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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101403/quantitative-assessment-of-hemodynamic-and-structural-characteristics-of-in-vivo-brain-tissue-using-total-diffuse-reflectance-spectrum-measured-in-a-non-contact-fashion
#1
Yinchen Song, Sarahy Garcia, Yisel Frometa, Jessica C Ramella-Roman, Mohammad Soltani, Mohamed Almadi, Jorge J Riera, Wei-Chiang Lin
Here we present a new methodology that investigates the intrinsic structural and hemodynamic characteristics of in vivo brain tissue, in a non-contact fashion, and can be easily incorporated in an intra-operative environment. Within this methodology, relative total diffuse reflectance spectra (RTD(λ)) were acquired from targets using a hybrid spectroscopy imaging system. A spectral interpretation algorithm was subsequently applied to RTD(λ) to retrieve optical properties related to the compositional and structural characteristics of each target...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094536/the-novel-induction-of-retinal-ganglion-cell-apoptosis-in-porcine-organ-culture-by-nmda-an-opportunity-for-the-replacement-of-animals-in-experiments
#2
Sandra Kuehn, Jose Hurst, Adelina Jashari, Kathrin Ahrens, Teresa Tsai, Ilan M Wunderlich, H Burkhard Dick, Stephanie C Joachim, Sven Schnichels
Some of the advantages of retina organ culture models include their efficient and easy handling and the ability to standardise relevant parameters. Additionally, when porcine eyes are obtained from the food industry, no animals are killed solely for research purposes. To induce retinal degeneration, a commonly used toxic substance, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), was applied to the cultures. To this end, organotypic cultures of porcine retinas were cultured and treated with different doses of NMDA (0 [control], 50, 100 and 200μM) on day 2 for 48 hours...
December 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093054/impact-of-psychological-stress-on-pain-perception-in-an-animal-model-of-endometriosis
#3
Siomara Hernandez, Myrella L Cruz, Inevy I Seguinot, Annelyn Torres-Reveron, Caroline B Appleyard
PURPOSE: Pain in patients with endometriosis is considered a significant source of stress but does not always correlate with severity of the condition. We have demonstrated that stress can worsen endometriosis in an animal model. Here, we tested the impact of a psychological stress protocol on pain thresholds and pain receptors. METHODS: Endometriosis was induced in female rats by suturing uterine horn tissue next to the intestinal mesentery. Sham rats had sutures only...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089775/degenerative-effects-of-cobalt-chloride-treatment-on-neurons-and-microglia-in-a-porcine-retina-organ-culture-model
#4
S Kuehn, J Hurst, F Rensinghoff, T Tsai, S Grauthoff, Y Satgunarajah, H B Dick, S Schnichels, S C Joachim
In order to understand the pathological processes of retinal diseases, experimental models are necessary. Cobalt, as part of the vitamin B12 complex, is important for neuronal integrity. However, it is known that high quantities of cobalt induce cytotoxic mechanisms via hypoxia mimicry. Therefore, we tested the degenerative effect of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) on neurons and microglia in a porcine retina organ culture model. Organotypic cultures of porcine retinas were cultured and treated with different concentrations of CoCl2 (0, 100, 300 and 500 μM) for 48 h...
January 12, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080912/comparison-of-medetomidine-ketamine-and-butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine-in-captive-bennett-s-wallabies-macropus-rufogriseus
#5
Megan K Watson, Mary Thurber, Sathya K Chinnadurai
The objective of this study was to compare a traditional partially reversible medetomidine-ketamine sedation with a more reversible butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine combination in Bennett's wallabies ( Macropus rufogriseus ) maintained in a zoological collection. Fourteen animals were divided into two treatment groups. Individuals in group 1 received an intramuscular (i.m.) injection of butorphanol (0.54 ± 0.05 mg/kg), azaperone (0.22 ± 0.02 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.16 ± 0.02 mg/kg). Individuals in group 2 received an i...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080903/stress-levels-in-captured-river-otters-lontra-canadensis-decreased-after-transportation-to-reintroduction-sites
#6
Rebekah T Taylor, Jennifer A Wong, Thomas L Serfass
The level of stress that animals endure during capture, handling, transportation, and release processes is a major concern of animal reintroduction projects. Animals under chronic stress are more susceptible to disease and other deleterious issues that could reduce their survival in a new environment. Northern river otters ( Lontra canadensis ) have been reintroduced in 22 states in the United States and may be susceptible to developing chronic stress during the reintroduction process. We assessed stress levels in five river otters captured from wild populations in Washington, held in captivity for up to 21 days, and then transported to New Mexico for reintroduction...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068372/perception-of-fish-sentience-welfare-and-humane-slaughter-by-highly-educated-citizens-of-bogot%C3%A3-colombia-and-curitiba-brazil
#7
Daniel Santiago Rucinque, Ana Paula Oliveira Souza, Carla Forte Maiolino Molento
Discussions on farm animal welfare have become frequent, especially in developed countries. The aim of this research was to study the perception of fish sentience, welfare and slaughter by highly educated citizens from Bogotá, Colombia, and Curitiba, Brazil. An online survey with 12 questions presented as open-ended, multiple choice and 5-point Likert-type scale formats was available to respondents. Answers from 395 participants in Bogotá and 387 in Curitiba were analyzed, and results are presented in the order Bogotá followed by Curitiba...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067693/intraoperative-ketamine-reduces-immediate-postoperative-opioid-consumption-after-spinal-fusion-surgery-in-chronic-pain-patients-with-opioid-dependency-a-randomized-blinded-trial
#8
Rikke Vibeke Nielsen, Jonna Storm Fomsgaard, Hanna Siegel, Robertas Martusevicius, Lone Nikolajsen, Jørgen Berg Dahl, Ole Mathiesen
Perioperative handling of surgical patients with opioid dependency represents an important clinical problem. Animal studies suggest that ketamine attenuates central sensitization and hyperalgesia and thereby reduces postoperative opioid tolerance. We hypothesized that intraoperative ketamine would reduce immediate postoperative opioid consumption compared to placebo in chronic pain patients with opioid dependency undergoing lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Primary outcome was morphine consumption 0-24 h postoperatively...
January 6, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067240/cd8-t-cells-stimulate-na-cl-co-transporter-ncc-in-distal-convoluted-tubules-leading-to-salt-sensitive-hypertension
#9
Yunmeng Liu, Tonya M Rafferty, Sung W Rhee, Jessica S Webber, Li Song, Benjamin Ko, Robert S Hoover, Beixiang He, Shengyu Mu
Recent studies suggest a role for T lymphocytes in hypertension. However, whether T cells contribute to renal sodium retention and salt-sensitive hypertension is unknown. Here we demonstrate that T cells infiltrate into the kidney of salt-sensitive hypertensive animals. In particular, CD8(+) T cells directly contact the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) in the kidneys of DOCA-salt mice and CD8(+) T cell-injected mice, leading to up-regulation of the Na-Cl co-transporter NCC, p-NCC and the development of salt-sensitive hypertension...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066947/training-in-eus-an-asian-perspective
#10
REVIEW
J Y Y Wong, P Kongkam, K Y Ho
Training of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in Asia faces two major challenges: (i) the ever-increasing demand for skills to handle a growing range of interventional EUS procedures; and (ii) a continual shortage of EUS training programs. As the therapeutic application of EUS continues to expand,(1, 2) the need to train more new endosonographers and upgrade skills of existing ones has become more critical than ever before. A formal fellowship to acquire EUS knowledge and skills in an advanced endoscopy centre has always been perceived as the best way of training novices, but such opportunities remain limited in most Asian countries...
January 9, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065821/an-evaluation-of-the-utility-of-lvdp-dt40-qa-interval-lvdp-dtmin-and-tau-as-indicators-of-drug-induced-changes-in-contractility-and-lusitropy-in-dogs
#11
Michael K Pugsley, Brian Guth, Alan Y Chiang, Jennifer M Doyle, Michael Engwall, Jean-Michel Guillon, Peter K Hoffmann, John E Koerner, Scott W Mittelstadt, Jennifer Beck Pierson, Eric I Rossman, Dustan R Sarazan, Stanley T Parish
INTRODUCTION: The importance of drug-induced effects on the inotropic state of the heart is well known. Unlike hemodynamic and cardiac electrophysiological methods, which have been routinely used in drug safety testing for years, the non-clinical assessment of drug effects on myocardial contractility is used less frequently with no established translation to humans. The goal of these studies was to determine whether assessment of alternate measures of cardiac inotropy could detect drug-induced changes in the contractile state of the heart using drugs known to have clinically relevant positive and negative effects on myocardial contractility...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060883/an-automated-experimenter-free-method-for-the-standardised-operant-cognitive-testing-of-rats
#12
Marion Rivalan, Humaira Munawar, Anna Fuchs, York Winter
Animal models of human pathology are essential for biomedical research. However, a recurring issue in the use of animal models is the poor reproducibility of behavioural and physiological findings within and between laboratories. The most critical factor influencing this issue remains the experimenter themselves. One solution is the use of procedures devoid of human intervention. We present a novel approach to experimenter-free testing cognitive abilities in rats, by combining undisturbed group housing with automated, standardized and individual operant testing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053621/clinical-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-of-compressive-cervical-myelopathy-with-traumatic-intervertebral-disc-herniation-in-cynomolgus-macaque-macaca-fascicularis
#13
Yun-Jung Choi, Hye-Jin Park, Chul-Ho Sohn, Kyeong Cheon Jung, Seong Hoe Park, Jae-Il Lee
Intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) with nucleus pulposus extrusion, traumatic or not, is a devastating clinical condition accompanied by neurological problems. Here we report a cynomolgus macaque suffering from acute and progressive neurological dysfunction by a blunt trauma due to neck collar, an animal handling device. Tetraplegia, urinary incontinence, decreased proprioception, and imperception of pain were shown on physical and neurological examinations. MRI sagittal T2 weighted sequences revealed an extensive protrusion of disc material between C2 and C3 cervical vertebra, and this protrusion resulted in central stenosis of the spinal cord...
December 2016: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051569/the-efficacy-of-nalbuphine-medetomidine-and-azaperone-in-immobilizing-american-bison-bison-bison
#14
Lisa L Wolfe, Mary E Wood, Pauline Nol, Matthew P McCollum, Mark C Fisher, William R Lance
We evaluated a combination of nalbuphine, medetomidine, and azaperone (NalMed-A) in 12 American bison ( Bison bison ) during 13 sedation handling events. The mean (SE) dosage was 0.4 (0.02) mg/kg nalbuphine, 0.08 (0.003) mg/kg medetomidine, and 0.08 (0.003) mg/kg azaperone contained in an average delivery volume of 0.8 mL/100 kg. Two animals required a supplemental dose for safe handling (additive dose used in calculating means) and a third animal was not adequately sedated despite a supplemental dose. Bison immobilized with NalMed-A showed good sedation in 12 of 13 handling attempts...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047101/we-ab-207b-10-on-spinal-nerve-toxicity-from-single-session-sabr-in-pigs-and-the-translation-of-small-animal-ntcp-models
#15
B Hrycushko, P Medin
PURPOSE: The incidence of peripheral neuropathy has risen with increased utilization of SAbR. There is no consensus regarding the dose-tolerance of the peripheral nervous system. In 2015, we commenced an investigation to test the hypotheses that single-session irradiation to the pig spinal nerves exhibit a similar dose-tolerance as that of the spinal cord and that a dose-length effect exists. This work evaluates the direct application of small animal NTCP models to both large animal spinal cord and preliminary peripheral nerve data...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046657/su-f-j-72-a-clinical-usable-integrated-contouring-quality-evaluation-software-for-radiotherapy
#16
S Jiang, S Dolly, B Cai, S Mutic, H Li
PURPOSE: To introduce the Auto Contour Evaluation (ACE) software, which is the clinical usable, user friendly, efficient and all-in-one toolbox for automatically identify common contouring errors in radiotherapy treatment planning using supervised machine learning techniques. METHODS: ACE is developed with C# using Microsoft .Net framework and Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) for elegant GUI design and smooth GUI transition animations through the integration of graphics engines and high dots per inch (DPI) settings on modern high resolution monitors...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045968/the-bachd-rat-model-of-huntington-disease-shows-signs-of-fronto-striatal-dysfunction-in-two-operant-conditioning-tests-of-short-term-memory
#17
Erik Karl Håkan Clemensson, Laura Emily Clemensson, Olaf Riess, Huu Phuc Nguyen
The BACHD rat is a recently developed transgenic animal model of Huntington disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons. Cognitive impairments are common among patients, and characterization of similar deficits in animal models of the disease is therefore of interest. The present study assessed the BACHD rats' performance in the delayed alternation and the delayed non-matching to position test, two Skinner box-based tests of short-term memory function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043866/investigation-into-the-effect-of-microsampling-on-mouse-fetuses-and-pregnant-mice-in-the-embryofetal-development-study-design
#18
Terri Mitchard, Sarah Kirk, Claire Grant, Jane Stewart
The effects on fetal weights and maternal health of taking 32μL blood microsamples at the end of organogenesis in a mouse embryofetal development (EFD) study design was investigated with the aim of reducing satellite animal usage. The effects of warming, handling and sampling either 3 or 6 times on gestation day 16 was evaluated. Maternal body weight gain was transiently reduced when animals underwent warming and handling with or without microsampling. Fetal weights on gestation day 18 were reduced after 6 occasion warming and handling alone or taking samples, but not when sampling was limited to 3 timepoints...
December 30, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040165/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-genetic-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-recovered-from-frozen-game-meat
#19
Rafael H Mateus-Vargas, Viktoria Atanassova, Felix Reich, Günter Klein
The increasing number of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae both in veterinary and human medicine, the dissemination of these bacteria in several environments and their possible repercussions on human health is causing concern. Game meat is usually seen as free of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current antimicrobial susceptibility status in generic Escherichia coli isolated from packed frozen game meat from a game handling establishment in Germany. A total of 229 E...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033365/potential-exposures-to-australian-bat-lyssavirus-notified-in-queensland-australia-2009-2014
#20
Damin Si, John Marquess, Ellen Donnan, Bruce Harrower, Bradley McCall, Sonya Bennett, Stephen Lambert
BACKGROUND: Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) belongs to the genus Lyssavirus which also includes classic rabies virus and the European lyssaviruses. To date, the only three known human ABLV cases, all fatal, have been reported from Queensland, Australia. ABLV is widely distributed in Australian bats, and any bite or scratch from an Australian bat is considered a potential exposure to ABLV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Potential exposure to ABLV has been a notifiable condition in Queensland since 2005...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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