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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907102/an-investigation-into-the-etiological-agents-of-swine-dysentery-in-australian-pig-herds
#1
Tom La, Nyree D Phillips, David J Hampson
Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohemorrhagic colitis, classically seen in grower/finisher pigs and caused by infection with the anaerobic intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. More recently, however, the newly described species Brachyspira hampsonii and Brachyspira suanatina have been identified as causing SD in North America and/or Europe. Furthermore, there have been occasions where strains of B. hyodysenteriae have been recovered from healthy pigs, including in multiplier herds with high health status...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896635/discovery-and-initial-characterization-of-th9-cells-the-early-years
#2
REVIEW
Edgar Schmitt, Tobias Bopp
The launch of the Th1/Th2 concept represented a decisive breakthrough concerning our understanding of how very diverse immune reactions can be regulated by functionally different T helper subpopulations via the secretion of different panels of cytokines. In this context, IL-9 was identified to be produced by T helper cell lines in addition to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5. Detailed analyses revealed that IL-9 production of mouse CD4(+) T helper cells was dependent on a combination of IL-2, IL-4, and TGF-β. Roughly a decade later, it was found that TGF-β can also induce the development of CD4(+) Treg cells...
November 28, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890312/variables-associated-with-loss-of-ileoanal-pouches-constructed-in-childhood
#3
Khaled Abdelaal, Bruce Jaffray
AIMS: To quantify the incidence of loss of an ileoanal pouch in children and to identify variables associated this event. METHODS: Logistic regression of possible explanatory variables: age, sex, indication for procto-colectomy, pre-operative continence status, use of immunosuppressive drugs, open or laparoscopic surgery, number of stages, anastomotic leak, operative complication excluding anastomotic leak, performance of revisional surgery, albumin concentration and platelet count at time of surgery, rank order in series...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884149/sasa-quelpaertensis-leaf-extract-regulates-microbial-dysbiosis-by-modulating-the-composition-and-diversity-of-the-microbiota-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-mice
#4
Yiseul Yeom, Bong-Soo Kim, Se-Jae Kim, Yuri Kim
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are related to a dysfunction of the mucosal immune system and they result from complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors, including lifestyle, diet, and the gut microbiome. Therefore, the effect of Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) on gut microbiota in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model was investigated with pyrosequencing of fecal samples. METHODS: Three groups of animals were examined: i) a control group, ii) a group that was received 2...
November 25, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836928/the-common-mouse-protozoa-tritrichomonas-muris-alters-mucosal-t-cell-homeostasis-and-colitis-susceptibility
#5
Nichole K Escalante, Paul Lemire, Mayra Cruz Tleugabulova, David Prescott, Arthur Mortha, Catherine J Streutker, Stephen E Girardin, Dana J Philpott, Thierry Mallevaey
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract hosts a diverse community of microbes including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Through coevolution, mammals and these microbes have developed a symbiosis that is sustained through the host's continuous sensing of microbial factors and the generation of a tolerant or pro-inflammatory response. While analyzing T cell-driven colitis in nonlittermate mouse strains, we serendipitously identified that a nongenetic transmissible factor dramatically increased disease susceptibility...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833384/fecal-microbiota-in-pouchitis-and-ulcerative-colitis
#6
Kai-Yu Li, Jian-Lin Wang, Jiang-Peng Wei, Sen-Yang Gao, Ying-Ying Zhang, Li-Tian Wang, Gang Liu
AIM: To investigate the changes in microbiota in feces of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and pouchitis using genomic technology. METHODS: Fecal samples were obtained from UC patients with or without an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) procedure, as well as healthy controls. The touchdown polymerase chain reaction technique was used to amplify the whole V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, which was transcribed from DNA extracted from fecal samples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to separate the amplicons...
October 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824704/long-term-outcomes-of-sphincter-saving-procedures-for-diffuse-crohn-s-disease-of-the-large-bowel
#7
Yi Li, Luca Stocchi, Xing Mu, Deepa Cherla, Feza H Remzi
BACKGROUND: Total abdominal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis for Crohn's colitis is acceptable in the presence of a suitable rectum. Intentional IPAA has been proposed for diffuse Crohn's proctocolitis without enteric or anoperineal disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of sphincter-saving procedures for large-bowel Crohn's disease. DESIGN: Patients with preoperative Crohn's disease diagnosis undergoing intentional IPAA and ileorectal anastomosis were included...
December 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815529/control-of-inflammation-by-stromal-hedgehog-pathway-activation-restrains-colitis
#8
John J Lee, Michael E Rothenberg, E Scott Seeley, Bryan Zimdahl, Sally Kawano, Wan-Jin Lu, Kunyoo Shin, Tomoyo Sakata-Kato, James K Chen, Maximilian Diehn, Michael F Clarke, Philip A Beachy
Inflammation disrupts tissue architecture and function, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of diverse diseases; the signals that promote or restrict tissue inflammation thus represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we report that genetic or pharmacologic Hedgehog pathway inhibition intensifies colon inflammation (colitis) in mice. Conversely, genetic augmentation of Hedgehog response and systemic small-molecule Hedgehog pathway activation potently ameliorate colitis and restrain initiation and progression of colitis-induced adenocarcinoma...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809778/pectin-enhances-the-effect-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-ulcerative-colitis-by-delaying-the-loss-of-diversity-of-gut-flora
#9
Yao Wei, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu, Hongliang Tian, Chao Ding, Lili Gu, Ning Li, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) induces remission in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the treatment effect of FMT diminishes over time. Maintaining the diversity of the gut flora for long periods may improve the effects of FMT in UC. Pectin, which can be fermented by gut microbiota into short-chain fatty acids, is postulated to shape the composition and maintain the balance of gut microbiota following transplantation. This study investigated whether pectin could enhance the effects of FMT in UC patients...
November 3, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809739/management-of-adverse-events-related-to-new-cancer-immunotherapy-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#10
Jack M Bourke, Michael O'Sullivan, Muhammad A Khattak
New immunotherapies have significantly improved survival in certain advanced cancers in recent years, particularly metastatic melanoma and lung cancer. The most effective of these therapies are the immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) such as ipilimumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab. The use of ICIs will continue to increase in the coming years as evidence of their benefit in a range of other cancers builds. ICIs are associated with novel immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which can involve a wide range of organs...
November 7, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795980/functional-characterization-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-associated-gut-dysbiosis-in-gnotobiotic-mice
#11
Hiroko Nagao-Kitamoto, Andrew B Shreiner, Merritt G Gillilland, Sho Kitamoto, Chiharu Ishii, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Peter Kuffa, Mohamad El-Zaatari, Helmut Grasberger, Anna M Seekatz, Peter D R Higgins, Vincent B Young, Shinji Fukuda, John Y Kao, Nobuhiko Kamada
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gut dysbiosis is closely involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it remains unclear whether IBD-associated gut dysbiosis contributes to disease pathogenesis or is merely secondary to intestinal inflammation. We established a humanized gnotobiotic (hGB) mouse system to assess the functional role of gut dysbiosis associated with 2 types of IBD: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Germ-free mice were colonized by the gut microbiota isolated from patients with CD and UC, and healthy controls...
July 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761062/dietary-chitosan-supplementation-increases-microbial-diversity-and-attenuates-the-severity-of-citrobacter-rodentium-infection-in-mice
#12
Guiping Guan, Hongbing Wang, Shuai Chen, Gang Liu, Xia Xiong, Bie Tan, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Jun Fang
C57BL/6 mice were tested in order to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS) supplements on intestinal microflora and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection. The findings reveal that, after consuming a 300 mg/kg COS diet for 14 days, microflora became more diverse as a result of the supplement. Mice receiving COS exhibited an increase in the percentage of Bacteroidetes phylum and a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes phylum. After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743467/therapeutic-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-ibd-more-questions-to-be-answered
#13
Yu Qi Qiao, Chen Wen Cai, Zhi Hua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit impaired control of the microbiome in the gut. "Dysbiosis" is commonly observed. A Western diet is a risk factor for the development of IBD but may have different effects on the gut microbiota in IBD and non-IBD individuals. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity after EEN treatment. Although there are some theoretical benefits, the actual treatment effects of prebiotics and probiotics in IBD patients can vary...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704622/the-human-gastrointestinal-tract-and-oral-microbiota-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-state-of-the-science-review
#14
Rosario Lucas López, María José Grande Burgos, Antonio Gálvez, Rubén Pérez Pulido
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes a spectrum of diseases from ulcerative colitis (UC) to Crohn's disease (CD). Many studies have addressed the changes in the microbiota of individuals affected by UC and CD. A decrease in biodiversity and depletion of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes has been reported, among others. Changes in microbial composition also result in changes in the metabolites generated in the gut from microbial activity that may involve the amount of butyrate and other metabolites such as H2 S being produced...
October 5, 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693306/diverse-intestinal-bacteria-contain-putative-zwitterionic-capsular-polysaccharides-with-anti-inflammatory-properties
#15
C Preston Neff, Matthew E Rhodes, Kathleen L Arnolds, Colm B Collins, Jody Donnelly, Nichole Nusbacher, Paul Jedlicka, Jennifer M Schneider, Martin D McCarter, Michael Shaffer, Sarkis K Mazmanian, Brent E Palmer, Catherine A Lozupone
Zwitterionic capsular polysaccharides (ZPSs) are bacterial products that modulate T cells, including inducing anti-inflammatory IL-10-secreting T regulatory cells (Tregs). However, only a few diverse bacteria are known to modulate the host immune system via ZPS. We present a genomic screen for bacteria encoding ZPS molecules. We identify diverse host-associated bacteria, including commensals and pathogens with known anti-inflammatory properties, with the capacity to produce ZPSs. Human mononuclear cells stimulated with lysates from putative ZPS-producing bacteria induce significantly greater IL-10 production and higher proportions of Tregs than lysates from non-ZPS-encoding relatives or a commensal strain of Bacteroides cellulosilyticus in which a putative ZPS biosynthetic operon was genetically disrupted...
October 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688814/multilocus-sequence-typing-of-campylobacter-concisus-from-danish-diarrheic-patients
#16
Hans Linde Nielsen, Henrik Nielsen, Mia Torpdahl
The emerging enteric pathogen Campylobacter concisus is associated with prolonged diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease. Previous studies have shown that C. concisus strains are very genetically diverse. Nevertheless, C. concisus strains have been divided into two genomospecies, where GS1 strains have been isolated predominantly from healthy individuals, while the GS2 cluster consists of isolates primarily from diarrheic individuals. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic diversity of C...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670835/systematic-meta-analyses-and-field-synopsis-of-genetic-and-epigenetic-studies-in-paediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
Xue Li, Peige Song, Maria Timofeeva, Xiangrui Meng, Igor Rudan, Julian Little, Jack Satsangi, Harry Campbell, Evropi Theodoratou
We provide a comprehensive field synopsis of genetic and epigenetic associations for paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). A systematic review was performed and included 84 genetic association studies reporting data for 183 polymorphisms in 71 genes. Meta-analyses were conducted for 20 SNPs in 10 genes of paediatric Crohn's disease (CD) and for 8 SNPs in 5 genes of paediatric ulcerative colitis (UC). Five epigenetic studies were also included, but formal meta-analysis was not possible. Venice criteria and Bayesian false discovery probability test were applied to assess the credibility of associations...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645534/dysregulation-of-group-3-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-the-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#18
REVIEW
Marianne Forkel, Jenny Mjösberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we review recent literature indicating a role of innate lymphoid cells in human inflammatory bowel disease with a focus on the plastic population of ILC3. RECENT FINDINGS: Many studies suggest an involvement of ILC3 in human intestinal inflammation. ILC3 present the most abundant ILC subtype in the human intestine at steady state. In IBD, this composition is skewed towards ILCs showing an ILC1 phenotype and cytokine profile. This change is likely due to the microenvironment causing skewing of the functionally plastic ILC subsets...
October 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633310/blastocystis-in-ulcerative-colitis-patients-genetic-diversity-and-analysis-of-laboratory-findings
#19
Adil Coskun, Erdogan Malatyali, Hatice Ertabaklar, Mustafa B Yasar, Ali O Karaoglu, Sema Ertug
OBJECTIVE: To determine Blastocystis frequency and subtypes (ST) in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and analyse some laboratory findings between Blastocystis positive and negative cases. METHODS: Faecal samples from 150 UC patients in Adnan Menderes University, Training and Research Hospital were examined by direct microscopy and cultivated in Jones medium. Blastocystis positive cultures were subjected to DNA isolation and subtypes were identified by sequencing of barcode region...
September 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633114/meta-analysis-of-associations-between-dlg5-r30q-and-p1371q-polymorphisms-and-susceptibility-to-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Yunhai Li, Ping Chen, Jiazheng Sun, Jing Huang, Hongtao Tie, Liangliang Li, Hongzhong Li, Guosheng Ren
Growing evidence from recent studies has demonstrated an association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility and two polymorphisms of DLG5 R30Q (rs1248696) and P1371Q (rs2289310), but the results remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis including a total of 22 studies with 10,878 IBD patients and 7917 healthy controls for R30Q and 5277 IBD cases and 4367 controls for P1371Q in order to systematically assess their association with the disease. The results indicated that R30Q was significantly associated with reduced susceptibility to IBD in Europeans by allelic and dominant comparisons, but not in overall population...
2016: Scientific Reports
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