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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727116/technical-note-development-of-a-feed-matrix-as-inoculum-in-salmonella-infection-studies-in-piglets
#1
R Litjens, A-K Oudshoorn, P J Roubos-van den Hil
Current methods used for oral administration of pathogens to piglets are stressful for the animals because of fixation and use of inoculation methods such as oral gavage. In the present study an alternative way to challenge piglets with Typhimurium (ST) is investigated. The strategy was to incorporate the in a feed matrix, which is fed to the piglets and eaten voluntary. Different types of feed matrices were tested for their absorption capacity, handling properties, and palatability to piglets. Furthermore, the viability of ST in feed matrices was studied...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727028/production-management-and-the-environment-symposium-measurement-and-mitigation-of-reactive-nitrogen-species-from-swine-and-poultry-production
#2
W Powers, M Capelari
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) species include oxides of nitrogen [N; nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide (NO)], anions (nitrate and nitrite), and amine derivatives [ammonia (NH), ammonium salts and urea]. Of the different Nr species, air emissions from swine and poultry facilities are predominantly NH followed by NO. Excreta emissions are NH, ammonium ions, and urea with trace amounts of nitrate and nitrite. Farm systems and practices that handle manure as a wet product without pH modification favor almost exclusive NH production...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726986/board-invited-review-quantifying-water-use-in-ruminant-production
#3
G Legesse, K H Ominski, K A Beauchemin, S Pfister, M Martel, E J McGeough, A Y Hoekstra, R Kroebel, M R C Cordeiro, T A McAllister
The depletion of water resources, in terms of both quantity and quality, has become a major concern both locally and globally. Ruminants, in particular, are under increased public scrutiny due to their relatively high water use per unit of meat or milk produced. Estimating the water footprint of livestock production is a relatively new field of research for which methods are still evolving. This review describes the approaches used to quantify water use in ruminant production systems as well as the methodological and conceptual issues associated with each approach...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726982/effects-of-ractopamine-hydrochloride-on-growth-performance-carcass-characteristics-and-physiological-response-to-different-handling-techniques
#4
J A Hagenmaier, C D Reinhardt, M J Ritter, M S Calvo-Lorenzo, G J Vogel, C A Guthrie, M G Siemens, K F Lechtenberg, D J Rezac, D U Thomson
Feedlot cattle ( = 128; BW = 549 ± 60 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on growth performance, physiological response to handling, and mobility during shipment for slaughter in a study utilizing a split-plot design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) diet (CON [no β-adrenergic agonist] vs. RAC [400 mg·animal·d ractopamine hydrochloride for 28 d]) and 2) handling intensity (HI; low-stress handling [LSH; cattle moved at a walking pace with no electric prod use] vs...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725389/quality-versus-quantity-foraging-decisions-in-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera-scutellata-feeding-on-wildflower-nectar-and-fruit-juice
#5
Kyle Shackleton, Nicholas J Balfour, Hasan Al Toufailia, Roberto Gaioski, Marcela de Matos Barbosa, Carina A de S Silva, José M S Bento, Denise A Alves, Francis L W Ratnieks
Foraging animals must often decide among resources which vary in quality and quantity. Nectar is a resource that exists along a continuum of quality in terms of sugar concentration and is the primary energy source for bees. Alternative sugar sources exist, including fruit juice, which generally has lower energetic value than nectar. We observed many honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata) foraging on juice from fallen guava (Psidium guajava) fruit near others foraging on nectar. To investigate whether fruit and nectar offered contrasting benefits of quality and quantity, we compared honeybee foraging performance on P...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724493/oral-transmucosal-detomidine-gel-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus
#6
Morika D Williams, C Tyler Long, Jessica R Durrant, Gabriel P McKeon, Heather R Shive, Emily H Griffith, Kristen M Messenger, Richard E Fish
Handling and restraining rabbits for routine procedures may be impossible without prior sedation, result in unnecessary stress or injury to the rabbit or handler, and increase experimental variability. Parenteral administration of sedatives can cause stress also, as well as localized pain and tissue damage, especially in fractious animals. Detomidine hydrochloride, an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, is commercially available in an oral transmucosal (OTM) gel formulation that is FDA-approved for sedation and restraint in horses...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724483/using-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-infectious-disease-research
#7
Mitchell V Palmer, Rebecca J Cox, W Ray Waters, Tyler C Thacker, Diana L Whipple
Between 1940 and 2004, more than 335 emerging infectious disease events were reported in the scientific literature. The majority (60%) of these events involved zoonoses, most of which (72%) were of wildlife origin or had an epidemiologically important wildlife host. Because this trend of increasing emerging diseases likely will continue, understanding the pathogenesis, transmission, and diagnosis of these diseases in the relevant wildlife host is paramount. Achieving this goal often requires using wild animals as research subjects, which are vastly different from the traditional livestock or laboratory animals used by most universities and institutions...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721614/low-doses-of-chlorpyrifos-interfere-with-spermatogenesis-of-rats-through-reduction-of-sex-hormones
#8
Dinithi Champika Peiris, Thamali Dhanushka
Use of pesticides results in indirect effects on human health. We aimed to evaluate implications of toxicological effects of subchronic chlorpyrifos exposure on reproductive function in male rats. A total of 48 adult Wistar male rats were separated into four groups (n = 12). Animals were gavaged with 2.5 mg/kg (T1), 5 mg/kg (T2), or 10 mg/kg (T3) body weight of chlorpyrifos (CPF) or distilled water (control) daily for 30 days. Organ weights, epididymal sperm parameters, DNA integrity, sex hormonal (FHS and LH) levels, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and creatinine concentrations were determined on day 31...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720774/a-novel-fluorescent-probe-based-flow-cytometric-assay-for-mineral-containing-nanoparticles-in-serum
#9
Edward R Smith, Tim D Hewitson, Michael M X Cai, Parisa Aghagolzadeh, Matthias Bachtler, Andreas Pasch, Stephen G Holt
Calciprotein particles, nanoscale aggregates of insoluble mineral and binding proteins, have emerged as potential mediators of phosphate toxicity in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Although existing immunochemical methods for their detection have provided compelling data, these approaches are indirect, lack specificity and are subject to a number of other technical and theoretical shortcomings. Here we have developed a rapid homogeneous fluorescent probe-based flow cytometric method for the detection and quantitation of individual mineral-containing nanoparticles in human and animal serum...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719734/tissue-engineering-of-a-composite-trachea-construct-using-autologous-rabbit-chondrocytes
#10
James E Dennis, Kristina G Bernardi, Thomas J Kean, Nelson E Liou, Tanya K Meyer
The repair of large tracheal segmental defects remains an unsolved problem. The goal of this study is to apply tissue engineering principles for the fabrication of large segmental trachea replacements. Engineered tracheal replacements composed of autologous cells ("neotracheas") were tested in a New Zealand White rabbit model. Neotracheas were formed in the rabbit neck by wrapping a silicone tube with consecutive layers of skin epithelium, platysma muscle and an engineered cartilage sheet, and allowing the construct to mature for 8-12 weeks...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719188/phage-selection-of-cyclic-peptides-for-application-in-research-and-drug-development
#11
Kaycie Deyle, Xu-Dong Kong, Christian Heinis
Cyclic peptides can bind to protein targets with high affinities and selectivities, which makes them an attractive modality for the development of research reagents and therapeutics. Additional properties, including low inherent toxicity, efficient chemical synthesis, and facile modification with labels or immobilization reagents, increase their attractiveness. Cyclic peptide ligands against a wide range of protein targets have been isolated from natural sources such as bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals...
July 18, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718358/an-updated-method-for-the-jugular-catheterization-of-grower-pigs-for-repeated-blood-sampling-following-an-oral-glucose-tolerance-test
#12
Anton M Pluschke, Gregory S Simmons, Helen L Keates, Ranald D A Cameron, Dagong Zhang, John D Wright, Barbara A Williams
Jugular catheterization is a common procedure used under experimental conditions. However, there is considerable variation in the reported techniques, particularly for grower pigs (>40 kg and <60 kg) when larger volumes of blood per sample (>10 mL) are required. This paper provides a complete methodology including the use of current equipment and anaesthetic regimen for grower pigs. This surgical jugular catheterization method was carried out in 30 large white grower pigs. Firstly, the pigs were habituated to human handling for at least two weeks prior to surgery...
August 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715355/repeated-exposure-to-sucrose-for-procedural-pain-in-mouse-pups-leads-to-long-term-widespread-brain-alterations
#13
Sophie Tremblay, Manon Ranger, Cecil M Y Chau, Jacob Ellegood, Jason P Lerch, Liisa Holsti, Daniel Goldowitz, Ruth E Grunau
Oral sucrose is administered routinely to reduce pain of minor procedures in premature infants and is recommended as standard care in international guidelines. No human or animal studies on effects of early repeated sucrose exposure on long-term brain development have been done in the context of pain. We evaluated the effects of repeated neonatal sucrose treatment before an intervention on long-term brain structure in mouse pups. Neonatal C57Bl/6J mice (n = 109) were randomly assigned to one of 2 treatments (vehicle vs sucrose) and one of 3 interventions (handling, touch, or needle-prick)...
August 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709944/latex-proteins-from-calotropis-procera-toxicity-and-immunological-tolerance-revisited
#14
Camila F Bezerra, Érika F Mota, Ana Claudia M Silva, Adriana R Tomé, Maria Z R Silva, Daniel de Brito, Camila T M N Porfírio, Ariclécio C Oliveira, José V Lima-Filho, Márcio V Ramos
Many thousands of plants are disseminated worldwide in traditional and folk medicines based on the belief that their leaves, roots, seeds, bark or secretions, when adequately handled, can treat, alleviate or ameliorate numerous disease symptoms. Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) is a popular medicinal plant and the claims of this shrub's phytomedicinal properties have been scientifically validated. In this study, further prospects towards the in vivo toxicity and oral immunological tolerance of phytomodulatory proteins isolated from the latex of C...
July 12, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705154/phenotypic-and-genomic-comparison-of-mycobacterium-aurum-and-surrogate-model-species-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-implications-for-drug-discovery
#15
Amine Namouchi, Mena Cimino, Sandrine Favre-Rochex, Patricia Charles, Brigitte Gicquel
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and represents one of the major challenges facing drug discovery initiatives worldwide. The considerable rise in bacterial drug resistance in recent years has led to the need of new drugs and drug regimens. Model systems are regularly used to speed-up the drug discovery process and circumvent biosafety issues associated with manipulating M. tuberculosis. These include the use of strains such as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium marinum that can be handled in biosafety level 2 facilities, making high-throughput screening feasible...
July 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704160/assessment-of-tribal-bison-worker-hazards-using-trusted-research-facilitators
#16
Ellen Duysen, Kelsey Irvine, Aaron Yoder, Christina Topliff, Clayton Kelling, Shireen Rajaram
OBJECTIVES: Agriculture is one of the most hazardous industries in the United States. Within agriculture, livestock handling is particularly dangerous. While injury and fatality rates for bison handlers have not been reported, workers in many of the newly established tribal bison herds have limited safety training and animal handling experience, making this a vulnerable workforce. Veterinarians and herd managers, working with tribal bison herds, recognized the need for improvement in the working environment and for worker safety training...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690436/a-rat-model-of-fetal-alcohol-syndrome-a-series-of-undergraduate-laboratory-exercises-for-biopsychology-courses
#17
Ana M H Kehrberg, Jenna N Parrish, Sasha A Eby
Many undergraduate students are aware that consuming alcohol during pregnancy can result in many serious physical and behavioral deficits. Student interest in this clinical syndrome allows instructors to provide engaging laboratory exercises that relate topics covered in most biopsychology courses to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Through this series of experiments, students will use rodents to study the behavioral deficits that can be caused by developmental alcohol exposure, including impaired ultrasonic vocalizations, hyperactivity, balance, and spatial learning...
2017: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688332/regenerative-capacity-of-allogenic-gingival-margin-derived-stem-cells-with-fibrin-glue-on-albino-rats-partially-dissected-submandibular-salivary-glands
#18
Noura Abd El-Latif, Mohamed Abdulrahman, Mohamad Helal, Mohammed E Grawish
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the possible regenerative effect of allogenic gingival margin-derived stem cells (GMSCs) with or without autologous fibrin glue on partially dissected submandibular salivary glands of albino rats. METHODS: Forty rats were randomly divided into four equal groups. Group I, where no operation was performed, was considered the negative control. Group II rats were considered the positive control and were subjected to a rectangular cut on the outer surface of the center right of the submandibular salivary gland and received no other treatment...
June 27, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680035/building-mud-castles-a-perspective-from-brick-laying-termites
#19
Nikita Zachariah, Aritra Das, Tejas G Murthy, Renee M Borges
Animal constructions such as termite mounds have received scrutiny by architects, structural engineers, soil scientists and behavioural ecologists but their basic building blocks remain uncharacterized and the criteria used for material selection unexplored. By conducting controlled experiments on Odontotermes obesus termites, we characterize the building blocks of termite mounds and determine the key elements defining material choice and usage by these accomplished engineers. Using biocement and a self-organized process, termites fabricate, transport and assemble spherical unitary structures called boluses that have a bimodal size distribution, achieving an optimal packing solution for mound construction...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675688/whole-mitochondrial-genome-capture-from-fecal-samples-and-museum-preserved-specimens
#20
Tom van der Valk, Frida Lona Durazo, Love Dalén, Katerina Guschanski
Population-scale molecular studies of endangered and cryptic species are often limited by access to high-quality samples. The use of non-invasively collected samples or museum-preserved specimens reduces the pressure on modern populations by removing the need to capture and handle live animals. However, endogenous DNA content in such samples is low, making shotgun sequencing a financially prohibitive approach. Here, we apply a target enrichment method to retrieve mitochondrial genomes from 65 museum specimens and 56 non-invasively collected fecal samples of two endangered great ape species, Grauer's gorilla and the eastern chimpanzee...
July 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
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