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Zhixue Wang, Zijing Liu, Lijng Zhou, Tingting Long, Xing Zhou, Yixi Bao
OBJECTIVE: This study is to investigate the role of second messengers and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in the immunomodulatory activities of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) in macrophages. METHODS: RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were treated with APS, PSP, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or NiCl2. Power-spectral method was used to detect protein kinase C (PKC) and Griess reaction to detect nitric oxide (NO). ELISA was conducted to detect cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), diglycerides (DAG), inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate (IP3), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Zhengguang Wang, Liuyi Dong, Yinan Zhen, Yanan Wang, Dongjiang Qi, Aman Xu, Xiangling Meng, Weiping Li
We and others have shown that Astragalus extract (AE) regulates various cellular processes including inflammation and apoptosis. It remains elusive whether and how AE modulates apoptosis in gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study is to determine the effects and mechanisms of AE on the proliferation and apoptosis of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells and on tumor growth in orthotopic transplantation gastric tumor model in nude mice. Human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells and nude mice implanted with gastric cancer cells were treated with different concentration of AE and 5-fluorouracil as control...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jianming Wu, Xiao Ke, Na Ma, Wei Wang, Wei Fu, Hongcheng Zhang, Manxi Zhao, Xiaoping Gao, Xiaofeng Hao, Zhirong Zhang
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that formononetin (FMN), one of the main ingredients from famous traditional Chinese medicine "Huang-qi" (Astragalus membranaceus [Fisch] Bunge) for Qi-tonifying, exhibits the effects of immunomodulation and tumor growth inhibition via antiangiogenesis. Furthermore, A. membranaceus may alleviate the retinal neovascularization (NV) of diabetic retinopathy. However, the information of FMN on retinal NV is limited so far. In the present study, we investigated the effects of FMN on the hypoxia-induced retinal NV and the possible related mechanisms...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Yixuan Wang, Yun Chen, Hongxu Du, Jingjing Yang, Ke Ming, Meiyun Song, Jiaguo Liu
Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) (Picornaviridae) causes an infectious disease in ducks which results in severe losses in duck industry. However, the proper antiviral supportive drugs for this disease have not been discovered. Polysaccharide is the main ingredient of Astragalus that has been demonstrated to directly and indirectly inhibit RNA of viruses replication. In this study, the antiviral activities of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and its derivatives against DHAV were evaluated and compared. APS was modified via the sodium trimetaphosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate (STMP-STPP) method and chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method to obtain its phosphate (pAPS) and sulfate (sAPS), respectively...
October 4, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Zhiyong Cai, Jindi Liu, Hongliang Bian, Jinlan Cai
Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is a flavonoid from the plant Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge that has a wide range of therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of AS-IV on rats with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) under oxidative stress and inflammation. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with NEC by asphyxia and hypothermia applied on 3 consecutive days. The rats were orally administered AS-IV at 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg for 4 days. The results revealed that AS-IV administration prevented NEC-induced decrease in the concentration of malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase, and increase in the activity of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase in murine models...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ning Zhu, Xiaochen Lv, Yangyun Wang, Jingling Li, Yongming Liu, Wenfei Lu, Liecheng Yang, Jian Zhao, Fujun Wang, Leshuai W Zhang
Polysaccharides from different types of natural herbs have not been compared with each other to determine their differential potencies on innate immune response, such as maturation of dendritic cells (DC). In addition, the role of endocytosis of polysaccharides in DC maturation has not been explored previously. Polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus membranaceus (APS), Ganoderma lucidum (GLP) and Radix ophiopogonis (OGP) were characterized and applied in bone marrow derived DC. Compared to immature DC, three polysaccharides with immunoactivities showed elongated dendrites, decreased phagocytic abilities, phenotypic changes (CD40/MHCII/CD80/CD86) and increased level of nitric oxide (NO) in a dose dependent manner...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yuan Lu, Qiong-Qiong Xing, Jian-Ya Xu, Dou Ding, Xia Zhao
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been recently revealed to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), a major bioactive component from Astragalus membranaceus, exerts immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and has been shown to suppress ER stress in chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes. However, the pharmaceutical application of APS in the treatment of severe asthma is unknown. The results obtained here indicate that APS significantly attenuates eosinophils and neutrophil-dominant airway inflammation by reducing the mRNA levels of Cxcl5, Il8, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (Ccl20) and the protein levels of IL13RA and IL17RA...
September 16, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Daniel Cook, Dale R Gardner, Jessie M Roper, Corey V Ransom, James A Pfister, Kip E Panter
Swainsonine, an indolizidine alkaloid, is an α-mannosidase and mannosidase II inhibitor that causes lysosomal storage disease and alters glycoprotein processing. Swainsonine is found in a number of plant species worldwide, and is produced by associated endophytic fungi. Prolonged consumption of swainsonine-containing plants by livestock causes a condition characterized by weight loss, depression, altered behavior, decreased libido, infertility, and death. In contrast, Astragalus and Oxytropis that do not contain swainsonine may present a valuable food source for grazing livestock in regions where palatable forage is scarce...
September 16, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Tom Fleischer, Tung-Ti Chang, Hung-Rong Yen
While much progress has been made in the field of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), headway in the promotion of recovery following this procedure has been limited. Data regarding the potential of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for patients with hematologic disorders who received HSCT are gradually increasing; however, these data are mostly in Chinese. Therefore, we set out to summarize the existing data. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure and retrieved 9 clinical studies related to this group of patients, in whom CHM was used as an intervention...
September 2016: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Guoqiang Liu, Leilei Dong, Kuan Lu, Sisi Liu, Yingying Zheng
Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) (used for intestinal protection) was added to formulate the Tongshu suppository to improve the pharmacokinetics of Aceclofenac, which were assessed in New Zealand rabbits using an orthogonal experimental design. The single-agent Aceclofenac was taken as the control formulation. The concentration-time and drug release curves were drawn, and T max (min), C max (μg·mL(-1)), AUC0→∞ , and MRT were compared using a pharmacokinetic systems program. The formulated Tongshu suppository had moderate hardness, a smooth surface with uniform color, and theoretical drug-loading rate of 8%...
2016: BioMed Research International
Fan Yang, Gege Yan, Yuan Li, Zhenbo Han, Lai Zhang, Simon Chen, Chao Feng, Qi Huang, Fengzhi Ding, Ying Yu, Chongwei Bi, Benzhi Cai, Lei Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have the ability to differentiate into multilineage cells such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and cardiomyocytes. Dysfunction of BMSCs in response to pathological stimuli participates in the development of diseases such as osteoporosis. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) is a major active ingredient of Astragalus membranaceus, a commonly used anti-aging herb in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether APS protects against iron overload-induced dysfunction of BMSCs and its underlying mechanisms...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Chenchen Wu, Tiesuo Han, Hao Lu, Baoyu Zhao
Locoweed is a perennial herbaceous plant included in Astragalus spp. and Oxytropis spp. that contains the toxic indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine. The livestock that consume locoweed can suffer from a type of toxicity called locoism. There are aliphaticnitro compounds, selenium, selenium compounds, and alkaloids in locoweed. The toxic component in locoweed has been identified as swainsonine, an indolizidine alkaloid. Swainsonine inhibits lysosomal a-mannosidase and mannosidase II, resulting in altered oligosaccharide degradation and incomplete glycoprotein processing...
August 31, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Auwalu Yusuf Abdullahi, Sanpha Kallon, Xingang Yu, Yongliang Zhang, Guoqing Li
To determine the effect of astragalus and ginseng polysaccharides (APS, GPS) on immune response and improvement of H5N1 vaccine, 360-day-old broilers were randomly divided into 8 groups of 45 chicks, comprising APS groups (1-3); GPS groups (4-6); vaccine group (7); and blank control (8) (without polysaccharide and vaccine). From day 12 after hatch groups 1-3 were given APS and groups 4-6 with GPS both at 100, 200, and 400 (mg/kg), respectively. At day 15 after hatch, groups 1-7 were vaccinated with 0.3 mL H5N1 vaccine subcutaneously; daily weight gain (DWG) and serum Ig antibody (by HI-test) were measured on 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after vaccination...
2016: BioMed Research International
Zhuo Chen, Suixin Liu, Ying Cai, Kangling Xie, Wenliang Zhang, Lei Dong, Yuan Liu, Fan Zheng, Yaoshan Dun, Ning Li
Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been implicated in intimal hyperplasia, atherosclerosis and restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention. Formononetin, a phytoestrogen extracted from the root of Astragalus membranaceus, has been widely used in Chinese tradition medicine due to its protective effects against certain symptoms of cancer, hypertension, inflammation, hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity and ovariectomy-induced bone loss. However, the effect of formononetin on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs, as well as the underlying molecular mechanism, remains largely unclear...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Lei Li, Xiaojiao Hou, Rongfang Xu, Menbayaer Tu, Chang Liu
Astragalus membranaceus Bunge has been used to treat numerous diseases for thousands of years. As the main active substance of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge, Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) also demonstrates the potent protective effect on focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, liver fibrosis, and diabetic nephropathy. Based on studies published during the past several decades, the current state of AS-IV research and the pharmacological effects are detailed, elucidated, summarized...
August 27, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Kai Guo, Xiaofeng He, Yanping Zhang, Xiuzhuang Li, Zhiqiang Yan, Le Pan, Bo Qin
Four new flavonoids, astragaisoflavans A-D (1-4), along with thirteen known ones (5-17) were isolated from the aerial parts of Astragalus hoantchy. Their structures were established by the extensive spectroscopic analyses including one- and two-dimensional NMR, HRESIMS, IR, and UV results. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were deduced based on circular dichroism. Compounds 1-3 all possessed a rare modified A-ring and compound 4 was a dimeric isoflavan. Compound 5 was first identified from genus Astragalus and 6-17 were found from A...
October 2016: Fitoterapia
Jinfeng Li, Lifeng Huang, Shuzhen Wang, Yongming Yao, Zhenyu Zhang
CONTEXT: High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a highly abundant protein that can promote the pathogenesis of inflammatory. Some experiments have demonstrated a vital role for HMGB1 to modulate the immune function of regulatory T-cells (Tregs). Astragaloside IV (AST IV), an extract from Astragalus membranaceus Moench (Leguminosae), has been shown to exert potent cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. It is still unclear whether AST IV has a latent effect on the proinflammatory ability of HMGB1 with subsequent activation of Tregs in vivo...
August 26, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Qi Jia
Historically, botanicals have been reported to possess good antioxidative activities as demonstrated by their free radical scavenging property rendering their usage in liver protection. In this study, we describe the potential use of MAP, a standardized blend comprising three extracts from Myristica fragrans, Astragalus membranaceus, and Poria cocos, in ameliorating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen (APAP) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Wentao Fan, Shijie Zhang, Pan Hao, Pimiao Zheng, Jianzhu Liu, Xiaona Zhao
In this study, we evaluated structure characterization and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from Astragalus aboriginum Richardson (RAPS), Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (RAMPS) and Rumia seseloides Hoffm (RSPS) in vitro on chicken macrophage. We found that molecular weight of RAPS and RAMPS was 122.4 and 109.4kDa higher than 64.71kDa of RSPS. Glucose occupied 83.95% and 66.39% in RAPS and RAMPS, respectively. RSPS mainly contained glucose and galacturonic acid, which accounted for 32.35% and 29...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Youn Kyung Choi, Sung-Gook Cho, Yu-Jeong Choi, Yee Jin Yun, Kang Min Lee, Kangwook Lee, Hye-Hyun Yoo, Yong Cheol Shin, Seong-Gyu Ko
Drug markets revisits herbal medicines, as historical usages address their therapeutic efficacies with less adverse effects. Moreover, herbal medicines save both cost and time in development. SH003, a modified version of traditional herbal medicine extracted from Astragalus membranaceus (Am), Angelica gigas (Ag), and Trichosanthes Kirilowii Maximowicz (Tk) with 1:1:1 ratio (w/w) has been revealed to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis on highly metastatic breast cancer cells, both in vivo and in vitro with no toxicity...
August 19, 2016: Oncotarget
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