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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782007/intraportal-transplantation-of-pancreatic-islets-in-mouse-model
#1
Rahul Khatri, Birte Hussmann, Divya Rawat, Ali Osman Gürol, Thomas Linn
Pancreatic islet transplantation to reduce hyperglycemia is highly successful in rodents with chemically-induced diabetes. The most common transplantation site in experimental islet transplantation is the kidney capsule. However, as less is known about the interaction of pancreatic islets with blood constituents, it also makes sense to utilize the portal vein approach in experimental islet transplantation. This protocol demonstrates an intraportal islet transplantation technique in NMRI nude mice. Streptozotocin (180 mg/kg) is injected intraperitoneally to induce hyperglycemia in recipient mice...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778628/environmentally-enriched-pigs-have-transcriptional-profiles-consistent-with-neuroprotective-effects-and-reduced-microglial-activity
#2
S M Brown, S J Bush, K M Summers, D A Hume, A B Lawrence
Environmental enrichment (EE) is widely used to study the effects of external factors on brain development, function and health in rodent models, but very little is known of the effects of EE on the brain in a large animal model such as the pig. Twenty-four young pigs (aged 5 weeks at start of study, 1:1 male: female ratio) were housed in environmentally enriched (EE) pens and provided with additional enrichment stimulation (a bag filled with straw) once daily. Litter, weight and sex matched controls n= (24) were housed in barren (B) conditions...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775837/predator-based-psychosocial-stress-model-of-ptsd-differentially-influences-voluntary-ethanol-consumption-depending-on-methodology
#3
Phillip R Zoladz, Eric D Eisenmann, Robert M Rose, Brooke A Kohls, Brandon L Johnson, Kiera L Robinson, Megan E Heikkila, Kasey E Mucher, Madelaine R Huntley
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychological disorder typified by diagnostic symptom clusters including hyperarousal, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and intrusive re-experiencing of the traumatic event. Patients with PTSD have been reported to self-medicate with alcohol to ameliorate hyperarousal symptoms associated with the disorder. Research utilizing rodent models of PTSD to emulate this behavioral phenomenon has thus far yielded inconsistent results. In the present study, we examined the effects of a predator-based psychosocial stress model of PTSD on voluntary ethanol consumption...
January 8, 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771983/the-effect-of-exposure-to-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-emf-as-an-integral-part-of-the-housing-system-on-anxiety-related-behaviour-cognition-and-welfare-in-two-strains-of-laboratory-mouse
#4
Oliver Burman, Gerardo Marsella, Angelo Di Clemente, Luigi Cervo
Electromagnetic field (EMF) technology has the potential to improve scientific data capture and welfare assessment by allowing automated data collection from individual cages. However, it is important to determine any impact that a new technology itself may have on animal welfare, and previous studies have found contrasting results of EMF on laboratory rodent anxiety-like behaviour and cognition. We therefore investigated whether there was an effect of low frequency EMF experienced continuously over a six-week period, as an integral part of the animal housing system, on measures of mouse anxiety-related behaviour, cognition and welfare...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763575/social-isolation-reduces-serotonergic-fiber-density-in-the-inferior-colliculus-of-female-but-not-male-mice
#5
Sarah M Keesom, Mitchell D Morningstar, Rebecca Sandlain, Bradley M Wise, Laura M Hurley
Early-life experiences, including maternal deprivation and social isolation during adolescence, have a profound influence on a range of adult social behaviors. Post-weaning social isolation in rodents influences behavior in part through the alteration of neuromodulatory systems, including the serotonergic system. Of significance to social behavior, the serotonergic system richly innervates brain areas involved in vocal communication, including the auditory system. However, the influence of isolation on serotonergic input to the auditory system remains underexplored...
May 12, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743115/geographical-distribution-and-relative-risk-of-anjozorobe-virus-thailand-orthohantavirus-infection-in-black-rats-rattus-rattus-in-madagascar
#6
Vololoniaina Raharinosy, Marie-Marie Olive, Fehivola Mandanirina Andriamiarimanana, Soa Fy Andriamandimby, Jean-Pierre Ravalohery, Seta Andriamamonjy, Claudia Filippone, Danielle Aurore Doll Rakoto, Sandra Telfer, Jean-Michel Heraud
BACKGROUND: Hantavirus infection is a zoonotic disease that is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and cardiopulmonary syndrome in human. Anjozorobe virus, a representative virus of Thailand orthohantavirus (THAIV), was recently discovered from rodents in Anjozorobe-Angavo forest in Madagascar. To assess the circulation of hantavirus at the national level, we carried out a survey of small terrestrial mammals from representative regions of the island and identified environmental factors associated with hantavirus infection...
May 9, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738077/the-effects-of-enriched-environment-on-the-behavioral-and-corticosterone-response-to-methamphetamine-in-adolescent-and-adult-mice
#7
Elizabeth P Baker, Elliott C Magnuson, Ashley M Dahly, Jessica A Siegel
Methamphetamine alters behavior and the stress response system. Relatively little research has examined the effects of methamphetamine in adolescents and compared these effects to those in adults. Housing in enriched environments has been explored as one way to protect against the effects of methamphetamine, but the findings are conflicting and no study has examined how enriched environment may alter the behavioral and corticosterone responses to methamphetamine in adolescent and adult rodents. We examined the long-term effects of methamphetamine exposure on anxiety, social behavior, behavioral despair, and corticosterone levels in adolescent and adult mice housed in enriched or isolated environments...
May 8, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727710/evidence-for-a-long-term-protection-of-wheel-running-exercise-against-cocaine-psychomotor-sensitization-in-adolescent-but-not-in-adult-mice
#8
Louis-Ferdinand Lespine, Ezio Tirelli
Rodents housed with a running wheel can exhibit attenuated cocaine seeking and cocaine-induced psychomotor activation. However, the longevity of such a protection and the influence of the developmental stage during which exercise is displayed received little attention. Here, females and males C57BL/6 J mice, aged 28 (adolescents) or 77 (adults) days were housed with (n = 56) or without (n = 28) a running wheel. After 3 weeks in these conditions, half of the exercised mice were deprived of their wheel (n = 28) whereas the other half and the sedentary mice were kept in their respective environments...
May 1, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706867/rna-sequencing-reveals-unique-transcriptional-signatures-of-running-and-running-independent-environmental-enrichment-in-the-adult-mouse-dentate-gyrus
#9
Catherine-Alexandra Grégoire, Stephanie Tobin, Brianna L Goldenstein, Éric Samarut, Andréanne Leclerc, Anne Aumont, Pierre Drapeau, Stephanie Fulton, Karl J L Fernandes
Environmental enrichment (EE) is a powerful stimulus of brain plasticity and is among the most accessible treatment options for brain disease. In rodents, EE is modeled using multi-factorial environments that include running, social interactions, and/or complex surroundings. Here, we show that running and running-independent EE differentially affect the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), a brain region critical for learning and memory. Outbred male CD1 mice housed individually with a voluntary running disk showed improved spatial memory in the radial arm maze compared to individually- or socially-housed mice with a locked disk...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683688/transmission-of-food-preference-between-unfamiliar-house-mice-mus-musculus-domesticus-is-dependent-on-social-context
#10
Tatiana Forestier, Christophe Féron, Patrick Gouat
Rodents obtain information about a new food source through olfactory cues of conspecifics and consequently develop an attraction for this diet. Generally, physical contact between an observer and a demonstrator that has recently consumed a novel food item is required to allow the social transmission of food preference (STFP). However, in natural populations of house mice, social encounters between unfamiliar individuals usually turn into a fight. Thus, social intolerance between the individuals involved could prevent STFP...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665827/effect-of-selected-gastrointestinal-parasites-and-viral-agents-on-fecal-s100a12-concentrations-in-puppies-as-a-potential-comparative-model
#11
Romy M Heilmann, Aurélien Grellet, Niels Grützner, Shannon M Cranford, Jan S Suchodolski, Sylvie Chastant-Maillard, Jörg M Steiner
BACKGROUND: Previous data suggest that fecal S100A12 has clinical utility as a biomarker of chronic gastrointestinal inflammation (idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease) in both people and dogs, but the effect of gastrointestinal pathogens on fecal S100A12 concentrations is largely unknown. The role of S100A12 in parasite and viral infections is also difficult to study in traditional animal models due to the lack of S100A12 expression in rodents. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate fecal S100A12 concentrations in a cohort of puppies with intestinal parasites (Cystoisospora spp...
April 17, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653396/gut-microbiota-recovery-and-immune-response-in-ampicillin-treated-mice
#12
Josué L Castro-Mejía, Maja Jakesevic, Niels F Fabricius, Łukasz Krych, Dennis S Nielsen, Witold Kot, Katja M Bendtsen, Finn K Vogensen, Camilla H F Hansen, Axel K Hansen
Ampicillin is applied in rodents to induce a temporarily depleted microbiota. To elucidate whether bacteria are just temporarily suppressed or fully eliminated, and how this affects the re-colonisation process, we compared the microbiota and immune system in conventionally housed untreated mice with newly weaned ampicillin treated mice subsequently housed in either a microbe containing environment or in an isolator with only host associated suppressed bacteria to recolonize the gut. Two weeks ampicillin treatment induced a seemingly germ-free state with no bacterial DNA to reveal...
March 27, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572697/movement-patterns-of-small-rodents-in-lassa-fever-endemic-villages-in-guinea
#13
Joachim Mariën, Fodé Kourouma, N'Faly Magassouba, Herwig Leirs, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet
The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir host of Lassa arenavirus, the etiological agent of Lassa fever in humans. Because there exists no vaccine for human use, rodent control and adjusting human behavior are currently considered to be the only options for Lassa fever control. In order to develop efficient rodent control programs, more information about the host's ecology is needed. In this study, we investigated the spatial behavior of M. natalensis and other small rodents in two capture-mark-recapture and four dyed bait (Rhodamine B) experiments in Lassa fever-endemic villages in Upper Guinea...
March 23, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564972/social-transfer-of-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-hyperalgesia-in-female-prairie-voles
#14
Andre T Walcott, Monique L Smith, Jennifer M Loftis, Andrey E Ryabinin
The expression of pain serves as a way for animals to communicate potential dangers to nearby conspecifics. Recent research demonstrated that mice undergoing alcohol or morphine withdrawal, or inflammation, could socially communicate their hyperalgesia to nearby mice. However, it is unknown whether such social transfer of hyperalgesia can be observed in other species of rodents. Therefore, the present study investigated if the social transfer of hyperalgesia occurs in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)...
March 22, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556374/correlation-between-the-results-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-chromosomal-damage-tests-in-consideration-of-exposure-levels-of-test-chemicals
#15
Eiji Yamamura, Chinami Aruga, Shigeharu Muto, Nobuyuki Baba, Yoshifumi Uno
Introduction: We examined the correlation between the results of in vitro and in vivo chromosomal damage tests by using in-house data of 18 pharmaceutical candidates that showed positive results in the in vitro chromosomal aberration or micronucleus test using CHL/IU cells, and quantitatively analyzed them especially in regard to exposure levels of the compounds. Findings: Eight compounds showed that the exposure levels [maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) and AUC0-24h ] were comparable with or higher than the in vitro exposure levels [the lowest effective (positive) concentration (LEC) and AUCvitro  = LEC (μg/mL) × treatment time (h)]...
2018: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554944/first-report-of-leishmania-infantum-infection-in-the-endangered-orangutan-pongo-pygmaeus-pygmaeus-in-madrid-spain
#16
Guadalupe Miró, Amelia Troyano, Ana Montoya, Fernando Fariñas, Ma Luisa Fermín, Luís Flores, Carlos Rojo, Rocío Checa, Rosa Gálvez, Valentina Marino, Cristina Fragío, Eva Martínez-Nevado
BACKGROUND: Some wild animals have been recognized as potential reservoirs of Leishmania infantum infection (e.g. carnivores, lagomorphs, rodents, etc.). Leishmania infantum was also identified infecting humans and lagomorphs (i.e. hares and rabbits) over the period of 2009-2016, with the latter acting as the main reservoirs involved in the human leishmaniosis outbreak in Madrid. RESULTS: Two cases of clinical leishmaniosis are reported in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) housed at two different centres in Madrid...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540316/limited-evidence-for-affective-and-diurnal-rhythm-responses-to-dim-light-at-night-in-male-and-female-c57bl-6-mice
#17
Michael Cleary-Gaffney, Andrew N Coogan
Circadian rhythms are recurring patterns in a range of behavioural, physiological and molecular parameters that display periods of near 24 h, and are underpinned by an endogenous biological timekeeping system. Circadian clocks are increasingly recognised as being key for health. Environmental light is the key stimulus that synchronises the internal circadian system with the external time cues. There are emergent health concerns regarding increasing worldwide prevalence of electric lighting, especially man-made light-at-night, and light's impact on the circadian system may be central to these effects...
May 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535571/development-of-a-low-cost-comprehensive-recording-system-for-circadian-rhythm-behavior
#18
Jea Kwon, Min Gu Park, Seung Eun Lee, C Justin Lee
Circadian rhythm is defined as a 24-hour biological oscillation, which persists even without any external cues but also can be re-entrained by various environmental cues. One of the widely accepted circadian rhythm behavioral experiment is measuring the wheel-running activity (WRA) of rodents. However, the price for commercially available WRA recording system is not easily affordable for researchers due to high-cost implementation of sensors for wheel rotation. Here, we developed a cost-effective and comprehensive system for circadian rhythm recording by measuring the house-keeping activities (HKA)...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529857/endoparasites-of-small-mammals-in-edo-state-nigeria-public-health-implications
#19
Clement Isaac, Benjamin Igho Igbinosa, John Asekhaen Ohiolei, Catherine Eki Osimen
Some small mammals occur as household pests and harbour a number of parasites that could be of public health importance. This study profiled the helminth and protozoan parasites in trapped small mammals within and around human dwelling places (houses) located across 4 major towns (Auchi, Benin, Ekpoma, and Uromi) and environs in Edo state, Nigeria. Six genera ( Apodemus sp., Crocidura sp., Mastomys natalensis , Mus musculus , Rattus sp., and Sorex sp.) were identified from 502 trapped small mammals. Overall, M...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528493/divergent-in-shape-and-convergent-in-function-adaptive-evolution-of-the-mandible-in-sub-antarctic-mice
#20
Sabrina Renaud, Ronan Ledevin, Benoit Pisanu, Jean-Louis Chapuis, Petra Quillfeldt, Emilie A Hardouin
Convergent evolution in similar environments constitutes strong evidence of adaptive evolution. Transported with people around the world, house mice colonized even remote areas, such as Sub-Antarctic islands. There, they returned to a feral way of life, shifting towards a diet enriched in terrestrial macroinvertebrates. Here, we test the hypothesis that this triggered convergent evolution of the mandible, a morphological character involved in food consumption. Mandible shape from four Sub-Antarctic islands was compared to phylogeny, tracing the history of colonization, and climatic conditions...
April 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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