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Gold nanoparticles radiation

Marios Sotiropoulos, Nicholas T Henthorn, John W Warmenhoven, Ranald I Mackay, Karen J Kirkby, Michael J Merchant
Gold nanoparticles have been proven as potential radiosensitizer when combined with protons. Initially the radiosensitization effect was attributed to the physical interactions of radiation with the gold and the production of secondary electrons that induce DNA damage. However, emerging data challenge this hypothesis, supporting the existence of alternative or supplementary radiosensitization mechanisms. In this work we incorporate a realistic cell model with detailed DNA geometry and a realistic gold nanoparticle biodistribution based on experimental data...
November 17, 2017: Nanoscale
Jiaojie Tan, Tae Joon Cho, De-Hao Tsai, Jingyu Liu, John M Pettibone, Rian You, Vincent A Hackley, Michael R Zachariah
Cisplatin-complexed gold nanoparticles (PtII-AuNP) provide a promising strategy for chemo-radiation based anticancer drugs. Effective design of such platforms necessitates reliable assessment of surface engineering on a quantitative basis, and its influence on drug payload, stability and release. In this paper, polyethylene glycol (PEG) stabilized PtII-AuNP was synthesized as a model anti-tumor drug platform, where PtII is attached via a carboxyl terminated dendron ligand. Surface modification by PEG and its influence on drug loading, colloidal stability and drug release were assessed...
November 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Zheng Wang, Dan Shao, Zhimin Chang, Mengmeng Lu, Yingshuai Wang, Juan Yue, Dian Yang, Mingqiang Li, Qiaobing Xu, Wen-Fei Dong
There is a pressing need to develop nanoplatforms that integrate multimodal therapeutics to improve treatment responses and prolong the survival of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Mesoporous silica-coated gold nanomaterials have emerged as a novel multifunctional platform combining tunable surface plasmon resonance and mesoporous properties that exhibit multimodality properties in cancer theranostics. However, their reduced radiation-absorption efficiency and limited surface area hinder their further radiochemotherapeutic applications...
November 17, 2017: ACS Nano
Henry M Smilowitz, Lauren J Tarmu, Mary Melinda Sanders, John A Taylor, Dharamainder Choudhary, Crystal Xue, Nathaniel A Dyment, Dan Sasso, Xiaomeng Deng, James F Hainfeld
Bladder-sparing options are being developed for muscle-invasive bladder cancer in place of radical cystectomy, including the combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We reasoned that improving the radiotherapy component of chemoradiation could improve the control of locally advanced disease. Previously, we showed that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are potent enhancers of radiation therapy. We hypothesized that if AuNPs were to preferentially localize to bladder tumors, they may be used to enhance the radiation component of muscle-invasive bladder tumor therapy...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Erez Shmuel Davidi, Tamar Dreifuss, Menachem Motiei, Eliezer Shai, Dimitri Bragilovski, Leon Lubimov, Marc Jose Jonathan Kindler, Aron Popovtzer, Jeremy Don, Rachela Popovtzer
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to develop a nanoplatform, which simultaneously acts as radiosensitizer, drug carrier, and tumor imaging agent for head and neck cancer. METHODS: We synthesized 20 nm gold nanoparticles, coated with glucose and cisplatin (CG-GNPs). Their penetration into tumor cells and their cellular toxicity were evaluated in vitro. In vivo experiments were conducted to evaluate their impact on tumor growth and their imaging capabilities...
November 11, 2017: Head & Neck
Zdenka Kuncic, Sandrine Lacombe
Enhancement of radiation effects by high-atomic number nanoparticles (NPs) has been increasingly studied for its potential to improve radiotherapeutic efficacy. The underlying principle of NP radio-enhancement is the potential to release copious electrons into a nanoscale volume, thereby amplifying radiation-induced biological damage. While the vast majority of studies to date have focused on gold nanoparticles with photon radiation, an increasing number of experimental, theoretical and simulation studies have explored opportunities offered by other NPs (e...
November 10, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Inbal Hazkani, Menachem Motiei, Oshra Betzer, Tamar Sadan, Dimitri Bragilovski, Leon Lubimov, Aviram Mizrachi, Tuvia Hadar, Mattan Levi, Irit Ben-Aharon, Izhack Haviv, Rachela Popovtzer, Aron Popovtzer
Personalized molecular profiling has an established role in selection of treatment for metastatic disease; however, its role in improving radiosensitivity and functional imaging has not been evaluated. In the current study, we examined molecular profiling as a tool for designing personalized targeted gold nanoparticles (GNP) to serve as dual-modal tumor radiosensitizers and functional imaging enhancers. To this end, molecular profiling of a patient's salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) was performed, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutation was detected...
2017: Theranostics
Duncan McArthur, Francesco Papoff
We analyze the enhancement of the rates of both the emission and the far field radiation for dipoles placed in the gap between a metallic nanorod, or nanosphere, and a metallic substrate. For wavelengths between 150 nm and 650 nm, the response of the gapped nanostructures considered in this work is dominated by few principal modes of the nanoparticle, which include self-consistently the effect of the substrate. For wavelengths shorter than 370 nm, the far field radiative enhancements of aluminum nanostructures are significantly higher than those for gold or silver...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Priscilla Lai, Zhongli Cai, Jean-Philippe Pignol, Eli Lechtman, Shahram Mashouf, Yijie Lu, Mitchell A Winnik, David A Jaffray, Raymond M Reilly
Permanent seed implantation (PSI) brachytherapy is a highly conformal form of radiation therapy but is challenged with dose inhomogeneity due to its utilization of low energy radiation sources. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) conjugated with electron emitting radionuclides have recently been developed as a novel form of brachytherapy and can aid in homogenizing dose through physical distribution of radiolabeled AuNP when injected intratumorally (IT) in suspension. However, the distribution is unpredictable and precise placement of many injections would be difficult...
October 27, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Benjamin N Ho, Claire M Pfeffer, Amareshwar T K Singh
The emerging field of nanotechnology meets the demands for innovative approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The nanoparticles are biocompatible and biodegradable and are made of a core, a particle that acts as a carrier, and one or more functional groups on the core which target specific sites. Nanotech in drug delivery includes nanodisks, High Density Lipoprotein nanostructures, liposomes, and gold nanoparticles. The fundamental advantages of nanoparticles are: improved delivery of water-insoluble drugs, targeted delivery, co-delivery of two or more drugs for combination therapy, and visualization of the drug delivery site by combining imaging system and a therapeutic drug...
November 2017: Anticancer Research
Sayan Bayan, Narendar Gogurla, Anupam Midya, Achintya Singha, Samit K Ray
We demonstrate the surface plasmon induced enhancement and tunablilty in optical emission properties of two dimensional (2D) graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets through the attachment of gold (Au) nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy has revealed the event of surface enhanced Raman scattering that arises due to the combined effect of charge transfer process and localized surface plasmon induced enhancement in electromagnetic field, both occurring at the nanoparticle-nanosheet interface. Photoluminescence studies suggest that at an optimal concentration of nanoparticles, the emission intensity can be enhanced which is maximum within 500-525 nm region...
October 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
West Kristian D Paraiso, Hiroki Tanaka, Yusuke Sato, Daiki Shirane, Noriyuki Suzuki, Yasumitsu Ogra, Kota Tange, Yuta Nakai, Hiroki Yoshioka, Hideyoshi Harashima, Hidetaka Akita
The use of gold nanorods (AuNRs) that produce heat in response to near infrared (NIR) irradiation is an attractive approach to cancer photothermal therapy. AuNRs are usually prepared by using a highly toxic detergent: cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Thus, the removal of CTAB from the reaction mixture, and further stabilization of the surface of the AuNRs is required. In the present study, AuNRs were encapsulated in a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (AuNR-MEND) formed with an SS-cleavable and pH-activated lipid-like material...
October 9, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
So-Ra Kim, Eun-Hee Kim
PURPOSE: Despite the high radioresistance of melanoma, unresectable lesions can be subjected to radiation treatment with the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a dose-enhancing agent preferentially loaded on these lesions. The modality of single high-dose treatment has been investigated to confirm its therapeutic efficiency for AuNP-treated melanoma cells. This study explores the feasibility of utilizing AuNPs in fractionated radiation therapy of melanoma for further therapeutic gain...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Charles Kirkby, Brandon Koger, Natalka Suchowerska, David R McKenzie
PURPOSE: The radiation dose enhancement caused by introducing gold nanoparticles (GNP) into cells can increase the dose locally absorbed. A disconnect between experimentally determined survival and dose enhancements predicted by Monte Carlo simulations on macroscopic scales, suggests small-scale energy deposition patterns play an important role in GNP dose enhancement. Clustering of the GNPs could potentially alter small scale energy deposition patterns. Here we use Monte Carlo simulations to quantify energy deposition patterns in the presence of clustered GNPs and address the question of whether clustering of the nanoparticles affects the energy deposition patterns and ultimately cellular response...
October 10, 2017: Medical Physics
Irena Maliszewska, Wojciech Kałas, Edyta Wysokińska, Włodzimierz Tylus, Natalia Pietrzyk, Katarzyna Popko, Krystyna Palewska
At the present time, photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is receiving considerable interest for its potential as an antimicrobial therapy. The results of our study indicate that enhancement of the phototoxic effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be achieved by combination of tetrasulfonated hydroxyaluminum phthalocyanine (AlPcS4) and bimetallic gold/silver nanoparticles (Au/Ag-NPs) synthesized by the cell-free filtrate of Aureobasidium pullulans. The bimetallic nanoparticles were characterized by a number of techniques including UV-vis, XPS, TEM, and SEM-EDS to be 14 ± 3 nm spherical particles coated with proteins...
October 6, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
Yong Qiao, Yuanshuai Zhou, Tongqian Xiao, Zhiwei Zhang, Liyuan Ma, Ming Su, Guangli Suo
Although radiotherapy is a general oncology treatment and is often synergistically applied with surgery and chemotherapy, it can cause side effects during and after treatment. Gold nanoparticles were studied as a potential material to enhance radiation to induce damage in cancer cells. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the effects of gold nanofilm on cell impairment under X-ray treatment. This paper describes a microfabrication-based single-cell array platform to evaluate DNA damage induced by enhanced X-ray radiation on gold nanofilm patches (GNFPs)...
October 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Priscilla Lai, Zhongli Cai, Jean-Philippe Pignol, Eli Lechtman, Shahram Mashouf, Yijie Lu, Mitchell A Winnik, David A Jaffray, Raymond M Reilly
Permanent seed implantation (PSI) brachytherapy is a highly conformal form of radiation therapy but is challenged with dose inhomogeneity due to its utilization of low energy radiation sources. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) conjugated with electron emitting radionuclides have recently been developed as a novel form of brachytherapy and can aid in homogenizing dose through physical distribution of radiolabeled AuNP when injected intratumorally (i.t.) in suspension. However, the distribution is unpredictable and precise placement of many injections would be difficult...
October 4, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Jiawen Chen, Qian Chen, Chao Liang, Zhijuan Yang, Lin Zhang, Xuan Yi, Ziliang Dong, Yu Chao, Youguo Chen, Zhuang Liu
Hypoxia and a dense extracellular matrix within the tumor microenvironment can often lead to the resistance of tumors to radiotherapy. Herein, we use bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a template to induce the growth of both gold (Au) nanoclusters and manganese dioxide (MnO2) via biomineralization. In the obtained BSA-Au-MnO2 composite nanoparticles, Au nanoclusters embedded within BSA not only show strong red fluorescence to facilitate imaging, but also act as a radio-sensitizer by absorbing and depositing X-ray energy within tumors to enhance radiotherapy...
October 12, 2017: Nanoscale
Jennifer L Daniels, Troy M Crawford, Oleg A Andreev, Yana K Reshetnyak
Novel approaches in synthesis of spherical and multispiked gold nanoparticles coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and pH Low Insertion Peptide (pHLIP(®)) were introduced. The presence of a tumor-targeting pHLIP(®) peptide in the nanoparticle coating enhances the stability of particles in solution and promotes a pH-dependent cellular uptake. The spherical particles were prepared with sodium citrate as a gold reducing agent to form particles of 7.0±2.5 nm in mean metallic core diameter and ∼43 nm in mean hydrodynamic diameter...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
H A Al-Musywel, A Laref
Radiotherapy is an extensively used treatment for most tumor types. However, ionizing radiation does not discriminate between cancerous and normal cells surrounding the tumor, which can be considered as a dose-limiting factor. This can lead to the reduction of the effectiveness of tumor cell eradication with this treatment. A potential solution to this problem is loading the tumor with high-Z materials prior to radiotherapy as this can induce higher toxicity in tumor cells compared to normal ones. New advances in nanotechnology have introduced the promising use of heavy metal nanoparticles to enhance tumor treatment...
December 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
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