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Animal welfare

Arkadiusz Damian Liśkiewicz, Daniela Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Anna Sługocka, Marta Maria Nowacka-Chmielewska, Jan Wiaderkiewicz, Halina Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Jarosław Jerzy Barski, Joanna Lewin-Kowalik
The high fat and low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (HFKD) is extensively studied within the fields of numerous diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders. Since most studies incorporate animal models, ensuring the quality of ketogenic rodent diets is important, both in the context of laboratory animal welfare as well as for the accuracy of the obtained results. In this study we implemented a modification to a commonly-used ketogenic rodent chow by replacing non-resorbable cellulose with wheat bran...
October 18, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Whasun Lim, Changwon Yang, Muhah Jeong, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
STUDY QUESTION: Does coumestrol inhibit proliferation of human placental choriocarcinoma cells? SUMMARY ANSWER: Coumestrol promotes cell death in the choriocarcinoma cells by regulating ERK1/2 MAPK and JNK MAPK signaling pathways and through disruption of Ca2+ and ROS homeostasis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A number of patients who suffer from choriocarcinomas fail to survive due to delayed diagnosis or a recurrent tumor and resistance to traditional chemotherapy using platinum-based agents and methotrexate...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
Matthieu Glardon, Barbara K Schwenk, Fabiano Riva, Adrian von Holzen, Steffen G Ross, Beat P Kneubuehl, Michael H Stoffel
Stock management of the Swiss water buffalo livestock results in the slaughtering of about 350 animals per year. As the stunning of water buffaloes still is an unresolved issue, we investigated the terminal ballistics of currently used perforating stunning devices. Cartridge fired captive bolt devices, handguns and a bullet casing gun were tested in a shooting steep by firing on bisected heads, forehead plates and soap blocks. Energy loss of captive bolts confirmed their inadequacy when used for heavy water buffaloes, notably adult males...
September 28, 2017: Meat Science
Wendy M Rauw, Anna K Johnson, Luis Gomez-Raya, Jack C M Dekkers
Coping styles in response to stressors have been described both in humans and in other animal species. Because coping styles are directly related to individual fitness they are part of the life history strategy. Behavioral styles trade off with other life-history traits through the acquisition and allocation of resources. Domestication and subsequent artificial selection for production traits specifically focused on selection of individuals with energy sparing mechanisms for non-production traits. Domestication resulted in animals with low levels of aggression and activity, and a low hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
Reiichiro Sato, Eiichi Kanai, Go Kitahara, Michiko Noguchi, Kazuhiro Kawai, Yasunori Shinozuka, Atsushi Tsukamoto, Hideharu Ochiai, Ken Onda, Adrian Steiner
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of transrectal guidance of the ovaries by an assistant on operative time during bovine laparoscopic ovariectomy. Twenty four clinically healthy Holstein dairy cows were divided randomly into two groups. In the transrectal guidance group, an assistant grasped the ovaries via the transrectal route and pulled them to a position where they could be visualized with a camera. On the other hand, the control group was operated without guidance. The time required to remove both ovaries in the guidance group was shorter than that in the control group (P<0...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
C L Karsten, D C Wagner, P H Kass, K F Hurley
Animal shelters struggle to function at their 'right size' in terms of physical, staffing and outcome capacity, especially with seasonal fluctuations in cat intake. To address this, a Capacity for Care (C4C) management model was devised to balance health and welfare requirements of all animals while maintaining or improving goals for positive outcomes, such as adoption or transfer. In this observational study of three shelters, applying the C4C management system gave each organization an optimal average daily shelter cat population target (to be achieved through proactive length of stay management) and helped each shelter to increase the size of their feline housing units...
September 2017: Veterinary Journal
D Jackson, O Moberg, E M Stenevik Djupevåg, F Kane, H Hareide
The control of sea lice infestations on cultivated Atlantic salmon is a major issue in many regions of the world. The numerous drivers which shape the priorities and objectives of the control strategies vary for different regions/jurisdictions. These range from the animal welfare and economic priorities of the producers, to the mitigation of any potential impacts on wild stocks. Veterinary ethics, environmental impacts of therapeutants, and impacts for organic certification of the produce are, amongst others, additional sets of factors which should be considered...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
Daniel Pletzer, Heidi Wolfmeier, Manjeet Bains, Robert E W Hancock
Microorganisms continuously monitor their surroundings and adaptively respond to environmental cues. One way to cope with various stress-related situations is through the activation of the stringent stress response pathway. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa this pathway is controlled and coordinated by the activity of the RelA and SpoT enzymes that metabolize the small nucleotide secondary messenger molecule (p)ppGpp. Intracellular ppGpp concentrations are crucial in mediating adaptive responses and virulence. Targeting this cellular stress response has recently been the focus of an alternative approach to fight antibiotic resistant bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Evan L MacLean, Laurence R Gesquiere, Margaret E Gruen, Barbara L Sherman, W Lance Martin, C Sue Carter
Aggressive behavior in dogs poses public health and animal welfare concerns, however the biological mechanisms regulating dog aggression are not well understood. We investigated the relationships between endogenous plasma oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP)-neuropeptides that have been linked to affiliative and aggressive behavior in other mammalian species-and aggression in domestic dogs. We first validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the measurement of free (unbound) and total (free + bound) OT and AVP in dog plasma...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Yolanda Trillo, Luis Angel Quintela, Mónica Barrio, Juan José Becerra, Ana Isabel Peña, Marcos Vigo, Pedro Garcia Herradon
The aim of this study was to describe the status of body condition score (BCS), hock injuries prevalence, locomotion and body hygiene score as animal welfare measures in 73 free-stall dairy cattle farms in Lugo (Spain). A benchmarking process was established across farms: (1) the animal-based indicators were ordered from low to high values; (2) The farms were classified into three categories based on the number of indicators within less than the 25th percentile, 25th to 75th percentile and above the 75th percentile...
2017: Veterinary Record Open
Eiji Kobayashi, Yutaka Hanazono, Satoshi Kunita
Center for Development of Advanced Medical Technology (CDAMTec) in Jichi Medical University was established in FY 2009. It is the first educational research facility specialized for medical research and training using swine in Japan. Preclinical studies on large animals are essential prior to clinical trials to develop regenerative medical products and medical equipment. We have continued comprehensively considering using miniature swine for experiments to develop advanced medical technologies and train physicians with advanced clinical abilities, while paying attention to animal welfare...
October 7, 2017: Experimental Animals
F Pandolfi, I Kyriazakis, K Stoddart, N Wainwright, S A Edwards
From 2013-2016, animal-based measures were collected as part of the "Real Welfare" protocol adopted by the Red Tractor Pigs Assurance Scheme to assess the welfare in finisher pig herds in the UK. Trained veterinarians from 89 veterinary practices assessed 112,241 pens (hospital pens excluded) from 1928 farms using a multistage sampling protocol, and collected data about pig welfare, management and farm environment. Multivariable analyses were conducted for five main welfare outcomes: lameness, pigs requiring hospitalization, severe tail lesions, severe body marks and enrichment use ratio (number of active pigs interacting with the enrichment/total number of active pigs)...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
H Kasab-Bachi, A G Arruda, T E Roberts, J B Wilson
There is increasing interest among the poultry industry to develop a comprehensive index that can be used to evaluate overall intestinal health and impact on production performance. The Intestinal Integrity (I(2)) index is a quantitative measurement tool used to assess the intestinal health of flocks that use the Health Tracking System (HTSi), a global surveillance system developed by Elanco Animal Health that captures flock-level information on health and performance. To generate an I(2) index score for a flock, the presence of 23 intestinal health conditions is assessed and recorded, then entered into a mathematical equation...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
M Vitali, S Conte, M Lessard, K Deschêne, M O Benoit-Biancamano, C Celeste, G Martelli, L Sardi, F Guay, L Faucitano
The presence of lesions on the pig carcass is an indicator of poor animal welfare and has economic impact as it downgrades the carcass value. The assessment of the age of lesions on the carcass may help identify risk factors and ultimately prevent their occurrence. The aim of this study was to assess the age of lesions on pig carcasses through spectrophotometric color evaluation and to relate the results with gene expression and histological and histochemical parameters. A total of 96 barrows were mixed 4 times over 3 d before slaughter and 80 lesions were selected after skin lesion observations to define 4 age categories: < 7 h (T1), 7-25 h (T2), 25-30 h (T3), and 49-54 h (T4)...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Marie Saint-Dizier, Sylvie Chastant-Maillard
Estrus and calving are two major events of reproduction that benefit from connected devices because of their crucial importance in herd economics and the amount of time required for their detection. The objectives of this review are to: 1) provide an update on performances reached by sensor systems to detect estrus and calving time; 2) discuss current economic issues related to connected devices for the management of cattle reproduction; 3) propose perspectives for these devices. The main physiological parameters monitored separately or in combination by connected devices are the cow activity, body temperature and rumination or eating behavior...
September 27, 2017: Theriogenology
M W Jorgensen, K Janni, A Adams-Progar, H Chester-Jones, J A Salfer, M I Endres
Automated milk feeders are used by dairy producers to manage preweaned calves in group housing, but little is known about how these feeding systems are being used in the United States. To better understand how US dairy producers are operating these systems, this study investigated characteristics of barn design, environment, and management practices on 38 farms in the Upper Midwest United States via a questionnaire and on-farm measurements. Farms using automated feeders ranged in size from 7 to 300 calves on site...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Amy Waddell
Amy Waddell, BVA head of media and public affairs, outlines the current debate around animal welfare and 'designer' breeds in the House of Lords.
October 7, 2017: Veterinary Record
Daniel M Mulcahy
In the US, the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and its enabling regulations (AWAR) cover all warm-blooded animals used for research, testing, experimentation, or exhibition. The only exceptions, made in the enabling regulations, are for two genera of rodents and for birds, bred specifically for research (meaning even those exceptions do not apply to wild birds and wild rodents of those genera) and for farm and agricultural animals. Research using animals covered by the AWA and AWAR must be reviewed and approved by an Animal Care and Use Committee (ACUC) properly constituted according to AWA and AWAR...
August 10, 2017: ILAR Journal
B Taylor Bennett, Matthew R Bailey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: Lab Animal
Alessia Diana, Edgar G Manzanilla, Julia A Calderón Díaz, Finola C Leonard, Laura A Boyle
Antibiotics (AB) are used in intensive pig production systems to control infectious diseases and they are suspected to be a major source of antibiotic resistance. Following the ban on AB use as growth promoters in the EU, their prophylactic use in-feed is now under review. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of removing prophylactic in-feed AB on pig health and welfare indicators. Every Monday for six weeks, a subset of 70 pigs were weaned, tagged and sorted into two groups of 35 pigs according to weight (9...
2017: PloS One
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