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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935007/an-international-survey-of-approaches-to-chair-restraint-of-nonhuman-primates
#1
Jennifer L McMillan, Mollie A Bloomsmith, Mark J Prescott
Specifically designed restraint chairs are the preferred method of restraint for research studies that require NHP to sit in place for sustained periods of time. In light of increasing emphasis on refinement of restraint to improve animal wellbeing, it is important to have a better understanding of this potentially stressful procedure. Although chair restraint is used internationally, very little published information is available on this subject. We developed a survey to obtain an overview of equipment, procedures, and plans for improvement regarding chair restraint...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932772/diabetes-alters-vascular-mechanotransduction-data-pressure-induced-regulation-of-nf-kapa-b-p65-and-translational-associated-signaling-in-the-rat-inferior-vena-cava
#2
Kevin M Rice, Nandini D P K Manne, Ravikumar Arvapalli, Gautam K Ginjupalli, Eric R Blough
Diabetic patients have a high rate of vein graft failure due to attrition or vessel occlusion that cause recurrent ischemic events or vein graft. Veins grafted into a high-pressure arterial environment must undergo vascular remodeling to better handle the altered hemodynamics and intravascular increased pressure. Multiple cellular and molecular events are purported to be associated with vascular remodeling of veins. Understanding the effect diabetes has on vascular mechano-transductive response is critical to decreasing graft failure rates...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926583/influence-of-attitudes-and-behavior-of-milkers-on-the-hygienic-and-sanitary-quality-of-milk
#3
Oscar David Múnera-Bedoya, Laerte D Cassoli, Paulo F Machado, Mario Fernando Cerón-Muñoz
Recognizing how human behaviors affect the milk process can be useful to understand variations in hygienic and sanitary parameters in bulk tank milk. Furthermore, this knowledge could be used to design management programs that guarantee milk quality, favoring the optimization of such processes. Forty-six milkers from the same number of dairy farms in Antioquia province (Colombia) were interviewed to establish the main factors associated to milk quality. Technical knowledge, motivations, and behavior of the personnel and its effect on hygienic and sanitary quality of milk were evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926198/serum-free-human-msc-medium-supports-consistency-in-human-but-not-in-equine-adipose-derived-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-culture
#4
Susanna Schubert, Walter Brehm, Aline Hillmann, Janina Burk
For clinical applications of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), serum-free culture is preferable to standardize cell products and prevent contamination with pathogens. In contrast to human MSCs, knowledge on serum-free culture of large animal MSCs is limited, despite its relevance for preclinical studies and development of veterinary cellular therapeutics. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of a commercially available serum-free human MSC medium for culturing equine adipose-derived MSCs in comparison with human adipose MSCs...
September 19, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922617/training-the-next-generation-of-biobankers-a-two-year-master-s-course-in-the-management-of-biobanks
#5
Emmanuelle Gormally, Isabelle Hardy, Elodie Caboux, Jeanne-Hélène di Donato, Pierre Hainaut, Paul Hofman
The growing complexity of biobanking requires dedicated professional staff who are trained in multiple aspects of the biobanking process, including technical, managerial, regulatory, and ethical aspects, and who have a good understanding of the challenges of biospecimen research, but also of the challenges related to the sustainability of future biobanks. Up to the present, biobanking staff have been trained in an ad-hoc manner, usually through specific short duration courses, for example, summer schools. In this article, we describe the development/establishment of a systematic 2-year training program at the Master level intended for students with a background in life sciences and providing them with a professional qualification as a "Biobank Manager...
September 18, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917324/targeted-anthelmintic-treatment-of-parasitic-gastroenteritis-in-first-grazing-season-dairy-calves-using-daily-live-weight-gain-as-an-indicator
#6
A Jackson, K A Ellis, J McGoldrick, N N Jonsson, M J Stear, A B Forbes
Control of parasitic gastroenteritis in cattle is typically based on group treatments with anthelmintics, complemented by grazing management, where feasible. However, the almost inevitable evolution of resistance in parasitic nematodes to anthelmintics over time necessitates a reappraisal of their use in order to reduce selection pressure. One such approach is targeted selective treatment (TST), in which only individual animals that will most benefit are treated, rather than whole groups of at-risk cattle. This study was designed to assess the feasibility of implementing TST on three commercial farms, two of which were organic...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915538/long-term-t3-and-t4-treatment-as-an-alternative-to-aerobic-exercise-training-in-improving-cardiac-function-post-myocardial-infarction
#7
Rayane Brinck Teixeira, Alexsandra Zimmer, Alexandre Luz de Castro, Bruna Gazzi de Lima-Seolin, Patrick Türck, Rafaela Siqueira, Adriane Belló-Klein, Pawan K Singal, Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo
Here we aimed to compare the beneficial effects of T3 and T4 hormone treatment to those provided by aerobic exercise training in Wistar rats post-myocardial infarction (MI). Rats in one group were SHAM-operated and in the other group were subjected to MI surgery. One week after surgery, the MI group animals either received T3 and T4 hormones by gavage or underwent a low intensity aerobic exercise training protocol on a treadmill, and both treatments lasted until 10 weeks after MI. Untreated SHAM-operated and MI groups were also followed for the same duration...
September 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911882/aromatase-inhibitors-a-new-approach-for-controlling-ovarian-function-in-cattle
#8
M J Yapura, E M Zwiefelhofer, R A Pierson, G P Adams
Numerous treatments and protocols have been used to control the reproductive cycle in cattle, with varying effectiveness and many involving the administration of steroid hormones. Steroid hormones, such as estradiol, are perceived as having a negative impact on consumer health. This internationally shared opinion has led to a ban on the use of steroid hormones in food producing animals in many countries (i.e., European Union, New Zealand, and Australia). Letrozole, a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor, inactivates the aromatase enzyme responsible for the synthesis of estrogens by reversibly binding to the "heme" group of the P450 subunit...
September 11, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911637/safety-of-frozen-liver-for-human-consumption
#9
Ghada A K Kirrella, Azza M M Deeb, Reda Mohamed Ibrahim Abdallah
The objective of this study was to ensure and evaluate the safety of imported frozen beef liver traded in supermarkets of Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, through detection of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidies, Escherichia coli O157:H7, antibiotic residues, and aflatoxin B1 residue. Fifty samples of imported frozen liver were randomly collected from different shops at Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate for isolation of S. typhimurium, S. enteritidies, and E. coli O157:H7. The results revealed that for both microorganisms 4% of the examined samples presumed to contain Salmonella and E...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905711/automated-tracking-of-motion-and-body-weight-for-objective-monitoring-of-rats-in-colony-housing
#10
Christian Brenneis, Andreas Westhof, Jeannine Holschbach, Martin Michaelis, Hans Guehring, Kerstin Kleinschmidt-Doerr
Living together in large social communities within an enriched environment stimulates self-motivated activity in rats. We developed a modular housing system in which a single unit can accommodate as many as 48 rats and contains multiple functional areas. This rat colony cage further allowed us to remotely measure body weight and to continuously measure movement, including jumping and stair walking between areas. Compared with pair-housed, age-, strain-, and weight-matched rats in conventional cages, the colony-housed rats exhibited higher body mass indices, had more exploratory behavior, and were more cooperative during handling...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904261/chemical-immobilization-of-free-ranging-and-captive-sunda-clouded-leopards-neofelis-diardi-with-two-anesthetic-protocols-medetomidine-ketamine-and-tiletamine-zolazepam
#11
Fernando Nájera, Andrew J Hearn, Joanna Ross, Diana A Ramírez Saldivar, Meaghan N Evans, Sergio Guerrero-Sánchez, Senthilvel K S S Nathan, Ignacio de Gaspar Simón, David W Macdonald, Benoit Goossens, Luis Revuelta Rueda
There is currently no available information regarding the veterinary management of Sunda clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi), either in captivity or in the wild. In this study, 12 Sunda clouded leopards were anesthetized between January 2008 and February 2014 for medical exams, and/or GPS-collaring. Seven wild-caught individuals were kept in captivity and 5 free-ranging animals were captured by cage traps. Two anesthesia combinations were used: medetomidine-ketamine (M-K) or tiletamine-zolazepam (T-Z). Atipamezole (0...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891701/sedative-effects-of-intranasal-midazolam-administration-in-wild-caught-blue-fronted-amazon-amazona-aestiva-and-orange-winged-amazon-amazona-amazonica-parrots
#12
Débora P H Schaffer, Nayone L L C de Araújo, Ana Cláudia S Raposo, Emanoel F Martins Filho, João Victor R Vieira, Arianne P Oriá
Safe and effective sedation protocols are important for chemical restraint of birds in clinical and diagnostic procedures, such as clinical evaluations, radiographic positioning, and blood collection. These protocols may reduce stress and ease the management of wild-caught birds, which are susceptible to injury or death when exposed to stressful situations. We compare the sedative effect of intranasal midazolam in wild-caught blue-fronted (Amazona aestiva) and orange-winged (Amazona amazonica) Amazon parrots...
September 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888646/disparity-in-the-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-between-healthy-cattle-on-feed-at-entry-processing-and-with-respiratory-disease
#13
Mohamed Zeineldin, James Lowe, Maria de Godoy, Nidia Maradiaga, Chelsey Ramirez, Mohamed Ghanem, Yassein Abd El-Raof, Brian Aldridge
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most serious causes of health and economic problems in the beef production industry, especially in recently weaned, intensely raised and newly transported feedlot cattle. While the importance of upper airway structure and function in the susceptibility of the lower respiratory tract to colonization with potential pathogens is well established, the role of the mucosal microbiota in respirtatory health is less well defined. The objective of this study was to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota of feedlot cattle at entry into a commercial feedlot, during initial management processing, and to compare the dynamics of change in these microbial communities between clinically healthy calves and those that develop BRD within the first month after entry...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885873/bovine-reproductive-palpation-training-does-the-cow-make-a-difference
#14
Hilari M French, John J Dascanio, Gregory E Gilbert, James Q Robinson
Gaining experience and dexterity for trans-rectal cattle palpation requires substantial training. Simulation allows students to perform palpation without risks and to obtain feedback, but many believe live cattle palpation is essential. Limited research exists on the proper training method for live animal trans-rectal palpation. This study compared student improvement in laboratory palpation skills when assigned to the same cows versus choosing a cow at random. The hypothesis for the study was that students assigned the same cow, as compared to students choosing a cow at random, would be more accurate at palpation, would learn what structures are present on the ovaries and what size the reproductive tract measures, and would be able to follow the cyclicity of the cow...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881895/balloon-based-esophageal-cryoablation-with-a-novel-focal-ablation-device-dose-finding-and-safety-in-porcine-and-human-models
#15
D W Schölvinck, S Friedland, G Triadafilopoulos, T Valli, M I van Berge Henegouwen, J J G H M Bergman, Bas L A M Weusten
The new Cryoballoon Focal Ablation System (CbFAS), a through-the-scope catheter with battery-powered handle that delivers cryogenic fluid into an inflated balloon, differs from current cryotherapy methods used for treatment of Barrett's epithelium. In this dose-finding study, short- and long-term histopathological effects and safety of the CbFAS were evaluated. Cryoablations with (supra)therapeutic durations (4-24 seconds) were performed in pigs that survived for 12 or 48 hours or 4 or 28 days. Next, cryoablations (durations based on animal data) were performed in normal mucosa of esophageal cancer patients scheduled to undergo esophagectomy...
November 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879604/experiments-for-the-development-of-a-steerable-microcatheter
#16
Yoshitaka Inaba, Yasuaki Arai, Miyuki Sone, Takeshi Aramaki, Keigo Osuga, Hayao Tanaka, Kenichi Kanemasa
PURPOSE: Sumitomo Bakelite has developed a steerable microcatheter with a mechanism on the handle for changing the direction of the catheter tip. Experiments were conducted in an animal model to evaluate the practicality of the catheter with the goal of introduction into clinical use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The steerable microcatheter has the following specifications: external diameter 2.4F/2.9F (distal/proximal portion); internal diameter 0.021 inches; effective length 125 cm; and it is fitted with a dial on the proximal portion for moving the tip...
September 6, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870976/caregiver-burden-in-owners-of-a-sick-companion-animal-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#17
Mary Beth Spitznagel, Dana M Jacobson, Melanie D Cox, Mark D Carlson
Much recent work has focused on occupational stress in veterinary medicine, although little is known about the possible contribution of client-based factors. Clients providing care for a companion animal with protracted illness are likely to experience 'caregiver burden' and reduced psychosocial functioning, which may ultimately lead to increased veterinarian stress. This cross-sectional observational study assessed caregiver burden and psychosocial function in 238 owners of a dog or cat, comparing owners of an animal with chronic or terminal diseases (n=119) with healthy controls blindly matched for owner age/sex and animal species (n=119)...
September 4, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866006/the-natural-selection-of-metabolism-and-mass-selects-allometric-transitions-from-prokaryotes-to-mammals
#18
Lars Witting
The exponents of inter-specific allometries for several life history (metabolism, lifespan, reproductive rate, survival) and ecological (population density, home range) traits may evolve from the spatial dimensionality (d) of the intra-specific interactive competition that selects net assimilated energy into mass, with 1∕4 exponents being the two-dimensional (2D) case of the more general 1∕2d (Witting, 1995). While the exponents for mass-specific metabolism cluster around the predicted -1/4 and -1/6 in terrestrial and pelagic vertebrates, the allometries of mobile organisms are more diverse than the prediction...
September 1, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861850/novel-simulator-for-robotic-surgery
#19
Francisco Schlottmann, Marco G Patti
Surgical simulation avoids practicing skills in patients, allowing trainees to learn in a safe, controlled, and standardized environment. Current robotic surgical simulators available include virtual reality simulators, human cadavers, and live animals. The use of cadavers has the highest possible fidelity available to practice entire operations. Nevertheless, their cost, availability, tissue compliance, and infection risk outweigh the advantages of cadaver models. Drawbacks of using live animals include anatomical differences with humans, high costs due to their housing and handling requirements, and ethical concerns...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Robotic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861607/glomerular-and-tubular-effects-of-nitric-oxide-no-are-regulated-by-angiotensin-ii-ang-ii-in-an-age-dependent-manner-through-activation-of-both-angiotensin-receptors-at1rs-and-at2rs-in-conscious-lambs
#20
Angela E Vinturache, Francine G Smith
Renin-angiotensin (RAS) and nitric oxide (NO) systems and the balance and interaction between them are considered of primary importance in maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. It has been suggested that the effects of NO may be modulated at least in part by the angiotensin (Ang) II, yet the roles of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) are not well understood. Even though both Ang II and NO are elevated at birth and during the newborn period, their contribution to the adaptation of the newborn to life after birth as well as their physiological roles during development are poorly understood...
August 31, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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