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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776749/determinants-of-cost-of-routine-immunization-programme-in-india
#1
Susmita Chatterjee, Arpita Ghosh, Palash Das, Nicolas A Menzies, Ramanan Laxminarayan
The costs of delivering routine immunization services in India vary widely across facilities, districts and states. Understanding the factors influencing this cost variation could help predict future immunization costs and suggest approaches for improving the efficiency of service provision. We examined determinants of facility cost for immunization services based on a nationally representative sample of sub-centres and primary health centres (99 and 89 facilities, respectively) by regressing logged total facility costs, both including and excluding vaccine cost, against several explanatory variables...
May 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765775/potential-impact-of-introducing-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-into-national-immunisation-programmes-an-economic-epidemiological-analysis-using-data-from-india
#2
Itamar Megiddo, Eili Klein, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Pneumococcal pneumonia causes an estimated 105 000 child deaths in India annually. The planned introduction of the serotype-based pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is expected to avert child deaths, but the high cost of PCV relative to current vaccines provided under the Universal Immunization Programme has been a concern. Cost-effectiveness studies from high-income countries are not readily comparable because of differences in the distribution of prevalent serotypes, population and health systems. We extended IndiaSim, our agent-based simulation model representative of the Indian population and health system, to model the dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae ...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747082/critical-knowledge-gaps-and-research-needs-related-to-the-environmental-dimensions-of-antibiotic-resistance
#3
D G Joakim Larsson, Antoine Andremont, Johan Bengtsson-Palme, Kristian Koefoed Brandt, Ana Maria de Roda Husman, Patriq Fagerstedt, Jerker Fick, Carl-Fredrik Flach, William H Gaze, Makoto Kuroda, Kristian Kvint, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Celia M Manaia, Kaare Magne Nielsen, Laura Plant, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Carlos Segovia, Pascal Simonet, Kornelia Smalla, Jason Snape, Edward Topp, Arjon J van Hengel, David W Verner-Jeffreys, Marko P J Virta, Elizabeth M Wellington, Ann-Sofie Wernersson
There is growing understanding that the environment plays an important role both in the transmission of antibiotic resistant pathogens and in their evolution. Accordingly, researchers and stakeholders world-wide seek to further explore the mechanisms and drivers involved, quantify risks and identify suitable interventions. There is a clear value in establishing research needs and coordinating efforts within and across nations in order to best tackle this global challenge. At an international workshop in late September 2017, scientists from 14 countries with expertise on the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance gathered to define critical knowledge gaps...
May 7, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736496/effect-of-paneer-and-cheese-consumption-on-salivary-acidogenicity-and-calcium-concentration-a-comparative-study
#4
Vinej Somaraj, Rekha P Shenoy, Ganesh Shenoy Panchmal, Praveen S Jodalli, Laxminarayan Sonde, Kundapur Nagaraj
PURPOSE: To assess and compare the salivary pH reversal phenomenon and calcium concentration in subjects consuming paneer and cheese after an acidogenic challenge and also to compare the salivary pH measurements using pH strips and a portable pen-type pH meter. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty caries free undergraduate students were randomly selected and divided into two group: 1. paneer; 2. cheese. After determining the resting salivary pH using pH strips and a pen-type pH meter, participants were subjected to an acidogenic challenge (10% sucrose)...
2018: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625170/developing-core-elements-and-checklist-items-for-global-hospital-antimicrobial-stewardship-programmes-a-consensus-approach
#5
Céline Pulcini, Francesca Binda, Anjana Sankhil Lamkang, Anna Trett, Esmita Charani, Debra A Goff, Stephan Harbarth, Sylvia Lemos Hinrichsen, Gabriel Levy-Hara, Marc Mendelson, Dilip Nathwani, Revathi Gunturu, Sanjeev Singh, Arjun Srinivasan, Visanu Thamlikitkul, Karin Thursky, Erika Vlieghe, Heiman Wertheim, Mei Zeng, Sumanth Gandra, Ramanan Laxminarayan
OBJECTIVES: With increasing interest in hospital antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes globally, there is a strong demand for core elements of AMS to be clearly defined based on principles of effectiveness and affordability. To date, efforts to identify such core elements have been limited to Europe, Australia, and North America. The aim of this study was to develop a set of core elements and their related checklist items for AMS programmes that should be present in all hospitals, regardless of resource availability, worldwide...
April 2, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619682/a-population-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-analysis-of-rp5063-phase-2-study-data-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-or-schizoaffective-disorder
#6
Marc Cantillon, Robert Ings, Arul Prakash, Laxminarayan Bhat
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: RP5063 is a novel multimodal dopamine (D)-serotonin (5-HT) stabilizer possessing partial agonist activity for D2/3/4 and 5-HT1A/2A , antagonist activity for 5-HT2B/2C/7, and moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter. Phase 2 trial data analysis of RP5063 involving patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder defined: (1) the pharmacokinetic profile; and (2) the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic sample data (175 patients on RP5063; 28 doses/patient) were analyzed, utilized one- and two-compartment models, and evaluated the impact of covariates...
April 4, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608958/point-prevalence-surveys-of-antimicrobial-use-among-eight-neonatal-intensive
#7
Sumanth Gandra, Gerardo Alvarez-Uria, Srinivas Murki, Sanjeev K Singh, Ravishankar Kanithi, Dasaratha R Jinka, Ashok K Chikkappa, Sreeram Subramanian, Anita Sharma, Dhanya Dharmapalan, Hemasree Kandraju, Anil Kumar Vasudevan, Onkaraiah Tunga, Akhila Akula, Yingfen Hsia, Mike Sharland, Ramanan Laxminarayan
BACKGROUND: Information about antimicrobial use is scarce and poorly understood among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in India. In this study, we describe antimicrobial use in eight NICUs using four point prevalence surveys (PPSs). METHODS: As part of the Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Prescribing, and Efficacy in Neonates and Children (GARPEC) study, one-day, cross-sectional, hospital-based PPSs were conducted four times between 1 February 2016 and 28 February 2017 in eight NICUs...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581252/global-increase-and-geographic-convergence-in-antibiotic-consumption-between-2000-and-2015
#8
Eili Y Klein, Thomas P Van Boeckel, Elena M Martinez, Suraj Pant, Sumanth Gandra, Simon A Levin, Herman Goossens, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Tracking antibiotic consumption patterns over time and across countries could inform policies to optimize antibiotic prescribing and minimize antibiotic resistance, such as setting and enforcing per capita consumption targets or aiding investments in alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, we analyzed the trends and drivers of antibiotic consumption from 2000 to 2015 in 76 countries and projected total global antibiotic consumption through 2030. Between 2000 and 2015, antibiotic consumption, expressed in defined daily doses (DDD), increased 65% (21...
April 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579216/acinetobacter-baumannii-resistance-trends-in-children-in-the-united-states-1999-2012
#9
Latania K Logan, Sumanth Gandra, Anna Trett, Robert A Weinstein, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections. Carbapenem-resistant (CR) A baumannii is a significant threat globally. We used a large reference laboratory database to study the epidemiology of A baumannii in children in the United States. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility data from The Surveillance Network were used to phenotypically identify antibiotic resistance in A baumannii isolates in children 1-17 years of age between January 1999 and July 2012...
March 22, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515917/simulating-the-impact-of-excise-taxation-for-disease-prevention-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-an-application-to-south-africa
#10
Nicholas Stacey, Amit Summan, Aviva Tugendhaft, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Karen Hofman
Introduction: Excise taxes are policy tools that have been applied internationally with some success to reduce consumption of products adversely impacting population health including tobacco, alcohol and increasingly junk foods and sugary beverages. As in other low-income and middle-income countries, South Africa faces a growing burden of lifestyle diseases; accordingly we simulate the impact of multiple excise tax interventions in this setting. Methods: We construct a mathematical model to simulate the health and revenue effects of increased excise taxes, which is adaptable to a variety of settings given its limited data requirements...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494582/surveillance-of-antimicrobial-consumption-in-animal-production-sectors-of-low-and-middle-income-countries-optimizing-use-and-addressing-antimicrobial-resistance
#11
Daniel Schar, Angkana Sommanustweechai, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Viroj Tangcharoensathien
In a policy forum, Daniel Schar and colleagues discuss the need for surveillance of antimicrobial consumption in animals in low- and middle-income countries and propose the establishment of antimicrobial consumption monitoring systems.
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462270/reply-to-author
#12
Eili Y Klein, Katie Tseng, Daniel J Morgan, Ramanan Laxminarayan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453947/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-rp5063-a-novel-multimodal-serotonin-receptor-modulator-as-single-agent-therapy-and-co-administrated-with-sildenafil-bosentan-and-treprostinil-in-a-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-rat-model
#13
Laxminarayan Bhat, Jon Hawkinson, Marc Cantillon, Dasharatha G Reddy, Seema R Bhat, Charles-E Laurent, Annie Bouchard, Marzena Biernat, Dany Salvail
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a condition that is defined by pulmonary vasculature constriction and remodeling, involves dysfunctional signaling of the serotonin (5-HT) receptors, 5-HT2A/2B/7 . In a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH, the effectiveness of RP5063 (RP), a dopamine and 5-HT receptor modulator, was evaluated as monotherapy and as an adjunct to standard PAH treatments. After a single 60 mg/kg dose of MCT, rats received vehicle (MCT+Veh; gavage twice-daily [b.i.d.]), RP (10 mg/kg; gavage b...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420153/individualized-estimation-of-human-core-body-temperature-using-non-invasive-measurements
#14
Srinivas Laxminarayan, Vineet Rakesh, Tatsuya Oyama, Josh B Kazman, Ran Yanovich, Itay Ketko, Yoram Epstein, Shawnda A Morrison, Jaques Reifman
A rising core body temperature (Tc) during strenuous physical activity is a leading indicator of heat-injury risk. Hence, a system that can estimate Tc in real time and provide early warning of an impending temperature rise may enable proactive interventions to reduce the risk of heat injuries. However, real-time field assessment of Tc requires impractical invasive technologies. To address this problem, we developed a mathematical model that describes the relationships between Tc and non-invasive measurements of an individual's physical activity, heart rate, and skin temperature, and two environmental variables (ambient temperature and relative humidity)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410253/global-forecast-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-invasive-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#15
Gerardo Alvarez-Uria, Sumanth Gandra, Siddhartha Mandal, Ramanan Laxminarayan
OBJECTIVES: To project future antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. METHODS: Mixed linear models were constructed from a sample of countries with AMR data in the ResistanceMap database. Inverse probability weighting methods were used to account for countries without AMR data. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of AMR in 2015 was 64.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 42-87%) for third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCR) Escherichia coli, 5...
March 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378047/early-life-nutrition-is-associated-positively-with-schooling-and-labor-market-outcomes-and-negatively-with-marriage-rates-at-age-20-25-years-evidence-from-the-andhra-pradesh-children-and-parents-study-apcaps-in-india
#16
Arindam Nandi, Jere R Behrman, Sanjay Kinra, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Background: India's Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) is among the world's largest public nutritional programs, providing daily nutritional supplements and other public health and educational services to pregnant and nursing women, children aged <6 y, and adolescent girls. Objective: We estimated the long-term association between early-childhood ICDS nutrition and adult outcomes. Methods: We used follow-up data from a controlled nutritional trial conducted during 1987-1990 in 29 villages near the city of Hyderabad...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179954/universal-health-coverage-and-intersectoral-action-for-health-key-messages-from-disease-control-priorities-3rd-edition
#17
REVIEW
Dean T Jamison, Ala Alwan, Charles N Mock, Rachel Nugent, David Watkins, Olusoji Adeyi, Shuchi Anand, Rifat Atun, Stefano Bertozzi, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Agnes Binagwaho, Robert Black, Mark Blecher, Barry R Bloom, Elizabeth Brouwer, Donald A P Bundy, Dan Chisholm, Alarcos Cieza, Mark Cullen, Kristen Danforth, Nilanthi de Silva, Haile T Debas, Peter Donkor, Tarun Dua, Kenneth A Fleming, Mark Gallivan, Patricia J Garcia, Atul Gawande, Thomas Gaziano, Hellen Gelband, Roger Glass, Amanda Glassman, Glenda Gray, Demissie Habte, King K Holmes, Susan Horton, Guy Hutton, Prabhat Jha, Felicia M Knaul, Olive Kobusingye, Eric L Krakauer, Margaret E Kruk, Peter Lachmann, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Carol Levin, Lai Meng Looi, Nita Madhav, Adel Mahmoud, Jean Claude Mbanya, Anthony Measham, María Elena Medina-Mora, Carol Medlin, Anne Mills, Jody-Anne Mills, Jaime Montoya, Ole Norheim, Zachary Olson, Folashade Omokhodion, Ben Oppenheim, Toby Ord, Vikram Patel, George C Patton, John Peabody, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Jinyuan Qi, Teri Reynolds, Sevket Ruacan, Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan, Jaime Sepúlveda, Richard Skolnik, Kirk R Smith, Marleen Temmerman, Stephen Tollman, Stéphane Verguet, Damian G Walker, Neff Walker, Yangfeng Wu, Kun Zhao
The World Bank is publishing nine volumes of Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition (DCP3) between 2015 and 2018. Volume 9, Improving Health and Reducing Poverty, summarises the main messages from all the volumes and contains cross-cutting analyses. This Review draws on all nine volumes to convey conclusions. The analysis in DCP3 is built around 21 essential packages that were developed in the nine volumes. Each essential package addresses the concerns of a major professional community (eg, child health or surgery) and contains a mix of intersectoral policies and health-sector interventions...
November 24, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119704/pharmacokinetics-of-rp5063-following-single-doses-to-normal-healthy-volunteers-and-multiple-doses-over-10-days-to-stable-schizophrenic-patients
#18
Marc Cantillon, Robert Ings, Laxminarayan Bhat
RP5063, a multimodal dopamine (D)-serotonin (5-HT) stabilizer, possesses high affinity for D2/3/4 and 5-HT1A/2A/2B/2C/6/7 receptors and moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter. Two phase I studies characterized the pharmacokinetics of a single dose (10 and 15 mg fasting, 15 mg fed/fasting) in healthy volunteers and multiple doses (10, 20, 50, and 100 mg fed) over 10 days in patients with stable schizophrenia. RP5063 displayed a dose-dependent Cmax at 4 to 6 h, linear dose proportionality for both Cmax and AUC, and a half-life between 40 and 71 h...
November 8, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062847/evaluation-of-larvicidal-activity-of-essential-oil-from-leaves-of-coccinia-grandis-against-three-mosquito-species
#19
Shahid Iqbal Mohammed, Kishor Sukhlal Vishwakarma, Vijay Laxminarayan Maheshwari
BACKGROUND: To study the chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of Coccinia grandis against three mosquito species. METHODS: Essential oil was extracted by hydro distillation using clevenger apparatus and was analyzed for chemical constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). Larvicidal activity was recorded after 12 and 24h of post-exposure against three mosquito species, Anopheles stephensi , Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus ...
June 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020322/trends-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-hospitalizations-in-the-united-states-2010-2014
#20
Eili Y Klein, Nestor Mojica, Wendi Jiang, Sara E Cosgrove, Edward Septimus, Daniel J Morgan, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Data from the National Inpatient Sample show that the decrease in hospitalizations related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections between 2010 and 2014 primarily reflected declines in skin and soft tissue infections. Hospitalizations related to invasive MRSA remained largely unchanged.
November 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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