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Diversion colitis

Guiping Guan, Hongbing Wang, Shuai Chen, Gang Liu, Xia Xiong, Bie Tan, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Jun Fang
C57BL/6 mice were tested in order to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS) supplements on intestinal microflora and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection. The findings reveal that, after consuming a 300 mg/kg COS diet for 14 days, microflora became more diverse as a result of the supplement. Mice receiving COS exhibited an increase in the percentage of Bacteroidetes phylum and a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes phylum. After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Yu Qi Qiao, Chen Wen Cai, Zhi Hua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit impaired control of the microbiome in the gut. "Dysbiosis" is commonly observed. A Western diet is a risk factor for the development of IBD but may have different effects on the gut microbiota in IBD and non-IBD individuals. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity after EEN treatment. Although there are some theoretical benefits, the actual treatment effects of prebiotics and probiotics in IBD patients can vary...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Rosario Lucas López, María José Grande Burgos, Antonio Gálvez, Rubén Pérez Pulido
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes a spectrum of diseases from ulcerative colitis (UC) to Crohn's disease (CD). Many studies have addressed the changes in the microbiota of individuals affected by UC and CD. A decrease in biodiversity and depletion of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes has been reported, among others. Changes in microbial composition also result in changes in the metabolites generated in the gut from microbial activity that may involve the amount of butyrate and other metabolites such as H2 S being produced...
October 5, 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
C Preston Neff, Matthew E Rhodes, Kathleen L Arnolds, Colm B Collins, Jody Donnelly, Nichole Nusbacher, Paul Jedlicka, Jennifer M Schneider, Martin D McCarter, Michael Shaffer, Sarkis K Mazmanian, Brent E Palmer, Catherine A Lozupone
Zwitterionic capsular polysaccharides (ZPSs) are bacterial products that modulate T cells, including inducing anti-inflammatory IL-10-secreting T regulatory cells (Tregs). However, only a few diverse bacteria are known to modulate the host immune system via ZPS. We present a genomic screen for bacteria encoding ZPS molecules. We identify diverse host-associated bacteria, including commensals and pathogens with known anti-inflammatory properties, with the capacity to produce ZPSs. Human mononuclear cells stimulated with lysates from putative ZPS-producing bacteria induce significantly greater IL-10 production and higher proportions of Tregs than lysates from non-ZPS-encoding relatives or a commensal strain of Bacteroides cellulosilyticus in which a putative ZPS biosynthetic operon was genetically disrupted...
October 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Hans Linde Nielsen, Henrik Nielsen, Mia Torpdahl
The emerging enteric pathogen Campylobacter concisus is associated with prolonged diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease. Previous studies have shown that C. concisus strains are very genetically diverse. Nevertheless, C. concisus strains have been divided into two genomospecies, where GS1 strains have been isolated predominantly from healthy individuals, while the GS2 cluster consists of isolates primarily from diarrheic individuals. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic diversity of C...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Xue Li, Peige Song, Maria Timofeeva, Xiangrui Meng, Igor Rudan, Julian Little, Jack Satsangi, Harry Campbell, Evropi Theodoratou
We provide a comprehensive field synopsis of genetic and epigenetic associations for paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). A systematic review was performed and included 84 genetic association studies reporting data for 183 polymorphisms in 71 genes. Meta-analyses were conducted for 20 SNPs in 10 genes of paediatric Crohn's disease (CD) and for 8 SNPs in 5 genes of paediatric ulcerative colitis (UC). Five epigenetic studies were also included, but formal meta-analysis was not possible. Venice criteria and Bayesian false discovery probability test were applied to assess the credibility of associations...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marianne Forkel, Jenny Mjösberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we review recent literature indicating a role of innate lymphoid cells in human inflammatory bowel disease with a focus on the plastic population of ILC3. RECENT FINDINGS: Many studies suggest an involvement of ILC3 in human intestinal inflammation. ILC3 present the most abundant ILC subtype in the human intestine at steady state. In IBD, this composition is skewed towards ILCs showing an ILC1 phenotype and cytokine profile. This change is likely due to the microenvironment causing skewing of the functionally plastic ILC subsets...
October 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Adil Coskun, Erdogan Malatyali, Hatice Ertabaklar, Mustafa B Yasar, Ali O Karaoglu, Sema Ertug
OBJECTIVE: To determine Blastocystis frequency and subtypes (ST) in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and analyse some laboratory findings between Blastocystis positive and negative cases. METHODS: Faecal samples from 150 UC patients in Adnan Menderes University, Training and Research Hospital were examined by direct microscopy and cultivated in Jones medium. Blastocystis positive cultures were subjected to DNA isolation and subtypes were identified by sequencing of barcode region...
September 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Yunhai Li, Ping Chen, Jiazheng Sun, Jing Huang, Hongtao Tie, Liangliang Li, Hongzhong Li, Guosheng Ren
Growing evidence from recent studies has demonstrated an association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility and two polymorphisms of DLG5 R30Q (rs1248696) and P1371Q (rs2289310), but the results remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis including a total of 22 studies with 10,878 IBD patients and 7917 healthy controls for R30Q and 5277 IBD cases and 4367 controls for P1371Q in order to systematically assess their association with the disease. The results indicated that R30Q was significantly associated with reduced susceptibility to IBD in Europeans by allelic and dominant comparisons, but not in overall population...
2016: Scientific Reports
Nandita S Mirajkar, Nyree D Phillips, Tom La, David J Hampson, Connie J Gebhart
Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohemorhagic colitis of swine classically caused by infection with the intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Since around 2007, cases of SD have occurred in North America associated with a different strongly beta-hemolytic spirochete that has been molecularly and phenotypically characterized and provisionally named "Brachyspira hampsonii". Despite increasing international interest, "B. hampsonii" is currently not recognized as a valid species. To support its recognition, we sequenced the genomes of strains NSH-16, NSH-24 and P280/1, representing "B...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Subrata Ghosh, William J Sandborn, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Brian G Feagan, Remo Panaccione, Stephen Hanauer, Stefan Schreiber, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Severine Vermeire, Samantha Eichner, Bidan Huang, Anne M Robinson, Brandee Pappalardo
BACKGROUND: The use of biologics to treat inflammatory bowel disease is supported by robust randomized controlled trials in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Nonetheless, an understanding of the principles of clinical trial design is necessary to extrapolate study findings to clinical practice. METHODS: We conducted a review of inflammatory bowel disease registrational clinical trials of biologics to determine how differences in trial design potentially influence results and interpretation...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Mahin Khatami
Longevity and accumulation of multiple context-dependent signaling pathways of long-standing inflammation (antigen-load or oxidative stress) are the results of decreased/altered regulation of immunity and loss of control switch mechanisms that we defined as Yin and Yang of acute inflammation or immune surveillance. Chronic inflammation is initiated by immune disruptors-induced progressive changes in physiology and function of susceptible host tissues that lead to increased immune suppression and multistep disease processes including carcinogenesis...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Debabrata Chowdhury, Dinesh Kumar, Pranjal Sarma, Anjana Devi Tangutur, Manika Pal Bhadra
Prohibitin (PHB) is overtly conserved evolutionarily and ubiquitously expressed protein with pleiotropic functions in diverse cellular compartments. However, regulation and function of these proteins in different cells, tissues and in various diseases is different as evidenced by expression of these proteins which is found to be reduced in heart diseases, kidney diseases, lung disease, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis but this protein is highly expressed in diverse cancer diseases. The mechanism by which this protein acts at the molecular level in different subcellular localizations or in different cells or tissues in different conditions (diseases or normal) has remained poorly understood...
August 24, 2016: Current Drug Targets
Jordan S Mar, Brandon J LaMere, Din L Lin, Sophia Levan, Michelle Nazareth, Uma Mahadevan, Susan V Lynch
UNLABELLED: Significant gut microbiota heterogeneity exists among ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, though the clinical implications of this variance are unknown. We hypothesized that ethnically distinct UC patients exhibit discrete gut microbiotas with unique metabolic programming that differentially influence immune activity and clinical status. Using parallel 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer 2 sequencing of fecal samples (UC, 30; healthy, 13), we corroborated previous observations of UC-associated bacterial diversity depletion and demonstrated significant Saccharomycetales expansion as characteristic of UC gut dysbiosis...
2016: MBio
Dylan K McDaniel, Kristin Eden, Veronica M Ringel, Irving C Allen
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are common and debilitating manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is characterized by a radical imbalance in the activation of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways in the gut. These pathways are controlled by NF-κB, which is a master regulator of gene transcription. In IBD patients, NF-κB signaling is often dysregulated resulting in overzealous inflammation. NF-κB activation occurs through 2 distinct pathways, defined as either canonical or noncanonical...
September 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Sohei Arase, Yohei Watanabe, Hiromi Setoyama, Noriko Nagaoka, Mitsuhisa Kawai, Satoshi Matsumoto
Psychological stress can exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease. However, the mechanisms underlying how psychological stress affects gut inflammation remain unclear. Here, we focused on the relationship between changes in the microbial community of mucosa-associated commensal bacteria (MACB) and mucosal immune responses induced by chronic psychological stress in a murine model of ulcerative colitis. Furthermore, we examined the effect of probiotic treatment on exacerbated colitis and MACB composition changes induced by chronic psychological stress...
2016: PloS One
Xinling Ma, Yuke Chen, Fangyan Huang, Qianying Luo, Hui Lv, Hua Long
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Food intolerance is believed to be a source of frequent medical problems in ulcerative colitis (UC), which closely correlate with patients' dietary pattern. Living in an underdeveloped area of China, residents in southwestern region have diverse dietary habits. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of food intolerance in the UC patients in this area and to discuss some of the possible risk factors leading to the condition. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Food antibodies in serum of 80 patients with active UC were determined by standard enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA)...
2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Toshihiro Kanda, Atsushi Nishida, Masashi Ohno, Hirotsugu Imaeda, Takashi Shimada, Osamu Inatomi, Shigeki Bamba, Mitsushige Sugimoto, Akira Andoh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Probiotic properties of Enterococcus strains have been reported previously. In this study, we investigated the effects of Enterococcus (E.) durans TN-3 on the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis. METHODS: BALB/c mice were fed with 4.0% DSS in normal chow. Administration of TN-3 (10mg/day) was initiated 7days before the start of DSS feeding. Mucosal cytokine expression was analyzed by real time-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The lymphocyte subpopulation were analyzed by flow cytometry...
2016: PloS One
Gashaw Mamo
Aerobic microorganisms have been sources of medicinal agents for several decades and an impressive variety of drugs have been isolated from their cultures, studied and formulated to treat or prevent diseases. On the other hand, anaerobes, which are believed to be the oldest life forms on earth and evolved remarkably diverse physiological functions, have largely been neglected as sources of bioactive compounds. However, results obtained from the limited research done so far show that anaerobes are capable of producing a range of interesting bioactive compounds that can promote human health...
July 19, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Nina Chevalier, Jian K Tan, Linda J Mason, Remy Robert, Craig I McKenzie, Florence Lim, Connie H Wong, Laurence Macia, Alison N Thorburn, Brendan E Russ, Seth L Masters, Charles R Mackay
Environmental factors contribute to development of autoimmune diseases. For instance, human autoimmune arthritis can associate with intestinal inflammation, cigarette smoking, periodontal disease, and various infections. The cellular and, molecular pathways whereby such remote challenges might precipitate arthritis or flares remain unclear. Here, we used a transfer model of self-reactive arthritis-inducing CD4(+) cells from KRNtg mice that, upon transfer, induce a very mild form of autoinflammatory arthritis in recipient animals...
September 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
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