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Gold nanoparticles radiation

Celina Yang, Kyle Bromma, Wonmo Sung, Jan Schuemann, Devika Chithrani
Combined use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy is commonly used in cancer treatment, but the toxic effects on normal tissue are a major limitation. This study assesses the potential to improve radiation therapy when combining gold nanoparticle (GNP) mediated radiation sensitization with chemoradiation compared to chemoradiation alone. Incorporation of GNPs with 2 Gy, 6 MV (megavoltage) radiation resulted in a 19 ± 6% decrease in survival of MDA-MB-231 cells. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed to assess dosimetric differences in the presence of GNPs in radiation...
May 22, 2018: Cancers
Paolo Armanetti, Salvador Pocoví-Martínez, Alessandra Flori, Cinzia Avigo, Domenico Cassano, Luca Menichetti, Valerio Voliani
Ultrasound (US) imaging is a well-established diagnostic technique to image soft tissues in real time, while photoacoustic (PA) is an emerging imaging technique employed to collect molecular information. Integration of PA and US imaging provides complementary information enhancing diagnostic accuracy without employing ionizing radiations. The development of contrast agents able to combine PA and US features is pivotal to improve the significance of PAUS imaging and for PAUS-guided treatment of neoplasms. Here, we demonstrate in relevant ex-vivo models that disassembling passion fruit-like nano-architectures (pfNAs) can be employed in PAUS imaging...
May 17, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Sara Khademi, Saeed Sarkar, Ali Shakeri-Zadeh, Neda Attaran, Sharmin Kharrazi, Mohammad Reza Ay, Hossein Ghadiri
Development of various cost-effective multifunctional nanoprobes for efficient targeted molecular imaging of tumors remains a great challenge in medicine. Herein, we report a simple method of forming folic acid-targeted multifunctional gold nanoparticles via cost-effective cysteamine as a template for tumor molecular computed tomography (CT) imaging technique. The formed multifunctional cysteamine-folic acid conjugated gold nanoparticles (FA-Cys-AuNPs) were characterized via different techniques. Colony assay, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), MTT, and flow cytometry analysis were used to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the particles...
August 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Ghazal Darfarin, Roya Salehi, Effat Alizadeh, Behnam Nasiri Motlagh, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh, Alireza Farajollahi
INTRODUCTION: Recently it has been shown that radiation dose enhancement could be achievable in radiotherapy using nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, evaluation was made to determine efficiency of gold-silica shell-core NP in megavoltage irradiation of MCF7 breath cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gold-silicon oxide shell-core NPs were obtained by conjugation of gold NP with amine or thiol functionalized silica NPs (AuN@SiO2 and AuS@SiO2 ). Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of NPs were examined by fluorescent microscopy and MTT assay, respectively...
May 9, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Khashayar Ghandi, Furong Wang, Cody Landry, Mehran Mostafavi
The ionizing radiation in aqueous solutions of gold nanoparticles, stabilized by electrostatic non-covalent intermolecular forces and steric interactions, with antimicrobial compounds, are investigated with picosecond pulse radiolysis techniques. Upon pulse radiolysis of an aqueous solution containing very low concentrations of gold nanoparticles with naked surfaces available in water (not obstructed by chemical bonds), a change to Cerenkov spectrum over a large range of wavelengths are observed and pre-solvated electrons are captured by gold nanoparticles exclusively (not by ionic liquid surfactants used to stabilize the nanoparticles)...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tian Zhao, Patrick J Herbert, Hongjun Zheng, Kenneth L Knappenberger
Electronic carrier dynamics play pivotal roles in the functional properties of nanomaterials. For colloidal metals, the mechanisms and influences of these dynamics are structure dependent. The coherent carrier dynamics of collective plasmon modes for nanoparticles (approximately 2 nm and larger) determine optical amplification factors that are important to applied spectroscopy techniques. In the nanocluster domain (sub-2 nm), carrier coupling to vibrational modes affects photoluminescence yields. The performance of photocatalytic materials featuring both nanoparticles and nanoclusters also depends on the relaxation dynamics of nonequilibrium charge carriers...
May 8, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Mohamed Mahmoud Fathy, Fayrouz S Mohamed, NihalSaad Elbialy, Wael M Elshemey
Over the last decade, chemo-radiotherapy represented a well-established paradigm for cancer treatment. Developing new strategies to promote the therapeutic efficacy while reducing toxic side effects of chemo-radiotherapy is a main research objective in cancer therapy. A promising new oncological strategy for enhancing chemo-radiotherapy against cancer involves the utilization of multifunctional nanoparticles (nanocarriers and radiosensitizers). In this work, Chitosan-Capped Gold Nanoparticles (CS-GNPs) were synthesized and loaded with an anticancer agent, Doxorubicin (CS-GNPs-DOX)...
April 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Myriam Laprise-Pelletier, Teresa Simão, Marc-André Fortin
Over the last few decades, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have emerged as "radiosensitizers" in oncology. Radiosensitizers are additives that can enhance the effects of radiation on biological tissues treated with radiotherapy. The interaction of photons with GNPs leads to the emission of low-energy and short-range secondary electrons, which in turn increase the dose deposited in tissues. In this context, GNPs are the subject of intensive theoretical and experimental studies aiming at optimizing the parameters leading to greater dose enhancement and highest therapeutic effect...
May 4, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Jing-Dong Chen, Jin Xiang, Shuai Jiang, Qiao-Feng Dai, Shao-Long Tie, Sheng Lan
Large metallic nanoparticles with sizes comparable to the wavelength of light are expected to support high-order plasmon modes exhibiting resonances in the visible to near infrared spectral range. However, the radiation behavior of high-order plasmon modes, including scattering spectra and radiation patterns, remains unexplored. Here, we report on the first observation and characterization of the high-order plasmon modes excited in large gold nanospheres by using the surface plasmon polaritons generated on the surface of a thin gold film...
May 4, 2018: Nanoscale
Yingying Zhang, Linhai Cong, Jiayan He, Yu Wang, Yingying Zou, Zhihong Yang, Yuexin Hu, Shiwen Zhang, Xiaoguang He
Hypopharyngeal carcinoma (HC) is one of the most malignant tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract. Currently, there are no effective treatments for HC. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a promising tool that can be used for plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT), which refers to the use of electromagnetic radiation, most often in near infrared (NIR) region, for the treatment of various medical conditions including cancer. AuNPs have been proved to be a promising tool for NIR spectroscopy-mediated photothermal therapies...
April 27, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Kai Cheng, Michael Sano, Cesare H Jenkins, Guanglei Zhang, Don Vernekohl, Wei Zhao, Chenxi Wei, Yan Zhang, Zhe Zhang, Yijin Liu, Zhen Cheng, Lei Xing
Nanoparticle-based radio-sensitizers can amplify the effects of radiation therapy on tumor tissue even at relatively low concentrations while reducing the potential side effects to healthy surrounding tissues. In this study, we investigated a hybrid anisotropic nanostructure, composed of gold (Au) and titanium dioxide (TiO2), as a radio-sensitizer for radiation therapy of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). In contrast to other gold based radio sensitizers, dumbbell-like Au-TiO2 nanoparticles (DATs) show a synergistic therapeutic effect on radiation therapy, mainly because of strong asymmetric electric coupling between the high atomic number metals and dielectric oxides at their interfaces...
April 24, 2018: ACS Nano
Xinying Shi, Sergei Posysaev, Marko Huttula, Vladimir Pankratov, Joanna Hoszowska, Jean-Claude Dousse, Faisal Zeeshan, Yuran Niu, Alexei Zakharov, Taohai Li, Olga Miroshnichenko, Meng Zhang, Xiao Wang, Zhongjia Huang, Sami Saukko, Diego López González, Sebastiaan van Dijken, Matti Alatalo, Wei Cao
A critical factor for electronics based on inorganic layered crystals stems from the electrical contact mode between the semiconducting crystals and the metal counterparts in the electric circuit. Here, a materials tailoring strategy via nanocomposite decoration is carried out to reach metallic contact between MoS2 matrix and transition metal nanoparticles. Nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) are successfully joined to the sides of a layered MoS2 crystal through gold nanobuffers, forming semiconducting and magnetic NiNPs@MoS2 complexes...
April 24, 2018: Small
Hongwen Liu, Yating Chen, Chunli Song, Gang Tian, Shiya Li, Guiying Yang, Changyin Lv
Radioactive radon decays into a stable daughter product, 210 Pb, which was used as the detection target to determine the radon radiation dose in a new technique. Pb2+ triggers DNAzyme to cleave a molecular beacon (MB), resulting in the stem-loop structure opening and forming two single DNA strands (ssDNA). The ssDNA binds to unmodified gold nanoparticles and effectively prevents their aggregation in a salt solution. The detached enzyme strands continue to complement the remaining MB to amplify the response signal...
April 23, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Manon Gilles, Emilie Brun, Cécile Sicard-Roselli
The potential benefit of gold nanoparticles (GNP) to radiotherapy has been demonstrated in a range of cell lines and radiation sources as well as in rodent models, sometimes with contradictory results. Few experimental studies have explored the involved deleterious species, hydroxyl radical being so far the most cited, whereas theoretical studies have usually focused on secondary electrons emitted from GNP, making comparison between these two approaches difficult. Here we focus on the physico-chemical step (i...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Andrei Postnikov, Kamil Moldosanov
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) may serve as "devices" to emit electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz (THz) range, whereby the energy is delivered by radio frequency or microwave photons which won't by themselves induce transitions between sparse confinement-shaped electron levels of a GNP, but may borrow the energy from longitudinal acoustic phonons to overcome the confinement gap. Upon excitation, the Fermi electron cannot relax otherwise than via emitting a THz photon, the other relaxation channels being blocked by force of shape and size considerations...
April 18, 2018: Nanotechnology
Dina S Salem, Mahmoud A Sliem, Mohamed El-Sesy, Samia A Shouman, Yehia Badr
A green method was used for producing gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) using chitosan as a natural cationic, biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. In this method, chitosan acts as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of Au NPs. Different concentrations of chitosan solutions (0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 1%) were applied. In an attempt to mitigate the side effects of anti-cancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), through reducing drug doses in photothermal therapy, the formed positively-charged chitosan-wrapped Au NPs were used as a drug delivery system for negatively charged 5-FU to hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Zhen Rong, Rui Xiao, Shuang Xing, Guolin Xiong, Zuyin Yu, Limei Wang, Xiaofei Jia, Keli Wang, Yuwen Cong, Shengqi Wang
In accidental irradiation situations, rapid in-field evaluation of acute radiation syndrome is critical for effective triage and timely medical treatment of irradiated individuals. A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based lateral flow assay was developed for the quantitative detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) as an early bio-indicator of a radiation-induced inflammatory response in nonhuman primates. Raman reporter-embedded gold-core silver-shell nanoparticles with built-in hot spots were synthesized and conjugated with a CRP detection antibody to serve as SERS tags in the lateral flow assay...
April 12, 2018: Analyst
Lucas Vazquez Besteiro, Xiang-Tian Kong, Zhiming Wang, Federico Rosei, Alexander O Govorov
The need for energy-saving materials is pressing. This paper reports on the design of energy-saving glasses and films based on plasmonic nanocrystals that efficiently block infrared radiation. Designing such plasmonic composite glasses is nontrivial and requires to take full advantage of both material and shape-related properties of the nanoparticles. We compute the performance of solar plasmonic glasses incorporating a transparent matrix and specially-shaped nanocrystals. The performance of glasses made with a given nanocrystal ensemble depend on its shape and material...
April 5, 2018: Nano Letters
Richa Baronia, Manjri Singh, Rajat B Gupta, Stalin Karuppiah, Rajiv Kumar, Jodi Belz, Rishi Shanker, Srinivas Sridhar, Surinder P Singh
Gold nanoparticles, because of their high radiation absorption coefficient and efficient generation of secondary photoelectrons, have been predicted to enhance therapeutic efficacy in radiation therapy. However, high dose for effective treatment limits their use. We have synthesized multifunctional gold nanoclusters (GNCs) that can be used for imaging and radiation therapy. The designed GNCs have been characterized for their physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, and their radiation dose enhancement potential on PC3 cell lines...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Ana Luz Muñoz-Rosas, Arturo Rodríguez-Gómez, Juan Carlos Alonso-Huitrón
Nowadays, the use of plasmonic metal layers to improve the photonic emission characteristics of several semiconductor quantum dots is a booming tool. In this work, we report the use of silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) embedded in a silicon nitride thin film coupled with an ultra-thin gold film (AuNPs) to fabricate light emitting devices. We used the remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (RPECVD) in order to grow two types of silicon nitride thin films. One with an almost stoichiometric composition, acting as non-radiative spacer; the other one, with a silicon excess in its chemical composition, which causes the formation of silicon quantum dots imbibed in the silicon nitride thin film...
March 22, 2018: Nanomaterials
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