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Environmental enrichment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786878/dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-differentially-impact-acute-ethanol-responsive-behaviors-and-ethanol-consumption-in-dba-2j-versus-c57bl-6j-mice
#1
Jennifer T Wolstenholme, M Scott Bowers, Alexander B Pais, A Christian Pais, Ryan S Poland, Justin L Poklis, Andrew G Davies, Jill C Bettinger
BACKGROUND: Complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors influence the risk for developing alcohol use disorder (AUD) in humans. To date, studies of the impact of environment on AUD risk have primarily focused on psychological characteristics or on the effects of developmental exposure to ethanol. We recently observed that modifying levels of the long-chain ω-3 (LC ω-3) fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), alters acute physiological responses to ethanol in C. elegans...
May 22, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786063/induction-of-prolonged-natural-lifespans-in-mice-exposed-to-acoustic-environmental-enrichment
#2
Yuichi Yamashita, Norie Kawai, Osamu Ueno, Yui Matsumoto, Tsutomu Oohashi, Manabu Honda
We investigated the effect of acoustic environmental enrichment (EE) on the lifespans and behaviours of mice to the end of their natural lifespan in different acoustic environments. Acoustic EE induced a significantly prolonged natural lifespan (nearly 17% longer) and was associated with increased voluntary movements. However, no correlation between lifespan and voluntary movements was detected, suggesting that increased voluntary movements are not a primary cause of lifespan prolongation. Analyses of individual differences in lifespan demonstrated that lifespan extension induced by acoustic EE could be related to changes in social relationships (e...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785958/association-between-hypertensive-disorders-in-pregnancy-and-particulate-matter-in-the-contiguous-united-states-1999-2004
#3
Tao Xue, Tong Zhu, Weiwei Lin, Evelyn O Talbott
Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy harm both maternal and infant health and have been linked to ambient particulate matter. However, existing studies are restricted to a local scale and remain inconsistent. A large-scale study is required to enrich the epidemiological evidence and explore the potential sources of the inconsistency. Making use of US birth certificates (1999-2004), and monitoring data from the environmental protection agency air quality networks, we associated hypertensive disorders in pregnancy with maternal exposure to fine particles or coarse particles using logistic regression analysis after adjusting for many covariates among >5 million subjects in the contiguous United States...
May 21, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784931/reconstruction-of-the-diapsid-ancestral-genome-permits-chromosome-evolution-tracing-in-avian-and-non-avian-dinosaurs
#4
Rebecca E O'Connor, Michael N Romanov, Lucas G Kiazim, Paul M Barrett, Marta Farré, Joana Damas, Malcolm Ferguson-Smith, Nicole Valenzuela, Denis M Larkin, Darren K Griffin
Genomic organisation of extinct lineages can be inferred from extant chromosome-level genome assemblies. Here, we apply bioinformatic and molecular cytogenetic approaches to determine the genomic structure of the diapsid common ancestor. We then infer the events that likely occurred along this lineage from theropod dinosaurs through to modern birds. Our results suggest that most elements of a typical 'avian-like' karyotype (40 chromosome pairs, including 30 microchromosomes) were in place before the divergence of turtles from birds ~255 mya...
May 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784543/environmental-enrichment-affects-the-ontogeny-of-learning-memory-and-depth-perception-of-the-pharaoh-cuttlefish-sepia-pharaonis
#5
Haruhiko Yasumuro, Yuzuru Ikeda
We investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on the cognitive abilities of pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, which were reared from day seven in four different environments: isolated, poor, standard, and enriched. First, we used "prawn-in-the-tube" to test whether environmental enrichment affects the ontogeny of learning and memory of S. pharaonis. The results showed that cuttlefish could usually learn the task regardless of their age and environment. At early age (74 - 81 d), cuttlefish from the isolated environment memorized the task for 24h...
May 5, 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784424/sensitive-determination-of-seven-triazine-herbicide-in-honey-tomato-and-environmental-water-samples-by-hollow-fiber-based-liquid-liquid-liquid-microextraction-combined-with-sweeping-micellar-electrokinetic-capillary-chromatography
#6
Qing Yang, Beibei Chen, Man He, Bin Hu
A rapid, simple, and effective method has been developed for the determination of seven triazine herbicides (terbutryn, prometryn, ametryn, prometon, propazine, atrazine, simazine) by coupling off-line hollow fiber liquid liquid liquid microextraction (HF-LLLME) with on-line sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (sweeping-MEKC). In HF-LLLME, seven target triazines in hydrophobic form were extracted from the sample solution into decane impregnated in the pores of the hollow fiber, and then back-extracted into 1 mol L-1 H3 PO4 inside the hollow fiber lumen...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784402/zinc-ii-based-metal-organic-nanotubes-coating-for-high-sensitive-solid-phase-microextraction-of-nitro-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons
#7
Xia Wang, Wan-Ru Sheng, Xiao-Yun Jiao, Ru-Song Zhao, Ming-Lin Wang, Jin-Ming Lin
Metal-organic nanotubes (MONTs) have great potential for solid phase microextraction (SPME) on account of high specific surface area, tunable pore sizes, and exceptional thermal and chemical stability. In this work, zinc (II)-based metal-organic nanotubes (Zn-MONTs) were used as an adsorbent for the SPME of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) at trace levels from environmental water samples. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for sample analysis and key factors were investigated and optimized...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784360/determination-of-cadmium-in-sediments-by-diluted-hci-extraction-and-isotope-dilution-icp-ms
#8
Javier Terán-Baamonde, Rosa-María Soto-Ferreiro, Alatzne Carlosena, José-Manuel Andrade, Darío Prada
Isotope dilution ICP-MS is proposed to measure the mass fraction of Cd extracted by diluted HCl in marine sediments, using a fast and simple extraction procedure based on ultrasonic probe agitation. The 111 Cd isotope was added before the extraction to achieve isotope equilibration with native Cd solubilized from the sample. The parameters affecting trueness and precision of isotope ratio measurements were evaluated carefully and subsequently corrected in order to minimize errors; they were: detector dead time, spectral interferences, mass discrimination factor and optimum sample/spike ratio...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784068/play-behaviour-fear-responses-and-activity-levels-in-commercial-broiler-chickens-provided-with-preferred-environmental-enrichments
#9
M Baxter, C L Bailie, N E O'Connell
There is currently a lack of research investigating the effectiveness of commercial broiler enrichments, and in particular the ability of these additions to create opportunities for positive welfare. One aim of this study was to investigate whether offering broiler chickens enrichments that have recently been found to be preferred leads to increased levels of activity. A second aim was to investigate the emotional effects of provision of these enrichments by assessing levels of fearfulness and play-like activity...
May 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783114/geosphere-biosphere-circulation-of-chemical-elements-in-soil-and-plant-systems-from-a-100-km-transect-from-southern-central-norway
#10
Clemens Reimann, Karl Fabian, Belinda Flem, Malin Andersson, Peter Filzmoser, Peter Englmaier
Geochemical element separation is studied in 14 different sample media collected at 41 sites along an approximately 100-km long transect north of Oslo. At each site, soil C and O horizons and 12 plant materials (birch/spruce/cowberry/blueberry leaves/needles and twigs, horsetail, braken fern, pine bark and terrestrial moss) were sampled. The observed concentrations of 29 elements (K, Ca, P, Mg, Mn, S, Fe, Zn, Na, B, Cu, Mo, Co, Al, Ba, Rb, Sr, Ti, Ni, Pb, Cs, Cd, Ce, Sn, La, Tl, Y, Hg, Ag) were used to investigate soil-plant relations, and to evaluate the element differentiation between different plants, or between foliage and twigs of the same plant...
May 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782934/effects-of-copper-and-arsenic-stress-on-the-development-of-norway-spruce-somatic-embryos-and-their-visualization-with-the-environmental-scanning-electron-microscope
#11
Biljana Đorđević, Vilém Neděla, Eva Tihlaříková, Václav Trojan, Ladislav Havel
Somatic embryogenesis is an important biotechnological technique which can be used in studies associated with environmental stress. Four embryogenic cell lines of Norway spruce were grown on media enriched with copper and arsenic in concentration ranges 50-500 μM and 10-50 μM, respectively. The effects were observed during subsequent stages of somatic embryogenesis, the characteristics evaluated being proliferation potential, average number of somatic embryos obtained per g/fresh weight, morphology of developed somatic embryos, metal uptake, and microanalysis of macro- and micronutrients uptake...
May 18, 2018: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782159/reduced-zebrafish-transcriptome-atlas-toward-understanding-the-environmental-neurotoxicants
#12
Kun Zhang, Yanbin Zhao
Transcriptomic approaches monitoring gene responses at genome-scale are increasingly used in toxicological research and help to clarify the molecular mechanisms of adverse effects caused by environmental toxicants. However, their applications for chemical assessment are hampered due to high expenses required and more importantly the lack of in-depth data mining and mechanistic perspectives. Here, we described a Reduced Transcriptome Atlas (RTA) approach which integrates transcriptomic datasets and a comprehensive panel of genes generated to represent neurogenesis and the early neuronal development of zebrafish, to determine the potential neurodevelopmental toxicities of environmental chemicals...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781801/methanonatronarchaeum-thermophilum-gen-nov-sp-nov-and-candidatus-methanohalarchaeum-thermophilum-extremely-halo-natrono-philic-methyl-reducing-methanogens-from-hypersaline-lakes-comprising-a-new-euryarchaeal-class-methanonatronarchaeia-classis-nov
#13
Dimitry Y Sorokin, Alexander Y Merkel, Ben Abbas, Kira S Makarova, W Irene C Rijpstra, M Koenen, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, Erwin A Galinski, Eugene V Koonin, Mark C M van Loosdrecht
Methanogenic enrichments from hypersaline lakes at moderate thermophilic conditions have resulted in the cultivation of an unknown deep lineage of euryarchaeota related to the class Halobacteria. Eleven soda lake isolates and three salt lake enrichment cultures were methyl-reducing methanogens that utilize C1 methylated compounds as electron acceptors and H2 or formate as electron donors, but they were unable to grow on either substrates alone or to form methane from acetate. They are extreme halophiles, growing optimally at 4 M total Na+ and the first representatives of methanogens employing the 'salt-in' osmoprotective mechanism...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779374/molecularly-imprinted-polymers-for-compound-specific-isotope-analysis-of-polar-organic-micropollutants-in-aquatic-environments
#14
Rani Bakkour, Jakov Bolotin, Börje Sellergren, Thomas B Hofstetter
Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of polar organic micropollutants in environmental waters requires a processing of large sample volumes to obtain the required analyte masses for analysis by gas chromatography / isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS). However, the accumulation of organic matter of unknown isotopic composition in standard enrichment procedures currently compromises the accurate determination of isotope ratios. We explored the use of molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIPs) for selective analyte enrichment for 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratio measurements by GC/IRMS using 1H-benzotriazole, a typical corrosion inhibitor in dishwashing detergents, as example of a widely detected polar organic micropollutant...
May 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778942/transcriptomic-and-methylomic-analysis-reveal-the-toxicological-effect-of-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin-on-human-embryonic-stem-cell
#15
Keng Po Lai, Jing Woei Li, Ting Fung Chan, Andy Chen, Cherie Yin Lau Lee, William Shu Biu Yeung, Chris Kong Chu Wong
Cumulating epidemiological studies demonstrated that environmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during the early stages of fetal development is associated with the increase in disease susceptibility in later life. The fetal developmental plasticity is considered as a protective mechanism against an undesirable prenatal environment. Dioxin is one of the environmental contaminants and is considered a diabetogenic factor. Experimental animal and human epidemiological studies have revealed that dioxin exposure was associated with insulin resistance and altered beta cell function...
May 10, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778677/growth-impacts-of-saharan-dust-mineral-nutrients-and-co-2-on-a-planktonic-herbivore-in-southern-mediterranean-lakes
#16
Manuel Villar-Argaiz, Marco J Cabrerizo, Juan Manuel González-Olalla, Macarena S Valiñas, Sanja Rajic, Presentación Carrillo
Rising levels of CO2 can boost plant biomass but reduce its quality as a food source for herbivores. However, significant uncertainties remain as to the degree to which the effect is modulated by other environmental factors and the underlying processes causing these responses in nature. To address these questions, we carried out CO2 -manipulation experiments using natural seston from three lakes under nutrient-enriched conditions (mimicking eutrophication and atmospheric dust-input processes) as a food source for the planktonic Daphnia pulicaria...
May 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778628/environmentally-enriched-pigs-have-transcriptional-profiles-consistent-with-neuroprotective-effects-and-reduced-microglial-activity
#17
S M Brown, S J Bush, K M Summers, D A Hume, A B Lawrence
Environmental enrichment (EE) is widely used to study the effects of external factors on brain development, function and health in rodent models, but very little is known of the effects of EE on the brain in a large animal model such as the pig. Twenty-four young pigs (aged 5 weeks at start of study, 1:1 male: female ratio) were housed in environmentally enriched (EE) pens and provided with additional enrichment stimulation (a bag filled with straw) once daily. Litter, weight and sex matched controls n= (24) were housed in barren (B) conditions...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778056/one-century-sedimentary-record-of-heavy-metal-pollution-in-western-taihu-lake-china
#18
Yan Li, Shenglu Zhou, Qing Zhu, Baojie Li, Junxiao Wang, Chunhui Wang, Lian Chen, Shaohua Wu
Long-term trends of sediment compositions are important for assessing the impact of human activities on the sediment and protecting the sediment environment. In this study, based on the contents of heavy metals and the Pb isotope ratios in lake sediments, atmospheric dustfall and soil in Yixing, China, the representative heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd) in lake sediments from western Taihu Lake were studied. The evolution history of heavy metals in the local environment was constructed for the past 100 years...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778047/source-identification-and-spatial-distribution-of-arsenic-and-heavy-metals-in-agricultural-soil-around-hunan-industrial-estate-by-positive-matrix-factorization-model-principle-components-analysis-and-geo-statistical-analysis
#19
Xiaowen Zhang, Shuai Wei, Qianqian Sun, Syed Abdul Wadood, Boli Guo
Characterizing the distribution and defining potential sources of arsenic and heavy metals are the basic preconditions for reducing the contamination of heavy metals and metalloids. 71 topsoil samples and 61 subsoil samples were collected by grid method to measure the concentration of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr). Principle components analysis (PCA), GIS-based geo-statistical methods and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) were applied. The results showed that the mean concentrations were 9...
May 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777411/spatial-environmental-risk-evaluation-of-potential-toxic-elements-in-stream-sediments
#20
I M H R Antunes, M T D Albuquerque, N Roque
Potential toxic elements (PTE), in stream sediments, were used as contamination indicators for the definition of high-/low-grade spatial clusters in the Monfortinho area (Central Portugal). A set of 271 stream sediment samples was used for spatial modelling and further definition of rings of enrichment-high and low rings. A three-step multivariate statistical and geostatistical approach was used: (1) principal components analysis for PTE's association evaluation and dimensionality reduction; (2) ordinary kriging as an unbiased interpolator for content inference and construction of a continuous representation of the considered attributes, at any arbitrary spatial location; (3) G clustering algorithm for the definition of high and low significance clusters...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
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