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Environmental enrichment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150682/enantioselective-transformation-of-fluoxetine-in-water-and-its-ecotoxicological-relevance
#1
María Jesús Andrés-Costa, Kathryn Proctor, Marco T Sabatini, Anthony P Gee, Simon E Lewis, Yolanda Pico, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern
European legislation focusing on water quality is expected to broaden to encompass several pharmaceuticals as priority hazardous substances. This manuscript aims to challenge current regulatory approaches that do not recognize stereochemistry of chiral pharmaceuticals by testing the hypothesis that environmental transformation and effects of chiral pharmaceuticals are stereoselective. Our experiments revealed that, while degradation of chiral fluoxetine (FL) in river water occurs via non-enantioselective photochemical and mildly-enantioselective microbial processes favoring the (R)-enantiomer, a pronounced enantioselectivity favoring (S)-FL (leading to the formation of (S)-NFL (norfluoxetine)) is observed during activated sludge treatment...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150271/xenohormesis-in-early-life-new-avenues-of-research-to-explore-anti-aging-strategies-through-the-maternal-diet
#2
Philippe de Medina
Aging is a progressive internal physiological deterioration of the organism, leading to the occurrence of age-related lethal diseases. It has become a major societal challenge to understand the processes that drive aging and to develop rational pharmacological agents and dietary approaches to fight against age-related deterioration and diseases. Interestingly, several lines of evidence highlight an influence of the developmental period on the risk of age-related diseases later in life. This field is known as the developmental origins of health and disease...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147747/isomers-of-tris-chloropropyl-phosphate-tcpp-in-technical-mixtures-and-environmental-samples
#3
Jimmy W Truong, Miriam L Diamond, Paul A Helm, Liisa M Jantunen
Tris(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP) is an environmentally abundant organophosphate ester (OPE). TCPP is comprised of four isomers with seven possible structures, eight CAS numbers, and even more common names. A review of 54 studies reporting one or more TCPP isomers confirmed that the most abundant and most often reported TCPP isomer was tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate, also known as tris(chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCiPP, referred to hereafter as TCPP1). Full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the other three isomers numbered here according to their elution order on a non-polar GC column (DB-5): bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) (2-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP2), bis(2-chloropropyl)(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP3), and tris(2-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP4)...
November 16, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145914/development-and-initial-validation-of-the-retrospective-indigenous-childhood-enrichment-scale-rice
#4
Cecilia Minogue, Kim Delbaere, Kylie Radford, Tony Broe, Wendy Sue Forder, Suncica Lah
BACKGROUND: Years of education is the most commonly used proxy measure of cognitive reserve. Other forms of cognitive stimulation in childhood may provide similar protection against cognitive decline, particularly in Indigenous groups, where education may have been lacking in quality or quantity. The Retrospective Indigenous Childhood Enrichment (RICE) scale was developed to measure non-school-based activities and environmental stimulation during childhood that are likely to have enhanced cognitive reserve...
November 17, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145129/high-contamination-in-the-areas-surrounding-abandoned-mines-and-mining-activities-an-impact-assessment-of-the-dilala-luilu-and-mpingiri-rivers-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#5
Emmanuel K Atibu, Pierre Lacroix, Periyasamy Sivalingam, Nicolas Ray, Gregory Giuliani, Crispin K Mulaji, Jean-Paul Otamonga, Pius T Mpiana, Vera I Slaveykova, John Poté
Abandoned mines and mining activities constitute important sources of toxic metals and Rare Earth Elements (REEs) affecting surrounding environmental compartments and biota. This study investigates the contamination degree and distribution of toxic metals and REEs in contrasting sediment, soil and plant samples surrounding rivers in the African copperbelt area characterized by the presence of numerous abandoned mines, artisanal and industrial mining activities. ICP-MS results highlighted the highest concentration of Cu, Co and Pb in sediments reaching values of 146,801, 18,434 and 899 mg kg(-1), respectively...
October 21, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143261/river-sediment-metal-and-nutrient-variations-along-an-urban-agriculture-gradient-in-an-arid-austral-landscape-implications-for-environmental-health
#6
Tatenda Dalu, Ryan J Wasserman, Qihang Wu, William P Froneman, Olaf L F Weyl
The effect of metals on environmental health is well documented and monitoring these and other pollutants is considered an important part of environmental management. Developing countries are yet to fully appreciate the direct impacts of pollution on aquatic ecosystems and as such, information on pollution dynamics is scant. Here, we assessed the temporal and spatial dynamics of stream sediment metal and nutrient concentrations using contaminant indices (e.g. enrichment factors, pollution load and toxic risk indices) in an arid temperate environment over the wet and dry seasons...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137946/distinct-environmental-enrichment-protocols-reduce-anxiety-but-differentially-modulate-pain-sensitivity-in-rats
#7
Louise Faggionato Kimura, Vânia Gomes de Moura Mattaraia, Gisele Picolo
Environmental enrichment (EE) can alter anxiety as well as perception of nociceptive stimuli, suggesting a relationship between well-being and analgesia. Considering that, we aimed to evaluate the influence of different EE types on anxiety and peripheral pain sensibility of male Wistar rats. Animals were submitted to two different types of EE: On the first one, animals were housed in standard size cages after weaning and received three different objects, one type per week, on a regular basis (simple EE - sEE)...
November 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137670/modelling-and-mapping-tick-dynamics-using-volunteered-observations
#8
Irene Garcia-Martí, Raúl Zurita-Milla, Arnold J H van Vliet, Willem Takken
BACKGROUND: Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to model and map tick dynamics using volunteered data. This approach is illustrated with 9 years of data collected by a group of trained volunteers who sampled active questing ticks (AQT) on a monthly basis and for 15 locations in the Netherlands...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137551/environmental-manipulations-as-an-effective-alternative-treatment-to-reduce-endometriosis-progression
#9
Annelyn Torres-Reverón, Leslie L Rivera, Idhaliz Flores, Caroline B Appleyard
Treatments for endometriosis include pharmacological or surgical procedures that produce significant side effects. We aimed to determine how environmental enrichment (EE) could impact the progression of endometriosis using the autotransplantation rat model. Female rats were exposed to EE (endo-EE: toys and nesting materials, 4 rats per cage, larger area enclosure) or no enrichment (endo-NE: 2 rats per cage) starting on postnatal day 21. After 8 weeks, sham surgery or surgical endometriosis was induced by suturing uterine horn tissue next to the intestinal mesentery, then allowed to progress for 60 days during which EE or NE continued...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137271/environmental-conditions-differentially-affect-neurobehavioral-outcomes-in-a-mouse-model-of-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy
#10
Mu-Huo Ji, Hui Tang, Dan Luo, Li-Li Qiu, Min Jia, Hong-Mei Yuan, Shan-Wu Feng, Jian-Jun Yang
Brain dysfunction remains a common complication after sepsis development and is an independent risk factor for a poorer prognosis and an increased mortality. Here we tested the hypothesis that the behavioral outcomes after lipopolysaccharides (LPS) administration are exacerbated by an impoverished environment (IE) and alleviated by an enriched environment (EE), respectively. Mice were randomly allocated in a standard environment (SE), an EE, or an IE for 4 weeks after LPS or normal saline (NS) administration...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136814/polyaniline-dicationic-ionic-liquid-coated-with-magnetic-nanoparticles-composite-for-magnetic-solid-phase-extraction-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-environmental-samples
#11
Mohamad Shariff Shahriman, Muggundha Raoov Ramachandran, Nur Nadhirah Mohamad Zain, Sharifah Mohamad, Ninie Suhana Abdul Manan, Suhaila Mohd Yaman
In this present study, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) nanocomposites modified with polyaniline (PANI) coated newly synthesised dicationic ionic liquid (DICAT) forming MNP-PANI-DICAT were successfully synthesised as new generation material for magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE). MNP-PANI-DICAT was characterised by FT-IR NMR, CHN, BET, SEM, TEM, and VSM techniques and the results were compared with MNP-PANI and native MNP. This new material was applied as a magnetic adsorbent for the pre-concentration and separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to the π-π interaction between polyaniline shell and dicationic ionic liquid (DICAT) with PAHs compounds...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136606/heavy-metals-in-soils-of-hechuan-county-in-the-upper-yangtze-sw-china-comparative-pollution-assessment-using-multiple-indices-with-high-spatial-resolution-sampling
#12
Maofei Ni, Rong Mao, Zhongmin Jia, Ruozhu Dong, Siyue Li
In order to assess heavy metals (HMs) in soils of the upper Yangtze Basin, a very high-spatial-resolution sampling (582 soil samples) was conducted from Hechuan County, an important agricultural practice area in the Southwest China. Multiple indices including geoaccumulation index (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF), sediment pollution index (SPI) and risk index (RI), as well as multivariate statistics were employed for pollution assessment and source identification of HMs in soils. Our results demonstrated that the averages of eight HMs decreased in the following order: Zn (82...
November 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136456/the-intimate-talk-between-plants-and-microorganisms-at-the-leaf-surface
#13
Wendy Aragón, José Juan Reina-Pinto, Mario Serrano, Eva Dominguez
The plant epidermis or cuticle is constantly exposed to external and internal environmental factors, including an enriched and diverse community of bacteria, yeast, fungi, viruses, and mites. It is not only where the plant has its first physical barrier, but also where organisms can be recognized and potentially where the plant defense responses can be triggered. The plant cuticle is a polymeric composite formed by an array of structurally and chemically heterogeneous compounds, including cutin and wax. A few studies have shown that cuticular components are essential and important drivers of the structure and size of the bacterial community...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136323/increasing-canopy-photosynthesis-in-rice-can-be-achieved-without-a-large-increase-in-water-use-a-model-based-on-free-air-co2-enrichment
#14
Hiroki Ikawa, Charles P Chen, Martin Sikma, Mayumi Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu Sakai, Takeshi Tokida, Yasuhiro Usui, Hirofumi Nakamura, Keisuke Ono, Atsushi Maruyama, Tsutomu Watanabe, Tsuneo Kuwagata, Toshihiro Hasegawa
Achieving higher canopy photosynthesis rates is one of the keys to increasing future crop production; however, this typically requires additional water inputs because of increased water loss through the stomata. Lowland rice canopies presently consume a large amount of water, and any further increase in water usage may significantly impact local water resources. This situation is further complicated by changing environmental conditions such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]). Here we modeled and compared evapotranspiration of fully developed rice canopies of a high-yielding rice cultivar (Oryza sativa L...
November 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136139/rad-seq-reveals-patterns-of-additive-polygenic-variation-caused-by-spatially-varying-selection-in-the-american-eel-anguilla-rostrata
#15
Charles Babin, Pierre-Alexandre Gagnaire, Scott A Pavey, Louis Bernatchez
The American Eel (Anguilla rostrata) has an exceptional life cycle characterised by panmictic reproduction at the species scale, random dispersal and selection in a highly heterogeneous habitat extending from subtropical to subarctic latitudes. The genetic consequences of spatially-varying selection in this species have been investigated for decades, revealing subtle clines in allele frequency at a few loci that contrast with complete panmixia on the vast majority of the genome. Because reproduction homogenizes allele frequencies every generation, sampling size and genomic coverage are critical to reach sufficient power to detect selected loci in this context...
November 10, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135536/investigating-uranium-isotopic-ratios-and-activity-ratios-in-groundwaters-in-the-state-of-idaho
#16
Levan Tkavadze, Richard R Brey, John Dudgeon
Analyzing uranium isotopic and activity ratios can give valuable information for hydrologic and environmental studies such as insights to weathering processes, estimating water mixing ratios, and identifying water sources. The authors employed an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) to perform environmental level concentration measurements of isotopic uranium on 380 groundwater samples from various locations within the state of Idaho. The U:U uranium activity ratios (UAR) for these samples range between 0...
November 10, 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135009/bacterial-species-identifiable-magnetic-nanosystems-for-early-sepsis-diagnosis-and-extracorporeal-photodynamic-blood-disinfection
#17
Jianhao Wang, Hao Wu, Yanmei Yang, Rong Yan, Yuan Zhao, Yanhao Wang, Aihong Chen, Shilong Shao, Pengju Jiang, Yong-Qiang Li
Despite the numerous bacteria detection and elimination techniques available nowadays, sensitive diagnosis and treatment of sepsis (caused by the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream), especially at the early stage, remain big challenges. Here we report a nanosystem for early sepsis diagnosis and complete extracorporeal blood disinfection, based on iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with chlorin e6 molecules and bacterial species-identifiable aptamers (Fe3O4-Ce6-Apt). We demonstrate that the Fe3O4-Ce6-Apt nanosystem can achieve simultaneous blood bacterial species identification and enrichment in a single step, and the enriched bacteria can be easily detected with the assistance of fluorescence microscopic determination...
November 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134709/light-sensing-by-opsins-and-fungal-ecology-nop-1-modulates-entry-into-sexual-reproduction-in-response-to-environmental-cues
#18
Zheng Wang, Junrui Wang, Ning Li, Jigang Li, Frances Trail, Jay C Dunlap, Jeffrey P Townsend
Understanding the genetic basis of the switch from asexual to sexual lifestyles in response to sometimes rapid environmental changes is one of the major challenges in fungal ecology. Light appears to play a critical role in the switch-but fungal genomes harbor diverse light sensors. Fungal opsins are homologous to bacterial green-light sensory rhodopsins, and their organismal functions in fungi have not been well understood. Three of these opsin-like proteins were widely distributed across fungal genomes, but homologs of the Fusarium opsin-like protein CarO were present only in plant-associated fungi...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134530/a-review-of-heavy-metal-pollution-levels-and-health-risk-assessment-of-urban-soils-in-chinese-cities
#19
Libo Pan, Yue Wang, Jin Ma, Yu Hu, Benying Su, Guangling Fang, Lei Wang, Bao Xiang
This study assessed literature-based data for the period 2006-2016 regarding heavy metal (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Hg) concentrations in soils from 32 Chinese cities and the associated human health risks. The mean concentrations of the eight metals were lower than the soil environmental quality standards in China, but were much higher than the background values for most cities. The enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I geo) values showed moderate pollution levels, possibly influenced by anthropogenic activity for Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133838/fungal-networks-serve-as-novel-ecological-routes-for-enrichment-and-dissemination-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-as-exhibited-by-microcosm-experiments
#20
Rashid Nazir, Ju-Pei Shen, Jun-Tao Wang, Hang-Wei Hu, Ji-Zheng He
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment and their subsequent acquisition by clinically important microorganisms are a serious concern. However, the spread of environmental ARGs remain largely unknown. We report, for the first time, the involvement of soil fungi in the distribution of bacteria with ARGs via soil microcosms. qPCR assay detected unique ARGs specifically found in the mycosphere of different fungi. Interestingly, the taxonomically and ecologically different fungi exerted different selection pressures on ARGs originating from the same source...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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