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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341950/clinical-characteristics-of-ulceroglandular-tularemia-in-two-bulgarian-regions-2014-2015-a-report-of-five-cases
#1
Liliya M Pekova, Magdalena P Baymakova, Pavlina O Parousheva, Mariya D Fartunova, Nikolay E Dimitrov, Iskra A Tomova
We present here the first five human cases with tularemia from two regions in South Bulgaria in which there had been no previous report of the infection. The cases occurred over a period of 8 months (December 2014 - August 2015). They were treated at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Stara Zagora University Hospital, Bulgaria. We present the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data for four men and one woman (age range 52 to 73 years). Three men were hunters, four patients took part in handling, preparing/skinning and cooking the game animals...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341018/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-studies-of-mouse-models-of-cancer
#2
Menglin Cheng, Kristine Glunde
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) or spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) enables the detection of metabolites, amino acids, and lipids, among other biomolecules, in tumors of live mouse models of cancer. Tumor-bearing mice are anesthetized by breathing isoflurane in a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner dedicated to small animal MR. Here we describe the overall setup and steps for measuring 1H and 31P MRS and 1H MRSI of orthotopic breast tumor models in mice with surface coils. This protocol can be adapted to the use of volume coils to measure 1H and 31P MRS(I) of tumor models that grow inside the body...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329247/a-simple-method-to-measure-renal-function-in-swine-by-the-plasma-clearance-of-iohexol
#3
Sergio Luis-Lima, Consolación García-Contreras, Marta Vázquez-Gómez, Susana Astiz, Fabiola Carrara, Flavio Gaspari, Natalia Negrín-Mena, Alejandro Jiménez-Sosa, Hugo Jiménez-Hernández, Antonio González-Bulnes, Esteban Porrini
There is no simple method to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in swine, an established model for studying renal disease. We developed a protocol to measure GFR in conscious swine by using the plasma clearance of iohexol. We used two groups, test and validation, with eight animals each. Ten milliliters of iohexol (6.47 g) was injected into the marginal auricular vein and blood samples (3 mL) were collected from the orbital sinus at different points after injection. GFR was determined using two models: two-compartment (CL2: all samples) and one-compartment (CL1: the last six samples)...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326533/manually-steerable-catheter-with-improved-agility
#4
Geir Arne Tangen, Frode Manstad-Hulaas, Erik Nypan, Reidar Brekken
Purpose: A prototype steerable catheter was designed for endovascular procedures. This technical pilot study reports the initial experience using the catheter for cannulation of visceral arteries. Technique: The 7F catheter was manually steerable with operator control handle for bending and rotation of the tip. The maximum bending angle was approximately 90° and full 360° rotation of the tip was supported. The study involved 1 pig with 4 designated target arteries: the left and right renal arteries, the superior mesenteric artery, and the celiac trunk...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313703/the-use-of-gatekeeping-procedures-in-the-statistical-planning-of-animal-experiments
#5
Benjamin Mayer, Vicky Stahl, Martina Kron
Statistical sample size calculation is essential when planning animal experiments in basic medical research. Usually, such trials involve the testing of multiple hypotheses, and interpreting them in a confirmative manner would require the appropriate adjustment of the Type 1 error. This has to be taken into account as early as possible during sample size estimation - otherwise, all the results obtained would be exploratory, i.e. without cogency. In this paper, the concept of gatekeeping is introduced, along with alternative approaches for Type 1 error adjustment...
December 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313470/serological-markers-of-recent-campylobacter-jejuni-infection-in-patients-with-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-the-state-of-piau%C3%A3-brazil-2014-2016
#6
Cyntia O Souza, Marcelo A C S Vieira, Francisca M A Batista, Kelsen D Eulálio, Jéssica M M Neves, Laís C Sá, Leni C R Monteiro, Walfrido S Almeida-Neto, Raimunda S S Azevedo, Dorcas L Costa, Ana C R Cruz
In countries where poliomyelitis has been eradicated, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is the leading cause of acute flaccid paralysis. The range of infections that precede GBS in Brazil is unknown. Campylobacter jejuni infection is the most frequent trigger of GBS worldwide. Given the lack of systematic surveillance of diarrheal diseases, particularly in adults, the incidence of enteritis caused by C. jejuni in developing countries is unknown. From 2014 to 2016, pretreatment serum samples from 63 GBS patients were tested by immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for C...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311235/deletion-of-the-mfs-transporter-fptb-alters-host-cell-interactions-and-attenuates-the-virulence-of-type-a-francisella-tularensis
#7
Phillip M Balzano, Aimee L Cunningham, Christen Grassel, Eileen M Barry
Francisella tularensis is a Gram negative facultative intracellular coccobacillus that can infect a wide variety of hosts. In humans, F. tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia following insect bites, ingestion, inhalation, and the handling of infected animals. That a very small inoculum delivered by the aerosol route can cause severe disease, coupled with the possibility of its use as an aerosolized bioweapon, have led to the classification of Francisella tularensis as a Category A select agent and has renewed interest in the formulation of a vaccine...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310257/recent-advances-in-magnesium-assessment-from-single-selective-sensors-to-multisensory-approach
#8
REVIEW
Larisa Lvova, Carla Guanais Gonçalves, Corrado Di Natale, Andrey Legin, Dmitry Kirsanov, Roberto Paolesse
The development of efficient analytical procedures for the selective detection of magnesium is an important analytical task, since this element is one of the most abundant metals in cells and plays an essential role in a plenty of cellular processes. Magnesium misbalance has been related to several pathologies and diseases both in plants and animals, as far as in humans, but the number of suitable methods for magnesium detection especially in life sample and biological environments is scarce. Chemical sensors, due to their high reliability, simplicity of handling and instrumentation, fast and real-time in situ and on site analysis are promising candidates for magnesium analysis and represent an attractive alternative to the standard instrumental methods...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306724/first-molecular-evidence-of-equine-granulocytic-anaplasmosis-in-pakistan
#9
Sehrish Saleem, Muhammad Ijaz, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Muhammad Imran Rashid, Amjad Khan, Awais Masud, Amjad Islam Aqib, Kashif Hussain, Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang
Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum) is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes equine granulocytic anaplasmosis (EGA) disease in equines. This pathogen has zoonotic potential, which makes it very important to be detected and controlled as early as possible. This study was aimed to assess the molecular prevalence, associated risk factors of EGA along with its effects on various hematological parameters. This study revealed an overall 10.67% prevalence in equine. Horses showed highest prevalence followed by mules and donkeys presenting 11...
January 4, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304047/16s-rrna-analysis-of-diversity-of-manure-microbial-community-in-dairy-farm-environment
#10
Pramod Pandey, Colleen Chiu, Max Miao, Yi Wang, Matthew Settles, Noelia Silva Del Rio, Alejandro Castillo, Alex Souza, Richard Pereira, Richard Jeannotte
Dairy farms generate a considerable amount of manure, which is applied in cropland as fertilizer. While the use of manure as fertilizer reduces the application of chemical fertilizers, the main concern with regards to manure application is microbial pollution. Manure is a reservoir of a broad range of microbial populations, including pathogens, which have potential to cause contamination and pose risks to public and animal health. Despite the widespread use of manure fertilizer, the change in microbial diversity of manure under various treatment processes is still not well-understood...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301863/faecal-corticosterone-metabolites-assessment-in-socially-housed-male-and-female-wistar-rats
#11
Carlo Cinque, Manuela Zinni, Anna Rita Zuena, Chiara Giuli, Sebastiano Giovanni Alemà, Assia Catalani, Paola Casolini, Roberto Cozzolino
Knowledge of animals' hormonal status is important for conservation studies in wild or semi-free ranging conditions as well as for behavioural and clinical experiments conducted in laboratory research, mostly performed on rats and mice. Faecal sampling is a useful non-invasive method to obtain steroid hormone assessments. Nevertheless, in laboratory studies, unlike other contexts, faecal sampling is less utilised. One of the issues raised is the necessity to collect samples belonging to different animals, separately...
January 4, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298608/resorbable-self-locking-implant-for-lung-lobectomy-through-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-first-live-animal-application
#12
Rogério Luizari Guedes, Odd Viking Höglund, Juliana Sperotto Brum, Niklas Borg, Peterson Triches Dornbusch
The aim of this pilot test was to test a new self-locking resorbable implant for hilum occlusion during a video-assisted thoracoscopic lung lobectomy in a surviving pig model. Once the thoracic cavity was assessed and structures identified, the right middle lobe and its respective hilum were exposed. The implant was introduced with a semiclosed loop through a working channel and positioned around the pulmonary lobe. Occlusion was performed with a conventional Crile forceps and a laparoscopic Kelly forceps. Lobe section was done with laparoscopic Metzenbaum scissors and tissue removal through the dorsal access...
January 1, 2018: Surgical Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295823/the-stress-induced-transcription-factor-nr4a1-adjusts-mitochondrial-function-and-synapse-number-in-prefrontal-cortex
#13
Freddy Jeanneteau, Christian Barrère, Mariska Vos, Carlie Jm De Vries, Claude Rouillard, Daniel Levesque, Yann Dromard, Marie-Pierre Moisan, Vanja Duric, Tina C Franklin, Ronald S Duman, David A Lewis, Stephen D Ginsberg, Margarita Arango-Lievano
The energetic costs of behavioral chronic stress are unlikely to be sustainable without neuronal plasticity. Mitochondria have the capacity to handle synaptic activity up to a limit before energetic depletion occurs. Protective mechanisms driven by the induction of neuronal genes likely evolved to buffer the consequences of chronic stress on excitatory neurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC), as this circuitry is vulnerable to excitotoxic insults. Little is known about the genes involved in mitochondrial adaptation to the build up of chronic stress...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290621/a-gut-brain-axis-regulating-glucose-metabolism-mediated-by-bile-acids-and-competitive-fibroblast-growth-factor-actions-at-the-hypothalamus
#14
Shunmei Liu, Genevieve Marcelin, Clemence Blouet, Jae Hoon Jeong, Young-Hwan Jo, Gary J Schwartz, Streamson Chua
OBJECTIVE: Bile acids have been implicated as important regulators of glucose metabolism via activation of FXR and GPBAR1. We have previously shown that FGF19 can modulate glucose handling by suppressing the activity of hypothalamic AGRP/NPY neurons. As bile acids stimulate the release of FGF19/FGF15 into the circulation, we pursued the potential of bile acids to improve glucose tolerance via a gut-brain axis involving FXR and FGF15/FGF19 within enterocytes and FGF receptors on hypothalamic AGRP/NPY neurons...
December 9, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287670/investigation-of-clostridium-botulinum-group-iii-s-mobilome-content
#15
Cédric Woudstra, Caroline Le Maréchal, Rozenn Souillard, Fabrizio Anniballi, Bruna Auricchio, Luca Bano, Marie-Hélène Bayon-Auboyer, Miriam Koene, Isabelle Mermoud, Roseane B Brito, Francisco C F Lobato, Rodrigo O S Silva, Martin B Dorner, Patrick Fach
Clostridium botulinum group III is mainly responsible for botulism in animals. It could lead to high animal mortality rates and, therefore, represents a major environmental and economic concern. Strains of this group harbor the botulinum toxin locus on an unstable bacteriophage. Since the release of the first complete C. botulinum group III genome sequence (strain BKT015925), strains have been found to contain others mobile elements encoding for toxin components. In this study, seven assays targeting toxin genes present on the genetic mobile elements of C...
December 26, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286474/mouse-model-for-pancreas-transplantation-using-a-modified-cuff-technique
#16
Benno Cardini, Rupert Oberhuber, Sven R Hein, Rebecca Eiter, Martin Hermann, Markus Kofler, Stefan Schneeberger, Gerald Brandacher, Manuel Maglione
Mouse models have several advantages in transplantation research, including easy handling, a variety of genetically well-defined strains, and the availability of the widest range of molecular probes and reagents to perform in vivo as well as in vitro studies. Based on our experience with various murine transplantation models, we developed a heterotopic pancreas transplantation model in mice with the intent to analyze mechanisms underlying severe ischemia reperfusion injury-associated early graft damage. In contrast to previously described techniques using suture techniques, herein we describe a new procedure using a non-suture cuff technique...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279805/a-low-cost-technique-for-intraoperative-imaging-of-cell-delivery-and-retention-in-a-model-of-delayed-wound-healing
#17
Anthony J Burand, Lauren Boland, Alex J Brown, James A Ankrum
Objective: Techniques to validate successful delivery of cell products are expensive, time-consuming, and require transport of the animal to imaging facilities, preventing their widespread use as documentation tools. The goal of this study was to determine if a low-cost portable microscope could provide sufficient performance to be used to document delivery of cell products and track retention over time. Approach: A Dino-Lite fluorescence microscope and an Odyssey CLx whole-animal scanner were compared on the basis of resolution, sensitivity, and linearity...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275218/myrcia-sylvatica-essential-oil-mitigates-molecular-biochemical-and-physiological-alterations-in-rhamdia-quelen-under-different-stress-events-associated-to-transport
#18
Etiane M H Saccol, Ismael Jerez-Cepa, Giovana M Ourique, Tanise S Pês, Luciane T Gressler, Rosa H V Mourão, Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez, Juan M Mancera, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Maria A Pavanato, Juan A Martos-Sitcha
The effects of pre-transport handling and addition of essential oil of Myrcia sylvatica (EOMS) during transport on stress pathways activation in Rhamdia quelen were investigated. Fish (n=400, 25.2±2.9g) were captured in production ponds and transferred to 100-L tank (density 100g L-1). After 24h, 10 fish were sampled (before transport group). The remaining fish were placed in plastic bags (n=30 or 32 fish per bag, density 150g L-1) containing 5L of water (control), ethanol (315μLL-1, vehicle) or EOMS (25 or 35μLL-1), in triplicate, transported for 6h and sampled (n=10 animals per group)...
December 15, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250141/gynostemma-pentaphyllum-is-neuroprotective-in-a-rat-model-of-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#19
Gerburg Keilhoff, Torben Esser, Maximilian Titze, Uwe Ebmeyer, Lorenz Schild
Asphyxial cardiac arrest (ACA)-induced ischemia results in acute and delayed neuronal cell death. The early reperfusion phase is critical for the outcome. Intervention strategies directed to this period are promising to reduce ACA/resuscitation-dependent impairments. This study focused on the evaluation of the protective potential of an extract from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP), a plant used in traditional medicine with antioxidative, glucose lowering and neuroprotective activities, in an ACA rat model. We tested the following parameters: i) Basic systemic parameters such as pCO2 and blood glucose value within the first 30 min post-ACA; ii) mitochondrial response by determining activities of citrate synthase, respiratory chain complexes I + III and II + III, and the composition of cardiolipin 6 and 24 h post-ACA; iii) neuronal vitality of the CA1 hippocampal region by immunohistochemistry 24 h and 7 days post-ACA; and iv) cognitive function by a novel object recognition test 7 days post-ACA...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246105/the-function-and-evolutionary-significance-of-a-triplicated-na-k-atpase-gene-in-a-toxin-specialized-insect
#20
Jennifer N Lohr, Fee Meinzer, Safaa Dalla, Renja Romey-Glüsing, Susanne Dobler
BACKGROUND: The Na,K-ATPase is a vital animal cell-membrane protein that maintains the cell's resting potential, among other functions. Cardenolides, a group of potent plant toxins, bind to and inhibit this pump. The gene encoding the α-subunit of the pump has undergone duplication events in some insect species known to feed on plants containing cardenolides. Here we test the function of these duplicated gene copies in the cardenolide-adapted milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, which has three known copies of the gene: α1A, α1B and α1C...
December 15, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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