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Animal welfare

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691872/a-study-of-the-pharmacokinetics-and-thromboxane-inhibitory-activity-of-a-single-intramuscular-dose-of-carprofen-as-a-means-to-establish-its-potential-use-as-an-analgesic-drug-in-white-rhinoceros
#1
M Leiberich, R Krebber, M Hewetson, J Marais, V Naidoo
The alleviation of pain and prevention of suffering are key aspects of animal welfare. Unfortunately, analgesic drugs are not available for all species. White rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), representing one of such species, which survive poaching attempts inflicted with severe facial injuries and gunshot wounds, nonetheless require analgesic support. To improve treatment conditions, this study explored the use of carprofen for the treatment of pain and inflammation in white rhinoceros. The pharmacokinetics of 1 mg/kg intramuscular carprofen was evaluated in six healthy white rhinoceros...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691854/necropsy-findings-of-koalas-from-the-mount-lofty-ranges-population-in-south-australia
#2
K N Speight, P Hicks, C Graham, W Boardman, W G Breed, E Manthorpe, O Funnell, L Woolford
OBJECTIVE: This study reports necropsy findings of koalas from the Mount Lofty Ranges region in order to identify health threats to this mainland South Australian population. METHODS: Koalas from the Mount Lofty Ranges region (n = 85) that had died or been euthanased on welfare grounds were examined at necropsy during 2012-13 at the School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide. Disease findings, approximate age, sex and body condition of koalas were recorded...
May 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685993/osteoblast-differentiation-of-equine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Arabella Baird, Timothy Lindsay, Alice Everett, Valentine Iyemere, Yasmin Z Paterson, Alyce McClellan, Frances M D Henson, Deborah J Guest
Bone fractures occur in horses following traumatic and non-traumatic (bone overloading) events. They can be difficult to treat due to the need for the horse to bear weight on all legs during the healing period. Regenerative medicine to improve fracture union and recovery could significantly improve horse welfare.Equine induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have previously been derived. Here we show that equine iPSCs cultured for 21 days in osteogenic induction media on an OsteoAssay surface upregulate the expression of osteoblast associated genes and proteins, including COL1A1 , SPARC , SPP1 , IBSP , RUNX2 and BGALP We also demonstrate that iPSC-osteoblasts are able to produce a mineralised matrix with both calcium and hydroxyapatite deposition...
April 23, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685446/first-approach-validating-a-scoring-system-for-foot-pad-dermatitis-in-broiler-chickens-developed-for-application-in-practice
#4
Sophia Heitmann, Jenny Stracke, Henning Petersen, Birgit Spindler, Nicole Kemper
Measuring the severity of foot-pad dermatitis is an accepted tool monitoring the quality of animal husbandry and welfare. Up to now, a variety of scoring schemes have been used, most of them based on visual evaluation. However, a standardisation and validation of scoring systems is beneficial, not only to compare different studies, but to provide objective indicators in poultry welfare. In this study, we validated one visual scoring system, widely used in Northern Germany, by using additional information of histological measurements...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685445/insights-into-the-knowledge-practices-and-training-needs-of-veterinarians-working-with-smallholder-livestock-producers-in-australia
#5
L Hayes, S Britton, G Weerasinghe, R G Woodgate, M Hernandez-Jover
The location of properties holding livestock is fluid; edging towards the boundaries of urban Australia, increasing the likelihood that veterinarians will be exposed to livestock as part of the provision of routine veterinary services. This study was conducted to ascertain the challenges, knowledge level and training needs of veterinarians working within this landscape, with the ultimate aim of informing the development of resources and training to better equip them in this capacity. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study, using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among Australian veterinarians...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685433/domestic-water-buffaloes-access-to-surface-water-disease-prevalence-and-associated-economic-losses
#6
Ehsan Elahi, Muhammad Abid, Huiming Zhang, Weijun Cui, Shabeh Ul Hasson
Given the shortage and non-availability of freshwater in Pakistan, wastewater is being used for bathing water buffaloes; however, this has a negative impact on animal welfare. Although there is a vast literature on indirect linkages between wastewater and animal productivity, studies focusing on the direct impacts of water buffaloes bathing in wastewater on animal productivity and economic losses are rare. Therefore, using 360 domestic water buffalo farms, this study examines the expenditure and production losses associated with bathing (in wastewater and freshwater) and non-bathing water buffaloes by employing partial budgeting and resource adjustment component techniques...
June 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685216/potential-transmission-routes-of-dichelobacter-nodosus
#7
Iwan Locher, Ladina Giger, Sara Frosth, Peter Kuhnert, Adrian Steiner
Footrot caused by Dichelobacter nodosus is a highly contagious bacterial disease affecting the claw of sheep and the main cause of lameness in these animals. It is not only an economic burden but also a serious animal welfare issue. More information about the transmission of D. nodosus is needed for effective footrot control programs. We therefore determined the prevalence of D. nodosus in sheep presented at shows and markets where commingling of animals occurs. Furthermore, possible transmission vectors during foot trimming were investigated and trimming knife decontamination protocols evaluated...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685214/microbiomes-associated-with-bovine-periodontitis-and-oral-health
#8
Ana C Borsanelli, David F Lappin, Lorenzo Viora, David Bennett, Iveraldo S Dutra, Bernd W Brandt, Marcello P Riggio
Periodontitis is an infectious polymicrobial, immuno-inflammatory disease of multifactorial aetiology that has an impact on the health, production and welfare of ruminants. The objective of the present study was to determine the microbial profiles present in the gingival sulcus of cattle considered periodontally healthy and in the periodontal pocket of animals with periodontitis lesions using high-throughput bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Subgingival biofilm samples were collected from 40 cattle with periodontitis and 38 periodontally healthy animals...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678888/bovine-spastic-syndrome-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Victoria Goeckmann, Sophie Rothammer, Ivica Medugorac
Bovine spastic syndrome (BSS) was described for the first time in 1941. The disease occurs in various-maybe even all-cattle breeds and is a chronic-progressive neuromuscular disorder that commonly affects cattle of at least three years of age. Typical clinical signs of the disease are clonic-tonic cramps of the hindlimbs that occur in attacks. Since BSS does not recover, affected animals can only be treated symptomatically by improving welfare conditions and management factors, or with physical therapy or drugs...
April 20, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675419/a-cross-sectional-study-into-the-prevalence-of-dairy-cattle-lameness-and-associated-herd-level-risk-factors-in-england-and-wales
#10
Bethany E Griffiths, Dai Grove White, Georgios Oikonomou
Lameness is one of the most pressing issues within the dairy industry; it has severe economic implications while causing a serious impact on animal welfare. A study conducted approximately 10 years ago found the within farm lameness prevalence in the UK to be 36.8%. Our objective here is to provide an update on within farm lameness prevalence in the UK, and to provide further evidence on farm level risk factors. A convenience sample of 61 dairy farms were recruited across England and Wales from September 2015 to December 2016...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673140/euthanasia-of-cattle-practical-considerations-and-application
#11
REVIEW
Jan Keith Shearer
Acceptable methods for the euthanasia of cattle include overdose of an anesthetic, gunshot and captive bolt. The use of anesthetics for euthanasia is costly and complicates carcass disposal. These issues can be avoided by use of a physical method such as gunshot or captive bolt; however, each requires that certain conditions be met to assure an immediate loss of consciousness and death. For example, the caliber of firearm and type of bullet are important considerations when gunshot is used. When captive bolt is used, a penetrating captive bolt loaded with the appropriate powder charge and accompanied by a follow up (adjunctive) step to assure death are required...
April 17, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672771/effects-of-subclinical-footpad-dermatitis-and-emotional-arousal-on-surface-foot-temperature-recorded-with-infrared-thermography-in-turkey-toms-meleagris-gallopavo
#12
R O Moe, J Bohlin, A Flø, G Vasdal, H Erlandsen, E Guneriussen, E C Sjökvist, S M Stubsjøen
Footpad dermatitis is a condition that causes lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads in growing turkeys. Potential inflammatory processes and pain associated with increasing severity of footpad dermatitis raise animal welfare concerns. This study investigated whether the temperature of the plantar surface of the foot (the footpads and the entire plantar foot including interdigital membranes) assessed with infrared thermography reflects severity of mild footpad dermatitis as assessed with a Visual Analogue Scale in 80 turkey toms at 10 weeks of age...
April 17, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672545/epileptiform-activity-during-inert-gas-euthanasia-of-mice
#13
Thomas C Gent, Carlotta Detotto, Alexei L Vyssotski, Regula Bettschart-Wolfensberger
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the most commonly used euthanasia agents for mice, yet it is highly aversive and nociceptive. Inert gases are a possible alternative, however there are qualitative reports of seizures resulting from exposure. Here we evaluate epileptiform activity caused by inert gases (N2, He, Ar and Xe) and CO2 in mice chronically instrumented for EEG/EMG undergoing single-gas euthanasia. We found that N2, He and Ar caused epileptiform activity in all animals, CO2 in half of animals and no epileptiform activity produced by Xe...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672470/developments-in-the-transition-from-animal-use-to-simulation-based-biomedical-education
#14
John B Pawlowski, David M Feinstein, Shalin G Gala
There has been a significant shift from the use of animals in biomedical training exercises toward simulation-based education methods. The transition has been driven by technological advances, empirical evidence of improved student outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and a growing concern for the welfare of animals. These factors have spurred policy changes worldwide in how medical and science curricula are delivered. We detail how some of these policy changes evolved and comment on the future direction of simulation-based education and its implications for healthcare providers, instructors, and the general public...
April 18, 2018: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671895/visitor-effects-on-a-zoo-population-of-california-sea-lions-zalophus-californianus-and-harbor-seals-phoca-vitulina
#15
Amber J de Vere
The effects of visitor presence on zoo and aquarium animals have become increasingly well studied, using measures such as behavioral responses and exhibit usage. Many taxa remain underrepresented in this literature; this is the case for marine mammals, despite widespread public concern for their welfare in managed care settings. The current study therefore used behavioral activity budgets and exhibit usage to assess the responses of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) to visitors at the Seal Cove exhibit at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom, Vallejo CA...
April 19, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669621/effect-of-environmental-enrichment-on-aggression-in-balb-cj-and-balb-cbyj-mice-monitored-by-using-an-automated-system
#16
Jareca M Giles, Julia W Whitaker, Sheryl S Moy, Craig A Fletcher
Aggression among mice remains a common undesirable problem in laboratory settings, and animal welfare and scientific outcomes may become compromised depending on the severity of aggression. This study evaluated the effect of cage enrichment comprising a bilevel, mounted 'mezzanine' compared with a cotton square or shelter on intracage male aggression over a 6-wk period. Our first study involved home-cage behavioral challenges to male mice from a high aggression substrain (BALB/cJ) and low-aggression substrain (BALB/cByJ)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669071/big-data-analytics-and-precision-animal-agriculture-symposium-data-to-decisions
#17
B J White, D E Amrine, R L Larson
Big data are frequently used in many facets of business and agronomy to enhance knowledge needed to improve operational decisions. Livestock operations collect data of sufficient quantity to perform predictive analytics. Predictive analytics can be defined as a methodology and suite of data evaluation techniques to generate a prediction for specific target outcomes. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the process of using big data and the predictive analytic framework to create tools to drive decisions in livestock production, health, and welfare...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667280/grass-greenness-flush-can-influence-breeding-phenology-and-fertility-in-equatorial-thoroughbred-mares-in-the-absence-of-photoperiod-variation
#18
Juan Carranza, Washington A Yoong, Belén Caño Vergara, Abel Briones, Concha Mateos
Reproductive phenology is an important trait subjected to natural selection. Current horses in America belong to the Palearctic original populations after being introduced by European colonizers. Photoperiod variation is the main environmental factor for the adjustment of reproductive timing in horses, but is absent in equatorial areas. Here we hypothesize that seasonality of green-grass availability may influence breeding phenology in equatorial regions. We used data of 929 services to mares from 2006 to 2011 in a thoroughbred equine exploitation in Ecuador that experienced strong grass seasonality...
April 17, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662884/transmission-of-helminths-between-species-of-ruminants-in-austria-appears-more-likely-to-occur-than-generally-assumed
#19
Jakob Winter, Steffen Rehbein, Anja Joachim
Helminth infections of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs can lead to devastating economical losses to the pastoral based animal production. Farm animals can suffer from malnutrition, tissue damage, and blood loss resulting in impaired production traits and reproduction parameters. In Austria, pastures grazed by sheep, goats, and cattle overlap with the habitats of several species of wild cervids (roe deer, red deer, sika deer, and fallow deer) and bovids (mouflon, chamois, and ibex), and transmission of parasites between different ruminant species seems likely...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662017/use-of-unpalatable-forages-by-ruminants-the-influence-of-experience-with-the-biophysical-and-social-environment
#20
REVIEW
Roberto A Distel, Juan J Villalba
Unpalatable forage resources (low nutrient density, potentially toxic metabolites) are widespread and represent a challenge for ruminant nutrition, health, and welfare. Our objective was to synthesize the role of biophysical and social experience on the use of unpalatable forages by ruminants, and highlight derived behavioural solutions for the well-being of soils, plants, and animals. Environmental experiences early in life modulate gene expression and promote learning, which alters morpho-physiological and psychological mechanisms that modify behavioural responses and change food and habitat selection...
April 14, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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