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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902135/point-prevalence-surveys-of-antimicrobial-use-among-hospitalized-children-in-six-hospitals-in-india-in-2016
#1
Sumanth Gandra, Sanjeev K Singh, Dasaratha R Jinka, Ravishankar Kanithi, Ashok K Chikkappa, Anita Sharma, Dhanya Dharmapalan, Anil Kumar Vasudevan, Onkaraiah Tunga, Akhila Akula, Garima Garg, Yingfen Hsia, Srinivas Murki, Gerardo Alvarez-Uria, Mike Sharland, Ramanan Laxminarayan
The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in India is among the highest in the world. Antimicrobial use in inpatient settings is an important driver of resistance, but is poorly characterized, particularly in hospitalized children. In this study, conducted as part of the Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Prescribing, and Efficacy in Neonates and Children (GARPEC) project, we examined the prevalence of and indications of antimicrobial use, as well as antimicrobial agents used among hospitalized children by conducting four point prevalence surveys in six hospitals between February 2016 and February 2017...
September 13, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893874/the-quadruple-burden-of-sepsis
#2
Sagar Dugani, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Niranjan Kissoon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862372/correlation-of-cd4-count-with-cariogenic-oral-flora-indicators-and-dental-caries-in-hiv-seropositive-children-undergoing-antiretroviral-therapy-in-mangaluru-south-india
#3
Soumya Muraleedharan, Ganesh Shenoy Panchmal, Rekha P Shenoy, Praveen Jodalli, Laxminarayan Sonde, Imran Pasha
AIM: The aim of the present study was to compare the association of CD4 count with cariogenic oral flora indicators and dental caries in HIV-seropositive children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted among HIV-seropositive children receiving ART at Snehasadan Camillian Care and Support Center HIV/AIDS in Mangaluru, India. Demographic details and r recent CD4 counts were recorded. For dental caries, the Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT)/decayed, missing, filled/decayed, extracted, filled index was used...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817562/antimicrobial-resistance-the-complex-challenge-of-measurement-to-inform-policy-and-the-public
#4
Didier Wernli, Peter S Jørgensen, Stephan Harbarth, Scott P Carroll, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Nicolas Levrat, John-Arne Røttingen, Didier Pittet
Didier Wernli and colleagues discuss the role of monitoring in countering antimicrobial resistance.
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807425/clinical-outcome-of-dual-colistin-and-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infections-a-single-center-retrospective-study-of-75-cases-in-india
#5
Amarjeet Kaur, Sumanth Gandra, Priyanka Gupta, Yatin Mehta, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Sharmila Sengupta
In this study, we retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes of 75 patients with dual colistin- and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections over a 5-year period in a single tertiary care hospital in India. We observed a high in-hospital mortality rate of 69.3%. Our findings indicate the urgent need for new antibiotics to treat these infections.
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776324/maternal-and-foetal-outcomes-following-natural-vaginal-versus-caesarean-section-c-section-delivery-in-women-with-bleeding-disorders-and-carriers
#6
REVIEW
Laxminarayan Karanth, Sachchithanantham Kanagasabai, Adinegara Bl Abas
BACKGROUND: Bleeding disorders are uncommon but may pose significant bleeding complications during pregnancy, labour and following delivery for both the woman and the foetus. While many bleeding disorders in women tend to improve in pregnancy, thus decreasing the haemorrhagic risk to the mother at the time of delivery, some do not correct or return quite quickly to their pre-pregnancy levels in the postpartum period. Therefore, specific measures to prevent maternal bleeding and foetal complications during childbirth, are required...
August 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749780/the-prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-poultry-chickens-and-variation-according-to-farming-practices-in-punjab-india
#7
Charles H Brower, Siddhartha Mandal, Shivdeep Hayer, Mandeep Sran, Asima Zehra, Sunny J Patel, Ravneet Kaur, Leena Chatterjee, Savita Mishra, B R Das, Parminder Singh, Randhir Singh, J P S Gill, Ramanan Laxminarayan
BACKGROUND: Agricultural use of antimicrobials in subtherapeutic concentrations is increasing in response to the rising demand for food animal products worldwide. In India, the use of antimicrobials in food animal production is unregulated. Research suggests that many clinically important antimicrobials are used indiscriminately. This is the largest study to date in India that surveys poultry production to test for antimicrobial resistance and the occurrence of extended-spectrum (ESBLs) modulated by farming and managerial practices...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656650/effects-of-signal-artefacts-on-electroencephalography-spectral-power-during-sleep-quantifying-the-effectiveness-of-automated-artefact-rejection-algorithms
#8
Jianbo Liu, Sridhar Ramakrishnan, Srinivas Laxminarayan, Maxwell Neal, David J Cashmere, Anne Germain, Jaques Reifman
Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings during sleep are often contaminated by muscle and ocular artefacts, which can affect the results of spectral power analyses significantly. However, the extent to which these artefacts affect EEG spectral power across different sleep states has not been quantified explicitly. Consequently, the effectiveness of automated artefact-rejection algorithms in minimizing these effects has not been characterized fully. To address these issues, we analysed standard 10-channel EEG recordings from 20 subjects during one night of sleep...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577964/rp5063-a-novel-multimodal-serotonin-receptor-modulator-prevents-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-rats
#9
Laxminarayan Bhat, Jon Hawkinson, Marc Cantillon, Dasharatha G Reddy, Seema R Bhat, Charles E Laurent, Annie Bouchard, Marzena Biernat, Dany Salvail
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a condition characterized by pulmonary vasculature constriction and remodeling, involves dysregulation of the serotonin (5-HT) receptors 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B. A rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH was used to examine the potential beneficial effects of RP5063, a 5-HT receptor modulator. After a single 60mg/kg dose of MCT, rats were gavaged twice-daily (b.i.d.) with vehicle, RP5063 (1, 3, or 10mg/kg), or sildenafil (50mg/kg) for 28 days. RP5063 at a dose as low as 1mg/kg, b...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576407/rp5063-a-novel-multimodal-serotonin-receptor-modulator-prevents-sugen-5416-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-rats
#10
Laxminarayan Bhat, Jon Hawkinson, Marc Cantillon, Dasharatha G Reddy, Seema R Bhat, Charles E Laurent, Annie Bouchard, Marzena Biernat, Dany Salvail
RP5063, a multimodal dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) modulator with high affinity for DA2/3/4 and 5-HT2A/2B/7 receptors and moderate affinity for SERT, is a novel therapeutic of special interest in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Evidence indicates that therapeutics targeting the 5-HT2A/2B receptors can influence the pathogenesis of PAH. However, the therapeutic effect of RP5063 in humans has yet to be investigated. A Sugen 5416-hypoxia (SuHx)-induced PAH model was used to evaluate twice-daily (b...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539701/adsorptive-water-removal-from-dichloromethane-and-vapor-phase-regeneration-of-a-molecular-sieve-3a-packed-bed
#11
Slaviša Jović, Yashasvi Laxminarayan, Jos Keurentjes, Jaap Schouten, John van der Schaaf
The drying of dichloromethane with a molecular sieve 3A packed bed process is modeled and experimentally verified. In the process, the dichloromethane is dried in the liquid phase and the adsorbent is regenerated by water desorption with dried dichloromethane product in the vapor phase. Adsorption equilibrium experiments show that dichloromethane does not compete with water adsorption, because of size exclusion; the pure water vapor isotherm from literature provides an accurate representation of the experiments...
May 3, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497241/fighting-against-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance-by-utilizing-evolvable-antimicrobial-drugs
#12
REVIEW
Mehmet Fatih Cansizoglu, Erdal Toprak
Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide public health problem (Bush et al. in Nat Rev Microbiol 9:894-896, 2011). The lack of effective therapies against resistant bacteria globally leads to prolonged treatments, increased mortality, and inflating health care costs (Oz et al. in Mol Biol Evol 31:2387-2401, 2014; Martinez in Science 321:365-367, 2008; Lipsitch et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:1938-1943, 2000; Taubes in Science 321:356-361, 2008; Laxminarayan et al. in Lancet, 2016; Laxminarayan et al. in Lancet Infect Dis 13:1057-1098, 2013)...
May 11, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472253/is-antimicrobial-resistance-a-bigger-problem-in-tertiary-care-hospitals-than-in-small-community-hospitals-in-the-united-states
#13
Sumanth Gandra, Anna Trett, Eili Y Klein, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Large tertiary care hospitals (TCHs) are thought to have higher antimicrobial resistance (AMR) rates when compared to small community hospitals (SCHs) as they provide care to patients with higher disease severity. However, we found no systematic differences in AMR rates between TCHs and SCHs in the United States.
May 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458758/knowledge-attitude-and-anxiety-pertaining-to-basic-life-support-and-medical-emergencies-among-dental-interns-in-mangalore-city-india
#14
Vinej Somaraj, Rekha P Shenoy, Ganesh Shenoy Panchmal, Praveen S Jodalli, Laxminarayan Sonde, Ravichandra Karkal
BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and anxiety pertaining to basic life support (BLS) and medical emergencies among interns in dental colleges of Mangalore city, Karnataka, India. METHODS: The study subjects comprised of interns who volunteered from the four dental colleges. The knowledge and attitude of interns were assessed using a 30-item questionnaire prepared based on the Basic Life Support Manual from American Heart Association and the anxiety of interns pertaining to BLS and medical emergencies were assessed using a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Questionnaire...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436072/real-time-individualization-of-the-unified-model-of-performance
#15
Jianbo Liu, Sridhar Ramakrishnan, Srinivas Laxminarayan, Thomas J Balkin, Jaques Reifman
Existing mathematical models for predicting neurobehavioural performance are not suited for mobile computing platforms because they cannot adapt model parameters automatically in real time to reflect individual differences in the effects of sleep loss. We used an extended Kalman filter to develop a computationally efficient algorithm that continually adapts the parameters of the recently developed Unified Model of Performance (UMP) to an individual. The algorithm accomplishes this in real time as new performance data for the individual become available...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428689/experimental-validation-of-antidiabetic-potential-of-cayratia-trifolia-l-domin-an-indigenous-medicinal-plant
#16
Shahid Iqbal Mohammed, Narendra Subhash Salunkhe, Kishor Sukhlal Vishwakarma, Vijay Laxminarayan Maheshwari
The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of Cayratia trifolia root extract against streptozotocin induced diabetes in experimental rats to scientifically validate its use against diabetes in some parts of India. Ethanolic extract, showing the highest activity in in vitro experiments, was prepared in saline and administered orally to streptozotocin induced albino Wistar diabetic rats for 21 days. Biochemical parameters liver and muscles glycogen and in vivo antioxidant activity in normal, diabetic control, standard (metformin) and treated animals were determined and compared...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400386/emerging-and-re-emerging-infectious-disease-threats-in-south-asia-status-vulnerability-preparedness-and-outlook
#17
REVIEW
Ramanan Laxminarayan, Manish Kakkar, Peter Horby, Gathsaurie Neelika Malavige, Buddha Basnyat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373127/rp5063-an-atypical-antipsychotic-drug-with-a-unique-pharmacologic-profile-improves-declarative-memory-and-psychosis-in-mouse-models-of-schizophrenia
#18
Lakshmi Rajagopal, Sunoh Kwon, Mei Huang, Eric Michael, Laxminarayan Bhat, Marc Cantillon, Herbert Y Meltzer
Various types of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) modestly improve the cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). RP5063 is an AAPD with a diverse and unique pharmacology, including partial agonism at dopamine (DA) D2, D3, D4, serotonin (5-HT)1A, and 5-HT2A receptors (Rs), full agonism at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh)R (nAChR), and antagonism at 5-HT2B, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7Rs. Most atypical APDs are 5-HT2A inverse agonists. The efficacy of RP5063 in mouse models of psychosis and episodic memory were studied...
March 31, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352285/effect-of-herbal-and-fluoride-mouth-rinses-on-streptococcus-mutans-and-dental-caries-among-12-15-year-old-school-children-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Vinej Somaraj, Rekha P Shenoy, Ganesh Shenoy Panchmal, Vijaya Kumar, Praveen S Jodalli, Laxminarayan Sonde
To assess and compare the effect of herbal and fluoride mouth rinses on Streptococcus mutans count and glucan synthesis by Streptococcus mutans and dental caries, a parallel group placebo controlled randomized trial was conducted among 240 schoolchildren (12-15 years old). Participants were randomly divided and allocated into Group I (0.2% fluoride group), Group II (herbal group), and Group III (placebo group). All received 10 ml of respective mouth rinses every fortnight for a period of one year. Intergroup and intragroup comparison were done for Streptococcus mutans count and glucan synthesis by Streptococcus mutans and dental caries...
2017: International Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331276/an-easy-technique-for-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-for-extremities-using-collagen-powder-and-sterile-gloves
#20
L S Sreelesh, P Laxminarayan Bhandari
Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has become the standard of care for wound management. Application of NPWT to the hand and foot is technically challenging due to difficulty in obtaining a proper air seal. The cost of the treatment is another negative factor affecting NPWT in developing countries. We describe an easy and economical technique for the application of NPWT to the extremities using collage powder and sterile surgical glove. Collagen creates a physiological interface between the wound surface and the environment and is also non-immunogenic, non-pyrogenic, hypoallergenic, and pain-free...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Surgery
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