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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526694/measuring-osmosis-and-hemolysis-of-red-blood-cells
#1
Lauren K Goodhead, Frances M MacMillan
Since the discovery of the composition and structure of the mammalian cell membrane, biologists have had a clearer understanding of how substances enter and exit the cell's interior. The selectively permeable nature of the cell membrane allows the movement of some solutes and prevents the movement of others. This has important consequences for cell volume and the integrity of the cell and, as a result, is of utmost clinical importance, for example in the administration of isotonic intravenous infusions. The concepts of osmolarity and tonicity are often confused by students as impermeant isosmotic solutes such as NaCl are also isotonic; however, isosmotic solutes such as urea are actually hypotonic due to the permeant nature of the membrane...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516241/innate-immunity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-relevance-of-animal-models
#2
REVIEW
Diana K Franco Bocanegra, James A R Nicoll, Delphine Boche
The mouse is one of the organisms most widely used as an animal model in biomedical research, due to the particular ease with which it can be handled and reproduced in laboratory. As a member of the mammalian class, mice share with humans many features regarding metabolic pathways, cell morphology and anatomy. However, important biological differences between mice and humans exist and must be taken into consideration when interpreting research results, to properly translate evidence from experimental studies into information that can be useful for human disease prevention and/or treatment...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515081/flexible-ammonia-handling-strategies-using-both-cutaneous-and-branchial-epithelia-in-the-highly-ammonia-tolerant-pacific-hagfish
#3
Alexander M Clifford, Alyssa M Weinrauch, Susan L Edwards, Michael P Wilkie, Greg G Goss
Hagfish consume carrion, potentially exposing them to hypoxia, hypercarbia, and high environmental ammonia (HEA). We investigated branchial and cutaneous ammonia handling strategies by which Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) tolerate and recover from high ammonia loading. Hagfish were exposed to HEA (20 mmol L(-1)) for 48 h to elevate plasma total ammonia (TAmm) levels before placement into divided chambers for a 4 h recovery period in ammonia-free seawater where ammonia excretion (JAmm) was measured independently in the anterior and posterior compartments...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507766/effect-of-dietary-mannanoligosaccharide-supplementation-on-nutrient-digestibility-hindgut-fermentation-immune-response-and-antioxidant-indices-in-dogs
#4
Mahesh M Pawar, Ashok K Pattanaik, Dharmendra K Sinha, Tapas K Goswami, Kusumakar Sharma
BACKGROUND: Use of prebiotics in companion animal nutrition is often considered advantageous over probiotics because of the ease of handling, ability to withstand processing and storage etc. While most of the studies on prebiotic use in dogs have been done with processed food as basal diet, the response in relation to homemade diet feeding is not very well explored. METHODS: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, hindgut fermentation, immune response and antioxidant indices in dogs...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507410/isolation-and-identification-of-fungi-associated-with-spoilt-fruits-vended-in-gwagwalada-market-abuja-nigeria
#5
Samuel Mailafia, God'spower Richard Okoh, Hamza Olatunde K Olabode, Ramatu Osanupin
AIM: Annual reports have shown that 20% of fruits and vegetables produced are lost to spoilage. This study was undertaken to isolate and identify fungi that are associated with spoilt fruits commonly sold in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, and recommend appropriate control measure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in Gwagwalada metropolis, Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 100 spoilt fruits which include pawpaw (Carica papaya), orange (Citrus sinensis), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) were purchased and examined for the presence of fungal organisms using standard methods...
April 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497727/using-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-infectious-disease-research
#6
Mitchell Palmer, Rebecca J Cox, W Ray Waters, Tyler C Thacker, Diana L Whipple
Between 1940 and 2004, more than 335 emerging infectious disease events were reported in the scientific literature. Themajority (60%) of these events involved zoonoses, most of which (72%) were of wildlife origin or had an epidemiologically important wildlife host. Because this trend of increasing emerging diseases likely will continue, understanding the pathogenesis, transmission, and diagnosis of these diseases in the relevant wildlife host is paramount. Achieving this goal often requires using wild animals as research subjects, which are vastly different from the traditional livestock or laboratory animals used by most universities and institutions...
May 11, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490331/quantifying-capture-stress-in-free-ranging-european-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus
#7
Nikolaus Huber, Sebastian G Vetter, Alina L Evans, Petter Kjellander, Susanne Küker, Ulrika A Bergvall, Jon M Arnemo
BACKGROUND: To understand and reduce the concomitant effects of trapping and handling procedures in wildlife species, it is essential to measure their physiological impact. Here, we examined individual variation in stress levels in non-anesthetized European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), which were captured in box traps and physically restrained for tagging, biometrics and bio-sampling. In winter 2013, we collected venous blood samples from 28 individuals during 28 capture events and evaluated standard measurements for stress (heart rate, body temperature, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, lactate and total cortisol)...
May 10, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483459/animal-models-of-atherosclerosis
#8
Besa Emini Veseli, Paola Perrotta, Gregory R A De Meyer, Lynn Roth, Carole Van der Donckt, Wim Martinet, Guido R Y De Meyer
An ideal animal model of atherosclerosis resembles human anatomy and pathophysiology and has the potential to be used in medical and pharmaceutical research to obtain results that can be extrapolated to human medicine. Moreover, it must be easy to acquire, can be maintained at a reasonable cost, is easy to handle and shares the topography of the lesions with humans. In general, animal models of atherosclerosis are based on accelerated plaque formation due to a cholesterol-rich/Western-type diet, manipulation of genes involved in the cholesterol metabolism, and the introduction of additional risk factors for atherosclerosis...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481427/individual-versus-pseudo-repeatability-in-behaviour-lessons-from-translocation-experiments-in-a-wild-insect
#9
Petri T Niemelä, Niels J Dingemanse
1.Repeatability represents a key parameter in ecological and evolutionary research. Repeatability is underpinned by developmental plasticity and genetic variation but may become biased upwards by repeatable differences in environments to which individuals respond plastically. The extent of upward bias caused by the latter mechanism (causing "pseudo-repeatability") is important yet rarely investigated in ecological research. 2.We repeatedly assayed a key behaviour (flight initiation distance) affecting longevity in a wild cricket population (Gryllus campestris)...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478822/animal-nutrition-and-breeding-conditions-modify-the-physiology-of-isolated-primary-cells
#10
Irina Milisav, Blaž Banič, Dušan Šuput
Animal primary cell cultures are widely used in biomedical research to investigate cell metabolism, diseases and to devise novel treatments. Modern animal breeding techniques are developed to unify, control and reduce the amount of microorganisms that the animals are being exposed to. Furthermore, health monitoring and strict caging and handling protocols allow animals to be exposed only to a selected spectrum of microbes. We are starting to appreciate that nutrition can influence composition of gut microbiota that can impact hosting organism's physiology and can even result in development of pathological changes...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475627/effects-on-pig-immunophysiology-pbmc-proteome-and-brain-neurotransmitters-caused-by-group-mixing-stress-and-human-animal-relationship
#11
Daniel Valent, Laura Arroyo, Raquel Peña, Kuai Yu, Ricard Carreras, Eva Mainau, Antonio Velarde, Anna Bassols
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are an interesting sample for searching for biomarkers with proteomic techniques because they are easy to obtain and do not contain highly abundant, potentially masking proteins. Two groups of pigs (n = 56) were subjected to mixing under farm conditions and afterwards subjected to different management treatments: negative handling (NH) and positive handling (PH). Serum and PBMC samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment one week after mixing (t0) and after two months of different handling (t2)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470722/estimation-and-simulation-of-foraging-trips-in-land-based-marine-predators
#12
Théo Michelot, Roland Langrock, Sophie Bestley, Ian D Jonsen, Theoni Photopoulou, Toby A Patterson
The behaviour of colony-based marine predators is the focus of much research globally. Large telemetry and tracking data sets have been collected for this group of animals, and are accompanied by many empirical studies that seek to segment tracks in some useful way, as well as theoretical studies of optimal foraging strategies. However, relatively few studies have detailed statistical methods for inferring behaviours in central place foraging trips. In this paper we describe an approach based on hidden Markov models, which splits foraging trips into segments labeled as "outbound", "search", "forage", and "inbound"...
May 4, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468960/genetic-disruption-of-adenosine-kinase-in-mouse-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-protects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-glucose-intolerance
#13
Guadalupe Navarro, Yassan Abdolazami, Zhengshan Zhao, Haixia Xu, Sooyeon Lee, Neali A Armstrong, Justin P Annes
Islet β-cells adapt to insulin resistance through increased insulin secretion and expansion. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) typically occurs when prolonged insulin resistance exceeds the adaptive capacity of β-cells. Our prior screening efforts led to the discovery that Adenosine kinase (ADK) inhibitors stimulate β-cell replication. Here evaluated whether ADK disruption in mouse β-cells impacts β-cell mass and/or protects against high fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose dysregulation. Mice targeted at the Adk locus were bred to Rip-Cre and Ins1-Cre/ERT(1Lphi) mice to enable constitutive (βADKO) and conditional (iβADKO) disruption of ADK expression in β-cells, respectively...
May 3, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467600/recent-advancements-and-new-perspectives-in-animal-models-for-neurocysticercosis-immunopathogenesis
#14
REVIEW
N Arora, S Tripathi, P Kumar, P Mondal, A Mishra, A Prasad
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), one of the most common parasitic diseases of the central nervous system, is caused by Taenia solium. This parasite involves two hosts, intermediate hosts (pig and human) and a definitive host (human), and has various stages in its complex life cycle (eggs, oncosphere, cysticerci and adult tapeworm). Hence, developing an animal model for T. solium that mimics its natural course of infection is quite challenging. We have reviewed here the animal models frequently used to study immunopathogenesis of cysticercosis and also discussed their usefulness for NCC studies...
May 3, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466955/-epidemiology-and-prevention-of-leptospirosis-in-dogs
#15
Michèle Bergmann, Julia-Rebecca Llewellyn, Katrin Hartmann
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with increasing prevalence in dogs and humans. The various Leptospira serovars display different pathogenicity. Even healthy infected dogs can shed leptospires with their urine and thus, represent a risk for humans and other animals. Vaccination is the most important measure for prevention; it not only prevents disease in dogs, but also reduces shedding of leptospires in urine. For comprehensive protection through vaccination, tetravalent vaccines containing serovars of the serogroups relevant in the corresponding region should be used...
May 3, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464114/management-practices-associated-with-stress-in-cattle-on-western-canadian-cow-calf-operations-a-mixed-methods-study
#16
M A Moggy, E A Pajor, W E Thurston, S Parker, A M Greter, K S Schwartzkopf-Genswein, J R Campbell, M C Windeyer
Handling, weaning, and euthanasia are some of the most stressful practices performed on cow-calf operations. Although strategies to minimize stress exist, their use on western Canadian cow-calf operations is unknown. The objectives were to describe current stress-associated practices on western Canadian cow-calf operations, describe producer and operation demographics associated with the use of nonabrupt weaning methods, and explore producer perceptions toward these practices. A questionnaire focusing on stressful management practices was delivered to 109 cow-calf producers in western Canada...
April 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462397/an-overview-on-ethical-considerations-in-stem-cell-research-in-iran-and-ethical-recommendations-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Tahmineh Farajkhoda
Conducting research on the stem cell lines might bring some worthy good to public. Human Stem Cells (hSCs) research has provided opportunities for scientific progresses and new therapies, but some complex ethical matters should be noticed to ensure that stem cell research is carried out in an ethically appropriate manner. The aim of this review article is to discuss the importance of stem cell research, code of ethics for stem cell research in Iran and ethical recommendation. Generation of stem cells for research from human embryo or adult stem cells, saving, maintenance and using of them are the main ethical, legal and jurisprudence concerns in Iran...
February 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460243/optimal-control-design-of-preparation-pulses-for-contrast-optimization-in-mri
#18
Eric Van Reeth, Hélène Ratiney, Michael Tesch, Denis Grenier, Olivier Beuf, Steffen J Glaser, Dominique Sugny
This work investigates the use of MRI radio-frequency (RF) pulses designed within the framework of optimal control theory for image contrast optimization. The magnetization evolution is modeled with Bloch equations, which defines a dynamic system that can be controlled via the application of the Pontryagin Maximum Principle (PMP). This framework allows the computation of optimal RF pulses that bring the magnetization to a given state to obtain the desired contrast after acquisition. Creating contrast through the optimal manipulation of Bloch equations is a new way of handling contrast in MRI, which can explore the theoretical limits of the system...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457663/meat-flavour-in-pork-and-beef-from-animal-to-meal
#19
Margit D Aaslyng, Lene Meinert
An intense meat flavour is greatly appreciated by consumers. Meat flavour is generated during the cooking process through a complex series of chemical reactions between precursors, intermediate reaction products and degradation products. The content and nature of the precursors present in the meat are affected by several factors including genetics, feed, handling of the live animals and subsequent handling of the meat. The fatty acid composition can easily be altered though feeding, especially in monogastric animals, while the carbohydrate content is more closely related to genetics (pigs), feeding in the last days before slaughter and handling at slaughter (both ante and post mortem)...
April 20, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452048/artificial-light-at-night-alters-trophic-interactions-of-intertidal-invertebrates
#20
Charlotte N Underwood, Thomas W Davies, Ana M Queirós
Despite being globally widespread in coastal regions, the impacts of light pollution on intertidal ecosystems has received little attention. Intertidal species exhibit many night-time-dependent ecological strategies, including feeding, reproduction, orientation and predator avoidance, which are likely negatively affected by shifting light regimes, as has been observed in terrestrial and aquatic taxa. Coastal lighting may shape intertidal communities through its influence on the nocturnal foraging activity of dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus), a widespread predatory mollusc that structures biodiversity in temperate rocky shores...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
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