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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451652/animal-experimentation-a-look-into-ethics-welfare-and-alternative-methods
#1
EDITORIAL
Marcos Rassi Fernandes, Aline Ribeiro Pedroso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444112/social-network-and-dominance-hierarchy-analyses-at-chimpanzee-sanctuary-northwest
#2
Jake A Funkhouser, Jessica A Mayhew, John B Mulcahy
Different aspects of sociality bear considerable weight on the individual- and group-level welfare of captive nonhuman primates. Social Network Analysis (SNA) is a useful tool for gaining a holistic understanding of the dynamic social relationships of captive primate groups. Gaining a greater understanding of captive chimpanzees through investigations of centrality, preferred and avoided relationships, dominance hierarchy, and social network diagrams can be useful in advising current management practices in sanctuaries and other captive settings...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438444/systems-genomics-study-reveals-expression-quantitative-trait-loci-regulator-genes-and-pathways-associated-with-boar-taint-in-pigs
#3
Markus Drag, Mathias B Hansen, Haja N Kadarmideen
Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS) were slaughtered at ~100 kg...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435704/risk-factors-and-indicators-of-reduced-welfare-of-grazing-dairy-cows-from-selected-smallholder-dairy-farms-in-midlands-province-zimbabwe
#4
Z Matore, P Woods, S Kagler
Zimbabwe's smallholder dairying faces many challenges that affect the welfare of dairy cows; however, the status of this welfare has not yet been determined. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Midlands Province on 41 active smallholder dairy farms with 86 cows in winter and summer to determine the risk factors and indicators to impaired cow welfare. These objectives were achieved using farmer questionnaires and direct observations. Eleven percent of the observed cows were severely lame in summer while only 5% were severely lame in winter...
February 12, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433588/ontogeny-of-behavioral-traits-in-commercial-sows
#5
K M Horback, T D Parsons
As the number of gestating sows reared in group housing increases, a better understanding of behavioral traits needed to negotiate these more complex social interactions promises to increase animal welfare and productivity. However, little is known about different behavioral strategies or coping styles in sows, and even less is understood about their ontogeny. To study the development of coping styles in adult gestating sows, 36 sows from the same sire line and same commercial maternal genetics were followed from birth through their second parity...
February 13, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426469/implications-of-zoonotic-and-vector-borne-parasites-to-free-roaming-cats-in-central-spain
#6
A Montoya, M García, R Gálvez, R Checa, V Marino, J Sarquis, J P Barrera, C Rupérez, L Caballero, C Chicharro, I Cruz, G Miró
Cats are definitive hosts and reservoirs for several parasites, some of which are responsible for serious zoonotic diseases. We conducted a case-control study of data from a trap-neuter-return (TNR) programme (years 2014-2017) designed to examine the prevalence of zoonotic parasites in free-roaming cats living in urban areas of central Spain. In the animal population tested (n = 263), we detected a 29.2% prevalence of endoparasites, including high rates of cestodes (12.9%) and Toxocara cati (11.7%). While faecal samples showed no Toxoplasma gondii oocysts, the seroprevalence of T...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426467/comparative-diagnostics-reveals-pcr-assays-on-skin-scrapings-is-the-most-reliable-method-to-detect-sarcoptes-scabiei-infestations
#7
Tamieka A Fraser, Alynn Martin, Adam Polkinghorne, Scott Carver
Sarcoptic mange is a globally significant parasitic disease of humans and other animals, both domestic and wild. But clinical diagnosis of S. scabiei infestation, using the standard skin scraping followed by microscopy technique, remains highly variable (predominantly due to false-negatives), and a major challenge for human and animal welfare. Here, we utilised a unique sample set from bare-nosed wombats (Vombatus ursinus) to evaluate a variety of putatively useful diagnostic approaches for S. scabiei. Against the standard of skin scrapings followed by microscopy, we compared observational scoring of mange severity (often employed in field studies of wildlife), PCR on skin scrapings (recently proposed as an improvement for humans and other animals), and PCR on skin swabs (proposed a non-invasive method for humans and other animals)...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423894/aloysia-triphylla-in-the-zebrafish-food-effects-on-physiology-behavior-and-growth-performance
#8
Daniane C Zago, Alessandro C Santos, Carlos F C Lanes, Daniela V Almeida, Gessi Koakoski, Murilo S de Abreu, Carla C Zeppenfeld, Berta M Heinzmann, Luis F Marins, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Mauro A Cunha
Dietary supplements are commonly used by animals and humans and play key roles in diverse systems, such as the immune and reproductive systems, and in metabolism. Essential oils (EOs), which are natural substances, have potential for use in food supplementation; however, their effects on organisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we examine the effects of dietary Aloysia triphylla EO supplementation on zebrafish behavior, metabolism, stress response, and growth performance. We show that fish fed diets containing A...
February 8, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422700/a-cross-species-comparison-of-abnormal-behavior-in-three-species-of-singly-housed-old-world-monkeys
#9
Corrine K Lutz
Abnormal behavior occurs in a number of captive nonhuman primate species and is often used as an indicator of welfare. However, reported levels of abnormal behavior often vary across species, making general welfare judgments difficult. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in levels of abnormal behavior and associated risk factors across three species of Old World monkeys in order to identify similarities and differences across species. The subjects were 415 (109 females) cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), 365 (181 females) rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and 331 (187 females) baboons (Papio hamadryas) that had been singly-housed for 30-120 days...
February 2018: Applied Animal Behaviour Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420190/genome-wide-association-and-genomic-selection-for-resistance-to-amoebic-gill-disease-in-atlantic-salmon
#10
Diego Robledo, Oswald Matika, Alastair Hamilton, Ross D Houston
Amoebic gill disease (AGD) is one of the largest threats to salmon aquaculture, causing serious economic and animal welfare burden. Treatments can be expensive and environmentally damaging, hence the need for alternative strategies. Breeding for disease resistance can contribute to prevention and control of AGD, providing long-term cumulative benefits in selected stocks. The use of genomic selection can expedite selection for disease resistance due to improved accuracy compared to pedigree-based approaches...
February 2, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419513/new-trustees-for-awf
#11
(no author information available yet)
Chris Laurence, Chair of the Animal Welfare Foundation (AWF), is delighted to welcome three new trustees to the charity.
February 3, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419512/making-a-marathon-effort
#12
(no author information available yet)
The Animal Welfare Foundation (AWF) has a place in this year's London Marathon and charity trustee Daniella Dos Santos is taking on the challenge.
February 3, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419511/quality-of-life-what-is-it-and-what-can-vets-do-to-influence-it
#13
(no author information available yet)
Every veterinary professional dedicates their career to ensuring the health and welfare of animals committed to their care. But what does this mean for the modern vet? This question, explains Erika Singh, Animal Welfare Foundation (AWF) Manager, will be explored at this year's AWF Discussion Forum.
February 3, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417302/balancing-animal-welfare-and-assisted-reproduction-ethics-of-preclinical-animal-research-for-testing-new-reproductive-technologies
#14
Verna Jans, Wybo Dondorp, Ellen Goossens, Heidi Mertes, Guido Pennings, Guido de Wert
In the field of medically assisted reproduction (MAR), there is a growing emphasis on the importance of introducing new assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) only after thorough preclinical safety research, including the use of animal models. At the same time, there is international support for the three R's (replace, reduce, refine), and the European Union even aims at the full replacement of animals for research. The apparent tension between these two trends underlines the urgency of an explicit justification of the use of animals for the development and preclinical testing of new ARTs...
February 7, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415928/-animal-welfare-and-corporate-welfare-in-pharmaceutical-r-d-the-future-of-third-party-assessment
#15
Makoto Suzuki
For research and development (R&D) of new drugs, animal experimentation is indispensable, and research institutes, pharmaceutical companies, or contract research organizations routinely conduct preclinical studies of efficacy, safety, or metabolism using laboratory animals. However, animal experimentation entails some organizational risks. One is the suspension of R&D of a new drug, because in the course of clinical studies it becomes apparent that the drug has limited efficacy, unexpected side effects, and/or unexpected metabolites...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415927/-development-of-alternatives-to-animal-experiments-using-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Koichi Saito, Noriyuki Suzuki, Kumiko Kobayashi
Animal experiments have occupied an important position in the safety assessment of chemicals. However, due to the rise in animal welfare as seen in the ban of animal experiments in European cosmetic development, the development of alternative methods for animal experiments has become very important in recent years. Development of in vitro tests for local toxicity such as irritation and sensitization tests is preceded. Meanwhile, alternative tests for systemic toxicity such as chronic and developmental toxicities are under development...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415781/control-of-helminth-ruminant-infections-by-2030
#17
Jozef Vercruysse, Johannes Charlier, Jan Van Dijk, Eric R Morgan, Tim Geary, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Edwin Claerebout
Helminth infections have large negative impacts on production efficiency in ruminant farming systems worldwide, and their effective management is essential if livestock production is to increase to meet future human needs for dietary protein. The control of helminths relies heavily on routine use of chemotherapeutics, but this approach is unsustainable as resistance to anthelmintic drugs is widespread and increasing. At the same time, infection patterns are being altered by changes in climate, land-use and farming practices...
February 8, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415761/direct-serogrouping-of-dichelobacter-nodosus-from-victorian-farms-using-conventional-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction
#18
Nickala Best, Jacek Gwozdz, Robert Suter, Grant Rawlin, Travis Beddoe
OBJECTIVE: Dichelobacter nodosus is the causative agent of footrot in sheep. Ovine footrot is a major problem in Australia that results in large economic losses and a represents a very significant animal welfare issue. D. nodosus is divided into 10 serogroups (A-I, M), based on sequence variation in the type IV fimbriae gene, fimA. Control of the bacteria is possible through use of serogroup-specific vaccination, however traditional identification of the serogroups of D. nodosus on infected sheep is time-consuming and costly...
February 7, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415427/qualitative-evaluation-of-the-five-year-red-collar-campaign-to-end-inhumane-culling-of-dogs-as-a-method-of-rabies-control
#19
Elly Hiby, Lou Tasker
Dog-mediated human rabies can be eliminated through mass dog vaccination. Despite leading authorities in human and animal health uniting to advance effective and humane rabies control, some governments resort to lethal methods, which are unethical, often inhumane and ineffective. To end the inhumane culling of dogs in response to rabies, World Animal Protection launched 'Red Collar'; a five-year campaign (2011-2016) that worked with governments to promote the implementation of mass dog vaccination for rabies control...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414919/online-relinquishments-of-dogs-and-cats-in-australia
#20
Susan J Hazel, Caitlin J Jenvey, Jonathan Tuke
While traditionally people relinquish their pets to an animal shelter or pound, the internet provides a newer method to re-home. We analyzed advertisements (ads) on the largest website in Australia for trading dogs and cats: Gumtree. Data was collected in 2016. Dogs were sampled on 7, 16 and 24 February 2016 and cats on 9, 19 and 26 February 2016, with 2640 ads for relinquished dogs, and 2093 ads for relinquished cats. It was estimated >31,000 puppies/dogs and >24,000 kittens/cats are relinquished on Gumtree per year...
February 7, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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