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Animal welfare

A Elkama, O C Ulker, E Teker, A Karakaya, A E Karakaya
Exposure to chemicals in workplace settings leads to significant occupational diseases related to hypersensitivity reactions. In recent years, diacetyl which is used as a food additive is thought to be as an important hazard due to its sensitization potency for worker's health. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the sensitization potency of diacetyl for the purpose of its hazard evaluation. Nonradioactive ex vivo local lymph node assay: BrdU-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method with short-term and long-term exposure protocols were conducted based on animal welfare principles...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Peter Sandøe, Björn Forkman, Franziska Hakansson, Sine Norlander Andreasen, Rikke Nøhr, Matt Denwood, Thomas Bøker Lund
Welfare Quality® proposes a system for aggregation according to which the total welfare score for a group of animals is a non-linear effect of the prevalence of welfare scores across the individuals within the group. Three assumptions serve to justify this: (1) experts do not follow a linear reasoning when they assess a welfare problem; (2) it serves to prevent compensation (severe welfare problems hidden by scoring well on other aspects of welfare); (3) experts agree on the weight of different welfare measures...
December 11, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
N Capion, E K Larsson, O L Nielsen
Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a painful infectious disease, causing lameness, reduced animal welfare, and production losses in dairy herds. The main factors contributing to DD are an infection with Treponema spp. and poor hygiene. Topical treatment has primarily consisted of antibiotics; however, the demand for effective nonantibiotic alternatives is increasing. The objective was to evaluate the performance of 3 nonantibiotic topical treatments (salicylic acid and a compound of inorganic acids in a 20% solution and in a dry form) on DD in a commercial dairy herd...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
A Zuliani, M Mair, M Kraševec, I Lora, M Brscic, G Cozzi, C Leeb, M Zupan, C Winckler, S Bovolenta
In the Alps, traditional dairy farms are small-scale operations where vertical transhumance from valley indoor housing systems to highland pasture-based systems is still practiced in summer. Vertical transhumance implies a substantial change of environment, available resources, and management practices from one season to another. In such systems, animal-based welfare measures need to be monitored throughout the year to capture the variation of welfare outcomes, based on which targeted welfare management plans can be implemented...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
M G Cappai, A Abd El-Wahab, G Arru, M Muzzeddu, W Pinna
Foot health represents an issue in wild avifauna breeding practices. In particular, prevalence of digital ulceration (DU) and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) are valid indicators of welfare in wildlife conservation centres and may be interpreted as to fitness for bird's reintroduction into the wild. This study meant to test the effects of raising practices on foot pad health in captive Sardinian partridges (Alectoris barbara barbara Bonnaterre, 1790) reared for biodiversity conservation, to assess welfare and fitness to reintroduction into nature...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Andrea Lombardo, Carlo Boselli, Simonetta Amatiste, Simone Ninci, Chiara Frazzoli, Roberto Dragone, Alberto De Rossi, Gerardo Grasso, Alberto Mantovani, Giovanni Brajon
Current Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) approaches mainly fit for food industry, while their application in primary food production is still rudimentary. The European food safety framework calls for science-based support to the primary producers' mandate for legal, scientific, and ethical responsibility in food supply. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary project ALERT pivots on the development of the technological invention (BEST platform) and application of its measurable (bio)markers-as well as scientific advances in risk analysis-at strategic points of the milk chain for time and cost-effective early identification of unwanted and/or unexpected events of both microbiological and toxicological nature...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
A B Riber, H A van de Weerd, I C de Jong, S Steenfeldt
Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior and welfare of the different kinds of environmental enrichments in the production of broilers that have been described in the scientific literature. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements of the biological function...
December 2, 2017: Poultry Science
Søren Saxmose Nielsen, Matthew James Denwood, Björn Forkman, Hans Houe
National welfare indices of cattle and pigs are constructed in Denmark, and meat inspection data may be used to contribute to these. We select potentially welfare-relevant abattoir recordings and assess the sources of variation within these with a view towards inclusion in the indices. Meat inspection codes were pre-selected based on expert judgement of having potential animal welfare relevance. Random effects logistic regression was then used to determine the magnitude of variation derived at the level of the farm or abattoir, of which farm variation might be associated with welfare, whereas abattoir variation is most likely caused by differences in recording practices...
December 6, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
P Ghodasara, P Sadowski, N Satake, S Kopp, P C Mills
Over the last two decades, technological advancements in the field of proteomics have advanced our understanding of the complex biological systems of living organisms. Techniques based on mass spectrometry (MS) have emerged as powerful tools to contextualise existing genomic information and to create quantitative protein profiles from plasma, tissues or cell lines of various species. Proteomic approaches have been used increasingly in veterinary science to investigate biological processes responsible for growth, reproduction and pathological events...
December 2017: Veterinary Journal
Svenja Boehler, Ann-Kathrin Lörracher, Janine Schubert, Thomas Braunbeck
The measurement of EROD (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) activity to determine the induction of CYP1A after exposure to dioxin-like substances is a well-established biomarker in fish. For reasons of animal welfare and implementations of new chemicals regulations (REACh), in vivo methods using zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos have recently been developed to quantify CYP1A induction, which is visualized as mean intensity of the autofluorescent resorufin formed in living anaesthetized embryos...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Caralyn Kemp, Harriet Thatcher, David Farningham, Claire Witham, Ann MacLarnon, Amanda Holmes, Stuart Semple, Emily J Bethell
There has been increased recognition of the 3Rs in laboratory animal management over the last decade, including improvements in animal handling and housing. For example, positive reinforcement is now more widely used to encourage primates to cooperate with husbandry procedures, and improved enclosure design allows housing in social groups with opportunity to escape and avoid other primates and humans. Both practices have become gold standards in captive primate care resulting in improved health and behavioural outcomes...
December 2017: Applied Animal Behaviour Science
Heinke Heise, Ludwig Theuvsen
Many people believe that welfare standards for nonhuman animals on farms need to be improved. However, the definition of farm animal welfare (FAW) remains unclear, as different disciplines have developed competing understandings of FAW. Some studies have investigated citizens' understanding of FAW through quantitative surveys. This study combined both closed-ended and open-ended questions and compared the findings from the different types of questions. For the open-ended question, respondents mostly named criteria in the categories of "housing system" and "management practice"; however, for the closed-ended question, the category "animal health" was most important...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Marcella Sabino, Stefano Capomaccio, Katia Cappelli, Andrea Verini-Supplizi, Lorenzo Bomba, Paolo Ajmone-Marsan, Gabriella Cobellis, Oliviero Olivieri, Camillo Pieramati, Massimo Trabalza-Marinucci
Intensive farming of broilers involves stressful conditions that reduce animal welfare and performance. New dietary strategies to improve performance and meat quality include the administration of plant extracts. Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) is known for its antimicrobial, anti-fungal, insecticidal and antioxidant properties. However, studies on diet supplementation with oregano are mainly focused on the evaluation of animal performance, while partial information is available on transcriptomics and nutrigenomics and, in particular, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is not widely applied...
November 21, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
Zhenchao Zhang, Shuai Wang, Charles Li, Liheng Liu
The apicomplexan protozoans Eimeria spp. cause coccidioses, the most common intestinal diseases in chickens. Coccidiosis is associated with significant animal welfare issues and has a high economic impact on the poultry industry. Lack of a full understanding of immunogenic molecules and their precise functions involved in the Eimeria life cycles may limit development of effective vaccines and drug therapies. In this study, immunoproteomic approaches were used to define the antigenic protein repertoire from the total proteins of unsporulated Eimeria tenella oocysts...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Jake S Veasey
Despite the diversity of animal welfare definitions, most recognise the centrality of the feelings of animals which are currently impossible to measure directly. As a result, animal welfare assessment is heavily reliant upon the indirect measurement of factors that either affect what animals feel, or are effected by how they feel. Physiological and health orientated measures have emerged as popular metrics for assessing welfare because they are quantifiable, can effect and be affected by how animals feel and have merits regardless of their relationship to the feelings of animals...
November 28, 2017: Zoo Biology
Charlotte Goursot, Sandra Düpjan, Armin Tuchscherer, Birger Puppe, Lisette M C Leliveld
Motor lateralization is hypothesized to depend on the complexity of the motor function, but it might at the same time reflect hemispheric dominance within an individual across motor functions. We investigated possible motor lateralization patterns in four motor functions of different complexity (snout use in a manipulative task, foot use in two-stepping tasks and tail curling) in the domestic pig, a tetrapod species relevant as farm animal but also as a model in human neuroscience. A significant majority of our sample showed individual biases for manipulation with their snout and for curling their tail...
November 30, 2017: Laterality
Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Masaki Ishii, Kiminori Shimizu, Susumu Kawamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
The development of effective drugs against fungal diseases involves performing infection experiments in animals to evaluate candidate therapeutic compounds. Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus that causes deep mycosis, resulting in respiratory illness and meningitis. Here we describe a silkworm system established to evaluate the safety and efficacy of therapeutic drugs against infection by Cryptococcus neoformans and the advantages of this system over other animal models. The silkworm assay system has two major advantages: 1) silkworms are less expensive to rear and their use is less problematic than that of mammals in terms of animal welfare, and 2) in vivo screenings for identifying candidate drugs can be easily performed using a large number of silkworms...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Byung In Choe, Gwi Hyang Lee
Scientists planning research that involves the use of animals are required to examine the possibilities for replacement, reduction, or refinement (the Three Rs), and their protocol must be reviewed by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Good scientific practice involving appropriate search techniques on the available Three Rs resources is essential for both ethical and scientific reasons. Appropriate experimental design and statistical analysis techniques are particularly necessary for research involving the use of animals, because this can improve animal welfare and scientific outcomes, as well as saving animal lives...
November 29, 2017: BMB Reports
Jelte M Wicherts
In this review, the author discusses several of the weak spots in contemporary science, including scientific misconduct, the problems of post hoc hypothesizing (HARKing), outcome switching, theoretical bloopers in formulating research questions and hypotheses, selective reading of the literature, selective citing of previous results, improper blinding and other design failures, p-hacking or researchers' tendency to analyze data in many different ways to find positive (typically significant) results, errors and biases in the reporting of results, and publication bias...
November 27, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Clarissa S Cardoso, Marina A G von Keyserlingk, Maria José Hötzel
The primary aim of this study was to explore attitudes of urban Brazilian citizens about dairy production. A secondary aim was to determine their knowledge and attitudes about four potentially contentious routine dairy cattle management practices: early cow-calf separation; zero-grazing; culling of newborn male calves; and dehorning without pain mitigation. To address the first aim 40 participants were interviewed using open-ended semi-structured questions designed to probe their views and attitudes about dairy production in Brazil, and 300 participants answered a questionnaire that included an open-ended question about the welfare of dairy cattle...
November 26, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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