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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525653/predicted-philogeny-secondary-conformational-structure-and-epitope-antigenicity-of-immunological-sequences-in-poultry
#1
L J Lara, A P Peconick, É J Fassani, A M P Júnior, P R B Chalfun, D L Raymundo, T A Barçante, J M de P Barçante
Poultry production is faced with different types of stresses that are responsible for issues of animal welfare as well as for economic losses. Moreover, the immunity decreases when animals are stressed. In silico analyses are important in reducing the cost and in increasing the accuracy of scientific results. A bioinformatics tool was used to perform ontology studies on 15 different immunological sequences of poultry. The mRNA structures and sequences with maximum antigenic residues were also predicted. No homology was found between the sequences of poultry and mammals...
May 18, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520773/development-of-the-highly-sensitive-dog-questionnaire-to-evaluate-the-personality-dimension-sensory-processing-sensitivity-in-dogs
#2
Maya Braem, Lucy Asher, Sibylle Furrer, Isabel Lechner, Hanno Würbel, Luca Melotti
In humans, the personality dimension 'sensory processing sensitivity (SPS)', also referred to as "high sensitivity", involves deeper processing of sensory information, which can be associated with physiological and behavioral overarousal. However, it has not been studied up to now whether this dimension also exists in other species. SPS can influence how people perceive the environment and how this affects them, thus a similar dimension in animals would be highly relevant with respect to animal welfare. We therefore explored whether SPS translates to dogs, one of the primary model species in personality research...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518089/laparoscopic-technique-for-serial-collection-of-liver-and-mesenteric-lymph-nodes-in-macaques
#3
Alexander S Zevin, Cassie Moats, Drew May, Solomon Wangari, Charlene Miller, Joel Ahrens, Naoto Iwayama, Megan Brown, Debbie Bratt, Nichole R Klatt, Jeremy Smedley
The mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the liver are exposed to microbes and microbial products from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making them immunologically unique. The GI tract and associated MLN are sites of early viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the MLN are likely important reservoir sites that harbor latently-infected cells even after prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART). The liver has been shown to play a significant role in immune responses to lentiviruses and appears to play a significant role in clearance of virus from circulation...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517942/cognitive-bias-and-paw-preference-in-the-domestic-dog-canis-familiaris
#4
Deborah L Wells, Peter G Hepper, Adam D S Milligan, Shanis Barnard
Limb use, an indicator of hemispheric functioning, may be a useful predictor of cognitive bias and hence vulnerability to welfare risk. The relationship between cognitive bias and motor asymmetry, however, has been subject to little investigation. This study explored the association between motor asymmetry and cognitive bias in the domestic dog, a species that displays lateral bias in the form of paw preferences and exhibits positive and negative affective states. Thirty pet dogs had their paw preferences assessed using the Kong ball test...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515151/assessing-the-satisfaction-and-burden-within-an-academic-animal-care-and-use-program
#5
John N Norton, Randall P Reynolds, Cliburn Chan, Raphael H Valdivia, Herman F Staats
Although animal research requires adherence to various regulations and standards, the manner in which compliance is maintained and the degree of additional constraints varies between institutions. Regulatory burden, particularly if institutionally imposed, has become a concern for institutions as increased regulatory expectations result in decreased resources available for research efforts. Faculty, research staff, and support staff engaged in animal research were surveyed to determine what Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) processes were considered burdensome, the perceived value of some suggested modifications, and satisfaction with the IACUC Administrative Office and the animal resource unit...
May 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513850/small-prey-species-behaviour-and-welfare-implications-for-veterinary-professionals
#6
REVIEW
E Anne McBride
People have obligations to ensure the welfare of animals under their care. Offences under the UK Animal Welfare Act are acts, or failures of action, causing unnecessary suffering. Veterinary professionals need to be able to provide current, scientifically based prophylactic advice, and respect the limits of their expertise. The ethical concept of a life worth living and the Five Freedoms are core to welfare. Behaviour is a central component, both influencing and influenced by physical health. Owners frequently misunderstand the behaviour of small prey mammals and how to meet their needs...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512334/three-dimensional-scoring-of-zebrafish-behavior-unveils-biological-phenomena-hidden-by-two-dimensional-analyses
#7
Simone Macrì, Daniele Neri, Tommaso Ruberto, Violet Mwaffo, Sachit Butail, Maurizio Porfiri
The study of zebrafish behavior represents a cornerstone upon which basic researchers promise to advance knowledge in life sciences. Although zebrafish swim in a three-dimensional (3D) space, their behavior in the lab is almost exclusively scored in two dimensions, whereby zebrafish are recorded using a single camera providing 2D videos. Whether this dimensional reduction preserves the reliability of data has not been addressed. Here we show that, compared to a 3D observation, 2D data are flawed by over-reporting and under-reporting of locomotory differences...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509685/modelling-acute-traumatic-haemorrhagic-shock-injury-challenges-and-guidelines-for-preclinical-studies
#8
Jordi L Tremoleda, Sarah A Watts, Penny S Reynolds, Christoph Thiemermann, Karim Brohi
Trauma is responsible for a large proportion of the world's burden of disease, and is by far the biggest killer of young adults. Haemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable death and its effects are directly correlated with the incidence multi-organ failure in survivors. Trauma research is challenging due to patient heterogeneity, limited randomised controlled trials, and in vitro studies that fail to mimic the systemic injury response. Preclinical research remains essential for mechanistic and therapeutic discovery...
May 15, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508690/gene-polymorphisms-associated-with-temperament
#9
Xiaoyan Qiu, Graeme B Martin, Dominique Blache
When individuals are exposed to stressful environmental challenges, the response varies widely in one or more of three components: psychology, behavior and physiology. This variability among individuals can be defined as temperament. In recent years, an increasing large body of evidence suggests that the dimensions of temperament, as well as personality, psychological disorders and behavioral traits, are influenced by genetic factors, and much of the variation appears to involve variation in genes or gene polymorphisms in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the behavior-controlling neurotransmitter networks...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508489/prediction-of-whole-genome-risk-for-selection-and-management-of-hyperketonemia-in-holstein-dairy-cattle
#10
K A Weigel, R S Pralle, H Adams, K Cho, C Do, H M White
Hyperketonemia (HYK), a common early postpartum health disorder characterized by elevated blood concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), affects millions of dairy cows worldwide and leads to significant economic losses and animal welfare concerns. In this study, blood concentrations of BHB were assessed for 1,453 Holstein cows using electronic handheld meters at four time points between 5 and 18 days postpartum. Incidence rates of subclinical (1.2 ≤ maximum BHB ≤ 2.9 mmol/L) and clinical ketosis (maximum BHB ≥ 3...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507338/impact-of-trace-minerals-on-wound-healing-of-footpad-dermatitis-in-broilers
#11
Juxing Chen, Guillermo Tellez, Jeffery Escobar, Mercedes Vazquez-Anon
Footpad dermatitis (FPD) is used in the poultry industry as an animal welfare criterion to determine stocking density. Trace minerals (TM) play a role in skin integrity and wound healing. This study evaluated the impact of TM on FPD and consisted of 3 treatments supplemented with 0 (NTM), low (LTM) and high (HTM) TM levels in the same basal diet. On d21, 71% birds in all treatments developed mild FPD and pens were top-dressed with dry litter to promote FPD healing. Compared to NTM, LTM reduced area under the curve (AUC) of FPD lesion scores during d21-42, HTM reduced the AUC of FPD lesion scores during d7-21 and d21-42...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505550/histological-differences-in-the-adrenal-glands-and-cortisol-levels-of-suckling-dairy-goat-kids-in-enriched-and-non-enriched-environments
#12
A P Rosas-Trigueros, I E Candanosa-Aranda, A E Ducoing-Watty, J Gutiérrez-Molotla, F Galindo, A M Sisto-Burt
Intensive production systems can negatively affect the welfare of goats. Environmental enrichment techniques can be used to reduce stress. The aim of this study was analyze the effect of environmental enrichment on the histological characteristics of adrenal glands, cortisol levels and weekly weight gain of suckling Alpine French male kids under confinement. A randomised design was used to test the effect of the treatment. The animals (n=20) were randomly assigned to two treatments (enriched and non-enriched) with two replicates each...
May 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505141/a-decade-of-progress-toward-ending-the-intensive-confinement-of-farm-animals-in-the-united-states
#13
Sara Shields, Paul Shapiro, Andrew Rowan
In this paper, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) farm animal protection work over the preceding decade is described from the perspective of the organization. Prior to 2002, there were few legal protections for animals on the farm, and in 2005, a new campaign at the HSUS began to advance state ballot initiatives throughout the country, with a decisive advancement in California (Proposition 2) that paved the way for further progress. Combining legislative work with undercover farm and slaughterhouse investigations, litigation and corporate engagement, the HSUS and fellow animal protection organizations have made substantial progress in transitioning the veal, pork and egg industries away from intensive confinement systems that keep the animals in cages and crates...
May 15, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505095/behavioural-profiles-of-brown-and-sloth-bears-in-captivity
#14
Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino, Yiannis Christodoulides, Giulio Curone, Paul Pearce-Kelly, Massimo Faustini, Mariangela Albertini, Richard Preziosi, Silvia Michela Mazzola
Three brown bear (Ursusarctosarctos) individuals and two sloth bear (Melursusursinusinornatus) individuals were observed in captivity to produce behavioural profiles for each individual. Data collected through behavioural observations were used to produce activity budgets, and to identify space usage and certain aspects of social behavior. Behaviour monitoring allowed the researchers to evaluate the welfare of the animals by identifying the occurrence of stereotypic behaviours, which are sometimes associated with stress...
May 13, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502554/the-9-to-5-rodent-time-for-change-scientific-and-welfare-implications-of-circadian-and-light-effects-on-laboratory-mice-and-rats
#15
Penny Hawkins, Huw D R Golledge
Rodents, particularly rats and mice, are the most commonly used laboratory animals and are extensively used in neuroscience research, including as translational models for human disorders. It is common practice to carry out scientific procedures on rats and mice during the daytime, which is the inactive period for these nocturnal species. However, there is increasing evidence for circadian and light-induced effects on rodent physiology and behaviour which may affect the validity of results obtained from mice and rats in neuroscience studies...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502553/a-shortened-protocol-for-assessing-cognitive-bias-in-rats
#16
Nichola M Brydges, Lynsey Hall
BACKGROUND: Reliable measurement of affective state in animals is a significant goal of animal welfare. Such measurements would also improve the validity of pre-clinical mental health research which relies on animal models. However, at present, affective states in animals are inaccessible to direct measurement. In humans, changes in cognitive processing can give reliable indications of emotional state. Therefore, similar techniques are increasingly being used to gain proxy measures of affective states in animals...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500374/exploring-the-genetics-of-feed-efficiency-and-feeding-behaviour-traits-in-a-pig-line-highly-selected-for-performance-characteristics
#17
Henry Reyer, Mahmoud Shirali, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Eduard Murani, Patrick F Varley, Just Jensen, Klaus Wimmers
The consideration of feed efficiency traits is highly relevant in animal breeding due to economic and ecologic impacts of the efficient usage and utilization of feed resources. In pigs, corresponding observations are recorded using automatic feeding stations and serve as one of the main criteria in most pig selection programmes. Simultaneously, feeding stations also generate feeding behaviour data which represent a nearly unused resource and provide a valuable proxy measure of health status, animal welfare, and management practices...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500083/hepatic-thyroid-signaling-of-heat-stressed-late-pregnant-and-early-lactating-cows
#18
Joachim Weitzel, Thorsten Viergutz, Dirk Albrecht, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Marion Schmicke, Armin Tuchscherer, Franziska Koch, Björn Kuhla
During the transition between late gestation and early lactation dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress due to the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus and the mammary gland. Additional thermal stress as occurring with rising temperatures during the ongoing climate change has further adverse implications on energy intake, metabolism and welfare. The thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated cellular signaling has a pivotal role in regulation of body temperature, energy intake and metabolic adaptation to heat...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499644/simple-and-rapid-lc-ms-method-for-the-determination-of-circulating-albumin-microheterogeneity-in-veal-calves-exposed-to-heat-stress
#19
Maurizio Baldassarre, Marina Naldi, Marco Domenicali, Sabrina Volo, Marco Pietra, Francesco Dondi, Paolo Caraceni, Angelo Peli
Heat stress has a major impact on veal calves welfare and productivity. Prolonged exposure to warm temperature is associated with several alterations of physiologic processes and increased systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is the most abundant plasma protein and, besides the regulation of osmotic pressure, carries several additional functions, including antioxidant, immunomodulatory, binding and transport activities. Such non-oncotic properties are closely related to structural integrity of the circulating molecule and may be compromised in stressful microenvironments as it occurs in heat stressed animals...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494932/comparison-of-growth-performance-and-immune-parameters-of-three-commercial-chicken-lines-used-in-organic-production
#20
R B Kjærup, H R Juul-Madsen, L R Norup, P Sørensen, T S Dalgaard
Owing to the higher demands for avoiding medication and antibiotics, health status of the production animals plays an important role in the poultry industry, especially in organic poultry systems. Immunity plays a major role in keeping the host free from disease, and it is evident that the host's genetic make-up influences immunity and disease resistance/susceptibility in chickens. Previously, breeding strategies aimed at selection for resistance against specific diseases with the risk of creating less disease resistance against other pathogens...
May 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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