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Environmental enrichment

Marco Helbich, Derek de Beurs, Mei-Po Kwan, Rory C O'Connor, Peter P Groenewegen
Background: Natural outdoor environments, such as green spaces (ie, grass, forests, or parks), blue spaces (ie, visible bodies of fresh or salt water), and coastal proximity, have been increasingly shown to promote mental health. However, little is known about how and the extent to which these natural environments are associated with suicide mortality. Our aim was to investigate whether the availability of green space and blue space within people's living environments and living next to the coast are protective against suicide mortality...
March 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Εvgenia Dandi, Aikaterini Kalamari, Olga Touloumi, Rosa Lagoudaki, Evangelia Nousiopoulou, Constantina Simeonidou, Evangelia Spandou, Despina Α Tata
Exposure to environmental enrichment can beneficially influence the behavior and enhance synaptic plasticity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mediated effects of environmental enrichment on postnatal stress-associated impact with regard to behavior, stress reactivity as well as synaptic plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus. Wistar rat pups were submitted to a 3 h maternal separation (MS) protocol during postnatal days 1-21, while another group was left undisturbed. On postnatal day 23, a subgroup from each rearing condition (maternal separation, no-maternal separation) was housed in enriched environmental conditions until postnatal day 65 (6 weeks duration)...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Mariola A Dietrich, Piotr Hliwa, Mikołaj Adamek, Dieter Steinhagen, Halina Karol, Andrzej Ciereszko
The environmental temperature affects plasma biochemical indicators, antioxidant status and hematological and immunological parameters in fish. So far, only single blood proteins have been identified in response to temperature changes. The aim of this study was to compare the proteome of carp blood plasma from males acclimated to warm (30 °C) and cold (10 °C) temperatures by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 47 spots were found to be differentially regulated by temperature (>1...
March 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Michael A Taylor, Jong W Yu, Thomas L Howell, Stephen H Jones
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne human infections in the United States, and many of these illnesses are associated with consumption of raw molluscan shellfish. V. parahaemolyticus levels in shellfish vary temporally and spatially with environmental conditions in and around production areas. The objective of this study was to study the potential for reducing levels of V. parahaemolyticus in live oysters by relaying them during higher-risk warm weather to a site with elevated salinity and consistently low V...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Mei Mei, Haojun Song, Lina Chen, Bin Hu, Ru Bai, Diandou Xu, Ying Liu, Yuliang Zhao, Chunying Chen
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested that elevated levels of air pollution contribute to an increased incidence or severity of asthma. Although late-onset adult asthma seems to be more attributable to environmental risk factors, limited data is available on the impact of early-life exposure to size-fractionated ambient particulate matter (PM) on asthma in adults. We aimed to determine the effect on the development and exacerbation of asthma in the adult after the mice were exposed as juveniles to three size-fractionated ambient particulates collected from Beijing...
March 14, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Weize Song, Haifeng Jia, Zhilin Li, Deliang Tang
Urban air pollutant distribution is a concern in environmental and health studies. Particularly, the spatial distribution of NO2 and PM2.5 , which represent photochemical smog and haze pollution in urban areas, is of concern. This paper presents a study quantifying the seasonal differences between urban NO2 and PM2.5 distributions in Foshan, China. A geographical semi-variogram analysis was conducted to delineate the spatial variation in daily NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations. The data were collected from 38 sites in the government-operated monitoring network...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Meng-Meng Zhang, Ning Wang, Yan-Bo Hu, Guang-Yu Sun
A better understanding of tree-based intercropping effects on soil physicochemical properties and bacterial community has a potential contribution to improvement of agroforestry productivity and sustainability. In this study, we investigated the effects of mulberry/alfalfa intercropping on soil physicochemical properties and soil bacterial community by MiSeq sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The results showed a significant increase in the contents of available nitrogen, available phosphate, available potassium, and total carbon in the rhizosphere soil of the intercropped alfalfa...
March 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Vladica Stevanović, Ljiljana Gulan, Biljana Milenković, Aleksandar Valjarević, Tijana Zeremski, Ivana Penjišević
Activity levels of natural and artificial radionuclides and content of ten heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg) were investigated in 41 soil samples collected from Toplica region located in the south part of Serbia. Radioactivity was determined by gamma spectrometry using HPGe detector. The obtained mean activity concentrations ± standard deviations of radionuclides226 Ra,232 Th,40 K and137 Cs were 29.9 ± 9.4, 36.6 ± 11.5, 492 ± 181 and 13.4 ± 18.7 Bq kg-1 , respectively...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Yuchen Yang, Wuxia Guo, Xu Shen, Jianfang Li, Shuhuan Yang, Sufang Chen, Ziwen He, Renchao Zhou, Suhua Shi
Alternative splicing (AS), which produces multiple mRNA transcripts from a single gene, plays crucial roles in plant growth, development and environmental stress responses. Functional significances of conserved AS events among congeneric species have not been well characterized. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing to characterize AS events in four common species of Sonneratia, a mangrove genus excellently adaptive to intertidal zones. 7,248 to 12,623 AS events were identified in approximately 25% to 35% expressed genes in the roots of the four species...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wei-Kun Meng, Lu Liu, Xia Wang, Ru-Song Zhao, Ming-Lin Wang, Jin-Ming Lin
The high performance separation and pre-concentration of polar phenols from aqueous matrices is difficult because of the strong interactions between phenols and water molecules. Conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) are a kind of novel porous organic materials. Polyphenylene core-conjugated microporous polymers (PPc-CMPs) were used as a novel coating material in the solid-phase microextraction of polar phenols in water samples for the first time. The novel PPc-CMPs fibers exhibited good thermal stability (>450 °C), high enrichment factors (519-2372), low limits of detection (0...
July 26, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Stephan Brendel, Éva Fetter, Claudia Staude, Lena Vierke, Annegret Biegel-Engler
Background: Short-chain PFASs (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) are widely used as alternatives to long-chain PFASs. Long-chain PFASs become gradually regulated under REACH (EC No. 1907/2006) and other international regulations, due to having persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties and/or being toxic for reproduction. The increasingly used short-chain PFASs are assumed to have a lower bioaccumulation potential. Nonetheless, they have other properties of concern and are already widely distributed in the environment, also in remote regions...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
Vijayaraghavan Rangachari, Dexter N Dean, Pratip Rana, Ashwin Vaidya, Preetam Ghosh
Self-templating propagation of protein aggregate conformations is increasingly becoming a significant factor in many neurological diseases. In Alzheimer disease (AD), intrinsically disordered amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides undergo aggregation that is sensitive to environmental conditions. High-molecular weight aggregates of Aβ that form insoluble fibrils are deposited as senile plaques in AD brains. However, low-molecular weight aggregates called soluble oligomers are known to be the primary toxic agents responsible for neuronal dysfunction...
March 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Maja Poznanović Spahić, Sanja Sakan, Željko Cvetković, Pavle Tančić, Jelena Trifković, Zoran Nikić, Dragan Manojlović
Content of potentially toxic elements was examined in soils from Srem (Vojvodina), to evaluate industrial facilities as pollution sources. Based on the distribution of the elements, the results of sequential extraction, enrichment factor (EF), ecological risk factor (Er), ecological risk index (RI), and statistical analysis, the current ecological status of the soils was determined. Elements in soils around the industrial facilities can be grouped into the five significant components derived by the principal component analysis (PCA), which explains 78...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Cèlia Marrasé, Ana Muñoz-Fernández, M Montserrat Sala, Rafel Simó, Josep M Gasol
Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEPs) are a subclass of organic particles with high impact in biogeochemical and ecological processes, such as the biological carbon pump, air-sea interactions, or the microbial loop. However, the complexity in production and consumption makes TEP dynamics hardly predictable, calling for the need of descriptive studies about the in situ dynamics of these particles. We followed monthly TEP dynamics and combined them with a dataset of environmental variables during three years in a coastal site of the oligotrophic North Western Mediterranean (Blanes Bay)...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ji-Liang Zhang, Min Liu, Chun-Nuan Zhang, Er-Chao Li, Ming-Zhen Fan, Mao-Xian Huang
The brain of fish displays sexual dimorphisms and exhibits remarkable sexual plasticity throughout their life span. Although reproductive toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) in fish is well documented in fish, it remains unknown whether TBT interrupts sexual dimorphisms of fish brains. In this work, brain transcriptomic profiles of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was characterized and sex-biased genes were identified using RNA sequencing. Functional annotation and enrichment analysis were performed to reveal differences of gene products and pathways between the brains of male and female fish...
March 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Małgorzata Kiełczykowska, Joanna Kocot, Marek Paździor, Irena Musik
Selenium is a trace element which fulfils important functions in the organism. Its deficit may cause acute disorders, but an overdose can also lead to severe consequences. The functions of selenium in the organism are mainly connected with its antioxidant properties, as it is an essential part of important antioxidant enzymes. Disturbances of oxidant balance have been found to be involved in the activity of numerous harmful factors as well as in the pathogenesis of diverse illnesses. Selenium administration has proved to be effective against the toxicity of many agents and the side effects of drugs...
February 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Daniele Frascareli, Sheila Cardoso-Silva, Juliana de Oliveira Soares-Silva Mizael, André Henrique Rosa, Marcelo Luiz Martins Pompêo, Julio Cesar López-Doval, Viviane Moschini-Carlos
Depending on the environmental conditions, surface sediments can retain all the contaminants present and provide a record of the anthropic activities affecting the aquatic environment. In order to analyze the impacts on reservoirs, surface sediments were collected in three characteristic regions (riverine, transitional, and limnetic zones) of seven reservoirs in São Paulo State, Brazil. Analyses were made of grain size, organic matter (OM), total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen (TN). Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was used to determine pseudo-total and bioavailable metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn, Fe, and Al)...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Chongwen Wang, Bing Gu, Qiqi Liu, Yuanfeng Pang, Rui Xiao, Shengqi Wang
Background: Pathogenic bacteria have always been a significant threat to human health. The detection of pathogens needs to be rapid, accurate, and convenient. Methods: We present a sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) biosensor based on the combination of vancomycin-modified Ag-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3 O4 @Ag-Van MNPs) and Au@Ag nanoparticles (NPs) that can effectively capture and discriminate bacterial pathogens from solution. The high-performance Fe3 O4 @Ag MNPs were modified with vancomycin and used as bacteria capturer for magnetic separation and enrichment...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Muthu Dharmasena, Xiuping Jiang
This study was to optimize the detection methods for Clostridium difficile from the animal manure-based composts. Both autoclaved and unautoclaved dairy composts were inoculated with a 12-h old suspension of a non-toxigenic C. difficile strain (ATCC 43593) and then plated on selected agar for vegetative cells and endospores. Six types of enrichment broths supplemented with taurocholate and L-cysteine were assessed for detecting a low level of artificially inoculated C. difficile (ca. 5 spores/g) from dairy composts...
March 5, 2018: Anaerobe
C L Bailie, C Ijichi, N E O'Connell
Lower stocking densities (SD) are sometimes used in windowed houses for broilers as part of systems designed to produce high-welfare products. However, there is little scientific information on the effects of SD on welfare-related measures in broilers in windowed houses, and on whether these effects are influenced by environmental enrichment. Commercial windowed broiler chicken houses were assigned to 4 target SD (30, 32, 34, and 36 kg/m2) and 2 levels of access to string [+S (one piece per 1,000 birds/house), -S] in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement...
March 5, 2018: Poultry Science
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