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Environmental enrichment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445727/environmental-enrichment-induces-pericyte-and-iga-dependent-wound-repair-and-lifespan-extension-in-a-colon-tumor-model
#1
Benjamin D Bice, Megan R Stephens, Stephanie J Georges, Ashlee R Venancio, Peter C Bermant, Annika V Warncke, Kajsa E Affolter, Julio R Hidalgo, Melinda L Angus-Hill
Environmental enrichment (EE) replicates mind-body therapy by providing complex housing to laboratory animals to improve their activity levels, behavior, and social interactions. Using a Tcf4(Het/+)Apc(Min/+)-mediated model of colon tumorigenesis, we found that EE vastly improved the survival of tumor-bearing animals, with differential effect on tumor load in male compared to female animals. Analysis of Tcf4(Het/+)Apc(Min/+) males showed drastically reduced expression of circulating inflammatory cytokines and induced nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) signaling, both of which are common in the wound repair process...
April 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444189/environmental-enrichment-in-the-21st-century
#2
Kristine Coleman, Melinda A Novak
More than a quarter of a century has elapsed since the Animal Welfare Act mandated that research facilities develop and follow a plan to promote the psychological well-being of captive primates. Since passage of this law, considerable effort and resources have been directed to designing environmental enrichment strategies in an effort to improve animal welfare. These plans typically consist of environmental enrichment and socialization efforts. While environmental enhancement has undergone a great deal of improvement in the past 25 years, it should be viewed as a continual work in progress, which takes advantage of emergent and future technologies...
April 21, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443289/frequency-and-duration-of-fecal-shedding-of-salmonella-enteritidis-by-experimentally-infected-laying-hens-housed-in-enriched-colony-cages-at-different-stocking-densities
#3
Richard K Gast, Rupa Guraya, Deana R Jones, Kenneth E Anderson, Darrin M Karcher
Human infections with Salmonella Enteritidis are often attributed to the consumption of contaminated eggs, so the prevalence of this pathogen in egg-laying poultry is an important public health risk factor. Numerous and complex environmental influences on Salmonella persistence and transmission are exerted by management practices and housing facilities used in commercial egg production. In recent years, the animal welfare implications of poultry housing systems have guided the development of alternatives to traditional cage-based housing, but their food safety consequences are not yet fully understood...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442008/biotransformation-of-rdx-and-hmx-by-anaerobic-granular-sludge-with-enriched-sulfate-and-nitrate
#4
Chunjiang An, Yarong Shi, Yanling He, Guohe Huang, Yonghong Liu, Shucheng Yang
  RDX and HMX are widely used energetic materials and they are recognized as environmental contaminants at numerous locations. The present study investigated the biotransformation of RDX and HMX by anaerobic granular sludge under sulfate- and nitrate-enriched conditions. The results showed that RDX and HMX could be transformed by anaerobic granular sludge when nitrate was present. However, the biotransformation of RDX and HMX was negatively influenced, especially with high nitrate concentrations. Sulfate-enriched conditions were more favorable for the removal of ammunition compounds by anaerobic granular sludge than nitrate-enriched conditions...
May 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441534/managing-the-plant-microbiome-for-biocontrol-fungi-examples-from-hypocreales
#5
REVIEW
Ryan M Kepler, Jude E Maul, Stephen A Rehner
Feeding an increasing global population requires continued improvements in agricultural efficiency and productivity. Meeting estimated future production levels requires the adoption of practices that increase output without environmental degradation associated with external inputs to supplement nutrition or control pests. Enriching the community of microbes associated with plants in agricultural systems for those providing ecosystem services such as pest control is one possible component towards achieving sustainable productivity increases...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440630/a-hydrolytically-stable-luminescent-cationic-metal-organic-framework-for-highly-sensitive-and-selective-sensing-of-chromate-anion-in-natural-water-systems
#6
Wei Liu, Yanlong Wang, Zhuanling Bai, Yuxiang Li, Yaxing Wang, Lanhua Chen, Lin Xu, Juan Diwu, Zhifang Chai, Shuao Wang
The effective detection of chromate anion in aqueous solution is highly desirable due to its high solubility, environmental mobility, carcinogenicity, and bioaccumulation effect. New strategy for precise detection of chromate anion in the presence of large excess of other anions such as Cl-, NO3-, HCO3- in drinking water and natural water systems remains a challenge. Herein, a hydrolytically stable cationic luminescent europium(III) based metal organic framework (MOF) 1 is successfully synthesized and investigated as a luminescent sensor which exhibits instant and selective luminescence quenching property toward CrO42- in aqueous solutions...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439263/microbial-diversity-of-browning-peninsula-eastern-antarctica-revealed-using-molecular-and-cultivation-methods
#7
Sarita Pudasaini, John Wilson, Mukan Ji, Josie van Dorst, Ian Snape, Anne S Palmer, Brendan P Burns, Belinda C Ferrari
Browning Peninsula is an ice-free polar desert situated in the Windmill Islands, Eastern Antarctica. The entire site is described as a barren landscape, comprised of frost boils with soils dominated by microbial life. In this study, we explored the microbial diversity and edaphic drivers of community structure across this site using traditional cultivation methods, a novel approach the soil substrate membrane system (SSMS), and culture-independent 454-tag pyrosequencing. The measured soil environmental and microphysical factors of chlorine, phosphate, aspect and elevation were found to be significant drivers of the bacterial community, while none of the soil parameters analyzed were significantly correlated to the fungal community...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439033/genome-wide-identification-of-resd-nsrr-and-fur-binding-in-bacillus-subtilis-during-anaerobic-fermentative-growth-by-in-vivo-footprinting
#8
Onuma Chumsakul, Divya P Anantsri, Tai Quirke, Taku Oshima, Kensuke Nakamura, Shu Ishikawa, Michiko M Nakano
Upon oxygen limitation, the Bacillus subtilis ResE sensor kinase and its cognate ResD response regulator play primary roles in transcriptional activation of genes functioning in anaerobic respiration. The nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive NsrR repressor controls transcription to support nitrate respiration. In addition, the ferric uptake repressor (Fur) can modulate transcription under anaerobic conditions. However, whether these controls are direct or indirect has been investigated only in a gene-specific manner...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437776/large-scale-seaweed-cultivation-diverges-water-and-sediment-microbial-communities-in-the-coast-of-nan-ao-island-south-china-sea
#9
Xinfei Xie, Zhili He, Xiaojuan Hu, Huaqun Yin, Xueduan Liu, Yufeng Yang
Seaweed cultivation not only provides economy benefits, but also remediates the environment contaminated by mariculture of animals (e.g., fish, shrimps). However, the response of microbial communities to seaweed cultivation is poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the diversity, composition, and structure of water and sediment microbial communities at a seaweed, Gracilaria lemaneiformis, cultivation zone and a control zone near Nan'ao Island, South China Sea by MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437771/solvent-bar-micro-extraction-sbme-based-determination-of-pahs-in-seawater-samples
#10
José A López-López, Esther Ogalla-Chozas, Pablo A Lara-Martín, Marina G Pintado-Herrera
Measuring the impact of PAHs in seawater samples is often difficult due to the low concentrations in which they appear and the complexity of the sample matrix. Traditional methods for sample preparation such as liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction require the use of excessive amounts of solvents and reagents, and sample handling. In this work, hollow fiber liquid phase micro-extraction (HFLPME), in the configuration of solvent bar micro-extraction (SBME), was proposed as an environmentally friendly and more effective tool, for the extraction of the 16 priority PAHs from seawater samples...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434732/the-effect-of-a-furnished-individual-hutch-pre-weaning-on-calf-behavior-response-to-novelty-and-growth
#11
J A Pempek, M L Eastridge, K L Proudfoot
Housing preweaned dairy calves in individual outdoor hutches is common in North America. However, this type of housing lacks stimulation and minimizes calves' ability to express natural behavior. Providing a social companion has been shown to stimulate natural behavior and promote growth, but no research has assessed the effect of providing physical enrichment items to calves pre-weaning. The objective of this study was to determine calf use of physical items added to an individual hutch, and if providing these items affected growth, behavior (e...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433669/environmental-enrichment-reverses-memory-impairment-induced-by-toluene-in-mice
#12
Sergio Montes, Rocío Del Carmen Solís-Guillen, David García-Jácome, Nayeli Páez-Martínez
Toluene is the main component of a variety of inhalants that are used for intoxication purposes. Alterations in memory have been reported in inhalant users; however, it is unclear whether these impairments could be reversed, and the mechanisms involved in the putative recovery. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to model the deleterious effects of toluene on memory in mice and to evaluate the effect of environmental enrichment on that response. In the second part of the study, the concentrations of glutamate and GABA, following chronic toluene exposure and after environmental enrichment treatment, were evaluated...
April 19, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432010/exposure-to-an-enriched-environment-facilitates-motor-recovery-and-prevents-short-term-memory-impairment-and-reduction-of-striatal-bdnf-in-a-progressive-pharmacological-model-of-parkinsonism-in-mice
#13
Clarissa L C Campêlo, José R Santos, Anatildes F Silva, Aline L Dierschnabel, André Pontes, Jeferson S Cavalcante, Alessandra M Ribeiro, Regina H Silva
Previous studies showed that the repeated administration with a low dose of reserpine (RES) induces a gradual appearance of motor signs and cognitive deficits compatible with parkinsonism in rodents. Environmental stimulation has neuroprotective effects in animal models of neurodegenerative damage, including acutely induced parkinsonism. We investigated the effects of exposure to an enriched environment (EE) on motor, cognitive and neuronal (levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, TH and brain derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF) deficits induced by a progressive model of Parkinson's disease (PD) in mice...
April 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431184/congener-specific-disposition-of-chiral-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-lactating-mice-and-their-offspring-implications-for-pcb-developmental-neurotoxicity
#14
Izabela Kania-Korwel, Tracy Lukasiewicz, Christopher D Barnhart, Marianna Stamou, Haeun Chung, Kevin M Kelly, Stelvio Bandiera, Pamela J Lein, Hans-Joachim Lehmler
Chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners have been implicated by laboratory and epidemiological studies in PCB developmental neurotoxicity. These congeners are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes to potentially neurotoxic hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs). The present study explores the enantioselective disposition and toxicity of two environmentally relevant, neurotoxic PCB congeners and their OH-PCB metabolites in lactating mice and their offspring following dietary exposure of the dam. Female C57BL/6N mice (8 weeks old) were fed daily, beginning two weeks prior to conception and continuing throughout gestation and lactation, with 3...
April 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431042/cis-regulatory-divergence-in-gene-expression-between-two-thermally-divergent-yeast-species
#15
Xueying C Li, Justin C Fay
Gene regulation is a ubiquitous mechanism by which organisms respond to their environment. While organisms are often found to be adapted to the environments they experience, the role of gene regulation in environmental adaptation is not often known. In this study, we examine divergence in cis-regulatory effects between two Saccharomyces species, S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum, that have substantially diverged in their thermal growth profile. We measured allele specific expression (ASE) in the species' hybrid at three temperatures, the highest of which is lethal to S...
April 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430818/comparative-genomics-of-burkholderia-multivorans-a-ubiquitous-pathogen-with-a-highly-conserved-genomic-structure
#16
Charlotte Peeters, Vaughn S Cooper, Philip J Hatcher, Bart Verheyde, Aurélien Carlier, Peter Vandamme
The natural environment serves as a reservoir of opportunistic pathogens. A well-established method for studying the epidemiology of such opportunists is multilocus sequence typing, which in many cases has defined strains predisposed to causing infection. Burkholderia multivorans is an important pathogen in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) and its epidemiology suggests that strains are acquired from non-human sources such as the natural environment. This raises the central question of whether the isolation source (CF or environment) or the multilocus sequence type (ST) of B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427996/no-evidence-that-environmental-enrichment-during-rearing-protects-against-cocaine-behavioral-effects-but-as-an-intervention-reduces-an-already-established-cocaine-conditioned-place-preference
#17
E Galaj, A Shukur, M Manuszak, K Newman, R Ranaldi
OBJECTIVES: Environmental enrichment (EE) produces differential effects on psychostimulant-related behaviors. Therefore, we investigated whether the timing of EE exposure - during rearing and before cocaine exposure versus in adulthood and after cocaine exposure might be a determining factor. METHODS: In Experiment 1, rats reared with EE or not (non-EE) were conditioned with cocaine (5, 10 or 20mg/kg) in one compartment of a CPP apparatus and saline in the other, and later tested for cocaine CPP...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424053/stress-induced-nuclear-granules-form-in-response-to-accumulation-of-misfolded-proteins-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Katherine M Sampuda, Mason Riley, Lynn Boyd
BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can affect the viability or fecundity of an organism. Environmental stressors may affect the genome or the proteome and can cause cellular distress by contributing to protein damage or misfolding. This study examines the cellular response to environmental stress in the germline of the nematode, C. elegans. RESULTS: Salt stress, oxidative stress, and starvation, but not heat shock, induce the relocalization of ubiquitin, proteasome, and the TIAR-2 protein into distinct subnuclear regions referred to as stress induced nuclear granules (SINGs)...
April 19, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423037/identification-of-candidate-chemosensory-genes-by-transcriptome-analysis-in-loxostege-sticticalis-linnaeus
#19
Hong-Shuang Wei, Ke-Bin Li, Shuai Zhang, Ya-Zhong Cao, Jiao Yin
Loxostege sticticalis Linnaeus is an economically important agricultural pest, and the larvae cause great damage to crops, especially in Northern China. However, effective and environmentally friendly chemical methods for controlling this pest have not been discovered to date. In the present study, we performed HiSeq2500 sequencing of transcriptomes of the male and female adult antennae, adult legs and third instar larvae, and we identified 54 candidate odorant receptors (ORs), including 1 odorant receptor coreceptor (Orco) and 5 pheromone receptors (PRs), 18 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 13 gustatory receptors (GRs), 34 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), including 1 general odorant binding protein (GOBP1) and 3 pheromone binding proteins (PBPs), 10 chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422391/mr-elastography-detection-of-early-viscoelastic-response-of-the-murine-hippocampus-to-amyloid-%C3%AE-accumulation-and-neuronal-cell-loss-due-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Tonia Munder, Anna Pfeffer, Stefanie Schreyer, Jing Guo, Juergen Braun, Ingolf Sack, Barbara Steiner, Charlotte Klein
PURPOSE: To investigate in vivo viscoelastic parameters related to early histopathological changes in the hippocampus and the cortex in early, preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) stages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) was applied to female APP23 mice, an established transgenic mouse model of AD, at three different stages early in disease progression. To investigate the potential therapeutic effects of physical, cognitive, and social stimulation on brain viscoelasticity and histopathological characteristics, MRE was also applied after exposing young APP23 mice to environmentally enriched cage conditions (ENR), for 1, 12, or 24 weeks, which corresponds to adolescent, young-adult, and adult age at the time of analysis...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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