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Animal handling

Frederic Strobl, Anita Anderl, Ernst Hk Stelzer
Diploid transgenic organisms are either hemi- or homozygous. Genetic assays are, therefore, required to identify the genotype. Our AGameOfClones vector concept uses two clearly distinguishable transformation markers embedded in interweaved, but incompatible Lox site pairs. Cre-mediated recombination leads to hemizygous individuals that carry only one marker. In the following generation, heterozygous descendants are identified by the presence of both markers and produce homozygous progeny that are selected by the lack of one marker...
March 15, 2018: ELife
Pamela Oetting-Neumann, Karl Rohn, Martina Hoedemaker
OBJECTIVE: Determination of the frequency of subclinical hypocalcaemia, increased lipomobilisation and subclinical ketosis as problems in dairy herds and identification of possible risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information was obtained from 51 dairy farms on husbandry, feeding, management of the cows and heifers, animal health and prophylactic treatments using a questionnaire. Blood samples from 20% of the cows and 30% of the heifers of each farm (= herd sample) were collected in the week ante partum (a...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Gottfried Martin, David Conrad, Bertan Cakir, Günther Schlunck, Hansjürgen T Agostini
PURPOSE: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) has been investigated in several laser-induced animal models using pigs, rabbits and rats. However, laser-induced RVO has been rarely reported in mice, despite the impressive number of available mutants, ease of handling and cost effectiveness. The aim of this study was to further assess the feasibility of a RVO mouse model for gene expression analysis and its possible use to investigate effects of hypoxia. METHODS: C57Bl/6J mice were injected with eosin Y for photo-sensitization...
2018: PloS One
Jill K Badin, Ayeeshik Kole, Benjamin Stivers, Victor Progar, Anisha Pareddy, Mouhamad Alloosh, Michael Sturek
BACKGROUND: There is a preponderance of evidence implicating diabetes with increased coronary artery disease (CAD) and calcification (CAC) in human patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the effect of diabetes on CAD severity in animal models remains controversial. We investigated whether diabetes exacerbates CAD/CAC and intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) dysregulation in the clinically relevant Ossabaw miniature swine model of MetS. METHODS: Sixteen swine, eight with alloxan-induced diabetes, were fed a hypercaloric, atherogenic diet for 6 months...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Nili Avni-Magen, David Eshar, Michael Friedman, David Kirmayer, Lital Letschert, Irith Gati, Elizabeth Kaufman, Avital Paz, Eran Lavy
Myiasis is a major disease condition in human and veterinary medicine. Domestic, free-ranging, and zoo-housed animals can be severely affected by myiasis. Depending on case severity, multiple treatment episodes may be indicated and can lead to recurrent capturing, handling stress, and anesthetics, all of which increase the risk of adverse responses (including death) individually and also in the herd. As an insecticide, ivermectin is often used for larval control. A total of 28 individual myiasis cases were retrospectively evaluated, out of which 11 cases were also treated using an ivermectin sustained-release varnish (SRV)...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
F Ehrensperger, L Riederer, A Friedl
A female jogger was attacked by a common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and was scratched lightly at the back of the head. One week later she was taken ill with high fever and headache which was later diagnosed as ulcero-glandular tularemia in regional lymph nodes, caused by Francisella tularensis. Recovery was only achieved after several weeks of systemic antibiotic treatment (Gentamicin/ Ciprofloxacine). Tularemia is a well known zoonotic disease, called "rabbit fever", mainly affecting rabbits and hares, but also small rodents...
March 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Annabelle de St Maurice, Luke Nyakarahuka, Lawrence Purpura, Elizabeth Ervin, Alex Tumusiime, Stephen Balinandi, Jackson Kyondo, Sophia Mulei, Patrick Tusiime, Craig Manning, Pierre E Rollin, Barbara Knust, Trevor Shoemaker
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF) is a zoonotic virus in the Phenuiviridae family. RVF outbreaks can cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. Following the diagnosis of two RVF cases in March 2016 in southern Kabale district, Uganda, we conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) survey to identify knowledge gaps and at-risk behaviors related to RVF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A multidisciplinary team interviewed 657 community members, including abattoir workers, in and around Kabale District, Uganda...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Denis Svechkarev, Marat R Sadykov, Kenneth W Bayles, Aaron M Mohs
Rapid and reliable identification of pathogenic microorganisms is of great importance for human and animal health. Most conventional approaches are time-consuming and require expensive reagents, sophisticated equipment, trained personnel, and special storage and handling conditions. Sensor arrays based on small molecules offer a chemically stable and cost-effective alternative. Here we present a ratiometric fluorescent sensor array based on the derivatives of 2-(4'-N,N-dimthylamino)-3-hydroxyflavone, and investigate its ability to provide a dual-channel ratiometric response...
March 5, 2018: ACS Sensors
Sarah E Orr, Lucy Joshee, Jennifer Barkin, Christy C Bridges
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly relevant clinical condition that is characterized by the permanent loss of functional nephrons. Individuals with CKD may exhibit impaired renal clearance, which may alter corporal handling of metabolites and xenobiotics. Methylmercury (MeHg) is an important environmental toxicant to which humans are exposed to on a regular basis. Given the prevalence of CKD and ubiquitous presence of MeHg in the environment, it is important to understand how mercuric ions are handled in patients with CKD...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
John Mills, Kylie Marree Horváth, Angela Denise Reynolds, Gale Brightwell
AIMS: To investigate the transmission route of Carnobacterium from the farm environment to the meat-manufacturing plant and potential risk for meat spoilage. METHODS AND RESULTS: A sheep farm level survey of Carnobacterium, consisting of 150 environmental and animal (no 100) associated samples, was carried out on two farms. A further 20 lamb carcass samples were taken from an abattoir servicing one of the farms. The majority of C. maltaromaticum isolates were associated with fleece followed by hard sheep contact surfaces, rectal-anal-mucosal swabs and carcasses...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Aimo Kannt, Sridharan Rajagopal, Sanjay Venkatachalapathi Kadnur, Juluri Suresh, Ravi Kanth Bhamidipati, Srinivasan Swaminathan, Mahanandeesha Siddappa Hallur, Rajendra Kristam, Ralf Elvert, Jörg Czech, Anja Pfenninger, Christine Rudolph, Herman Schreuder, Devaraj Venkatapura Chandrasekar, Vishal Subhash Mane, Swarnakumari Birudukota, Shama Shaik, Bharat Ravindra Zope, Raghunadha Reddy Burri, Niranjan Naranapura Anand, Manish Kumar Thakur, Manvi Singh, Reejuana Parveen, Saravanan Kandan, Ramesh Mullangi, Takeshi Yura, Ramachandraiah Gosu, Sven Ruf, Saravanakumar Dhakshinamoorthy
Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from the co-factor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) onto the substrate, nicotinamide (NA) to form 1-methyl-nicotinamide (MNA). Higher NNMT expression and MNA concentrations have been associated with obesity and type-2 diabetes. Here we report a small molecule analog of NA, JBSNF-000088, that inhibits NNMT activity, reduces MNA levels and drives insulin sensitization, glucose modulation and body weight reduction in animal models of metabolic disease...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
I Trofimova, T W Robbins, W H Sulis, J Uher
This Editorial highlights a unique focus of this theme issue on the biological perspectives in deriving psychological taxonomies coming from neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, genetics, psychiatry, developmental and comparative psychology-as contrasted to more common discussions of socio-cultural concepts (personality) and methods (lexical approach). It points out the importance of the distinction between temperament and personality for studies in human and animal differential psychophysiology, psychiatry and psycho-pharmacology, sport and animal practices during the past century...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Masato Ohtsuka, Masahiro Sato, Hiromi Miura, Shuji Takabayashi, Makoto Matsuyama, Takayuki Koyano, Naomi Arifin, Shingo Nakamura, Kenta Wada, Channabasavaiah B Gurumurthy
We present a robust method called improved-Genome editing via Oviductal Nucleic Acids Delivery (i-GONAD) that delivers CRISPR ribonucleoproteins to E0.7 embryos via in situ electroporation. The method generates mouse models containing single-base changes, kilobase-sized deletions, and knock-ins. The efficiency of i-GONAD is comparable to that of traditional microinjection methods, which rely on ex vivo handling of zygotes and require recipient animals for embryo transfer. In contrast, i-GONAD avoids these technically difficult steps, and it can be performed at any laboratory with simple equipment and technical expertise...
February 26, 2018: Genome Biology
Faith N Lambert, Jason R Treberg, W Gary Anderson, Catherine Brandt, Andrew N Evans
Although secondary stress physiology of elasmobranchs is fairly well studied, gaps remain in our understanding of species differences, including stress recovery. We examined the physiological stress response to air exposure in Atlantic stingrays (Hypanus sabinus) using a serial sampling method requiring minimal handling. Many elasmobranch stress studies exclusively quantify glucose, although there is evidence that elasmobranchs are unusually reliant on ketone bodies. Therefore, we also tested the hypothesis that ketone bodies play a significant role in the elasmobranch stress response by examining plasma β-hydroxybutyrate...
February 23, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
William Trim, James E Turner, Dylan Thompson
Ageing, like obesity, is often associated with alterations in metabolic and inflammatory processes resulting in morbidity from diseases characterised by poor metabolic control, insulin insensitivity, and inflammation. Ageing populations also exhibit a decline in immune competence referred to as immunosenescence, which contributes to, or might be driven by chronic, low-grade inflammation termed "inflammageing". In recent years, animal and human studies have started to uncover a role for immune cells within the stromal fraction of adipose tissue in driving the health complications that come with obesity, but relatively little work has been conducted in the context of immunometabolic adipose function in ageing...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Motoki Nakamura, Thomas Haarmann-Stemmann, Jean Krutmann, Akimichi Morita
Increasing ethical concerns regarding animal experimentation have led to the development of various alternative methods based on the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction, and Replacement), first described by Russell and Burch in 1959. Cosmetic and skin aging research are particularly susceptible to concerns related to animal testing. In addition to animal welfare reasons, there are scientific and economic reasons to reduce and avoid animal experiments. Importantly, animal experiments may not reflect findings in humans mainly because of the differences of architectures and immune responses between animal skin and human skin...
February 25, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Hassen Chaka, Gezahegn Aboset, Abebe Garoma, Balako Gumi, Eric Thys
A cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of ovine and bovine brucellosis in the livestock-wildlife interface area of Nechisar National Park, Ethiopia. Furthermore, producer's knowledge about brucellosis and its zoonotic potential was assessed using a structured questionnaire. A total of 268 cattle and 246 goat sera were collected from 50 herds and 46 flocks and subjected to Rose Bengal test (RBT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in parallel to detect anti-Brucella species antibodies...
February 24, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Jeffrey C Wolf
Histopathology index systems involve the application of weighted scores to various diagnostic findings for the purpose of calculating overall organ and/or whole animal health measurements. Such systems were originally developed as tools for monitoring the general health of fish populations. More recently, index systems have been applied to hypothesis-based toxicological studies, the goal of which is to investigate whether a cause-and-effect relationship exists between exposure to a particular test substance or environmental contaminant and morphologic effects in fish tissues...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Nynke J van den Hoogen, Roel Ri van Reij, Jacob Patijn, Dick Tibboel, Elbert Aj Joosten
Clinical and experimental data suggests that noxious stimulation at critical stages of development results in long-term changes on nociceptive processing in later life. Here, we use an established, well-documented rat model of repetitive noxious procedures closely mimicking the clinical situation in the NICU. In order to understand molecular changes underlying the long-term consequences of repetitive stimulation of the developing nociceptive system the present study aims to analyse the presence of the µ-opioid-receptor-1 (OPRM1)...
February 22, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Clint Rathje, Ashley Venegas, Stephen D Helmer, Rachel M Drake, Jeanette G Ward, James M Haan
Background: Agriculture is an industry where family members often live and work on the same premises. This study evaluated injury patterns and outcomes in children from farm-related accidents. Methods: A 10-year retrospective review of farm-accident related injuries was conducted of patients 17 years and younger. Data collected included demographics, injury mechanism, accident details, injury severity and patterns, treatments required, hospitalization details, and discharge disposition...
November 2017: Kansas Journal of Medicine
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