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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352256/time-management-in-a-co-housed-social-rodent-species-arvicanthis-niloticus
#1
Alexandra Castillo-Ruiz, Premananda Indic, William J Schwartz
Sociality has beneficial effects on fitness, and timing the activities of animals may be critical. Social cues could influence daily rhythmic activities via direct effects on the circadian clock or on processes that bypass it (masking), but these possibilities remain incompletely addressed. We investigated the effects of social cues on the circadian body temperature (Tb) rhythms in pairs of co-housed and isolated grass rats, Arvicanthis niloticus (a social species), in constant darkness (DD). Cohabitation did not induce synchronization of circadian Tb rhythms...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334694/home-alone-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-the-effects-of-individual-housing-on-body-weight-food-intake-and-visceral-fat-mass-in-rodents
#2
REVIEW
L Schipper, L Harvey, E M van der Beek, G van Dijk
Rats and mice are widely used to study environmental effects on psychological and metabolic health. Study designs differ widely and are often characterized by varying (social) housing conditions. In itself, housing has a profound influence on physiology and behaviour of rodents, affecting energy balance and sustainable metabolic health. However, evidence for potential long-term consequences of individual versus social housing on body weight and metabolic phenotype is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses assessing effects of individual versus social housing of rats and mice, living under well-accepted laboratory conditions, on measures of metabolic health, including body weight, food intake and visceral adipose tissue mass...
January 15, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324792/critical-evaluation-of-colon-submucosal-microdialysis-in-awake-mobile-rats
#3
Norbert Cibicek, Jiri Ehrmann, Jitka Proskova, Rostislav Vecera
Sensors able to record large bowel physiology and biochemistry in situ in awake rodents are lacking. Microdialysis is a mini-invasive technique that may be utilized to continuously deliver or recover low-molecular substances from various tissues. In this experiment we evaluated the feasibility of in vivo microdialysis to monitor extracellular fluid chemistry in the descending colon submucosa of conscious, freely moving rodents. Following surgical implantation of a microdialysis probe, male Wistar rats were housed in metabolic cages where they were analgized and clinically followed for four days with free access to standard diet and water...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287909/ethological-approach-to-social-isolation-effects-in-behavioral-studies-of-laboratory-rodents
#4
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Arakawa
The aim of the present review is to discuss how housing conditions affect behavioral performance in laboratory rodents from an ethological view. Commonly used laboratory rodents such as rats and mice, are originally captured animals that largely retain species-typical natural behaviors, while have fully adapted to a laboratory setting after long-term domestication. Laboratory settings including caging and artificial group housing are a considerable ethological factor influencing rodents' behaviors in commonly employed behavioral test paradigms, including emotional and defensive behaviors, learning and memory, and attention-related behaviors...
December 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251829/decreased-cerebral-irp-1b-limits-impact-of-social-isolation-in-wildtype-and-alzheimer-s-disease-modelled-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Christina Ruland, Johannes Berlandi, Kristin Eikmeier, Till Weinert, Fang Ju Lin, Oliver Ambree, Jochen Seggewiss, Werner Paulus, Astrid Jeibmann
Environmental factors, such as housing conditions and cognitively stimulating activities, have been shown to affect behavioral phenotypes and to modulate neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting cognitive functions. Epidemiological evidence and experimental studies using rodent models have indicated that social interaction reduces development and progression of disease. Drosophila models of Aβ42-associated AD lead to AD-like phenotypes, such as long-term memory impairment, locomotor and survival deficits, while effects of environmental conditions on AD associated phenotypes have not been assessed in the fly...
December 18, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251803/light-modulates-hippocampal-function-and-spatial-learning-in-a-diurnal-rodent-species-a-study-using-male-nile-grass-rat-arvicanthis-niloticus
#6
Joel E Soler, Alfred J Robison, Antonio A Núñez, Lily Yan
The effects of light on cognitive function have been well-documented in human studies, with brighter illumination improving cognitive performance in school children, healthy adults and patients in early stages of dementia. However, the underlying neural mechanisms are not well understood. The present study examined how ambient light affects hippocampal function using the diurnal Nile grass rats (Arvicanthis niloticus) as the animal model. Grass rats were housed in either a 12:12hr bright light-dark (brLD, 1000 lux) or dim light-dark (dimLD, 50 lux) cycle...
December 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242387/inbred-or-outbred-genetic-diversity-in-laboratory-rodent-colonies
#7
Thomas D Brekke, Katherine A Steele, John F Mulley
Non-model rodents are widely used as subjects for both basic and applied biological research, but the genetic diversity of the study individuals is rarely quantified. University-housed colonies tend to be small and subject to founder effects and genetic drift and so may be highly inbred or show substantial genetic divergence from other colonies, even those derived from the same source. Disregard for the levels of genetic diversity in an animal colony may result in a failure to replicate results if a different colony is used to repeat an experiment, as different colonies may have fixed alternative variants...
December 13, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227963/the-development-of-a-specific-pathogen-free-spf-barrier-colony-of-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus-for-aging-research
#8
Corinna N Ross, Steven Austad, Kathy Brasky, Celeste J Brown, Larry J Forney, Jonathan A Gelfond, Robert Lanford, Arlan Richardson, Suzette D Tardif
A specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier colony of breeding marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) was established at the Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies. Rodent and other animal models maintained as SPF barrier colonies have demonstrated improved health and lengthened lifespans enhancing the quality and repeatability of aging research. The marmosets were screened for two viruses and several bacterial pathogens prior to establishing the new SPF colony. Twelve founding animals successfully established a breeding colony with increased reproductive success, improved health parameters, and increased median lifespan when compared to a conventionally housed, open colony...
December 7, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217849/life-time-dosimetric-assessment-for-mice-and-rats-exposed-in-reverberation-chambers-of-the-2-year-ntp-cancer-bioassay-study-on-cell-phone-radiation
#9
Yijian Gong, Myles Capstick, Sven Kuehn, Perry Wilson, John Ladbury, Galen Koepke, David L McCormick, Ronald L Melnick, Niels Kuster
In this paper, we present the detailed life-time dosimetry analysis for rodents exposed in the reverberation exposure system designed for the two-year cancer bioassay study conducted by the National Toxicology Program of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. The study required the well-controlled and characterized exposure of individually housed, unrestrained mice at 1900 MHz and rats at 900 MHz, frequencies chosen to give best uniformity exposure of organs and tissues. The wbSAR, the peak spatial SAR and the organ specific SAR as well as the uncertainty and variation due to the exposure environment, differences in the growth rates, and animal posture were assessed...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217848/a-radio-frequency-radiation-exposure-system-for-rodents-based-on-reverberation-chambers
#10
Myles Capstick, Niels Kuster, Sven Kuehn, Veronica Berdinas-Torres, Yijian Gong, Perry Wilson, John Ladbury, Galen Koepke, David L McCormick, James Gauger, Ronald L Melnick
In this paper we present the novel design features, their technical implementation, and an evaluation of the radio Frequency (RF) exposure systems developed for the National Toxicology Program (NTP) of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) studies on the potential toxicity and carcinogenicity of 2nd and 3rd generation mobile-phone signals. The system requirements for this 2-year NTP cancer bioassay study were the tightly-controlled lifetime exposure of rodents (1568 rats and 1512 mice) to three power levels plus sham simulating typical daily, and higher, exposures of users of GSM and CDMA (IS95) signals...
August 2017: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193857/prenatal-and-postnatal-development-of-the-mammalian-ear
#11
REVIEW
Nicola Powles-Glover, Mark Maconochie
The ear can be subdivided into three distinct parts, each with significantly distinct structural and functional differences, the outer, middle, and inner ear, the latter housing the specialized sensory hair cells that act as transducers. There are numerous manuscripts documenting the anatomical development of the inner, middle, and outer ear in humans, rodents, chick, and zebrafish, dating back to the early 20th Century, and these developmental processes of these components are further compared in a number of review articles (Anthwal & Thompson, ; Basch, Brown, Jen, & Groves, ; Sai & Ladher, )...
November 28, 2017: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177007/a-simplified-microwave-based-motion-detector-for-home-cage-activity-monitoring-in-mice
#12
Andreas Genewsky, Daniel E Heinz, Paul M Kaplick, Kasyoka Kilonzo, Carsten T Wotjak
Background: Locomotor activity of rodents is an important readout to assess well-being and physical health, and is pivotal for behavioral phenotyping. Measuring homecage-activity with standard and cost-effective optical methods in mice has become difficult, as modern housing conditions (e.g. individually ventilated cages, cage enrichment) do not allow constant, unobstructed, visual access. Resolving this issue either makes greater investments necessary, especially if several experiments will be run in parallel, or is at the animals' expense...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145766/environmental-samples-make-soiled-bedding-sentinels-dispensable-for-hygienic-monitoring-of-ivc-reared-mouse-colonies
#13
Manuel Miller, Markus Brielmeier
Accurate knowledge of the health status of experimental animals is pivotal to high scientific and ethical standards in biomedical research. Individually ventilated cages (IVCs) are becoming the predominant system for housing laboratory mice, as they prevent cage-to-cage infections. However, this feature constitutes a major drawback for hygienic monitoring of mouse colonies, as traditional screening programs build on reliable transmission of infectious agents from experimental animals to sentinel mice commonly tested as representatives for the mouse colonies...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138228/low-protein-diet-induced-hyperphagia-and-adiposity-are-modulated-through-interactions-involving-thermoregulation-motor-activity-and-protein-quality-in-mice
#14
Anne Blais, Catherine Chaumontet, Dalila Azzout-Marniche, Julien Piedcoq, Gilles Fromentin, Claire Gaudichon, Daniel Tomé, Patrick C Even
Low-protein (LP) containing diets can induce overeating in rodents and possibly in humans in an effort to meet protein requirement but the consequences on energy expenditure (EE) are unclear. The present study evaluated the changes induced by reducing dietary protein from 20% to 6%, using either soy protein or casein, on energy intake, body composition and EE in mice housed at 22°C or at 30°C (thermal-neutrality). LP feeding increased energy intake and adiposity, more in soy fed than in casein fed mice, but also increased EE thus limiting fat accumulation...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107289/disruption-of-the-homeodomain-transcription-factor-orthopedia-homeobox-otp-is-associated-with-obesity-and-anxiety
#15
Lee Moir, Elena G Bochukova, Rebecca Dumbell, Gareth Banks, Rasneer S Bains, Patrick M Nolan, Cheryl Scudamore, Michelle Simon, Kimberly A Watson, Julia Keogh, Elana Henning, Audrey Hendricks, Stephen O'Rahilly, Inês Barroso, Adrienne E Sullivan, David C Bersten, Murray L Whitelaw, Susan Kirsch, Elizabeth Bentley, I Sadaf Farooqi, Roger D Cox
OBJECTIVE: Genetic studies in obese rodents and humans can provide novel insights into the mechanisms involved in energy homeostasis. METHODS: In this study, we genetically mapped the chromosomal region underlying the development of severe obesity in a mouse line identified as part of a dominant N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen. We characterized the metabolic and behavioral phenotype of obese mutant mice and examined changes in hypothalamic gene expression...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101373/ecological-and-sanitary-impacts-of-bacterial-communities-associated-to-biological-invasions-in-african-commensal-rodent-communities
#16
Christophe Diagne, Maxime Galan, Lucie Tamisier, Jonathan d'Ambrosio, Ambroise Dalecky, Khalilou Bâ, Mamadou Kane, Youssoupha Niang, Mamoudou Diallo, Aliou Sow, Philippe Gauthier, Caroline Tatard, Anne Loiseau, Sylvain Piry, Mbacké Sembène, Jean-François Cosson, Nathalie Charbonnel, Carine Brouat
Changes in host-parasite ecological interactions during biological invasion events may affect both the outcome of invasions and the dynamics of exotic and/or endemic infections. We tested these hypotheses, by investigating ongoing house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) and black rat (Rattus rattus) invasions in Senegal (West Africa). We used a 16S gene rRNA amplicon sequencing approach to study potentially zoonotic bacterial communities in invasive and native rodents sampled along two well-defined independent invasion routes...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083162/evaluating-metabolite-related-dna-oxidation-and-adduct-damage-from-aryl-amines-using-a-microfluidic-ecl-array
#17
Itti Bist, Snehasis Bhakta, Di Jiang, Tia E Keyes, Aaron Martin, Robert J Forster, James F Rusling
Damage to DNA from the metabolites of drugs and pollutants constitutes a major human toxicity pathway known as genotoxicity. Metabolites can react with metal ions and NADPH to oxidize DNA or participate in SN2 reactions to form covalently linked adducts with DNA bases. Guanines are the main DNA oxidation sites, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) is the initial product. Here we describe a novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) microwell array that produces metabolites from test compounds and measures relative rates of DNA oxidation and DNA adduct damage...
November 9, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062204/repertoire-of-noncoding-rnas-in-corpus-luteum-of-early-pregnancy-in-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis
#18
A Jerome, S M K Thirumaran, S N Kala
AIM: The present study was designed to identify other noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the corpus luteum (CL) during early pregnancy in buffalo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this study, CL (n=2) from two buffalo gravid uteri, obtained from the slaughter house, was transported to laboratory after snap freezing in liquid nitrogen (-196°C). The stage of pregnancy was determined by measuring the crown-rump region of the fetus. This was followed by isolation of RNA and deep sequencing...
September 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061385/modified-single-prolonged-stress-reduces-cocaine-self-administration-during-acquisition-regardless-of-rearing-environment
#19
Rebecca S Hofford, Mark A Prendergast, Michael T Bardo
Until recently, there were few rodent models available to study the interaction of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and drug taking. Like PTSD, single prolonged stress (SPS) produces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction and alters psychostimulant self-administration. Other stressors, such as isolation stress, also alter psychostimulant self-administration. However, it is currently unknown if isolation housing combined with SPS can alter the acquisition or maintenance of cocaine self-administration...
February 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049082/inhibiting-social-support-from-massage-like-stroking-increases-morphine-dependence
#20
M L Shawn Bates, Michael A Emery, Paul J Wellman, Shoshana Eitan
Our previous studies showed that altering solely the drug experience of the cage mates with which rodents are housed affects the development of morphine dependence. In this study, we used designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs to artificially increase or decrease the activity of peripheral dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons expressing the G-protein-coupled receptor MRGPRB4. This is because sensory MRGPRB4-expressing neurons were shown to specifically detect the sensation of massage-like stroking resulting from social grooming, which is an important affiliative social behavior in the rodent...
December 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
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