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Diversion colitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099146/long-non-coding-rna-growth-arrest-specific-transcript-5-acts-as-a-tumour-suppressor-in-colorectal-cancer-by-inhibiting-interleukin-10-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-expression
#1
Yuan Li, Yan Li, Shengkai Huang, Kun He, Mei Zhao, Hong Lin, Dongdong Li, Jiaming Qian, Caihong Zhou, Yuhua Chen, Changzhi Huang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are highly involved in diverse biological processes of human malignancies. The expression profile and underlying mechanism of lncRNA growth arrest specific transcript 5 (GAS5) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is poorly understood. In this study, we found that GAS5 was commonly downregulated in CRC tissues, serum of CRC patients and CRC cell lines. Knockdown of GAS5 promoted CRC cell proliferation and colony formation, whereas overexpression of GAS5 produced the opposite result. We further demonstrated that knockdown of GAS5 increased the expression and secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) via NF-κB and Erk1/2 pathways...
January 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062871/-chronic-diarrhea-in-the-diabetic-a-review-of-the-literature
#2
Juan Sebastián Frías Ordoñez, William Otero Regino
The association of diarrhea with diabetes mellitus has been known for more than 70 years. In diabetic patients its prevalence is around 20%.Its clinical manifestations are diverse, and represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.There are certain diagnoses of higher prevalence in diabetic patients than in the general population.The different related etiologies can be adequately diagnosed through the clinical history and complementary diagnostic tests.The medications used by the diabetic patient to manage their disease often cause chronic diarrhea, so the pharmacological background should be studied at the time of the study of diarrhea...
October 2016: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045769/diverting-ileostomy-for-the-treatment-of-severe-refractory-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Elizabeth C Maxwell, Noor Dawany, Robert N Baldassano, Petar Mamula, Peter Mattei, Lindsey Albenberg, Judith R Kelsen
OBJECTIVES: Diverting ileostomy is used as a temporizing therapy in patients with perianal Crohn disease; however, little data exist regarding its use for colonic disease. The primary aim of the present study was to determine the role of diversion in severe refractory colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a pediatric population. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients who underwent diverting ileostomy at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from 2000 to 2014 for the management of severe, refractory colonic IBD...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045459/faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-from-microbiology-to-diagnostics-and-prognostics
#4
Mireia Lopez-Siles, Sylvia H Duncan, L Jesús Garcia-Gil, Margarita Martinez-Medina
There is an increasing interest in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, one of the most abundant bacterial species found in the gut, given its potentially important role in promoting gut health. Although some studies have phenotypically characterized strains of this species, it remains a challenge to determine which factors have a key role in maintaining the abundance of this bacterium in the gut. Besides, phylogenetic analysis has shown that at least two different F. prausnitzii phylogroups can be found within this species and their distribution is different between healthy subjects and patients with gut disorders...
January 3, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039159/gut-microbiota-differs-between-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-healthy-siblings-in-taxonomic-and-functional-composition-a-metagenomic-analysis
#5
Rebecca Luise Knoll, Kristoffer Forslund, Jens Roat Kultima, Claudius U Meyer, Ulrike Kullmer, Shinichi Sunagawa, Peer Bork, Stephan Gehring
Current treatment for pediatric IBD patients is often ineffective, with serious side effects. Manipulating the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging treatment approach but remains controversial. We aimed to assess the composition of the fecal microbiome through a comparison of pediatric IBD patients to their healthy siblings, evaluating risks and prospects for FMT in this setting. A Case-Control (Sibling) Study was conducted analyzing fecal samples of six children with Crohn's Disease (CD), six children with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and 12 healthy siblings by metagenomic sequencing...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035458/modified-martius-flap-procedure-for-refractory-ileal-pouch-vestibular-fistula-a-report-of-three-cases
#6
Toshimitsu Araki, Yoshiki Okita, Mikio Kawamura, Satoru Kondo, Yuji Toiyama, Junichiro Hiro, Shigeyuki Yoshiyama, Keiichi Uchida, Masato Kusunoki
PURPOSE: Pouch-vaginal or vestibular fistula is an uncommon, but devastating complication that occurs in women after ileal J pouch-anal anastomosis. The management of these fistulae is challenging, and it is associated with high recurrence and pouch loss rates. This report describes the use of the modified Martius flap procedure for three patients with ulcerative colitis who developed refractory pouch-vestibular fistulae. RESULTS: Three patients with ulcerative colitis, who underwent total colectomy, mucosal proctectomy, and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, developed pouch-vestibular fistulae...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989362/complications-in-colorectal-surgery
#7
Jason S Frischer, Beth Rymeski
Colorectal pediatric surgery is a diverse field that encompasses many different procedures. The pullthrough for Hirschsprung disease, the posterior sagittal anorectoplasty for anorectal malformations including complex cloaca reconstructions and the ileal pouch anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis present some of the most technically challenging procedures pediatric surgeons undertake. Many children prevail successfully following these surgical interventions, however, a small number of patients suffer from complications following these procedures...
December 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982124/the-human-intestinal-microbiota-of-constipated-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients-exhibits-anti-inflammatory-properties
#8
Alain P Gobert, Giulia Sagrestani, Eve Delmas, Keith T Wilson, Thomas G Verriere, Michel Dapoigny, Christophe Del'homme, Annick Bernalier-Donadille
The intestinal microbiota of patients with constipated-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (C-IBS) displays chronic dysbiosis. Our aim was to determine whether this microbial imbalance instigates perturbation of the host intestinal mucosal immune response, using a model of human microbiota-associated rats (HMAR) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis. The analysis of the microbiota composition revealed a decrease of the relative abundance of Bacteroides, Roseburia-Eubacterium rectale and Bifidobacterium and an increase of Enterobacteriaceae, Desulfovibrio sp...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951586/nlrc3-is-an-inhibitory-sensor-of-pi3k-mtor-pathways-in-cancer
#9
Rajendra Karki, Si Ming Man, R K Subbarao Malireddi, Sannula Kesavardhana, Qifan Zhu, Amanda R Burton, Bhesh Raj Sharma, Xiaopeng Qi, Stephane Pelletier, Peter Vogel, Philip Rosenstiel, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
NLRs (nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeats) belong to a large family of cytoplasmic sensors that regulate an extraordinarily diverse range of biological functions. One of these functions is to contribute to immunity against infectious diseases, but dysregulation of their functional activity leads to the development of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Cytoplasmic innate immune sensors, including NLRs, are central regulators of intestinal homeostasis. NLRC3 (also known as CLR16.2 or NOD3) is a poorly characterized member of the NLR family and was identified in a genomic screen for genes encoding proteins bearing leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and nucleotide-binding domains...
December 12, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941197/-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-and-accompanying-comorbidities
#10
Maria Majdan
Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs) are a group of unrelated conditions that share common inflammatory pathways with immune dysregulation and imbalance in inflammatory cytokines. The aetiology of these conditions is unknown. IMIDs encompassing disorders as diverse as asthma, type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriasis (Ps), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), uveitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930307/cosmc-is-an-x-linked-inflammatory-bowel-disease-risk-gene-that-spatially-regulates-gut-microbiota-and-contributes-to-sex-specific-risk
#11
Matthew R Kudelka, Benjamin H Hinrichs, Trevor Darby, Carlos S Moreno, Hikaru Nishio, Christopher E Cutler, Jianmei Wang, Huixia Wu, Junwei Zeng, Yingchun Wang, Tongzhong Ju, Sean R Stowell, Asma Nusrat, Rheinallt M Jones, Andrew S Neish, Richard D Cummings
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from aberrant immune stimulation against a dysbiotic mucosal but relatively preserved luminal microbiota and preferentially affects males in early onset disease. However, factors contributing to sex-specific risk and the pattern of dysbiosis are largely unexplored. Core 1 β3GalT-specific molecular chaperone (Cosmc), which encodes an X-linked chaperone important for glycocalyx formation, was recently identified as an IBD risk factor by genome-wide association study. We deleted Cosmc in mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and found marked reduction of microbiota diversity in progression from the proximal to the distal gut mucosa, but not in the overlying lumen, as seen in IBD...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929086/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-trim31-attenuates-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-promoting-proteasomal-degradation-of-nlrp3
#12
Hui Song, Bingyu Liu, Wanwan Huai, Zhongxia Yu, Wenwen Wang, Jing Zhao, Lihui Han, Guosheng Jiang, Lining Zhang, Chengjiang Gao, Wei Zhao
The NLRP3 inflammasome has a fundamental role in host defence against microbial pathogens and its deregulation may cause diverse inflammatory diseases. NLRP3 protein expression is a rate-limiting step for inflammasome activation, thus its expression must be tightly controlled to maintain immune homeostasis and avoid detrimental effects. However, how NLRP3 expression is regulated remains largely unknown. In this study, we identify E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM31 as a feedback suppressor of NLRP3 inflammasome. TRIM31 directly binds to NLRP3, promotes K48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of NLRP3...
December 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907102/an-investigation-into-the-etiological-agents-of-swine-dysentery-in-australian-pig-herds
#13
Tom La, Nyree D Phillips, David J Hampson
Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohemorrhagic colitis, classically seen in grower/finisher pigs and caused by infection with the anaerobic intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. More recently, however, the newly described species Brachyspira hampsonii and Brachyspira suanatina have been identified as causing SD in North America and/or Europe. Furthermore, there have been occasions where strains of B. hyodysenteriae have been recovered from healthy pigs, including in multiplier herds with high health status...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896635/discovery-and-initial-characterization-of-th9-cells-the-early-years
#14
REVIEW
Edgar Schmitt, Tobias Bopp
The launch of the Th1/Th2 concept represented a decisive breakthrough concerning our understanding of how very diverse immune reactions can be regulated by functionally different T helper subpopulations via the secretion of different panels of cytokines. In this context, IL-9 was identified to be produced by T helper cell lines in addition to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5. Detailed analyses revealed that IL-9 production of mouse CD4(+) T helper cells was dependent on a combination of IL-2, IL-4, and TGF-β. Roughly a decade later, it was found that TGF-β can also induce the development of CD4(+) Treg cells...
November 28, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890312/variables-associated-with-loss-of-ileoanal-pouches-constructed-in-childhood
#15
Khaled Abdelaal, Bruce Jaffray
AIMS: To quantify the incidence of loss of an ileoanal pouch in children and to identify variables associated this event. METHODS: Logistic regression of possible explanatory variables: age, sex, indication for procto-colectomy, pre-operative continence status, use of immunosuppressive drugs, open or laparoscopic surgery, number of stages, anastomotic leak, operative complication excluding anastomotic leak, performance of revisional surgery, albumin concentration and platelet count at time of surgery, rank order in series...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884149/sasa-quelpaertensis-leaf-extract-regulates-microbial-dysbiosis-by-modulating-the-composition-and-diversity-of-the-microbiota-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-mice
#16
Yiseul Yeom, Bong-Soo Kim, Se-Jae Kim, Yuri Kim
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are related to a dysfunction of the mucosal immune system and they result from complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors, including lifestyle, diet, and the gut microbiome. Therefore, the effect of Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) on gut microbiota in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model was investigated with pyrosequencing of fecal samples. METHODS: Three groups of animals were examined: i) a control group, ii) a group that was received 2...
November 25, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836928/the-common-mouse-protozoa-tritrichomonas-muris-alters-mucosal-t-cell-homeostasis-and-colitis-susceptibility
#17
Nichole K Escalante, Paul Lemire, Mayra Cruz Tleugabulova, David Prescott, Arthur Mortha, Catherine J Streutker, Stephen E Girardin, Dana J Philpott, Thierry Mallevaey
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract hosts a diverse community of microbes including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Through coevolution, mammals and these microbes have developed a symbiosis that is sustained through the host's continuous sensing of microbial factors and the generation of a tolerant or pro-inflammatory response. While analyzing T cell-driven colitis in nonlittermate mouse strains, we serendipitously identified that a nongenetic transmissible factor dramatically increased disease susceptibility...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833384/fecal-microbiota-in-pouchitis-and-ulcerative-colitis
#18
Kai-Yu Li, Jian-Lin Wang, Jiang-Peng Wei, Sen-Yang Gao, Ying-Ying Zhang, Li-Tian Wang, Gang Liu
AIM: To investigate the changes in microbiota in feces of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and pouchitis using genomic technology. METHODS: Fecal samples were obtained from UC patients with or without an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) procedure, as well as healthy controls. The touchdown polymerase chain reaction technique was used to amplify the whole V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, which was transcribed from DNA extracted from fecal samples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to separate the amplicons...
October 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824704/long-term-outcomes-of-sphincter-saving-procedures-for-diffuse-crohn-s-disease-of-the-large-bowel
#19
Yi Li, Luca Stocchi, Xing Mu, Deepa Cherla, Feza H Remzi
BACKGROUND: Total abdominal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis for Crohn's colitis is acceptable in the presence of a suitable rectum. Intentional IPAA has been proposed for diffuse Crohn's proctocolitis without enteric or anoperineal disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of sphincter-saving procedures for large-bowel Crohn's disease. DESIGN: Patients with preoperative Crohn's disease diagnosis undergoing intentional IPAA and ileorectal anastomosis were included...
December 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815529/control-of-inflammation-by-stromal-hedgehog-pathway-activation-restrains-colitis
#20
John J Lee, Michael E Rothenberg, E Scott Seeley, Bryan Zimdahl, Sally Kawano, Wan-Jin Lu, Kunyoo Shin, Tomoyo Sakata-Kato, James K Chen, Maximilian Diehn, Michael F Clarke, Philip A Beachy
Inflammation disrupts tissue architecture and function, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of diverse diseases; the signals that promote or restrict tissue inflammation thus represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we report that genetic or pharmacologic Hedgehog pathway inhibition intensifies colon inflammation (colitis) in mice. Conversely, genetic augmentation of Hedgehog response and systemic small-molecule Hedgehog pathway activation potently ameliorate colitis and restrain initiation and progression of colitis-induced adenocarcinoma...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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