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Animal handling

Jamshid H Karimov, Kimberly A Such, Raymond Dessoffy, Kiyotaka Fukamachi
The postoperative care of animals implanted with mechanical circulatory support devices is complex. The standard of care requires continuous monitoring of hemodynamic parameters post implant, wound care, and maintenance of the animal's well-being, but also includes controlling the animal's biomechanics under conditions of continuous restraint and harnessing. In such studies, a harness provides secure fixation of the exteriorized device driveline and pressure lines and aids animal handling (lifting, position adjustment, and assistance with standing up)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
Ingun Naeve, Maren Mommens, Augustine Arukwe, Elin Kjørsvik
Aiming to explore ultrasound technology as a noninvasive method for maturation monitoring, we compared ultrasound observations and measurements in female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during the last year before ovulation with standard, invasive methods such as gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonad histology and sex hormone analysis. Ultrasound measurements of ovaries correlated strongly (R > 0.9, P < 0.01) with ovary weight and GSI, and could be used as a noninvasive tool for GSI estimation. Using ultrasound, we were able to identify females with advanced oocyte development and elevated sex hormone and GSI levels earlier than previously observed...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
Fashui Hong, Ling Wang
Background: Exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) that are widely used in food, medicine, sunscreen products and cosmetics is reported to cause ovarian damage and lower fertility in animals. However, the potential effects of TiO2 NPs application on premature ovarian failure (POF) have rarely been evaluated to date. Methods: In this study, female mice were continuously exposed to TiO2 NPs at doses of 2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg via gavage instillation for 30 days, and investigated the serum hormones and autoimmunity markers associated with POF...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Govinda Bhandari, Kishor Atreya, Xiaomei Yang, Liangxin Fan, Violette Geissen
Indiscriminate use of pesticides in vegetable farming is an emerging problem resulting in increasing health and environmental risks in developing countries including Nepal. As there are limited studies focusing on farmers' and retailers' knowledge related to pesticide use and associated risks as well as safety behaviour, this study assesses their perceptions of pesticide use, associated impacts on human and environmental health and safety behaviours. This study is also intended to quantify pesticide use in vegetable farming...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Luke Nyakarahuka, Annabelle de St Maurice, Lawrence Purpura, Elizabeth Ervin, Stephen Balinandi, Alex Tumusiime, Jackson Kyondo, Sophia Mulei, Patrick Tusiime, Julius Lutwama, John Klena, Shelley Brown, Barbara Knust, Pierre E Rollin, Stuart T Nichol, Trevor R Shoemaker
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic disease caused by Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) found in Africa and the Middle East. Outbreaks can cause extensive morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. Following the diagnosis of two acute human RVF cases in Kabale district, Uganda, we conducted a serosurvey to estimate RVFV seroprevalence in humans and livestock and to identify associated risk factors. METHODS: Humans and animals at abattoirs and villages in Kabale district were sampled...
May 3, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Yuka Kasahara, Yuji Ikegaya, Ryuta Koyama
Current therapeutic strategies for epilepsy include anti-epileptic drugs and surgical treatments that are mainly focused on the suppression of existing seizures rather than the occurrence of the first spontaneous seizure. These symptomatic treatments help a certain proportion of patients, but these strategies are not intended to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the primary process of epilepsy development, i.e., epileptogenesis. Epileptogenic changes include reorganization of neural and glial circuits, resulting in the formation of an epileptogenic focus...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Pardeepinder K Brar, Michelle D Danyluk
Low-water-activity foods have been involved in recalls and foodborne disease outbreaks. Increased consumption; better detection methods and reporting systems; improved surveillance, trace-back, and ability to connect sporadic foodborne illnesses; and inadequate implementation of food safety programs are some of the likely reasons for the increase in frequency of recalls and outbreaks linked to dry foods. Nuts and grains can be contaminated with foodborne pathogens at any stage during production, processing, storage, and distribution...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Arian D Wallach, Marc Bekoff, Chelsea Batavia, Michael P Nelson, Daniel Ramp
Conservation practice is informed by science, but also reflects ethical beliefs about how we ought to value and interact with the Earth's biota. As human activities continue to drive extinctions and diminish critical life-sustaining ecosystem processes, achieving conservation goals becomes increasingly urgent. In our determination to react decisively, conservation challenges can be handled without due deliberation, particularly when wildlife individuals are sacrificed "for the greater good" of wildlife collectives (populations, species, ecosystems)...
April 27, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Susan C Shelmerdine, Ian C Simcock, John Ciaran Hutchinson, Rosalind Aughwane, Andrew Melbourne, Daniil I Nikitichev, Ju-Ling Ong, Alessandro Borghi, Garrard Cole, Emilia Kingham, Alistair D Calder, Claudio Capelli, Aadam Akhtar, Andrew C Cook, Silvia Schievano, Anna David, Sebastian Ourselin, Neil J Sebire, Owen J Arthurs
Microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT) is an imaging method that provides three dimensional (3D) digital datasets with comparable resolution to light microscopy. Although it has traditionally been used for non-destructive testing in engineering, aerospace industries and in preclinical animal studies, new applications are rapidly becoming available in the clinical setting including post-mortem fetal imaging and pathological specimen analysis. Printing three dimensional models from imaging datasets for educational purposes is well established in the medical literature, but typically using low resolution (0...
April 26, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
James Andrew Oxley, Clare Frances Ellis, E Anne McBride, Wanda Denise McCormick
Rabbits are commonly kept in a variety of settings, including homes, laboratories, and veterinary clinics. Despite the popularity of keeping this prey species, little research has investigated current methods of handling. The aim of this study was to examine the experience of caregivers (owners and keepers) in using five handling methods commonly referred to in books written for companion animal (pet) owners and veterinary and/or laboratory personnel. An online survey was completed by 2644 respondents, representing all three of these groups, and breeders...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Thais Eleonora Madeira Buti, Tatiana Kugelmeier, Gisela Sobral, Priscila Viau Furtado, Dafne do Valle Dutra de Andrade Neves, Claudio Alvarenga de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: The advent of non-invasive methods provides a powerful alternative to stress studies as the use of stressful handling techniques is no longer needed. However, many factors influence hormone metabolism such as sex, diet, and metabolic rate. Thus, validation should be species- and matrix-specific. METHODS: To assess stress response in brown howler monkeys Alouatta clamitans, we adopted an ACTH challenge test and parallelism to provide physiological and laboratorial validation...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Caroline Neely, Christina Lane, Julio Torres, Jane Flinn
Environmental factors play a significant role in well-being of laboratory animals. Regulations and guidelines recommend, if not require, that stressors such as bright lighting, smells, and noises are eliminated or reduced to maximize animal well-being. A factor that is often overlooked is handling and how researchers interact with their animals. Researchers, lab assistants, and husbandry staff in animal facilities may use inconsistent handling methods when interacting with rodents, but humans should be considered a part of the animal's social environment...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
Matteo Perini, Mauro Paolini, Federica Camin, Giovanni Appendino, Francesca Vitulo, Eric De Combarieu, Nicola Sardone, Ernesto Marco Martinelli, Roberto Pace
Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens, SP) is the most expensive oil source of the pharmaceutical and healthfood market, and its high cost and recurrent shortages have spurred the development of designer blends of fatty acids to mimic its phytochemical profile and fraudulently comply with the current authentication assays. To detect this adulteration, the combined use of isotopic fingerprint and omic analysis has been investigated, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to handle the complex databases generated by these techniques and to identify the possible source of the adulterants...
April 21, 2018: Fitoterapia
Paula Giménez-Mascarell, Carlotta Else Schirrmacher, Luis Alfonso Martínez-Cruz, Dominik Müller
Magnesium (Mg2+ ) is indispensable for several vital functions, such as neurotransmission, cardiac conductance, blood glucose, blood pressure regulation, and proper function of more than 300 enzymes. Thus, Mg2+ homeostasis is subject to tight regulation. Besides the fast and immediate regulation of plasma Mg2+ , a major part of Mg2+ homeostasis is realized by a concerted action of epithelial molecular structures that tightly control intestinal uptake and renal absorption. This mechanism is provided by a combination of para- and transcellular pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Carol S Bruggers, Sabrina Baranowski, Mathew Beseris, Rachel Leonard, Derek Long, Elizabeth Schulte, Ashton Shorter, Rowan Stigner, Clinton C Mason, Alisa Bedrov, Ian Pascual, Grzegorz Bulaj
Background: Medical advances continue to improve morbidity and mortality of serious pediatric diseases, including cancer, driving research addressing diminished physical and psychological quality of life in children with these chronic conditions. Empowerment enhances resilience and positively influences health, disease, and therapy understanding. We describe the development and usability assessment of a prototype Empower Stars! mobile video game grounded in behavioral and exercise theories with the purpose of coupling physical exercise with empowerment over disease in children with cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Salah A Baker, Bernard T Drumm, Caroline A Cobine, Kathleen D Keef, Kenton M Sanders
Gastrointestinal motility is coordinated by enteric neurons. Both inhibitory and excitatory motor neurons innervate the syncytium consisting of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells (SIP syncytium). Confocal imaging of mouse small intestines from animals expressing GCaMP3 in ICC were used to investigate inhibitory neural regulation of ICC in the deep muscular plexus (ICC-DMP). We hypothesized that Ca2+ signaling in ICC-DMP can be modulated by inhibitory enteric neural input...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Roffi Grandiosa, Mai-Louise Bouwman, Tim Young, Fabrice Mérien, Andrea C Alfaro
The ability to successfully prepare and preserve haemocyte cells for microscopy and flow cytometry is critical for the investigation of animal immune systems. In this study, we observed the total cell count, in vitro viability and stability of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocytes with different antiaggregants and handling protocols. Haemocyte stability was evaluated by direct observation of haemocytes under the microscope and calculating the aggregation index. Haemocyte counts and viability were measured via flow cytometry and tested for the effect of different antiaggregants (Alsever's solution at three concentrations, and specialised blood collection tubes containing lithium heparin and K2 EDTA) at different temperatures and storage times...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Stephanie M Shrader, William F Greentree
Since their development in the 1960s, Göttingen minipigs have become a popular nonrodent animal model in biomedical research, especially for ocular studies, because of their ease of handling, size, well-monitored genetics, and ocular anatomy that is similar to humans. The purpose of this mini-review is to introduce the reader to the various ways in which this animal model is currently being utilized in ocular research and to provide an overview of the diagnostic modalities that aid in this research. To date, the Göttingen minipig has been used for a variety of ocular research endeavors, including studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of ocular therapeutics, glaucoma etiopathogenesis and treatment, novel biomaterials, surgical procedures, and implantable materials/devices...
January 1, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
R O Moe, J Bohlin, A Flø, G Vasdal, H Erlandsen, E Guneriussen, E C Sjökvist, S M Stubsjøen
Footpad dermatitis is a condition that causes lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads in growing turkeys. Potential inflammatory processes and pain associated with increasing severity of footpad dermatitis raise animal welfare concerns. This study investigated whether the temperature of the plantar surface of the foot (the footpads and the entire plantar foot including interdigital membranes) assessed with infrared thermography reflects severity of mild footpad dermatitis as assessed with a Visual Analogue Scale in 80 turkey toms at 10 weeks of age...
April 17, 2018: Poultry Science
Georg Gerhard Duscher, Adnan Hodžić, Aleksandar Potkonjak, Michael W Leschnik, Joachim Spergser
Cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) are vectors of the zoonotic bacterial pathogens Bartonella henselae and Rickettsia felis, which are the causative agents of "cat scratch disease" and "cat flea typhus," respectively. In the surroundings of Vienna (Austria), we identified 11 (10.5%; n = 105) B. henselae-positive fleas originating from 8 cats (20.5%; n = 39). One flea was positive for R. felis. There should be high levels of awareness among veterinarians and animal keepers as to the handling of cats, especially if free roaming, stray, or feral...
April 18, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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