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Rodent housing

Eric M Janezic, Swetha Uppalapati, Stephanie Nagl, Marco Contreras, Edward D French, Jean-Marc Fellous
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is in part due to a deficit in memory consolidation and extinction. Oxytocin (OXT) has anxiolytic effects and promotes prosocial behaviors in both rodents and humans, and evidence suggests that it plays a role in memory consolidation. We studied the effects of administered OXT and social co-housing in a rodent model of PTSD. Acute OXT yielded a short-term increase in the recall of the traumatic memory if administered immediately after trauma. Low doses of OXT delivered chronically had a cumulating anxiolytic effect that became apparent after 4 days and persisted...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Melanie Hüttenrauch, Susanne Walter, Margie Kaufmann, Sascha Weggen, Oliver Wirths
The environmental enrichment (EE) paradigm is regarded as a useful tool to create a physical and intellectual stimulation for laboratory rodents and has been used in a variety of Alzheimer disease (AD) mouse models. However, the results of these studies have been conflicting as EE had inconsistent effects on memory performance, Aβ deposition, inflammatory status and other pathological outcomes depending on the AD model. Here, we studied the influence of a lifelong EE on the widely used 5XFAD mouse model, representing the main pathological features of AD...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Birgit Rössner, Maximilian Klingler, Tanja Bulat, Ajinkya Sase, Andrea Zeilinger, Melanie Spitzwieser, Jana Aradska, Margit Cichna-Markl, Gert Lubec
AMPA receptors mediate most fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. Highly dynamic AMPA receptors are subjected to trafficking, recycling, and/or degradation and replacement. Changes in AMPA receptor abundance is an important mechanism involved in learning and memory formation. Results obtained with the Morris water maze (MWM), a paradigm for testing spatial memory in rodent, correlate with hippocampal synaptic plasticity and NMDA function. Different phases of spatial learning like acquisition and retrieval involve AMPA receptors...
October 6, 2016: Amino Acids
Lavanya Pothana, Lalitha Devi, Naresh Kumar Venna, Niharika Pentakota, Vivek Phani Varma, Jedy Jose, Sandeep Goel
Cryopreservation of immature testis is a feasible approach for germplasm preservation of male animals. Combinations of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and foetal bovine serum (FBS) are used for testis cryopreservation. However, an alternative to FBS is needed, because FBS is expensive. Buffalo ocular fluid (BuOF), a slaughter house by-product, could be an economical option. The objective of the present study was to assess whether BuOF can replace FBS for cryopreservation of immature mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) testes...
September 28, 2016: Cryobiology
Christophe Diagne, Alexis Ribas, Nathalie Charbonnel, Ambroise Dalecky, Caroline Tatard, Philippe Gauthier, Voitto Haukisalmi, Odile Fossati-Gaschignard, Khalilou Bâ, Mamadou Kane, Youssoupha Niang, Mamoudou Diallo, Aliou Sow, Sylvain Piry, Mbacké Sembène, Carine Brouat
Understanding why some exotic species become widespread and abundant in their colonised range is a fundamental issue that still needs to be addressed. Among many hypotheses, newly established host populations may benefit from a parasite loss ("enemy release" hypothesis) through impoverishment of their original parasite communities or reduced infection levels. Moreover, the fitness of competing native hosts may be negatively affected by the acquisition of exotic taxa from invaders ("parasite spillover") and/or by an increased transmission risk of native parasites due to their amplification by invaders ("parasite spillback")...
September 23, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Patrick C Y Woo, Annette Y P Wong, Beatrice H L Wong, Carol S F Lam, Rachel Y Y Fan, Susanna K P Lau, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Recently, we reported the presence of Beilong virus in spleen and kidney samples of brown rats and black rats, suggesting that these rodents could be natural reservoirs of Beilong virus. In this study, four genomes of Beilong virus from brown rats and black rats were sequenced. Similar to the Beilong virus genome sequenced from kidney mesangial cell line culture, those of J-virus from house mouse and Tailam virus from Sikkim rats, these four genomes from naturally occurring Beilong virus also contain the eight genes (3'-N-P/V/C-M-F-SH-TM-G-L-5')...
September 20, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Victoria Lutgen, Srinivas D Narasipura, Amit Sharma, Stephanie Min, Lena Al-Harthi
BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders have been linked to abnormal excitatory neurotransmission. Perturbations in glutamate cycling can have profound impacts on normal activity, lead to excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation, and induce and/or exacerbate impairments in these diseases. Astrocytes play a key role in excitatory signaling as they both clear glutamate from the synaptic cleft and house enzymes responsible for glutamate conversion to glutamine. However, mechanisms responsible for the regulation of glutamate cycling, including the main astrocytic glutamate transporter excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2 or GLT-1 in rodents) and glutamine synthetase (GS) which catalyzes the ATP-dependent reaction of glutamate and ammonia into glutamine, remain largely undefined...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Kristo Nuutila, Mansher Singh, Carla Kruse, Justin Philip, Edward J Caterson, Elof Eriksson
Standardized and reproducible animal models are crucial in medical research. Rodents are commonly used in wound healing studies since, they are easily available, affordable and simple to handle and house. However, the most significant limitation of rodent models is that the wounds heal by contraction while in humans the primary mechanisms of healing are reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation. The robust contraction results in faster wound closure that complicates the reproducibility of rodent studies in clinical trials...
September 8, 2016: Wound Repair and Regeneration
K E Boschen, S E McKeown, T L Roth, A Y Klintsova
Alcohol exposure in utero can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrums Disorders (FASD). Measures of hippocampal neuroplasticity, including long-term potentiation, synaptic and dendritic organization, and adult neurogenesis, are consistently disrupted in rodent models of FASD. The current study investigated whether third trimester-equivalent binge-like alcohol exposure (AE) [postnatal days (PD) 4-9] affects dendritic morphology of immature dentate gyrus granule cells, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene expression and DNA methylation in hippocampal tissue in adult male rats...
September 6, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
K T Desai, F Patel, P B Patel, S Nayak, N B Patel, R K Bansal
BACKGROUND: The current study was planned to identify the epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in South Gujarat region using neighborhood controls. METHODS: A total of 100 cases of leptospirosis occurred in South Gujarat region during the year 2012 were selected using simple random sampling. Three neighbors of the selected cases formed the controls (n = 300). A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection and data were analyzed using Epi Info 2007...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Daniel Peterlik, Christina Stangl, Amelie Bauer, Anna Bludau, Jana Keller, Dominik Grabski, Tobias Killian, Dominic Schmidt, Franziska Zajicek, Georg Jaeschke, Lothar Lindemann, Stefan O Reber, Peter J Flor, Nicole Uschold-Schmidt
Etiology and pharmacotherapy of stress-related psychiatric conditions and somatoform disorders are areas of high unmet medical need. Stressors holding chronic plus psychosocial components thereby bear the highest health risk. Although the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) is well studied in the context of acute stress-induced behaviors and physiology, virtually nothing is known about its potential involvement in chronic psychosocial stress. Using the mGlu5 negative allosteric modulator CTEP (2-chloro-4-[2-[2,5-dimethyl-1-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]imidazol-4yl]ethynyl]pyridine), a close analogue of the clinically active drug basimglurant - but optimized for rodent studies, as well as mGlu5-deficient mice in combination with a mouse model of male subordination (termed CSC, chronic subordinate colony housing), we demonstrate that mGlu5 mediates multiple physiological, immunological, and behavioral consequences of chronic psychosocial stressor exposure...
August 11, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Danielle J Borg, Petra B Welzel, Milauscha Grimmer, Jens Friedrichs, Marc Weigelt, Carmen Wilhelm, Marina Prewitz, Aline Stißel, Angela Hommel, Thomas Kurth, Uwe Freudenberg, Ezio Bonifacio, Carsten Werner
UNLABELLED: Intrahepatic transplantation of allogeneic pancreatic islets offers a promising therapy for type 1 diabetes. However, long-term insulin independency is often not achieved due to severe islet loss shortly after transplantation. To improve islet survival and function, extrahepatic biomaterial-assisted transplantation of pancreatic islets to alternative sites has been suggested. Herein, we present macroporous, star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol) (starPEG)-heparin cryogel scaffolds, covalently modified with adhesion peptides, for the housing of pancreatic islets in three-dimensional (3D) co-culture with adherent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) as accessory cells...
October 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Kurt J Vandegrift, Justin T Critchlow, Amit Kapoor, David A Friedman, Peter J Hudson
Worldwide, there are 185 million people infected with hepatitis C virus and approximately 350,000 people die each year from hepatitis C associated liver diseases. Human hepatitis C research has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate in vivo model system. Most of the in vivo research has been conducted on chimpanzees, which is complicated by ethical concerns, small sample sizes, high costs, and genetic heterogeneity. The house mouse system has led to greater understanding of a wide variety of human pathogens, but it is unreasonable to expect Mus musculus to be a good model system for every human pathogen...
August 3, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
H Furbeyre, J van Milgen, T Mener, M Gloaguen, E Labussière
In pigs, digestive disorders associated with weaning lead to antibiotic use to maintain intestinal health. Microalgae have been studied in humans and rodents for their beneficial effects on health. The nutritional value of microalgae in animal diets has been assessed, but results were not conclusive. Dietary supplementation with microalgae as an alternative to antibiotic use was studied in two trials (72 piglets with initial BW=9.1±1.1 kg in trial 1 and 24 piglets with initial BW=9.1±0.9 kg in trial 2). All piglets were weaned at 28 days of age and then housed in individual cages...
July 25, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Julia Zorn, Bärbel Ritter, Manuel Miller, Monika Kraus, Emily Northrup, Markus Brielmeier
One limitation to housing rodents in individually ventilated cages (IVCs) is the ineffectiveness of traditional health monitoring programs that test soiled bedding sentinels every quarter. Aerogen transmission does not occur with this method. Moreover, the transmission of numerous pathogens in bedding is uncertain, and sentinel susceptibility to various pathogens varies. A novel method using particle collection from samples of exhaust air was developed in this study which was also systematically compared with routine health monitoring using soiled bedding sentinels...
July 20, 2016: Laboratory Animals
Yuichi Saito, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Yuhei Nishimura, Toshio Tanaka, Hideaki Hara
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible loss of central vision in the elderly. Zebrafish is an attractive animal model in some respects, lower cost, smaller housing facilities and easier genetic manipulation compared to rodents. The present study aimed to establish a drug evaluation method against light irradiation, as a dry AMD disease model, using adult pigmented zebrafish. Intravitreal administration of an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, protected against light-induced retinal degeneration in a concentration-dependent manner...
July 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Tara L Martin, Shannon R Balser, Gregory S Young, Stephanie D Lewis
Provision of nesting material promotes species-typical behaviors in rodents including deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). The purpose of this study was to determine which commercially available nesting material best promotes complex nest building in the subspecies P. m. bairdii yet remains cost-effective for use as enrichment in a laboratory research setting. An existing breeding colony consisting of cages containing all male mice, all female mice, and breeding pairs was evaluated. Five commercially available substrates-compressed cotton squares, cylindrical compressed cotton, cellulose bedding containing small pieces of evenly dispersed compressed paper, brown crinkled paper, and white crinkled paper-were provided according to the manufacturer's recommendation...
2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Simin N Meydani, Sai K Das, Carl F Pieper, Michael R Lewis, Sam Klein, Vishwa D Dixit, Alok K Gupta, Dennis T Villareal, Manjushri Bhapkar, Megan Huang, Paul J Fuss, Susan B Roberts, John O Holloszy, Luigi Fontana
Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits inflammation and slows aging in many animal species, but in rodents housed in pathogen-free facilities, CR impairs immunity against certain pathogens. However, little is known about the effects of long-term moderate CR on immune function in humans. In this multi-center, randomized clinical trial to determine CR's effect on inflammation and cell-mediated immunity, 218 healthy non-obese adults (20-50 y), were assigned 25% CR (n=143) or an ad-libitum (AL) diet (n=75), and outcomes tested at baseline, 12, and 24 months of CR...
July 2016: Aging
Salwa M A Dahesh, Micheal W Mikhail
A new public health problem arises from animal trypanosomes that afflict human by a disease called atypical human trypanosomiasis. Although humans have an innate protection against most Trypanosoma species, nineteen cases of atypical human trypanosomiasis caused by the animal trypanosome as T. b. brucei, T. vivax, T. congolense, T. evansi and T. lewisi have been recorded. Some of theserecorded cases were transient, six required trypanocidal treatments however two patients died. Rodent trypanosome, T. lewisi is transmitted via ingestion of fleas or their feces containing the infective stage, the metacyclic trypomastigote...
April 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology
Miriam Ben-Hamo, Katy Tal, Rotem Paz-Cohen, Noga Kronfeld-Schor, Haim Einat
The relationships between biological rhythms and affective disorders are known but their underlying biology not clear. There is difficulty in studying circadian rhythms in humans and appropriate animal models are hard to identify or develop. Some studies show that diurnal rodents can be advantageous model animals for the study of interactions between biological rhythms and affective disorders but previous studies did not include females whereas in humans there are sex differences in affective disorders. The present study tested the effects of short photoperiods in both males and females of the diurnal golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus)...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
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