 16S rRNA sequencing of the rat colonic contents indicated that the intestinal flora structure remarkably changed in the model rats and the tendency was alleviated to a certain degree by treatment with different dosages of Chrysanthemum polysaccharides...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103536/chronic-colitis-in-biopsy-samples-is-it-inflammatory-bowel-disease-or-something-else
#7
REVIEW
Eun-Young Karen Choi, Henry D Appelman
Chronic colitis, regardless of type, is defined histologically by chronic inflammation, mainly plasmacytosis, in the lamina propria. Specific diagnosis of chronic colitides in biopsies can be challenging for practicing pathologists. This article focuses on discussing specific histologic features in biopsies of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including ulcerative colitis, Crohn colitis, and colitis of indeterminate type. It also offers suggestions as to how to separate the IBDs from other chronic colitides, such as lymphocytic colitis, collagenous colitis, diverticular disease-associated colitis, diversion colitis, and chronic colitides that are due to drugs...
December 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069606/distinct-microbial-communities-trigger-colitis-development-upon-intestinal-barrier-damage-via-innate-or-adaptive-immune-cells
#8
Urmi Roy, Eric J C Gálvez, Aida Iljazovic, Till Robin Lesker, Adrian J Błażejewski, Marina C Pils, Ulrike Heise, Samuel Huber, Richard A Flavell, Till Strowig
Inflammatory bowel disease comprises a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by chronic and relapsing mucosal inflammation. Alterations in microbiota composition have been proposed to contribute to disease development, but no uniform signatures have yet been identified. Here, we compare the ability of a diverse set of microbial communities to exacerbate intestinal inflammation after chemical damage to the intestinal barrier. Strikingly, genetically identical wild-type mice differing only in their microbiota composition varied strongly in their colitis susceptibility...
October 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040430/transcriptomic-landscape-of-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-ulcerative-colitis
#9
Hagar Taman, Christopher G Fenton, Inga V Hensel, Endre Anderssen, Jon Florholmen, Ruth H Paulssen
Background and Aims: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease that effects the gastrointestinal tract and is considered one of the most prominent and common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to define and describe the entire transcriptomic landscape in a well-stratified, treatment-naïve UC patient population compared to control patients by using next-generation technology, RNA-Seq. Methods: Mucosal biopsies from treatment-naïve UC patients (n=14), and healthy controls (n=16) underwent RNA-Seq...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025733/hydrogen-sulfide-an-agent-of-stability-at-the-microbiome-mucosa-interface
#10
John L Wallace, Jean-Paul Motta, Andre G Buret
A diverse range of effects of the intestinal microbiota on mucosal defence and injury has become increasingly clear over the past decade. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important mediator of many physiological functions, including gastrointestinal mucosal defence and repair. Hydrogen sulfide is produced gastrointestinal tract tissues and by bacteria residing within the gut, and can influence the function of a wide range of cells. The microbiota also appears to be an important target of hydrogen sulfide...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024038/baseline-lab-parameters-predicting-clinical-outcome-in-melanoma-patients-treated-with-ipilimumab-a-single-center-analysis
#11
Thilo Gambichler, Victoria Brown, Ann-Kathrin Steuke, Lutz Schmitz, Eggert Stockfleth, Laura Susok
BACKGROUND: Overall response rates (ORR) for ipilimumab in advanced melanoma are only about 10%. Hence, it is important to explore biomarkers predicting ipilimumab responders. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore biomarkers in order to predict therapy outcome in melanoma patients who have undergone standard ipilimumab therapy in a real-world setting. METHODS: Databases of cutaneous melanoma patients (n = 52) who had received ipilimumab were reviewed and data collected on patient characteristics and diverse lab parameters...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983289/dietary-heme-induces-gut-dysbiosis-aggravates-colitis-and-potentiates-the-development-of-adenomas-in-mice
#12
Marco Constante, Gabriela Fragoso, Annie Calvé, Macha Samba-Mondonga, Manuela M Santos
Dietary heme can be used by colonic bacteria equipped with heme-uptake systems as a growth factor and thereby impact on the microbial community structure. The impact of heme on the gut microbiota composition may be particularly pertinent in chronic inflammation such as in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), where a strong association with gut dysbiosis has been consistently reported. In this study we investigated the influence of dietary heme on the gut microbiota and inferred metagenomic composition, and on chemically induced colitis and colitis-associated adenoma development in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955766/multi-pk-antibodies-powerful-analytical-tools-to-explore-the-protein-kinase-world
#13
REVIEW
Yasunori Sugiyama, Isamu Kameshita
Diverse biological events are regulated through protein phosphorylation mediated by protein kinases. Some of these protein kinases are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Although 518 protein kinase genes were identified in the human genome, it remains unclear how many and what kind of protein kinases are expressed and activated in cells and tissues under varying situations. To investigate cellular signaling by protein kinases, we developed monoclonal antibodies, designated as Multi-PK antibodies, that can recognize multiple protein kinases in various biological species...
September 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926599/experimental-colitis-delays-and-reduces-the-severity-of-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-mice
#14
Julie Hablot, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Tunay Kokten, Reine El Omar, Patrick Netter, Claire Bastien, Jean-Yves Jouzeau, Harry Sokol, David Moulin
Amongst extraintestinal manifestations (EIM) occurring in IBD patients, rheumatologic manifestations are the most frequent. Understanding the relationships between arthritis and colitis is a prerequisite to improving the management of these patients. Microbiota of patients with IBD or rheumatologic diseases, like spondyloarthritis (SpA) is modified compared to healthy individual. Thus, we have evaluated the impact of colitis in the development of arthritis in mice and we have analyzed microbiota changes. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced at day 0 in DBA1 mice exposed or not to Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis between day 14 and day 21...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922626/the-typhi-colonization-factor-tcf-is-encoded-by-multiple-non-typhoidal-salmonella-serovars-but-exhibits-a-varying-expression-profile-and-interchanging-contribution-to-intestinal-colonization
#15
Shalhevet Azriel, Alina Goren, Inna Shomer, Gili Aviv, Galia Rahav, Ohad Gal-Mor
Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are human-restricted pathogens and the leading causative agents of enteric fever. The Typhi colonization factor (Tcf) is a chaperone-usher fimbria, thought to play a role in the host-specificity of typhoidal serovars. Here we show that the tcf cluster (tcfABCD tinR tioA) is present in at least 25 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars and demonstrate its native expression in clinically-important serovars including Schwarzengrund, 9,12:l,v:-, Choleraesuis, Bredeney, Heidelberg, Montevideo, Virchow and Infantis...
September 18, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904997/development-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-is-linked-to-a-longitudinal-restructuring-of-the-gut-metagenome-in-mice
#16
Thomas Sharpton, Svetlana Lyalina, Julie Luong, Joey Pham, Emily M Deal, Courtney Armour, Christopher Gaulke, Shomyseh Sanjabi, Katherine S Pollard
The gut microbiome is linked to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) severity and altered in late-stage disease. However, it is unclear how gut microbial communities change over the course of IBD development, especially in regard to function. To investigate microbiome-mediated disease mechanisms and discover early biomarkers of IBD, we conducted a longitudinal metagenomic investigation in an established mouse model of IBD, where damped transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling in T cells leads to peripheral immune activation, weight loss, and severe colitis...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904415/targeted-metagenome-based-analyses-show-gut-microbial-diversity-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#17
Zhibing Qiu, Haijing Yang, Lan Rong, Weiqun Ding, Jiazhen Chen, Liang Zhong
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disease including both genetic and environmental factors. We compared the diversity of intestinal microbesamong a cohort of IBD patients to study the microbial ecological effects on IBD. Fecal samples from patients were sequenced with next generation sequence technology at 16S rDNA region. With statistical tools, microbial community was investigated at different level. The gut microbial diversity of Crohn's disease (CD) patients and colonic polyp (CP) patients significantly different from each other...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884123/deviation-of-the-fecal-stream-in-colonic-bowel-segments-results-in-increased-numbers-of-isolated-lymphoid-follicles-in-the-submucosal-compartment-in-a-novel-murine-model-of-diversion-colitis
#18
Annabel Kleinwort, Paula Döring, Christine Hackbarth, Claus-Dieter Heidecke, Tobias Schulze
INTRODUCTION: Diversion colitis is a significant health problem due to its high incidence in patients with diverting enterostomy. This mucosal inflammation presents characteristic histopathological features allowing for the differentiation of this entity from other inflammatory bowel diseases. The pathophysiology of this disease remains ill-defined, in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. The present study was performed in order to develop and characterize a murine model of diversion colitis...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873125/neurological-complications-associated-with-anti-programmed-death-1-pd-1-antibodies
#19
Justin C Kao, Bing Liao, Svetomir N Markovic, Christopher J Klein, Elie Naddaf, Nathan P Staff, Teerin Liewluck, Julie E Hammack, Paola Sandroni, Heidi Finnes, Michelle L Mauermann
Importance: Neurological complications are an increasingly recognized consequence of the use of anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) antibodies in the treatment of solid-organ tumors, with an estimated frequency of 4.2%. To date, the clinical spectrum and optimum treatment approach are not established. Objective: To investigate the frequency, clinical spectrum, and optimum treatment approach to neurological complications associated with anti-PD-1 therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted from either September or December 2014 (the approval dates of the study drugs by the US Food and Drug Administration) to May 19, 2016...
October 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871257/reactivation-of-intestinal-inflammation-is-suppressed-by-catestatin-in-a-murine-model-of-colitis-via-m1-macrophages-and-not-the-gut-microbiota
#20
Mohammad F Rabbi, Nour Eissa, Peris M Munyaka, Laëtitia Kermarrec, Omar Elgazzar, Ehsan Khafipour, Charles N Bernstein, Jean Eric Ghia
While there is growing awareness of a relationship between chromogranin-A (CHGA) and susceptibility to inflammatory conditions, the role of human catestatin [(hCTS); CHGA352-67] in the natural history of established inflammatory bowel disease is not known. Recently, using two different experimental models, we demonstrated that hCTS-treated mice develop less severe acute colitis. We have also shown the implication of the macrophages in this effect. The aims of this study were to determine (1) whether hCTS treatment could attenuate the reactivation of inflammation in adult mice with previously established chronic colitis; (2) whether this effect is mediated through macrophages or the gut microbiota...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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