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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331347/environmental-triggers-and-avoidance-in-the-management-of-asthma
#1
REVIEW
Clarisse Gautier, Denis Charpin
Identifying asthma triggers forms the basis of environmental secondary prevention. These triggers may be allergenic or nonallergenic. Allergenic triggers include indoor allergens, such as house dust mites (HDMs), molds, pets, cockroaches, and rodents, and outdoor allergens, such as pollens and molds. Clinical observations provide support for the role of HDM exposure as a trigger, although avoidance studies provide conflicting results. Molds and their metabolic products are now considered to be triggers of asthma attacks...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315647/a-device-that-allows-rodents-to-behaviorally-thermoregulate-when-housed-in-vivariums
#2
Christopher J Gordon, Earl T Puckett, Elizabeth S Repasky, Andrew F M Johnstone
Laboratories and vivariums typically are maintained at ambient temperatures of 20 to 24 °C, leading to cold stress in mice. When mice are inactive and sleeping during the light phase, their zone of thermoneutrality associated with a basal metabolic rate is 30 to 32 °C. If given a choice, mice will use thermoregulatory behavior to seek out thermoneutral temperatures during the light phase. The cold stress of a vivarium can be problematic to researchers requiring an animal model that is not stressed metabolically...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279169/effect-of-skilled-reaching-training-and-enriched-environment-on-generation-of-oligodendrocytes-in-the-adult-sensorimotor-cortex-and-corpus-callosum
#3
Silke Keiner, Fanny Niv, Susanne Neumann, Tanja Steinbach, Christian Schmeer, Katrin Hornung, Yvonne Schlenker, Martin Förster, Otto W Witte, Christoph Redecker
BACKGROUND: Increased motor activity or social interactions through enriched environment are strong stimulators of grey and white matter plasticity in the adult rodent brain. In the present study we evaluated whether specific reaching training of the dominant forelimb (RT) and stimulation of unspecific motor activity through enriched environment (EE) influence the generation of distinct oligodendrocyte subpopulations in the sensorimotor cortex and corpus callosum of the adult rat brain...
March 9, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278315/biochemical-effects-of-exercise-on-a-fasciocutaneous-flap-in-a-rat-model
#4
Edita Aksamitiene, Adam L Baker, Sudeep Roy, Salini Hota, Li-Hui Zhang, Julianna Rodin, Kealan Hobelmann, Jan B Hoek, Edmund A Pribitkin
Importance: An overwhelming amount of data suggest that cardiovascular exercise has a positive effect on the mind and body, although the precise mechanism is not always clear. Objective: To assess the clinical and biochemical effects of voluntary cardiovascular exercise on pedicled flaps in a rodent model. Design, Setting, and Participants: Eighteen adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into a resting animal group (RAG) (n=9) and an exercise animal group (EAG) (n=9) for 14 days (July 23, 2013, through July 30, 2013)...
March 9, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276805/the-protective-effects-of-social-bonding-on-behavioral-and-pituitary-adrenal-axis-reactivity-to-chronic-mild-stress-in-prairie-voles
#5
Neal McNeal, Katherine M Appleton, Alan Kim Johnson, Melissa-Ann L Scotti, Joshua Wardwell, Rachel Murphy, Christina Bishop, Alison Knecht, Angela J Grippo
Positive social interactions may protect against stress. This study investigated the beneficial effects of pairing with a social partner on behaviors and neuroendocrine function in response to chronic mild stress (CMS) in 13 prairie vole pairs. Following 5 days of social bonding, male and female prairie voles were exposed to 10 days of CMS (mild, unpredictable stressors of varying durations, for instance, strobe light, white noise, and damp bedding), housed with either the social partner (paired group) or individually (isolated group)...
March 5, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270754/interaction-effect-of-social-isolation-and-high-dose-corticosteroid-on-neurogenesis-and-emotional-behavior
#6
Jackie N-M Chan, Jada C-D Lee, Sylvia S P Lee, Katy K Y Hui, Alan H L Chan, Timothy K-H Fung, Dalinda I Sánchez-Vidaña, Benson W-M Lau, Shirley P-C Ngai
Hypercortisolemia is one of the clinical features found in depressed patients. This clinical feature has been mimicked in animal studies via application of exogenous corticosterone (CORT). Previous studies suggested that CORT can induce behavioral disturbance in anxious-depressive like behavior, which is associated with suppressed neurogenesis. Hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in adult cognitive and behavioral regulation. Its suppression may thus lead to neuropsychiatric disorders. Similar to the effects of CORT on the animals' depression-like behaviors and neurogenesis, social deprivation has been regarded as one factor that predicts poor prognosis in depression...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261888/endurance-performance-in-well-trained-mice-is-enhanced-by-short-duration-intermittent-hypoxia-via-improved-muscle-fatty-acid-metabolism
#7
Junichi Suzuki
The author previously reported that short-duration intermittent hypoxia had additive effects on improvements in endurance capacity by enhancing fatty acid metabolism. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of short-duration intermittent hypoxia on endurance capacity in well-trained mice. Mice in the training group were housed in a cage with a wheel activity device for 7 weeks from 5 weeks old. Voluntary running markedly increased maximal exercise capacity (by 5.9-fold). Trained mice were then subjected to either normoxic treadmill training (Tr) or training with short-duration intermittent hypoxia (12% O2 for 15 min, 20...
March 5, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257423/mechanism-study-on-a-plague-outbreak-driven-by-the-construction-of-a-large-reservoir-in-southwest-china-surveillance-from-2000-2015
#8
Xin Wang, Xiaoyu Wei, Zhizhong Song, Mingliu Wang, Jinxiao Xi, Junrong Liang, Yun Liang, Ran Duan, Kecheng Tian, Yong Zhao, Guangpeng Tang, Lv You, Guirong Yang, Xuebin Liu, Yuhuang Chen, Jun Zeng, Shengrong Wu, Shoujun Luo, Gang Qin, Huijing Hao, Huaiqi Jing
BACKGROUND: Plague, a Yersinia pestis infection, is a fatal disease with tremendous transmission capacity. However, the mechanism of how the pathogen stays in a reservoir, circulates and then re-emerges is an enigma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied a plague outbreak caused by the construction of a large reservoir in southwest China followed 16-years' surveillance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results show the prevalence of plague within the natural plague focus is closely related to the stability of local ecology...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222838/prevalence-of-food-impaction-induced-periodontitis-in-conventionally-housed-marsh-rice-rats-oryzomys-palustris
#9
Jonathan G Messer, Jessica M Jiron, Hung-Yuan Chen, Evelyn J Castillo, Jorge L Mendieta Calle, Mary K Reinhard, Donald B Kimmel, J Ignacio Aguirre
Marsh rice rats (Oryzomys palustris) fed a pelleted diet high in sucrose and casein have been used as a model for moderate to severe periodontitis. Here we characterize the prevalence, location, and histopathologic features of food-impaction lesions (FIL), a unique type of oral event, in rice rats fed standard pelleted rodent chow from weaning until 34 wk of age. Healthy female rats (n = 90; age, 4 wk) were weaned into groups (n = 10 to 24) and were euthanized at 4, 16, 22, 28, or 34 wk of age. At necropsy, high-resolution photographs of the 4 jaw quadrants were examined by 3 independent observers to determine the presence, number, and location of FIL...
February 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218471/%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-%C3%AE-gabaa-receptors-in-dorsal-hippocampal-ca1-of-adolescent-female-rats-traffic-to-the-plasma-membrane-of-dendritic-spines-following-voluntary-exercise-and-contribute-to-protection-of-animals-from-activity-based-anorexia-through-localization-at-excitatory
#10
Chiye Aoki, Yi-Wen Chen, Tara Gunkali Chowdhury, Walter Piper
In hippocampal CA1 of adolescent female rodents, α4βδ-GABAA receptors (α4βδ-GABAA Rs) suppress excitability of pyramidal neurons through shunting inhibition at excitatory synapses. This contributes to anxiolysis of stressed animals. Socially isolated adolescent female rats with 8 days of wheel access, the last 4 days of which entail restricted food access, have been shown to exhibit excessive exercise, choosing to run instead of eat (activity-based anorexia [ABA]). Upregulation of α4βδ-GABAA Rs in the dorsal hippocampal CA1 (DH), seen among some ABA animals, correlates with suppression of excessive exercise...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196627/environmental-enrichment-enhances-cognitive-flexibility-in-c57bl-6-mice-on-a-touchscreen-reversal-learning-task
#11
Ariel Zeleznikow-Johnston, Emma L Burrows, Thibault Renoir, Anthony J Hannan
Environmental enrichment (EE) is any positive modification of the 'standard housing' (SH) conditions in which laboratory animals are typically held, usually involving increased opportunity for cognitive stimulation and physical activity. EE has been reported to enhance baseline performance of wild-type animals on traditional cognitive behavioural tasks. Recently, touchscreen operant testing chambers have emerged as a way of performing rodent cognitive assays, providing greater reproducibility, translatability and automatability...
February 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185877/female-rats-display-fewer-optimistic-responses-in-a-judgment-bias-test-in-the-absence-of-a-physiological-stress-response
#12
T H Barker, L Bobrovskaya, G S Howarth, A L Whittaker
Metabolic cages are a type of housing used in biomedical research. Metabolic cage housing has been demonstrated to elicit behavioural and physiological changes in rodents housed within them. The nature of this effect has been characterized as anxiogenic. However, few studies have evaluated positive affect in response to metabolic cage housing and the interaction between this, sex and traditional physiological measures of stress. Cognitive biasing, as measured through a judgment bias paradigm has proven a reliable measure of animal affective state, particularly through its ability to measure positive affect...
February 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169374/microbiota-composition-of-simultaneously-colonized-mice-housed-under-either-a-gnotobiotic-isolator-or-individually-ventilated-cage-regime
#13
Randi Lundberg, Martin I Bahl, Tine R Licht, Martin F Toft, Axel K Hansen
Germ-free rodents colonized with microbiotas of interest are used for host-microbiota investigations and for testing microbiota-targeted therapeutic candidates. Traditionally, isolators are used for housing such gnotobiotic rodents due to optimal protection from the environment, but research groups focused on the microbiome are increasingly combining or substituting isolator housing with individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems. We compared the effect of housing systems on the gut microbiota composition of germ-free mice colonized with a complex microbiota and housed in either multiple IVC cages in an IVC facility or in multiple open-top cages in an isolator during three generations and five months...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167603/at-home-with-mastomys-and-rattus-human-rodent-interactions-and-potential-for-primary-transmission-of-lassa-virus-in-domestic-spaces
#14
Jesse Bonwitt, Almudena Mari Sáez, Joseph Lamin, Rashid Ansumana, Michael Dawson, Jacob Buanie, Joyce Lamin, Diana Sondufu, Matthias Borchert, Foday Sahr, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet, Hannah Brown
The multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir for Lassa virus (LASV). Zoonotic transmission occurs when humans are directly or indirectly exposed to fluids of the multimammate mouse, such as urine, saliva, and blood. Housing characteristics and domestic organization affect rodent density in and around households and villages, and are likely to be a risk factor for Lassa fever in humans where the reservoir exists. We use semi-structured interviews (N = 51), a quantitative survey (N = 429), direct observations, and a rodent ecology study to provide new insights into how the organization of domestic spaces brings together humans and rodents and creates pathways for infection in rural settlements in Bo District, Sierra Leone...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166832/prevalence-genetic-identity-and-vertical-transmission-of-babesia-microti-in-three-naturally-infected-species-of-vole-microtus-spp-cricetidae
#15
Katarzyna Tołkacz, Małgorzata Bednarska, Mohammed Alsarraf, Dorota Dwużnik, Maciej Grzybek, Renata Welc-Falęciak, Jerzy M Behnke, Anna Bajer
BACKGROUND: Vertical transmission is one of the transmission routes for Babesia microti, the causative agent of the zoonotic disease, babesiosis. Congenital Babesia invasions have been recorded in laboratory mice, dogs and humans. The aim of our study was to determine if vertical transmission of B. microti occurs in naturally-infected reservoir hosts of the genus Microtus. METHODS: We sampled 124 common voles, Microtus arvalis; 76 root voles, M. oeconomus and 17 field voles, M...
February 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154741/social-modulation-of-the-daily-activity-rhythm-in-a-solitary-subterranean-rodent-the-tuco-tuco-ctenomys-sp
#16
Barbara Mizumo Tomotani, Juan Pablo Amaya, Gisele Akemi Oda, Veronica Sandra Valentinuzzi
South American subterranean rodents are mainly described as solitary and mutual synchronization was never observed among individuals maintained together in laboratory. We report that a single birth event was capable of disrupting the robust nocturnal activity rhythm of singly housed tuco-tucos from north-west Argentina. "Around-the-clock activity" was displayed by 8 out of 13 animals whose cages were closer to the newborn pups. However, experimental exposure to a pup vocalization did not produce a similar effect on the rhythms of adult animals...
October 2016: Sleep Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141963/following-the-yellow-brick-road
#17
Charles H Calisher
Charles Calisher was fascinated by microorganisms from the time he was in high school. He attended Stuyvesant High School in New York City, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science (now University of the Sciences) (BS), then University of Notre Dame in South Bend, Indiana (MS), and finally Georgetown University, in Washington, DC (PhD), the latter while employed at a commercial biological house. He was hired by the US Communicable Disease Center (now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) in Atlanta, Georgia, was transferred to its Fort Collins laboratories in 1973, and retired from there in 1992...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130085/a-closer-look-at-the-subordinate-population-within-the-visible-burrow-system
#18
Susan J Melhorn, Clinton T Elfers, Karen A Scott, Randall R Sakai
The visible burrow system (VBS) utilizes the natural social behavior of rodents to model chronic social stress. Classically, when male and female rats are housed together in the VBS a dominance hierarchy rapidly forms with one dominant (DOM) and three subordinate (SUB) males. SUB animals show signs of chronic social stress, including loss of body weight and elevated basal corticosterone. This study furthered examined differences among the SUB population. Quantitative observations across numerous VBS colonies within the Sakai Lab suggest that there is variability in the effects of stress on the SUB population, specifically that some animals may experience more severe effects of chronic social stress than others...
January 24, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127106/comparative-anatomy-of-gastrin-releasing-peptide-pathways-in-the-trigeminal-sensory-system-of-mouse-and-the-asian-house-musk-shrew-suncus-murinus
#19
Keiko Takanami, Kaihei Inoue, Hiroki Mukai, Kei Tamura, Takamichi Jogahara, Sen-Ichi Oda, Mitsuhiro Kawata, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Hirotaka Sakamoto
Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) has recently been identified as an itch-signaling molecule in the primary afferents and spinal cord of rodents. However, little information exists on the expression and localization of GRP in the trigeminal somatosensory system other than in rats. We examined the generality of the trigeminal GRP system in mammals using two distinct species, suncus as a model of specialized placental mammals known to have a well-developed trigeminal sensory system and mice as a representative small laboratory animal...
December 28, 2016: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104556/paternal-environmental-enrichment-transgenerationally-alters-affective-behavioral-and-neuroendocrine-phenotypes
#20
Shlomo Yeshurun, Annabel K Short, Timothy W Bredy, Terence Y Pang, Anthony J Hannan
Recent studies have demonstrated that paternal stress in rodents can result in modification of offspring behavior. Environmental enrichment, which enhances cognitive stimulation and physical activity, modifies various behaviors and reduces stress responses in adult rodents. We investigated the transgenerational influence of paternal environmental enrichment on offspring behavior and physiological stress response. Adult C57BL/6J male mice (F0) were exposed to either environmental enrichment or standard housing for four weeks and then pair-mated with naïve females...
January 4, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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