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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817554/occupational-distribution-of-campylobacteriosis-and-salmonellosis-cases-maryland-ohio-and-virginia-2014
#1
Chia-Ping Su, Marie A de Perio, Kathleen Fagan, Meghan L Smith, Ellen Salehi, Seth Levine, Karen Gruszynski, Sara E Luckhaupt
Campylobacter and Salmonella are leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are estimated to cause >1 million episodes of domestically acquired illness annually (1). Campylobacter and Salmonella are primarily transmitted through contaminated food, but animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission can also occur (2,3). Although occupationally acquired infections have been reported, occupational risk factors have rarely been studied. In 2015, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) identified 63 suspected or confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection over 3...
August 18, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813172/rabbit-neutering-in-primary-care-education-insights-from-a-surgical-clinic
#2
Livia Benato, Jennifer Hammond
Involvement in canine and feline surgical neutering clinics is generally considered to be a key element of primary-care veterinary education, yet opportunities for veterinary students to develop their surgical skills with rabbit patients are uncommon. This is despite the fact that rabbits are currently estimated to be the third-most popular companion animal species and the fact that the British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA) recommends that all non-breeding rabbits be neutered soon after they attain sexual maturity...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809810/veterinary-and-equine-science-students-interpretation-of-horse-behaviour
#3
Gabriella Gronqvist, Chris Rogers, Erica Gee, Audrey Martinez, Charlotte Bolwell
Many veterinary and undergraduate equine science students have little previous horse handling experience and a poor understanding of horse behaviour; yet horses are one of the most unsafe animals with which veterinary students must work. It is essential for veterinary and equine students to learn how to interpret horse behaviour in order to understand demeanour and levels of arousal, and to optimise their own safety and the horses' welfare. The study utilised a qualitative research approach to investigate veterinary science and veterinary technology and undergraduate equine science students' interpretation of expressive behaviours shown by horses...
August 15, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803007/associations-between-biosecurity-practices-and-bovine-digital-dermatitis-in-danish-dairy-herds
#4
Victor H S Oliveira, Jan T Sørensen, Peter T Thomsen
The relationship between biosecurity and digital dermatitis (DD) was evaluated in 8,269 cows from a convenience sample of 39 freestall dairy herds. The hypothesis was that poor implementation of biosecurity was associated with higher within-herd prevalence of DD. All lactating cows were scored as negative or positive for DD at the hind legs during milking in the milking parlor. Information about biosecurity was obtained through questionnaires addressed to farmers, on-farm observations, and information from the Danish Cattle Database (www...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799494/contribution-of-large-animals-to-translational-research-on-prenatal-programming-of-obesity-and-associated-diseases
#5
Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer
BACKGROUND: The awareness of factors causing obesity and associated disorders has grown up in the last years from genome to a more complicated concept (developmental programming) in which prenatal and early-postnatal conditions markedly modify the phenotype and homeostasis of the individuals and determine juvenile growth, life-time fitness/obesity and disease risks. Experimentation in human beings is impeded by ethical issues plus inherent high variability and confounding factors (genetics, lifestyle and socioeconomic heterogeneity) and preclinical studies in adequate translational animal models are therefore decisive...
August 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798197/corp-measurement-of-lung-function-in-small-animals
#6
Jason H T Bates
The measurement of lung function in mice and rats is crucial for understanding how well small animal models of pulmonary disease recapitulate human clinical pathology, but brings with it the challenge of making accurate measurements in animals as small as a mouse. Overcoming these challenges can be achieved in a number of ways, each based on a model idealization of how the lung works as a mechanical system. Accordingly, it is important to understand the theoretical basis on which an assessment of lung function rests in order to interpret experimental measurements appropriately...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783919/training-in-endoscopy-endoscopic-ultrasound
#7
REVIEW
Chang Min Cho
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has been recently established as an indispensable modality for the diagnosis and management of pancreatobiliary and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. EUS proficiency requires both cognitive and technical abilities, including an understanding of the appropriate indications, the performance of appropriate evaluations before and after the procedure, and the management of procedure-related complications. An increasing demand for skills to handle a growing range of interventional EUS procedures and a continual shortage of EUS training programs are two major obstacles for EUS training...
July 2017: Clinical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780372/species-specific-effects-of-neuregulin-1%C3%AE-cimaglermin-alfa-on-glucose-handling-in-animal-models-and-humans-with-heart-failure
#8
Zhihong Huang, Douglas B Sawyer, Erika L Troy, Corissa McEwen, John H Cleator, Abigail Murphy, Anthony O Caggiano, Andrew Eisen, Tom J Parry
Neuregulin-1β is a member of the neuregulin family of growth factors and is critically important for normal development and functioning of the heart and brain. A recombinant version of neuregulin-1β, cimaglermin alfa (also known as glial growth factor 2 or GGF2) is being investigated as a possible therapy for heart failure. Previous studies suggest that neuregulin-1β stimulation of skeletal muscle increases glucose uptake and, specifically, sufficient doses of cimaglermin alfa acutely produce hypoglycemia in pigs...
August 2, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774263/evaluation-of-high-throughput-isomir-identification-tools-illuminating-the-early-isomirome-of-tribolium-castaneum
#9
Daniel Amsel, Andreas Vilcinskas, André Billion
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs carry out post-transcriptional gene regulation in animals by binding to the 3' untranslated regions of mRNAs, causing their degradation or translational repression. MicroRNAs influence many biological functions, and dysregulation can therefore disrupt development or even cause death. High-throughput sequencing and the mining of animal small RNA data has shown that microRNA genes can yield differentially expressed isoforms, known as isomiRs. Such isoforms are particularly relevant during early development, and the extension or truncation of the 5' end can change the profile of mRNA targets compared to the original mature sequence...
August 3, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760756/estimating-adult-sex-ratios-in-nature
#10
REVIEW
Sergio Ancona, Francisco V Dénes, Oliver Krüger, Tamás Székely, Steven R Beissinger
Adult sex ratio (ASR, the proportion of males in the adult population) is a central concept in population and evolutionary biology, and is also emerging as a major factor influencing mate choice, pair bonding and parental cooperation in both human and non-human societies. However, estimating ASR is fraught with difficulties stemming from the effects of spatial and temporal variation in the numbers of males and females, and detection/capture probabilities that differ between the sexes. Here, we critically evaluate methods for estimating ASR in wild animal populations, reviewing how recent statistical advances can be applied to handle some of these challenges...
September 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760591/the-hairy-lizard-heterothermia-affects-anaesthetic-requirements-in-the-arabian-oryx-oryx-leucoryx
#11
Mads F Bertelsen, Osama Mohammed, Tobias Wang, Paul R Manger, David Michael Scantlebury, Khairi Ismael, Nigel C Bennett, Abdulaziz Alagaili
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of heterothermia on anaesthetic drug requirements in semi-free ranging Arabian oryx and to assess the temperature quotient (Q10) of oxygen consumption. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study and controlled metabolic experiment. ANIMALS: Sixty-eight anaesthetic events in 59 Arabian oryx from Mahazat As-Sayd protected area, Saudi Arabia METHODS: Anaesthesia was induced by remote injection of 25 mg ketamine, 10 mg midazolam and 0...
March 6, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758332/a-biosafety-level-2-virology-lab-for-biotechnology-undergraduates
#12
Sigal Matza-Porges, Dafna Nathan
Medical, industrial, and basic research relies heavily on the use of viruses and vectors. Therefore, it is important that bioscience undergraduates learn the practicalities of handling viruses. Teaching practical virology in a student laboratory setup presents safety challenges, however. The aim of this article is to describe the design and implementation of a virology laboratory, with emphasis on student safety, for biotechnology undergraduates. Cell culture techniques, animal virus infection, quantification, and identification are taught at a biosafety level 2 for a diverse group of undergraduates ranging from 20 to 50 students per group...
July 30, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756748/the-new-zealand-white-rabbit-as-a-model-for-preclinical-studies-addressing-tissue-repair-at-the-level-of-the-abdominal-wall
#13
Juan M Bellón, Marta Rodríguez, Barbara Perez-Kohler, Paloma Pérez-López, Gemma Pascual
In this report, we review the use of the New Zealand White rabbit as the experimental animal for several models of abdominal wall repair. For the repair of an abdominal wall defect such as a hernia in clinical practice, multiple types of prosthetic material exist. Before their marketing, each of these biomaterials needs to be tested in a preclinical setting to confirm its biocompatibility and appropriate behavior at the different tissue interfaces. For preclinical trials, we have always used the New Zealand White rabbit as the model owing to its ease of handling and suitable size...
July 29, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746844/heart-rate-variability-reveals-that-a-decrease-in-parasympathetic-rest-and-digest-activity-dominates-autonomic-stress-responses-in-a-free-living-seabird
#14
Martina S Müller, Alexei L Vyssotski, Maki Yamamoto, Ken Yoda
The autonomic stress response, often referred to as the 'fight-or-flight' response, is a highly conserved physiological reaction to stress in vertebrates that occurs via a decrease in parasympathetic (PNS) activity, which promotes self-maintenance 'rest and digest' processes, and an increase in sympathetic (SNS) activity, which prepares an animal for danger ('fight-or-flight'). Though the PNS and SNS both innervate most organs, they often control different tissues and functions within those organs (though the pacemaker of the heart is controlled by both)...
July 23, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744884/shear-stress-induced-total-blood-trauma-in-multiple-species
#15
Chris H H Chan, Ina Laura Pieper, Christian R Robinson, Yasmin Friedmann, Venkateswarlu Kanamarlapudi, Catherine A Thornton
The common complications in heart failure patients with implanted ventricular assist devices (VADs) include hemolysis, thrombosis, and bleeding. These are linked to shear stress-induced trauma to erythrocytes, platelets, and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Novel device designs are being developed to reduce the blood trauma, which will need to undergo in vitro and in vivo preclinical testing in large animal models such as cattle, sheep, and pig. To fully understand the impact of device design and enable translation of preclinical results, it is important to identify any potential species-specific differences in the VAD-associated common complications...
July 26, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739647/compensatory-distal-reabsorption-drives-diuretic-resistance-in-human-heart-failure
#16
Veena S Rao, Noah Planavsky, Jennifer S Hanberg, Tariq Ahmad, Meredith A Brisco-Bacik, Francis P Wilson, Daniel Jacoby, Michael Chen, W H Wilson Tang, David Z I Cherney, David H Ellison, Jeffrey M Testani
Understanding the tubular location of diuretic resistance (DR) in heart failure (HF) is critical to developing targeted treatment strategies. Rodents chronically administered loop diuretics develop DR due to compensatory distal tubular sodium reabsorption, but whether this translates to human DR is unknown. We studied consecutive patients with HF (n=128) receiving treatment with loop diuretics at the Yale Transitional Care Center. We measured the fractional excretion of lithium (FELi), the gold standard for in vivo assessment of proximal tubular and loop of Henle sodium handling, to assess sodium exit after loop diuretic administration and FENa to assess the net sodium excreted into the urine...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727116/technical-note-development-of-a-feed-matrix-as-inoculum-in-salmonella-infection-studies-in-piglets
#17
R Litjens, A-K Oudshoorn, P J Roubos-van den Hil
Current methods used for oral administration of pathogens to piglets are stressful for the animals because of fixation and use of inoculation methods such as oral gavage. In the present study an alternative way to challenge piglets with Typhimurium (ST) is investigated. The strategy was to incorporate the in a feed matrix, which is fed to the piglets and eaten voluntary. Different types of feed matrices were tested for their absorption capacity, handling properties, and palatability to piglets. Furthermore, the viability of ST in feed matrices was studied...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727028/production-management-and-the-environment-symposium-measurement-and-mitigation-of-reactive-nitrogen-species-from-swine-and-poultry-production
#18
W Powers, M Capelari
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) species include oxides of nitrogen [N; nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide (NO)], anions (nitrate and nitrite), and amine derivatives [ammonia (NH), ammonium salts and urea]. Of the different Nr species, air emissions from swine and poultry facilities are predominantly NH followed by NO. Excreta emissions are NH, ammonium ions, and urea with trace amounts of nitrate and nitrite. Farm systems and practices that handle manure as a wet product without pH modification favor almost exclusive NH production...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726986/board-invited-review-quantifying-water-use-in-ruminant-production
#19
G Legesse, K H Ominski, K A Beauchemin, S Pfister, M Martel, E J McGeough, A Y Hoekstra, R Kroebel, M R C Cordeiro, T A McAllister
The depletion of water resources, in terms of both quantity and quality, has become a major concern both locally and globally. Ruminants, in particular, are under increased public scrutiny due to their relatively high water use per unit of meat or milk produced. Estimating the water footprint of livestock production is a relatively new field of research for which methods are still evolving. This review describes the approaches used to quantify water use in ruminant production systems as well as the methodological and conceptual issues associated with each approach...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726982/effects-of-ractopamine-hydrochloride-on-growth-performance-carcass-characteristics-and-physiological-response-to-different-handling-techniques
#20
J A Hagenmaier, C D Reinhardt, M J Ritter, M S Calvo-Lorenzo, G J Vogel, C A Guthrie, M G Siemens, K F Lechtenberg, D J Rezac, D U Thomson
Feedlot cattle ( = 128; BW = 549 ± 60 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on growth performance, physiological response to handling, and mobility during shipment for slaughter in a study utilizing a split-plot design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) diet (CON [no β-adrenergic agonist] vs. RAC [400 mg·animal·d ractopamine hydrochloride for 28 d]) and 2) handling intensity (HI; low-stress handling [LSH; cattle moved at a walking pace with no electric prod use] vs...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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