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Diversion colitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926599/experimental-colitis-delays-and-reduces-the-severity-of-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-mice
#1
Julie Hablot, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Tunay Kokten, Reine El Omar, Patrick Netter, Claire Bastien, Jean-Yves Jouzeau, Harry Sokol, David Moulin
Amongst extraintestinal manifestations (EIM) occurring in IBD patients, rheumatologic manifestations are the most frequent. Understanding the relationships between arthritis and colitis is a prerequisite to improving the management of these patients. Microbiota of patients with IBD or rheumatologic diseases, like spondyloarthritis (SpA) is modified compared to healthy individual. Thus, we have evaluated the impact of colitis in the development of arthritis in mice and we have analyzed microbiota changes. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced at day 0 in DBA1 mice exposed or not to Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis between day 14 and day 21...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922626/the-typhi-colonization-factor-tcf-is-encoded-by-multiple-non-typhoidal-salmonella-serovars-but-exhibits-a-varying-expression-profile-and-interchanging-contribution-to-intestinal-colonization
#2
Shalhevet Azriel, Alina Goren, Inna Shomer, Gili Aviv, Galia Rahav, Ohad Gal-Mor
Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are human-restricted pathogens and the leading causative agents of enteric fever. The Typhi colonization factor (Tcf) is a chaperone-usher fimbria, thought to play a role in the host-specificity of typhoidal serovars. Here we show that the tcf cluster (tcfABCD tinR tioA) is present in at least 25 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars and demonstrate its native expression in clinically-important serovars including Schwarzengrund, 9,12:l,v:-, Choleraesuis, Bredeney, Heidelberg, Montevideo, Virchow and Infantis...
September 18, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904997/development-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-is-linked-to-a-longitudinal-restructuring-of-the-gut-metagenome-in-mice
#3
Thomas Sharpton, Svetlana Lyalina, Julie Luong, Joey Pham, Emily M Deal, Courtney Armour, Christopher Gaulke, Shomyseh Sanjabi, Katherine S Pollard
The gut microbiome is linked to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) severity and altered in late-stage disease. However, it is unclear how gut microbial communities change over the course of IBD development, especially in regard to function. To investigate microbiome-mediated disease mechanisms and discover early biomarkers of IBD, we conducted a longitudinal metagenomic investigation in an established mouse model of IBD, where damped transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling in T cells leads to peripheral immune activation, weight loss, and severe colitis...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904415/targeted-metagenome-based-analyses-show-gut-microbial-diversity-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#4
Zhibing Qiu, Haijing Yang, Lan Rong, Weiqun Ding, Jiazhen Chen, Liang Zhong
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disease including both genetic and environmental factors. We compared the diversity of intestinal microbesamong a cohort of IBD patients to study the microbial ecological effects on IBD. Fecal samples from patients were sequenced with next generation sequence technology at 16S rDNA region. With statistical tools, microbial community was investigated at different level. The gut microbial diversity of Crohn's disease (CD) patients and colonic polyp (CP) patients significantly different from each other...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884123/deviation-of-the-fecal-stream-in-colonic-bowel-segments-results-in-increased-numbers-of-isolated-lymphoid-follicles-in-the-submucosal-compartment-in-a-novel-murine-model-of-diversion-colitis
#5
Annabel Kleinwort, Paula Döring, Christine Hackbarth, Claus-Dieter Heidecke, Tobias Schulze
INTRODUCTION: Diversion colitis is a significant health problem due to its high incidence in patients with diverting enterostomy. This mucosal inflammation presents characteristic histopathological features allowing for the differentiation of this entity from other inflammatory bowel diseases. The pathophysiology of this disease remains ill-defined, in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. The present study was performed in order to develop and characterize a murine model of diversion colitis...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873125/neurological-complications-associated-with-anti-programmed-death-1-pd-1-antibodies
#6
Justin C Kao, Bing Liao, Svetomir N Markovic, Christopher J Klein, Elie Naddaf, Nathan P Staff, Teerin Liewluck, Julie E Hammack, Paola Sandroni, Heidi Finnes, Michelle L Mauermann
Importance: Neurological complications are an increasingly recognized consequence of the use of anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) antibodies in the treatment of solid-organ tumors, with an estimated frequency of 4.2%. To date, the clinical spectrum and optimum treatment approach are not established. Objective: To investigate the frequency, clinical spectrum, and optimum treatment approach to neurological complications associated with anti-PD-1 therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted from either September or December 2014 (the approval dates of the study drugs by the US Food and Drug Administration) to May 19, 2016...
September 5, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871257/reactivation-of-intestinal-inflammation-is-suppressed-by-catestatin-in-a-murine-model-of-colitis-via-m1-macrophages-and-not-the-gut-microbiota
#7
Mohammad F Rabbi, Nour Eissa, Peris M Munyaka, Laëtitia Kermarrec, Omar Elgazzar, Ehsan Khafipour, Charles N Bernstein, Jean Eric Ghia
While there is growing awareness of a relationship between chromogranin-A (CHGA) and susceptibility to inflammatory conditions, the role of human catestatin [(hCTS); CHGA352-67] in the natural history of established inflammatory bowel disease is not known. Recently, using two different experimental models, we demonstrated that hCTS-treated mice develop less severe acute colitis. We have also shown the implication of the macrophages in this effect. The aims of this study were to determine (1) whether hCTS treatment could attenuate the reactivation of inflammation in adult mice with previously established chronic colitis; (2) whether this effect is mediated through macrophages or the gut microbiota...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864042/colectomy-in-refractory-crohn-s-colitis-improves-nutrition-and-reduces-steroid-use
#8
Aodhnait S Fahy, D Dean Potter, Anupama Ravi, Yannis Reissis, William A Faubion, Jeanne Tung
BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients with severe refractory Crohn's colitis (CC) may require total colectomy (TC) or diverting loop ileostomy (DLI). Our understanding of outcomes (postoperative complications, nutrition and restoration of intestinal continuity) is currently limited. METHODS: Pediatric patients with severe CC who underwent TC or DLI were identified. Demographics, pre and postoperative anthropometric and biochemical data, surgical complications and medication requirements were recorded...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862530/exercise-training-induced-modification-of-the-gut-microbiota-persists-after-microbiota-colonization-and-attenuates-the-response-to-chemically-induced-colitis-in-gnotobiotic-mice
#9
J M Allen, L J Mailing, J Cohrs, C Salmonson, J Fryer, V Nehra, V L Hale, P Kashyap, B A White, J A Woods
Exercise reduces the risk of inflammatory disease by modulating a variety of tissue and cell types, including those within the gastrointestinal tract. Recent data indicates that exercise can also alter the gut microbiota, but little is known as to whether these changes affect host function. Here, we use a germ-free (GF) animal model to test whether exercise-induced modifications in the gut microbiota can directly affect host responses to microbiota colonization and chemically-induced colitis. Donor mice (n = 19) received access to a running wheel (n = 10) or remained without access (n = 9) for a period of six weeks...
September 1, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856475/race-ethnicity-specific-disparities-in-the-severity-of-disease-at-presentation-in-adults-with-ulcerative-colitis-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Garland Castaneda, Benny Liu, Sharon Torres, Taft Bhuket, Robert J Wong
BACKGROUND: While ulcerative colitis (UC) is well studied in Caucasian populations, less data are available on UC patients of racial/ethnic minorities, including variations in disease severity at presentation. AIM: To evaluate race/ethnicity-specific disparities in UC disease presentation among an ethnically diverse underserved population. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of all consecutive UC adults among a large ethnically diverse safety-net hospital from July 2014 to May 2016 to compare race/ethnicity-specific disparities in severity of disease at presentation...
August 30, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852861/analysis-of-endoscopic-brush-samples-identified-mucosa-associated-dysbiosis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
Kyohei Nishino, Atsushi Nishida, Ryo Inoue, Yuki Kawada, Masashi Ohno, Shigeki Sakai, Osamu Inatomi, Shigeki Bamba, Mitsushige Sugimoto, Masahiro Kawahara, Yuji Naito, Akira Andoh
BACKGROUND: The mucosa-associated gut microbiota directly modulates epithelial and mucosal function. In this study, we investigated the mucosa-associated microbial community in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), using endoscopic brush samples. METHODS: A total of 174 mucus samples from 43 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 26 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 14 non-IBD controls were obtained by gentle brushing of mucosal surfaces using endoscopic cytology brushes...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846760/the-role-of-environmental-factors-in-the-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-a-review
#12
Dror S Shouval, Paul A Rufo
Importance: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic relapsing conditions that affect a growing number of children worldwide. The pathogenesis of these disorders is complex and thought to be mediated by the interplay between genetic susceptibility, microbial dysbiosis, and environmental factors that result in a dysregulated immune system. This dysregulation ultimately mediates intestinal inflammation and clinical symptoms typically observed in patients with IBD including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and poor growth...
August 28, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839870/use-of-anti-tnf-drug-levels-to-optimise-patient-management
#13
REVIEW
Konstantinos Papamichael, Adam S Cheifetz
Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapies, such as infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol and golimumab, have been proven to be effective for the treatment of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. However, 10%-30% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) show no initial clinical benefit to anti-TNF therapy (primary non-response), and over 50% after an initial favourable outcome will lose response over time (secondary loss of response (SLR)). Numerous recent studies in IBD have revealed an exposure-response relationship suggesting a positive correlation between high serum anti-TNF concentrations and favourable therapeutic outcomes including clinical, biomarker and endoscopic remission, whereas antidrug antibodies have been associated with SLR and infusion reactions...
October 2016: Frontline Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832994/c4b-gene-influences-intestinal-microbiota-through-complement-activation-in-patients-with-pediatric-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Eija Nissilä, Katri Korpela, A Inkeri Lokki, Riitta Paakkanen, Sakari Jokiranta, Willem de Vos, Marja-Liisa Lokki, Kaija-Leena Kolho, Seppo Meri
Complement C4 genes are linked to pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD), but the mechanisms have remained unclear. We examined the influence of C4B gene number on intestinal microbiota and in vitro serum complement activation by intestinal microbes in PIBD patients. Complement C4A and C4B gene numbers were determined by genomic RT-PCR from 64 patients with PIBD (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis). The severity of the disease course was determined from fecal calprotectin levels. Intestinal microbiota was assessed using the HITChip microarray...
August 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817707/microbiome-mediated-neutrophil-recruitment-via-cxcr2-and-protection-from-amebic-colitis
#15
Koji Watanabe, Carol A Gilchrist, Md Jashim Uddin, Stacey L Burgess, Mayuresh M Abhyankar, Shannon N Moonah, Zannatun Noor, Jeffrey R Donowitz, Brittany N Schneider, Tuhinur Arju, Emtiaz Ahmed, Mamun Kabir, Masud Alam, Rashidul Haque, Patcharin Pramoonjago, Borna Mehrad, William A Petri
The disease severity of Entamoeba histolytica infection ranges from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Recent human and animal data implicate the gut microbiome as a modifier of E. histolytica virulence. Here we have explored the association of the microbiome with susceptibility to amebiasis in infants and in the mouse model of amebic colitis. Dysbiosis occurred symptomatic E. histolytica infection in children, as evidenced by a lower Shannon diversity index of the gut microbiota. To test if dysbiosis was a cause of susceptibility, wild type C57BL/6 mice (which are innately resistant to E...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810248/antibiotic-susceptibility-and-molecular-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-o157-isolates-from-urinary-tract-infections
#16
Zonglan Xie, Ziqiang Dong, Ping Zhu, Lusheng Zhang, Xiaobo Chen, Chuanjiang Dong
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli O157 is an important food-borne pathogen that can cause diarrhoea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uraemic syndrome. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) are good methods for molecular typing and the extensive use of antibiotics is a contributing factor to the increasing incidence of antimicrobial-resistant for these strains. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic diversity of E...
August 16, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808878/role-of-intestinal-microbiome-in-american-ginseng-mediated-colon-cancer-protection-in-high-fat-diet-fed-aom-dss-mice
#17
C-Z Wang, W-H Huang, C-F Zhang, J-Y Wan, Y Wang, C Yu, S Williams, T-C He, W Du, M W Musch, E B Chang, C-S Yuan
OBJECTIVE: Chronic intestinal inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and development. Diets that are rich in Western style fats have been shown to promote CRC. This study was conducted to investigate the role of intestinal microbiome in American ginseng-mediated CRC chemoprevention in a mouse model. The population and diversity of enteric microbiome were evaluated after the ginseng treatment. METHODS: Using an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced gut inflammation and tumorigenesis mouse model, the effects of oral American ginseng on high fat diet-associated enteric pathology were determined...
August 14, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805735/dietary-propolis-ameliorates-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-and-modulates-the-gut-microbiota-in-rats-fed-a-western-diet
#18
Kai Wang, Xiaolu Jin, Mengmeng You, Wenli Tian, Richard K Le Leu, David L Topping, Michael A Conlon, Liming Wu, Fuliang Hu
Propolis is an important hive product and considered beneficial to health. However, evidence of its potential for improving gut health is still lacking. Here we use rats to examine whether dietary supplementation with propolis could be used as a therapy for ulcerative colitis. Rats were fed with a Western style diet alone (controls) or supplemented with different amounts of Chinese propolis (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%) to examine effects on acute colitis induced by 3% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in drinking water...
August 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797991/an-unusual-case-of-proctosigmoiditis-secondary-to-arteriovenous-fistulization
#19
Veljko Strjina, Scott R Kelley
Refractory chronic colitis presents a medical and surgical challenge, and underlying etiologies are diverse with potential for misclassification as inflammatory bowel disease. We present an unusual case of chronic proctosigmoiditis with rare vascular etiology. A 48-year-old Caucasian male presented with severe diarrhea, weight loss, and abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) suggested proctosigmoiditis. Colonoscopy and biopsy findings were non-specific but were suggestive of ischemic etiology and venous congestion...
August 9, 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775365/sex-specific-regulation-of-immune-responses-by-ppars
#20
REVIEW
Hong-Jai Park, Je-Min Choi
The prevalence of autoimmune, infectious and metabolic diseases is different for men and women owing to the respective ability of their immune systems to respond to self and foreign antigens. Although several factors, including hormones and the X-chromosome, have been suggested to contribute to such sex-specific immune responses, the underlying factors remain poorly defined. Recent studies using peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ligands and knockout mice have identified sex-dimorphic expression of PPARs, and have shown that the inhibitory functions of PPAR in T cells are substantially affected by the sex hormones...
August 4, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
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