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Nicholas Stacey, Amit Summan, Aviva Tugendhaft, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Karen Hofman
Introduction: Excise taxes are policy tools that have been applied internationally with some success to reduce consumption of products adversely impacting population health including tobacco, alcohol and increasingly junk foods and sugary beverages. As in other low-income and middle-income countries, South Africa faces a growing burden of lifestyle diseases; accordingly we simulate the impact of multiple excise tax interventions in this setting. Methods: We construct a mathematical model to simulate the health and revenue effects of increased excise taxes, which is adaptable to a variety of settings given its limited data requirements...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Daniel Schar, Angkana Sommanustweechai, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Viroj Tangcharoensathien
In a policy forum, Daniel Schar and colleagues discuss the need for surveillance of antimicrobial consumption in animals in low- and middle-income countries and propose the establishment of antimicrobial consumption monitoring systems.
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Eili Y Klein, Katie Tseng, Daniel J Morgan, Ramanan Laxminarayan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Laxminarayan Bhat, Jon Hawkinson, Marc Cantillon, Dasharatha G Reddy, Seema R Bhat, Charles-E Laurent, Annie Bouchard, Marzena Biernat, Dany Salvail
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a condition that is defined by pulmonary vasculature constriction and remodeling, involves dysfunctional signaling of the serotonin (5-HT) receptors, 5-HT 2/2B/7 . In a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH, the effectiveness of RP5063 (RP), a dopamine and 5-HT receptor modulator, was evaluated as monotherapy and as an adjunct to standard PAH treatments. After a single 60mg/kg dose of MCT, rats received vehicle (MCT+Veh; gavage twice-daily [b.i.d.]), RP (10mg/kg; gavage b...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Srinivas Laxminarayan, Vineet Rakesh, Tatsuya Oyama, Josh B Kazman, Ran Yanovich, Itay Ketko, Yoram Epstein, Shawnda A Morrison, Jaques Reifman
A rising core body temperature (Tc) during strenuous physical activity is a leading indicator of heat-injury risk. Hence, a system that can estimate Tc in real time and provide early warning of an impending temperature rise may enable proactive interventions to reduce the risk of heat injuries. However, real-time field assessment of Tc requires impractical invasive technologies. To address this problem, we developed a mathematical model that describes the relationships between Tc and non-invasive measurements of an individual's physical activity, heart rate, and skin temperature, and two environmental variables (ambient temperature and relative humidity)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Gerardo Alvarez-Uria, Sumanth Gandra, Siddhartha Mandal, Ramanan Laxminarayan
OBJECTIVES: To project future antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. METHODS: Mixed linear models were constructed from a sample of countries with AMR data in the ResistanceMap database. Inverse probability weighting methods were used to account for countries without AMR data. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of AMR in 2015 was 64.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 42-87%) for third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCR) Escherichia coli, 5...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Arindam Nandi, Jere R Behrman, Sanjay Kinra, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Background: India's Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) is among the world's largest public nutritional programs, providing daily nutritional supplements and other public health and educational services to pregnant and nursing women, children aged <6 y, and adolescent girls. Objective: We estimated the long-term association between early-childhood ICDS nutrition and adult outcomes. Methods: We used follow-up data from a controlled nutritional trial conducted during 1987-1990 in 29 villages near the city of Hyderabad...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Dean T Jamison, Ala Alwan, Charles N Mock, Rachel Nugent, David Watkins, Olusoji Adeyi, Shuchi Anand, Rifat Atun, Stefano Bertozzi, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Agnes Binagwaho, Robert Black, Mark Blecher, Barry R Bloom, Elizabeth Brouwer, Donald A P Bundy, Dan Chisholm, Alarcos Cieza, Mark Cullen, Kristen Danforth, Nilanthi de Silva, Haile T Debas, Peter Donkor, Tarun Dua, Kenneth A Fleming, Mark Gallivan, Patricia J Garcia, Atul Gawande, Thomas Gaziano, Hellen Gelband, Roger Glass, Amanda Glassman, Glenda Gray, Demissie Habte, King K Holmes, Susan Horton, Guy Hutton, Prabhat Jha, Felicia M Knaul, Olive Kobusingye, Eric L Krakauer, Margaret E Kruk, Peter Lachmann, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Carol Levin, Lai Meng Looi, Nita Madhav, Adel Mahmoud, Jean Claude Mbanya, Anthony Measham, María Elena Medina-Mora, Carol Medlin, Anne Mills, Jody-Anne Mills, Jaime Montoya, Ole Norheim, Zachary Olson, Folashade Omokhodion, Ben Oppenheim, Toby Ord, Vikram Patel, George C Patton, John Peabody, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Jinyuan Qi, Teri Reynolds, Sevket Ruacan, Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan, Jaime Sepúlveda, Richard Skolnik, Kirk R Smith, Marleen Temmerman, Stephen Tollman, Stéphane Verguet, Damian G Walker, Neff Walker, Yangfeng Wu, Kun Zhao
The World Bank is publishing nine volumes of Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition (DCP3) between 2015 and 2018. Volume 9, Improving Health and Reducing Poverty, summarises the main messages from all the volumes and contains cross-cutting analyses. This Review draws on all nine volumes to convey conclusions. The analysis in DCP3 is built around 21 essential packages that were developed in the nine volumes. Each essential package addresses the concerns of a major professional community (eg, child health or surgery) and contains a mix of intersectoral policies and health-sector interventions...
November 24, 2017: Lancet
Marc Cantillon, Robert Ings, Laxminarayan Bhat
RP5063, a multimodal dopamine (D)-serotonin (5-HT) stabilizer, possesses high affinity for D2/3/4 and 5-HT1A/2A/2B/2C/6/7 receptors and moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter. Two phase I studies characterized the pharmacokinetics of a single dose (10 and 15 mg fasting, 15 mg fed/fasting) in healthy volunteers and multiple doses (10, 20, 50, and 100 mg fed) over 10 days in patients with stable schizophrenia. RP5063 displayed a dose-dependent Cmax at 4 to 6 h, linear dose proportionality for both Cmax and AUC, and a half-life between 40 and 71 h...
November 8, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
Shahid Iqbal Mohammed, Kishor Sukhlal Vishwakarma, Vijay Laxminarayan Maheshwari
BACKGROUND: To study the chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of Coccinia grandis against three mosquito species. METHODS: Essential oil was extracted by hydro distillation using clevenger apparatus and was analyzed for chemical constituents by gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS). Larvicidal activity was recorded after 12 and 24h of post-exposure against three mosquito species, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus...
June 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
Eili Y Klein, Nestor Mojica, Wendi Jiang, Sara E Cosgrove, Edward Septimus, Daniel J Morgan, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Data from the National Inpatient Sample show that the decrease in hospitalizations related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections between 2010 and 2014 primarily reflected declines in skin and soft tissue infections. Hospitalizations related to invasive MRSA remained largely unchanged.
November 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Arindam Nandi, Randall Lutter, Ramanan Laxminarayan
OBJECTIVE: There is a significant evidence gap on the long-term educational benefits of longer breastfeeding in low- and middle-income countries. We estimated the association between duration of (any) breastfeeding and educational outcomes of Indian children. METHODS: We used regression analysis to examine the association between the length of breastfeeding (in months) and future education outcomes on the basis of 2 data sets: (1) data from a follow-up survey known as the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS, 2003-2005) of 1165 children aged 13 to 18 years from a controlled nutrition trial originally conducted in South India during the period of 1987 to 1990; and (2) nationally representative data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS-2, 2011-2012) of 6121 children aged 6 to 12 years...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Thomas P Van Boeckel, Emma E Glennon, Dora Chen, Marius Gilbert, Timothy P Robinson, Bryan T Grenfell, Simon A Levin, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Ramanan Laxminarayan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2017: Science
Sumanth Gandra, Sanjeev K Singh, Dasaratha R Jinka, Ravishankar Kanithi, Ashok K Chikkappa, Anita Sharma, Dhanya Dharmapalan, Anil Kumar Vasudevan, Onkaraiah Tunga, Akhila Akula, Garima Garg, Yingfen Hsia, Srinivas Murki, Gerardo Alvarez-Uria, Mike Sharland, Ramanan Laxminarayan
The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in India is among the highest in the world. Antimicrobial use in inpatient settings is an important driver of resistance, but is poorly characterized, particularly in hospitalized children. In this study, conducted as part of the Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Prescribing, and Efficacy in Neonates and Children (GARPEC) project, we examined the prevalence of and indications of antimicrobial use, as well as antimicrobial agents used among hospitalized children by conducting four point prevalence surveys in six hospitals between February 2016 and February 2017...
September 13, 2017: Antibiotics
Sagar Dugani, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Niranjan Kissoon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Soumya Muraleedharan, Ganesh Shenoy Panchmal, Rekha P Shenoy, Praveen Jodalli, Laxminarayan Sonde, Imran Pasha
AIM: The aim of the present study was to compare the association of CD4 count with cariogenic oral flora indicators and dental caries in HIV-seropositive children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted among HIV-seropositive children receiving ART at Snehasadan Camillian Care and Support Center HIV/AIDS in Mangaluru, India. Demographic details and r recent CD4 counts were recorded. For dental caries, the Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT)/decayed, missing, filled/decayed, extracted, filled index was used...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
Didier Wernli, Peter S Jørgensen, Stephan Harbarth, Scott P Carroll, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Nicolas Levrat, John-Arne Røttingen, Didier Pittet
Didier Wernli and colleagues discuss the role of monitoring in countering antimicrobial resistance.
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
Amarjeet Kaur, Sumanth Gandra, Priyanka Gupta, Yatin Mehta, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Sharmila Sengupta
In this study, we retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes of 75 patients with dual colistin- and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections over a 5-year period in a single tertiary care hospital in India. We observed a high in-hospital mortality rate of 69.3%. Our findings indicate the urgent need for new antibiotics to treat these infections.
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Laxminarayan Karanth, Sachchithanantham Kanagasabai, Adinegara Bl Abas
BACKGROUND: Bleeding disorders are uncommon but may pose significant bleeding complications during pregnancy, labour and following delivery for both the woman and the foetus. While many bleeding disorders in women tend to improve in pregnancy, thus decreasing the haemorrhagic risk to the mother at the time of delivery, some do not correct or return quite quickly to their pre-pregnancy levels in the postpartum period. Therefore, specific measures to prevent maternal bleeding and foetal complications during childbirth, are required...
August 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Charles H Brower, Siddhartha Mandal, Shivdeep Hayer, Mandeep Sran, Asima Zehra, Sunny J Patel, Ravneet Kaur, Leena Chatterjee, Savita Mishra, B R Das, Parminder Singh, Randhir Singh, J P S Gill, Ramanan Laxminarayan
BACKGROUND: Agricultural use of antimicrobials in subtherapeutic concentrations is increasing in response to the rising demand for food animal products worldwide. In India, the use of antimicrobials in food animal production is unregulated. Research suggests that many clinically important antimicrobials are used indiscriminately. This is the largest study to date in India that surveys poultry production to test for antimicrobial resistance and the occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) modulated by farming and managerial practices...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
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