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Environmental enrichment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905931/a-temporal-assessment-of-nematode-community-structure-and-diversity-in-the-rhizosphere-of-cisgenic-phytophthora-infestans-resistant-potatoes
#1
Vilma Ortiz, Sinead Phelan, Ewen Mullins
BACKGROUND: Nematodes play a key role in soil processes with alterations in the nematode community structure having the potential to considerably influence ecosystem functioning. As a result fluctuations in nematode diversity and/or community structure can be gauged as a 'barometer' of a soil's functional biodiversity. However, a deficit exists in regards to baseline knowledge and on the impact of specific GM crops on soil nematode populations and in particular in regard to the impact of GM potatoes on the diversity of nematode populations in the rhizosphere...
December 1, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901345/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-behavioral-and-spatial-cognitive-deficits-in-morphine-dependent-and-withdrawn-rats
#2
Arezoo Hammami-Abrand Abadi, Hossein Miladi-Gorji
This study was designed to examine the effect of environmental enrichment during morphine dependence and withdrawal on morphine-induced behavioral and spatial cognitive disorders in morphine-withdrawn rats. Adult male Wistar rats (190 ± 20 g) were injected with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days. Rats were reared in SE or EE during the development of dependence on morphine and withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for spatial learning and memory (the water maze), spontaneous withdrawal signs, and grooming behavior...
September 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899881/transcriptomics-of-environmental-enrichment-reveals-a-role-for-retinoic-acid-signaling-in-addiction
#3
Yafang Zhang, Fanping Kong, Elizabeth J Crofton, Steven N Dragosljvich, Mala Sinha, Dingge Li, Xiuzhen Fan, Shyny Koshy, Jonathan D Hommel, Heidi M Spratt, Bruce A Luxon, Thomas A Green
There exists much variability in susceptibility/resilience to addiction in humans. The environmental enrichment paradigm is a rat model of resilience to addiction-like behavior, and understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this protective phenotype may lead to novel targets for pharmacotherapeutics to treat cocaine addiction. We investigated the differential regulation of transcript levels using RNA sequencing of the rat nucleus accumbens after environmental enrichment/isolation and cocaine/saline self-administration...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898790/assessment-of-carbon-stocks-in-the-topsoil-using-random-forest-and-remote-sensing-images
#4
Jongsung Kim, Sabine Grunwald
Wetland soils are able to exhibit both consumption and production of greenhouse gases, and they play an important role in the regulation of the global carbon (C) cycle. Still, it is challenging to accurately evaluate the actual amount of C stored in wetlands. The incorporation of remote sensing data into digital soil models has great potential to assess C stocks in wetland soils. Our objectives were (i) to develop C stock prediction models utilizing remote sensing images and environmental ancillary data, (ii) to identify the prime environmental predictor variables that explain the spatial distribution of soil C, and (iii) to assess the amount of C stored in the top 20-cm soils of a prominent nutrient-enriched wetland...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894865/the-genetic-component-of-bicuspid-aortic-valve-and-aortic-dilation-an-exome-wide-association-study
#5
Marina Gago-Díaz, María Brion, Pastora Gallego, Francisco Calvo, Juan Robledo-Carmona, Daniel Saura, Violeta Sánchez, Javier Bermejo, Teresa Sevilla, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Ángel Carracedo, J Daniel Muehlschlegel, David García-Dorado, Simon C Body, Artur Evangelista
BACKGROUND: Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common cardiovascular congenital malformation affecting 2% of the general population. The incidence of life-threatening complications, the high heritability, and familial clustering rates support the interest in identifying risk or protective genetic factors. The main objective of the present study was to identify population-based genetic variation associated with bicuspid aortic valve and concomitant ascending aortic dilation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional exome-wide association study was conducted in 565 Spanish cases and 484 controls...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894722/impact-of-bio-palladium-nanoparticles-bio-pd-nps-on-the-activity-and-structure-of-a-marine-microbial-community
#6
Andrea Nuzzo, Baharak Hosseinkhani, Nico Boon, Giulio Zanaroli, Fabio Fava
Biogenic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd NPs) represent a promising catalyst for organohalide remediation in water and sediments. However, the available information regarding their possible impact in case of release into the environment, particularly on the environmental microbiota, is limited. In this study the toxicity of bio-Pd NPs on the model marine bacterium V. fischeri was assessed. The impacts of different concentrations of bio-Pd NPs on the respiratory metabolisms (i.e. organohalide respiration, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) and the structure of a PCB-dechlorinating microbial community enriched form a marine sediment were also investigated in microcosms mimicking the actual sampling site conditions...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891500/interspecies-communication-between-pathogens-and-immune-cells-via-bacterial-membrane-vesicles
#7
Katerina S Jurkoshek, Ying Wang, Jaffre J Athman, Marian R Barton, Pamela A Wearsch
The production of extracellular vesicles is a universal mechanism for intercellular communication that is conserved across kingdoms. Prokaryotes secrete 50-250 nm membrane vesicles (MVs) in a manner that is regulated by environmental stress and is thought to promote survival. Since many types of host-derived stress are encountered during infection, this implies an important role for MV secretion in bacterial pathogenesis. Accordingly, MVs produced by gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens contain toxins, virulence factors, and other molecules that promote survival in the host...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889889/biosurfactant-production-by-the-crude-oil-degrading-stenotrophomonas-sp-b-2-chemical-characterization-biological-activities-and-environmental-applications
#8
Boutheina Gargouri, María Del Mar Contreras, Sonda Ammar, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Mohamed Bouaziz
In this work, biosurfactant-producing microorganisms were isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated water collected from Tunisian oilfield. After enrichment and isolation, different bacterial strains were preliminary studied for their biosurfactant/bioemulsifier properties when using crude oil as the unique carbon source. In particular, the isolate strain B-2, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, efficiently emulsified crude oil. The extracellular biosurfactant product from this strain presented an emulsification activity above 70% and a hydrophobicity of 71%...
November 26, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888560/do-invasive-alien-plants-benefit-more-from-global-environmental-change-than-native-plants
#9
Yanjie Liu, Ayub M O Oduor, Zhen Zhang, Anthony Manea, Ifeanna M Tooth, Michelle R Leishman, Xingliang Xu, Mark van Kleunen
Invasive alien plant species threaten native biodiversity, disrupt ecosystem functions, and can cause large economic damage. Plant invasions have been predicted to further increase under ongoing global environmental change. Numerous case studies have compared the performance of invasive and native plant species in response to global environmental change components (i.e. changes in mean levels of precipitation, temperature, atmospheric CO2 concentration or nitrogen deposition). Individually these studies usually involve low numbers of species and therefore the results cannot be generalized...
November 26, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888310/determination-of-trace-bisphenol-a-in-environmental-water-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-using-magnetic-reduced-graphene-oxide-based-solid-phase-extraction-coupled-with-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction
#10
Danping Li, Xiaoguo Ma, Rui Wang, Yumian Yu
Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, has received much attention from researchers and the general public. In this paper, a novel method of determining BPA at trace levels was developed, using magnetic reduced graphene oxide (rGO-Fe3O4)-based solid-phase extraction coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), followed by high-performance liquid chromatographic determination. The rGO-Fe3O4 was prepared and then characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry...
November 25, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888291/whole-genome-enrichment-provides-deep-insights-into-vibrio-cholerae-metagenome-from-an-african-river
#11
L Vezzulli, C Grande, G Tassistro, I Brettar, M G Höfle, R P A Pereira, D Mushi, A Pallavicini, P Vassallo, C Pruzzo
The detection and typing of Vibrio cholerae in natural aquatic environments encounter major methodological challenges related to the fact that the bacterium is often present in environmental matrices at very low abundance in nonculturable state. This study applied, for the first time to our knowledge, a whole-genome enrichment (WGE) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach for direct genotyping and metagenomic analysis of low abundant V. cholerae DNA (<50 genome unit/L) from natural water collected in the Morogoro river (Tanzania)...
November 25, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887822/decline-of-trace-metal-pollution-in-the-bottom-sediments-of-the-barcelona-city-continental-shelf-nw-mediterranean
#12
Albert Palanques, Laura Lopez, Jorge Guillén, Pere Puig, Pere Masqué
The evolution of trace metal pollution on the Barcelona city continental shelf during the last few decades was studied by analyzing the historical records of trace metals in sediment cores and surface sediment samples taken at the same locations in 1987 and in 2008. Polluted surface samples taken in 1987 reached enrichment factors of up to 490 for Hg, about 40 for Pb and Cd, and about 17 for Zn, Cr and Cu. The data show a decline of up to one order of magnitude in the trace metal content of surface sediments during the last few decades, with maximum enrichment factors of between 20 and 30 for Hg and Cd and between 5 and 12 for Zn, Cr, Pb and Cu...
November 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886581/a-multi-omic-approach-to-elucidate-low-dose-effects-of-xenobiotics-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-larvae
#13
Susie S Y Huang, Jonathan P Benskin, Nik Veldhoen, Bharat Chandramouli, Heather Butler, Caren C Helbing, John R Cosgrove
Regulatory-approved toxicity assays such as the OECD Fish Embryo Toxicity Assay (TG236) allow correlation of chemical exposure to adverse morphological phenotypes. However, these assays are ineffective in assessing sub-lethal (i.e. low-dose) effects, or differentiating between similar phenotypes induced by different chemicals. Inclusion of multi-omic analyses in studies investigating xenobiotic action provides improved characterization of biological response, thereby enhancing prediction of toxicological outcomes in whole animals in the absence of morphological effects...
November 18, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886132/the-future-is-the-past-methylation-qtls-in-schizophrenia
#14
REVIEW
Anke Hoffmann, Michael Ziller, Dietmar Spengler
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have remarkably advanced insight into the genetic basis of schizophrenia (SCZ). Still, most of the functional variance in disease risk remains unexplained. Hence, there is a growing need to map genetic variability-to-genes-to-functions for understanding the pathophysiology of SCZ and the development of better treatments. Genetic variation can regulate various cellular functions including DNA methylation, an epigenetic mark with important roles in transcription and the mediation of environmental influences...
November 24, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884207/potential-contribution-of-the-uterine-microbiome-in-the-development-of-endometrial-cancer
#15
Marina R S Walther-António, Jun Chen, Francesco Multinu, Alexis Hokenstad, Tammy J Distad, E Heidi Cheek, Gary L Keeney, Douglas J Creedon, Heidi Nelson, Andrea Mariani, Nicholas Chia
BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer studies have led to a number of well-defined but mechanistically unconnected genetic and environmental risk factors. One of the emerging modulators between environmental triggers and genetic expression is the microbiome. We set out to inquire about the composition of the uterine microbiome and its putative role in endometrial cancer. METHODS: We undertook a study of the microbiome in samples taken from different locations along the female reproductive tract in patients with endometrial cancer (n = 17), patients with endometrial hyperplasia (endometrial cancer precursor, n = 4), and patients afflicted with benign uterine conditions (n = 10)...
November 25, 2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884142/dna-methylation-patterns-associated-with-oxidative-stress-in-an-ageing-population
#16
Åsa K Hedman, Mihkel Zilmer, Johan Sundström, Lars Lind, Erik Ingelsson
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has been related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading global cause of death. Contributions of environmental factors such as oxidative stress on complex traits and disease may be partly mediated through changes in epigenetic marks (e.g. DNA methylation). Studies relating differential methylation with intermediate phenotypes and disease endpoints may be useful in identifying additional candidate genes and mechanisms involved in disease...
November 25, 2016: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883983/loss-and-replacement-of-small-particles-on-the-contact-surfaces-of-footwear-during-successive-exposures
#17
David A Stoney, Andrew M Bowen, Paul L Stoney
On the contact surfaces of footwear loosely, moderately and strongly held particle fractions were separated and analyzed in an effort to detect different particle signals. Three environmental exposure sites were chosen to have different, characteristic particle types (soil minerals). Shoes of two types (work boots and tennis shoes) were tested, accumulating particles by walking 250m in each environment. Some shoes were exposed to only one environment; others were exposed to all three, in one of six different sequences...
November 16, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883060/environmental-intervention-as-a-therapy-for-adverse-programming-by-ancestral-stress
#18
J Keiko McCreary, Zachary T Erickson, YongXin Hao, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Igor Kovalchuk, Gerlinde A S Metz
Ancestral stress can program stress sensitivity and health trajectories across multiple generations. While ancestral stress is uncontrollable to the filial generations, it is critical to identify therapies that overcome transgenerational programming. Here we report that prenatal stress in rats generates a transgenerationally heritable endocrine and epigenetic footprint and elevated stress sensitivity which can be alleviated by beneficial experiences in later life. Ancestral stress led to downregulated glucocorticoid receptor and prefrontal cortex neuronal densities along with precocious development of anxiety-like behaviours...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881753/how-can-we-estimate-natural-selection-on-endocrine-traits-lessons-from-evolutionary-biology
#19
REVIEW
Frances Bonier, Paul R Martin
An evolutionary perspective can enrich almost any endeavour in biology, providing a deeper understanding of the variation we see in nature. To this end, evolutionary endocrinologists seek to describe the fitness consequences of variation in endocrine traits. Much of the recent work in our field, however, follows a flawed approach to the study of how selection shapes endocrine traits. Briefly, this approach relies on among-individual correlations between endocrine phenotypes (often circulating hormone levels) and fitness metrics to estimate selection on those endocrine traits...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879271/vitamin-d3-prevents-calcium-induced-progression-of-early-stage-prostate-tumors-by-counteracting-trpc6-and-calcium-sensing-receptor-upregulation
#20
Sophie Bernichtein, Natascha Pigat, Nicolas Barry Delongchamps, Florence Boutillon, Virginie Verkarre, Philippe Camparo, Edouard Reyes-Gomez, Arnaud Méjean, Stephane Marie Oudard, Eve M Lepicard, Melanie Viltard, Jean-Claude Souberbielle, Gerard Friedlander, Thierry Capiod, Vincent Goffin
Active surveillance has emerged as an alternative to immediate treatment for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Accordingly, identification of environmental factors that faciliate progression to more aggressive stages is critical for disease prevention. Although calcium-enriched diets have been speculated to increase prostate cancer risk, their impact on early-stage tumors remains unexplored. In this study, we addressed this issue with a large interventional animal study. Mouse models of fully penetrant and slowly-evolving prostate tumorigenesis showed that a high calcium diet dramatically accelerated the progression of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia, by promoting cell proliferation, micro-invasion, tissue inflammation and expression of acknowledged prostate cancer markers...
November 22, 2016: Cancer Research
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